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Sample records for approach economic methods

  1. Methodical Approach to Identification of the Financial and Economic State of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushenko Olga I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies urgency of the enterprise life cycle theory in the system of managing financial and economic activity of an enterprise, identifies problems and insufficiently developed theoretical issues, namely, identification of the main indicator of the state of an organisation on the life cycle curve, which thoroughly characterises its financial and economic activity. It develops and offers a methodical approach to identification of the financial and economic state of an enterprise. The article analyses, generalises and identifies main sub-systems of an enterprise within the proposed methods. On the basis of analysis of works of scientists the article identifies main indicators that characterise each subsystem of an enterprise and identifies the entropy method, having analysed the existing methods of calculation of an integral indicator, as the most justified approach to calculation of the enterprise life cycle integral indicator.

  2. Methodical Approach to Diagnostics of Efficiency of Production Economic Activity of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Andrii V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers developments of a methodical approach to diagnostics of efficiency of production economic activity of an enterprise, which, unlike the existing ones, is realised through the following stages: analysis of the enterprise external environment; analysis of the enterprise internal environment; identification of components of efficiency of production economic activity for carrying out complex diagnostics by the following directions: efficiency of subsystems of the enterprise production economic activity, efficiency of use of separate types of resources and socio-economic efficiency; scorecard formation; study of tendencies of change of indicators; identification of cause-effect dependencies between the main components of efficiency for diagnosing reasons of its level; diagnosing deviations of indicator values from their optimal values; development of a managerial decision on preserving and increasing efficiency of production economic activity of the enterprise.

  3. Towards a New Approach of the Economic Intelligence Process: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Informational Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Briciu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc. inside organizations. The availability of massive quantities of data correlated with advances in information and communication technology allowing for the filtering and processing of these data provide new tools for the production of economic intelligence.The research is focused on innovative aspects of economic intelligence process (models of analysis, activities, methods and informational tools and is providing practical guidelines for initiating this process. In this paper, we try: (a to contribute to a coherent view on economic intelligence process (approaches, stages, fields of application; b to describe the most important models of analysis related to this process; c to analyze the activities, methods and tools associated with each stage of an EI process.

  4. A Mixed Methods Approach to Equity and Justice Research: Insights from Research on Children's Reasoning About Economic Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Chow, Kirby A; Griffin, Katherine M; Nenadal, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame.

  5. Towards a New Approach of the Economic Intelligence Process: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Informational Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Briciu; Marinela Vrîncianu; Florin Mihai

    2009-01-01

    One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI) that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc.) inside organizations. The ...

  6. Economic Policy Instruments and Evaluation Methods in Dutch Water Management: An analysis of their contribution to an integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boot, Sander Paul

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn international water policy, a trend can be observed towards more attention for economic approaches in water management. In 1992, at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE) in Dublin, the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and International Lakes was adopted. Guiding Principle 4 of this convention states that ‘water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognised as an economic good’. The argument...

  7. Normal boundary intersection method for suppliers' strategic bidding in electricity markets: An environmental/economic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies for the participants of oligopolistic energy markets is studied. Special attention is given to the impacts of suppliers' emission of pollutants on their bidding strategies. The proposed methodology employs supply function equilibrium (SFE) model to represent the strategic behavior of each supplier and locational marginal pricing mechanism for the market clearing. The optimal bidding strategies are developed mathematically using a bilevel optimization problem where the upper-level subproblem maximizes individual supplier payoff and the lower-level subproblem solves the Independent System Operator's market clearing problem. In order to solve market clearing mechanism the multiobjective optimal power flow is used with supplier emission of pollutants, as an extra objective, subject to the supplier physical constraints. This paper uses normal boundary intersection (NBI) approach for generating Pareto optimal set and then fuzzy decision making to select the best compromise solution. The developed algorithm is applied to an IEEE 30-bus test system. Numerical results demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the proposed multiobjective approach to develop successful bidding strategies in those energy markets that minimize generation cost and emission of pollutants simultaneously.

  8. Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity (ACE-Obesity: an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from Conclusion The use of consistent methods enables valid comparison of potential intervention costs and cost-offsets for each of the interventions. ACE-Obesity informs policy-makers about cost-effectiveness, health impact, affordability and 2nd stage filters for important options for preventing unhealthy weight gain in children. In related articles cost-effectiveness results and

  9. Economic Policy Instruments and Evaluation Methods in Dutch Water Management: An analysis of their contribution to an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Boot (Sander Paul)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn international water policy, a trend can be observed towards more attention for economic approaches in water management. In 1992, at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE) in Dublin, the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and I

  10. New Monetarist Economics: Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen D. Williamson; Wright, Randall

    2010-01-01

    This essay articulates the principles and practices of New Monetarism, the authors' label for a recent body of work on money, banking, payments, and asset markets. They first discuss methodological issues distinguishing their approach from others: New Monetarism has something in common with Old Monetarism, but there are also important differences; it has little in common with Keynesianism. They describe the principles of these schools and contrast them with their approach. To show how it work...

  11. Numerical optimization methods in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Schmedders, K.

    2008-01-01

    Optimization problems are ubiquitous in economics. Many of these problems are sufficiently complex that they cannot be solved analytically. Instead economists need to resort to numerical methods. This article presents the most commonly used methods for both unconstrained and constrained optimization problems in economics; it emphasizes the solid theoretical foundation of these methods, illustrating them with examples. The presentation includes a summary of the most popular software packages f...

  12. Personnel economics: An economic approach to human resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Backes-Gellner, Uschi

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical idea of personnel economics is to apply simple economic principles to the field of human resources management. Personnel economics as a research field has grown rapidly since the first text book on 'Personnel Economics' was published in 1998. The development is driven by new theoretical insights based on institutional and behavioural economics and new empirical methods and data sets. Those new theoretical insights are very fruitful to analyze reasons and consequences of variou...

  13. Analysis of Scientific and Methodical Approaches to Portfolio Investment as a Tool of Financial Provision of Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leus Daryna V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses scientific and methodical approaches to portfolio investment. It develops recommendations on specification of the categorical apparatus of portfolio investment in the context of differentiation of strategic (direct and portfolio investments as alternative approaches to the conduct of investment activity. It identifies the composition and functions of objects and subjects of portfolio investment under conditions of globalisation of the world financial markets. It studies main postulates of the portfolio theory and justifies a necessity of identification of the place, role and functions of subjects of portfolio investment in them for ensuring sustainable development of the economy. It offers to specify, as one of the ways of further development of portfolio theories, a separate direction in the financial provision of economy with consideration of ecologic and social components – socio responsible investment.

  14. Ecological Economics: Themes, Approaches, and Differences with Environmental Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, van den, H.

    2000-01-01

    This provides a short overview of the main themes of ecological economics (EE). It isargued that EE provides a platform that fosters multidisciplinary environmental research bybringing together the core contributing disciplines economics and ecology. In addition, EE isregarded as a pluralistic approach to environmental research that can be set opposite to, and hasindeed developed as a response to, traditional environmental and resource economics. Acomparison of the two fields is presented to ...

  15. Sustainability economics, ontology and the capability approach

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Nuno O.

    2011-01-01

    Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. The relationship between sustainability economics and the capability approach has recently been explored. Here I shall discuss this relationship, and argue that a study of the ontology underlying the capability approach can help us to see more clearly the interconnections between sustainability economics and the capability approach. In particular, the interpretations of the capability approach as an ontological exercise, which have recent...

  16. An approach to the economic analysis of water supply projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lovei, Laszlo

    1992-01-01

    Development economists are increasingly concerned about the correct approach to economic analysis of projects. By looking for a compromise between theory (which identifies ideals) and practice (which deals within the bounds of time and resource constraints), Lovei focuses on potential guidelines for economic appraisals of water supply projects. He summarizes theory and the current World Bank guidelines on the economic analysis of water supply projects; reviews the method of economic analysis ...

  17. Choosing the best method of depreciating assets and after-tax economic analysis under uncertainty using fuzzy approach

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    Saeed Khalili

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past, different methods for asset depreciation have been defined but most of these procedures deal with certain parameters and inputs. The availability of certain parameters in many real world situations is difficult and sometimes impossible. The primary objective of this paper is to obtain methods for calculating depreciation where some of the defined parameters are under uncertainty. Hence, by using the fuzzy science basics, extension principle and α-cut technique, we rewrite some classic methods for calculating depreciation in fuzzy form. Then, for comparing the methods of fuzzy depreciation under uncertain conditions by using the formula of calculating the Fuzzy Present worth (FPW, the Present worth of Tax saving (PWTS of any aforementioned methods has been obtained. Finally, since the amount of tax savings achieved for each of the methods is a fuzzy number, one of the fuzzy prioritization methods is used in order to select the best depreciation technique.

  18. TEACHING ECONOMICS – THE CASE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA POPESCU

    2014-01-01

    One of the most efficient approaches in teaching Economics is the Case Method. The Case Method combines two elements: the case itself and the discussion of that case. A teaching case is a rich narrative in which individuals or groups of individuals have to make a decision or solve a problem. A teaching case is not a case study of the type used in academic research, as it provides information, but neither analysis nor conclusions. During the classroom discussions, the students perf...

  19. Economic versus technical approaches to frequency management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    2004-01-01

    While telecom markets have been liberalized, the institutional framework for spectrum management has largely remained unchanged. In particular, the process of allocation of the spectrum to different applications is still based on technical rather than economic criteria. This paper contrasts...... economic and technical approaches to frequency management, with an examination of spectrum management challenges and the current regulatory framework as the starting point. The benefits and limitations of the free market approach are discussed, and an economic evaluation of the Danish spectrum is used to...

  20. Methodological Approach to Comprehensive Economic Evaluation of Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Mandzyk

    2014-01-01

    As a result of this research, the methodical approaches to comprehensive economic assessment of water resources are worked out. In particular, it is offered to conduct the comprehensive economic assessment in three stages. In the first stage, the economic assessment of water resources as the basis of human life is carried out. The result of this assessment is the monetary value of social and environmental significance of water resource of water body for human and the environment. The main met...

  1. Economical cascadic multigrid method (ECMG)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an economical cascadic multigrid method is proposed. Compared with the usual cascadic multigrid method developed by Bornemann and Deuflhard, the new one requires less iterations on each level, especially on the coarser grids. Many operations can be saved in the new cascadic multigrid algorithms. The main ingredient is the control of the iteration numbers on the each level to preserve the accuracy without over iterations. The theoretical justification is based on the observations that the error reduction rate of an iteration scheme in terms of the smoothing property is no longer accurate while the iteration number is big enough. A new formulae of the error reduction rate is employed in our new algorithm. Numerical experiments are reported to support our theory.

  2. Institutional approach in economics and to economics. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefimov Vladimir, M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to justify an alternative to conventional methodology of economics, as well as make a corresponding revision of the history of this discipline. It explains why the discipline in its orthodox version, and for the most unorthodox directions, is cognitively sterile and socio-economico-politically very harmful. The article can be seen as a manifesto which calls for a radical change in the discipline. As a manifesto, it probably could be called "Economics: from repentance and resurrection", that is, I suggest to economists to repent of the harm that this discipline has brought and on the basis of this reflection to revive it in a different methodological framework that is able to make economics socially useful. The first part of the article published in this issue, consists of three sections. The first section justifies the claim that economics is stuck in metaphysical-abstract state with its abstract-a priori approach, and that its orthodox part is theology plays the role of a theology of the secular market religion. The second section summarizes the methodology, the use of which would make "economic science" truly scientific. The third section shows how this can be implemented.

  3. Implementation of Potential of the Transdisciplinary Approaches in Economic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Tatiana E.; Manokhina, Nadeghda V.; Konovalova, Maria E.; Kuzmina, Olga Y.; Andryukhina, Lyudmila M.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is caused by the increasing interest in using potential of transdisciplinary approaches, and mathematical methods, which include the game theory in analysis of public and economic processes. The aim of the article is studying a possibility of implementation of the transdisciplinary approaches in economic…

  4. Economic modeling using artificial intelligence methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the application of artificial intelligence methods to model economic data. It addresses causality and proposes new frameworks for dealing with this issue. It also applies evolutionary computing to model evolving economic environments.

  5. The economic approach to the time research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kendyuhov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with category of time from economic point of view. Dependence of economic systems from economic time is analyzed. Based on analysis of economic time definition its features are improved.

  6. Approach on the Method of Environmental Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis%环境经济损益分析方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡应成; 张海清

    2001-01-01

    The environmental economic cost-benefit analysis is discussed in this essay, including identification and screening qualification of impact factor, the calculation and impact of economic cost-benefit. This method is concise and feasible from a real case.%建设项目环境影响评价工作中的环境经济损益分析通常采用费用——效益法。本文对影响因子的类型及其量化方法、经济损益计算方法及经济损益评价方法进行了深入地探讨,实例分析说明这套方法操作简明,行之有效。

  7. RATIONAL ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR – INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Petar Hafner, Milos Krstic

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics and economic sociology arise and develop on the point where economics and psychology, as well as economics and sociology, overlap. Behavioral economics studies economic factors and psychological appearance that have a direct impact on economic behavior. On the other hand, economic sociology studies the behavioral norms of the social groups and the organizations. The correlation between the research subjects of these scientific disciplines imposes a need for specifying an ...

  8. Approaches to economic evaluations of stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Louise E; Wu, Olivia; Bernhardt, Julie; Langhorne, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Many stroke rehabilitation services and interventions are complex in that they involve a number of components, interactions, and outcomes. Much of the onus of stroke care lies with rehabilitation services and because stroke rehabilitation is highly resource intensive, it is important for policy makers to consider the potential trade-offs between all relevant costs and benefits. The primary aim of this systematic review was to assess the methods used to conduct economic evaluations of stroke rehabilitation. Studies that compared two or more alternative stroke rehabilitation interventions or services with the costs and outcomes being examined for each alternative were included. EMBASE, MEDLINE In-Process, and National Health Service's Economic Evaluation Database were searched using search strategies. The methodological quality of the included studies was appraised using a checklist for the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations. Twenty-one studies met the selection criteria. The economic evaluations in the majority of these studies were inadequate based on their ability to identify, measure, and value all resources and benefits pertinent to the complexity of stroke rehabilitation. This study highlights that complex interventions such as stroke rehabilitation have widespread effects, which may not be represented by the changes on a single outcome. This study recommends the adoption of a wider cost and benefit perspective in the economic evaluations of complex interventions. It supports a move away from conventional economic evaluation and decision making, based purely on cost-effectiveness, toward multicriteria decision analysis frameworks for complex interventions, where a broader range of criteria may be assessed by policy makers.

  9. Decision Making under Ecological Regime Shift: An Experimental Economic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kawata, Yukichika

    2011-01-01

    Environmental economics postulates the assumption of homo economicus and presumes that externality occurs as a result of the rational economic activities of economic agents. This paper examines this assumption using an experimental economic approach in the context of regime shift, which has been receiving increasing attention. We observe that when externality does not exist, economic agents (subjects of experimemt) act economically rationally, but when externality exists, economic agents avoi...

  10. Sustainable Groundwater Management Using Economic Incentive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Although groundwater accounts for about 20% of the water consumption in the US, recent urban development, land use changes and agricultural activities in many regions (for example, Chesapeake Bay and eastern shore of Maryland) have resulted in deleterious impacts on groundwater quality. These impacts have dramatically increased potential human health and ecological system risks. One example is nitrogen pollution delivered to local waterways from septic systems via groundwater. Conventional approaches for nitrogen removal, such as pumping and treatment (nitrification-denitrification) process, tend to be expensive. On the other hand, economic incentive approaches (such as marketable permits) have the potential to increase the efficiency of environmental policy by reducing compliance costs for regulated entities and individuals and/or achieving otherwise uneconomical pollution reduction. The success of the sulfur dioxide trading market has led to the creation of trading markets for other pollutants, especially at the regional, state, and smaller (e.g. watershed) scales. In this paper, we develop an integrated framework, which includes a groundwater flow and transport model, and a conceptual management model. We apply this framework to a synthetic set up which includes one farm and two development areas in order to investigate the potential of using economic incentive approaches for groundwater quality management. The policy analysis is carried out by setting up the objective of the modeling framework to minimize the total cost of achieving groundwater quality goals at specific observation point using either a transferable development right (TDR) system between development areas and/or using a tax for fertilizer usage in the farm area. The TDR system consists of a planning agency delineating a region into restricted-use (e.g., agriculture, open space) and high intensity zones (e.g., residential, commercial uses). The agency then endows landowners in the restricted area

  11. Modern teaching methods in economic subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Maxa, Radek

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is a comprehensive assessment of the practical usability and effectiveness of modern activating teaching methods in economic subjects in fulfilling the RVP economics and business and RVP Business Academy in comparison with traditional (standard) methods. To achieve this goal, a systematic clarification and evaluation of key elements of the choice of adequate methods of teaching, presentation and comparison of traditional, modern activating and comprehensive t...

  12. Regional Economic Activity in Turkey: A New Economic Geography Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Mehmet Burak

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the spatial economic activity in Turkey and estimates the correlation between wages and consumer demand across NUTS1 regions of Turkey. First, I estimate simple market potential function to test whether closeness to larger markets has impact on wages. Second, I estimate Krugman (1993) economic geography model to see the agglomeration forces in Turkey. The results suggest that wages are higher in the regions close to larger markets and low trade costs and high share of expen...

  13. Economic Gardening through Entrepreneurship Education: A Service-Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplaces, David E.; Wergeles, Fred; McGuigan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the implementation of a service-learning approach in an entrepreneurship programme using an "economic gardening" strategy. Economic Gardening through Service-Learning (EGS-L) is an approach to economic development that helps local businesses and students grow through a facilitated learning process. Learning is made possible…

  14. ECONOMIC APPROACH FOR CONTROL AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

  15. Behavioral Law and Economics: Empirical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Originally, behavioral law and economics was an exercise in exploring the implications of key findings from behavioral economics (and psychology) for the analysis and reform of legal institutions. Yet as the new discipline matures, it increasingly replaces foreign evidence by fresh evidence, directly targeted to the legal research question. This chapter surveys the key methods: field evidence, survey data, vignette and lab experiment, discusses their pros and cons, illustrates them with key p...

  16. Exploring the Approach of Institutional Economics to the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L Spash; Mauricio G. Villena

    1999-01-01

    A neglected aspect of ecological economics is the link to the social context. The socio-economic perspective extends standard economic analysis into concerns for distribution, ethics and the power of institutions which form and implement policy. We explore how an institutional perspective on ecological economics might operate and provide a distinct methodology. In order to understand the institutional approach and how it differs from the standard economic methodology a historical overview...

  17. Evolutionary Theories in Environmental and Resource Economics: Approaches and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, van den, E.; Gowdy, J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in evolutionary theory have important implications for environmental economics. A short overview is offered of evolutionarythinking in economics. Subsequently, major concepts and approaches inevolutionary biology and evolutionary economics are presented andcompared. Attention is devoted, among others, to Darwinian selection,punctuated equilibrium, sorting mechanisms, Lamarckian evolution,coevolution and self-organization. Basic features of evolution, such assustained change, i...

  18. Accounting and economics: Influence of accounting methods on economic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Almásy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The way the economic reality is observed is essential in order to determine decision-making of economic subjects. The picture of economic reality drawn by accounting can be said to be either the true and fair, or biased. If the latter is the case, how much does that bias translate into the quality of economic decision-making? In summary, the paper analyzes whether accounting should provide the fair and true view whether it does, and how it affects the economic behavior when it does not on bot...

  19. Intellectual Property: The Law and Economics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    With the rise of the law and economics movement, the focus of economic analysis of intellectual property has begun to shift to more concrete and manageable issues concerning the structure and texture of the complicated pattern of common law and statutory doctrines, legal institutions and business practices relating to intellectual property. Among the issues discussed in this paper are the length of protection for intellectual property, the rules that allow considerable copying of intellectual...

  20. ECONOMIC SECURITY – NEW APPROACHES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more than ever, economic relations between states are the ones that define the general character of the relations between them and establish economic security as a concept which cannot be neglected anymore. Globalization, the process that shapes the international environment, undermines the old definition of economic security and forces its redefinition. The article aims to identify and analyse the effects of globalization on economic security and the new approaches it takes in this context.

  1. ECONOMIC SECURITY – NEW APPROACHES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, more than ever, economic relations between states are the ones that define the general character of the relations between them and establish economic security as a concept which cannot be neglected anymore. Globalization, the process that shapes the international environment, undermines the old definition of economic security and forces its redefinition. The article aims to identify and analyse the effects of globalization on economic security and the new approaches it takes in this...

  2. Economic Benefits: Metrics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expanding research frontier in the landscape architecture discipline, landscape performance research, which embraces the scientific dimension of landscape architecture through evidence-based designs that are anchored in quantitative performance assessment. Specifically, this paper summarizes metrics and methods for determining landscape-derived economic benefits that have been utilized in the Landscape Performance Series (LPS initiated by the Landscape Architecture Foundation. This paper identifies 24 metrics and 32 associated methods for the assessment of economic benefits found in 82 published case studies. Common issues arising through research in quantifying economic benefits for the LPS are discussed and the various approaches taken by researchers are clarified. The paper also provides an analysis of three case studies from the LPS that are representative of common research methods used to quantify economic benefits. The paper suggests that high(er levels of sustainability in the built environment require the integration of economic benefits into landscape performance assessment portfolios in order to forecast project success and reduce uncertainties. Therefore, evidence-based design approaches increase the scientific rigor of landscape architecture education and research, and elevate the status of the profession.

  3. Heterogeneous Computing in Economics: A Simplified Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziubinski, Matt P.; Grassi, Stefano

    This paper shows the potential of heterogeneous computing in solving dynamic equilibrium models in economics. We illustrate the power and simplicity of the C++ Accelerated Massive Parallelism recently introduced by Microsoft. Starting from the same exercise as Aldrich et al. (2011) we document...

  4. Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.

  5. An Organizational Economics Approach to Organizational Change in Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Meisam Karami; Shaghayegh Malekifar; Muhammad Siddique; Saif-Ur-Rehman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Organizational change in Transitional economies is influenced by multiple political, historical and economic factors not present in established market economies. This study proposes an organizational economics approach to organizational change in emerging economies. Based on transaction cost economics and resource based view, the cost of change is proposed as a mediator of change and perceived commitment to transition is proposed as antecedents of cost of change for organizations in emerging ...

  6. Quantitative methods for management and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarty, Pulak

    2009-01-01

    ""Quantitative Methods for Management and Economics"" is specially prepared for the MBA students in India and all over the world. It starts from the basics, such that even a beginner with out much mathematical sophistication can grasp the ideas and then comes forward to more complex and professional problems. Thus, both the ordinary students as well as ""above average: i.e., ""bright and sincere"" students would be benefited equally through this book.Since, most of the problems are solved or hints are given, students can do well within the short duration of the semesters of their busy course.

  7. Rousseau, Happiness, and the Economic Approach to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the influence of economic thought on education has been steadily increasing. Taking Jean-Jacques Rousseau's educational thought as a point of departure, Tal Gilead critically inquires into the philosophical foundations of what can be termed the economic approach to education. Gilead's focus in this essay is on happiness and the…

  8. Is the “Ecological and Economic Approach for the Restoration of Collapsed Gullies” in Southern China Really Economic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchao Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. The Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha−1 and 5477 RMB ha−1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is −3.60% and −8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.

  9. Higher Economic Education System. A Postindustrial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gh. Rosca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human society steps, with or without its willing, towards knowledge era which rises new exigencies for education and research. Universities are influenced and, in the same time, influence the new society. They define new duties, visions and aims according to the European common space organizing. New arguments appear as national priority, changes within concepts approaches are produced, universities adapt to new structures, integrate within education’s global market, ensuring a high level ofthe research and training services.

  10. An economical approach to four-dimensional variational data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Juanjuan; Wang, Shudong; Cheng, Wei; Juan, Liu; Liu, Chengsi; Xiao, Qingnong; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    2010-07-01

    Four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVar) is one of the most promising methods to provide optimal analysis for numerical weather prediction (NWP). Five national NWP centers in the world have successfully applied 4DVar methods in their global NWPs, thanks to the increment method and adjoint technique. However, the application of 4DVar is still limited by the computer resources available at many NWP centers and research institutes. It is essential, therefore, to further reduce the computational cost of 4DVar. Here, an economical approach to implement 4DVar is proposed, using the technique of dimensionreduced projection (DRP), which is called "DRP-4DVar." The proposed approach is based on dimension reduction using an ensemble of historical samples to define a subspace. It directly obtains an optimal solution in the reduced space by fitting observations with historical time series generated by the model to form consistent forecast states, and therefore does not require implementation of the adjoint of tangent linear approximation. To evaluate the performance of the DRP-4DVar on assimilating different types of mesoscale observations, some observing system simulation experiments are conducted using MM5 and a comparison is made between adjoint-based 4DVar and DRP-4DVar using a 6-hour assimilation window.

  11. Economic approach of the environment and environmental conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book takes the non-economist by the hand in a step-by-step economic approach of environmental issues and how to handle them. Two chapters provide an introduction to the concepts of the economy, chapter six in decision theory. In the first chapter, the economist discovers a broader vision by testing the economic approach to insights from other disciplines. Chapter 4 explains how economic reasoning can contribute tot environmental protection in practice. The consideration of the costs and benefits of environmental protection indicates objectives that must be pursued for the community. The conflict between private and public interest forces policy makers to get and maintain the numerous polluters focused on environmental protection. Suitable instruments are discussed in chapter five, including criteria for choice and an in-depth study of the economic instruments levies and tradable emission permits. The EU Emission trading Scheme is used as reference. [mk

  12. Economic Doctrines and Approaches to Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Robert D.; Hackler, Darrene

    2010-01-01

    In climate change, as in all policy issues, economic philosophy has a significant influence on how people view both the problems and the solutions. For the first time, ITIF surveys four dominant schools of economic thought and analyzes how adherents approach policy options for climate change and energy policy. With climate change and major energy legislation stalled, maybe it is time to put aside fixed philosophical notions and take a practical look on ways to address climate change in an eco...

  13. Mathematical Methods of Game and Economic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, J-P

    1982-01-01

    This book presents a unified treatment of optimization theory, game theory and a general equilibrium theory in economics in the framework of nonlinear functional analysis. It not only provides powerful and versatile tools for solving specific problems in economics and the social sciences but also serves as a unifying theme in the mathematical theory of these subjects as well as in pure mathematics itself.

  14. A techno-economic approach to plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the need for changing priorities in plant life management. Following a brief review of the major world-wide trends which are affecting plant life management, the fundamental nature of the plant life management process itself is considered. It is suggested that a consistent approach to the management of economic and safety risk can provide a mechanism for continuous improvement of the process. One such approach, Techno-Economic Ageing and Maintenance Management - TEAMM, is described. The tool required for this process are discussed and examples given of its application to ageing plant and evaluation of life extension. 2 figs

  15. Identity and individual economic agents: a narrative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Davis

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an account of how individuals act as agents when we employ a narrative approach to explaining their personal identities. It applies Korsgaard's idea of a "reflective structure of consciousness" to provide foundations for a richer account of the individual economic agent, and uses t

  16. Identity and individual economic agents: a narrative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Davis

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers an account of how individuals act as agents when we employ a narrative approach to explaining their personal identities. It applies Korsgaard's idea of a "reflective structure of consciousness" to provide foundations for a richer account of the individual economic agent, and uses t

  17. A Dooyeweerd-based approach to regional economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aay, H; Van Langevelde, A

    2005-01-01

    Within regional science there is a need for a general theory of regional economic development, one that evaluates and integrates existing approaches. In this paper, the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd is used as a basis for conceptualising the contours of such a theory. Contributions of this philoso

  18. Methodological Approaches To Economic Evaluation Of Forest Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Lytsur

    2012-01-01

    The article formed the complex process of economic assessment of forest resources and given it's definition. A new approach to determining costs for locking the main types of forest. Allocated forestry (in Keywords: forest) and forest harvesting (in forest exploitation) rents.

  19. Economic valuation of patents methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, F

    2011-01-01

    The Economic Valuation of Patents provides an original and essential analysis of patent valuation, presenting the main methodologies to value patents in different contexts. Starting with an analysis of the relevance of patent valuation from a strategic, economic and legal perspective, the book undertakes a thorough review of the existing financial and qualitative valuation methodologies. The contributing authors, IP experts from academia and business, discuss the application of valuation issues in various contexts such as patent portfolio management, licensing agreements, IP litigation, IP-bac

  20. A CDT-Based Heuristic Zone Design Approach for Economic Census Investigators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changixu Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a special zone design problem for economic census investigators that is motivated by a real-world application. This paper presented a heuristic multikernel growth approach via Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT. This approach not only solved the barriers problem but also dealt with the polygon data in zoning procedure. In addition, it uses a new heuristic method to speed up the zoning process greatly on the premise of the required quality of zoning. At last, two special instances for economic census were performed, highlighting the performance of this approach.

  1. ORGANIZATIONAL METHODS OF SEMINAR-DISPUTE ON ECONOMICS SPECIALTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana ANDREEVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Actuality. The topic of teaching economic disciplines has always been relevant and useful. The article considers the technique of organization and of the seminar-dispute on economic subjects. In this paper there are also identified criteria for evaluating the participants of the seminar-dispute. Methods of teaching economic disciplines in higher education are held by holding lectures and seminars. The seminar provides an opportunity to determine the degree of independence and responsibility, to rise creativity in every student. The purpose is to disclose the main objectives of the seminar-dispute, which as a result of the preliminary work on the program material, the teacher and students are in a situation of direct active communication during performance of students on topics arising between discussion and generalizations by teacher, bu solving the problem of cognitive, developmental and educational character that imparted methodological and practical skills to students. Methods. Logical and descriptive, monographic, analysis and synthesis. Results. It should be concluded that in preparation for the seminar, students acquire the skills to work with the book, read the analysis, selection of the main and necessary speeches for the report, , and systematizing the selected materials. Students learn to clearly express their thoughts, work out the ability to speak without papers to prove their beliefs, to establish contact with the audience, etc. Accordingly, it is best to choose the topics of the seminar where the student must not only learn certain information, but also find a solution. One of the most popular forms of classes in the framework of methodological approaches to the teaching of economic disciplines is a seminar-dispute.

  2. Economic evaluation of multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently previous works have shown that multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach has benefits not only of non-proliferation but also of cost effectiveness. This is because for most facilities in nuclear fuel cycle, there exist economies of scale, which has a significant impact on the costs of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, the evaluation of economic rationality is required as one of the evaluation factors for the multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. In this study, we consider some options with respect to multilateral approaches to nuclear fuel cycle in Asian-Pacific region countries that are proposed by the University of Tokyo. In particular, the following factors are embedded into each type: A) no involvement of assurance of services, B) provision of assurance of services including construction of new facility, without transfer of ownership, and C) provision of assurance of service including construction of new joint facilities with ownership transfer of facilities to multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. We show the overnight costs taking into account install and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities for each option. The economic parameter values such as uranium price, scale factor, and market output expansion influences the total cost for each option. Thus, we show how these parameter values and economic risks affect the total overnight costs for each option. Additionally, the international facilities could increase the risk of transportation for nuclear material compared to national facilities. We discuss the potential effects of this transportation risk on the costs for each option. (author)

  3. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

  4. An economic approach to animal models of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, G M

    2000-01-01

    Researchers have long sought an animal model for human alcohol consumption. This article describes an economic-based approach to a model of alcohol preference in rats. The procedures are based on an analogy between clinical accounts of human drinking and the economic analysis of consumption. Both clinical and economic investigators typically define consumption patterns in terms of the influence of negative consequences. For example, the clinical account emphasizes the persistence of heavy drinking despite mounting alcohol-related aversive consequences, and in economic analyses, the term "inelastic demand" is used to refer to the persistence of consumption despite large increases in prices. In the experimental procedure described here, rats worked for alcohol and food. Presses on one lever earned a drink of 10 percent alcohol plus saccharin, and presses on a second lever earned isocaloric drinks of a starch solution. After behavior stabilized, the response requirements (which are analogous to prices) for one or both drinks were increased. The rats maintained baseline alcohol consumption levels despite large increases in the "price" of alcohol. In contrast, the same price increases markedly reduced starch intake. That is, food consumption was sensitive to price hikes, but alcohol consumption was not. The results demonstrate that a common economic framework can be used to describe human and animal behavior and, hence, the possibility of an animal model of human alcohol consumption. The article also points out that economic concepts provide a framework for understanding a wide range of human drinking patterns, including controlled social drinking and excessive alcoholic drinking. PMID:11199280

  5. Dynamical Methods Applied in Natural Resource Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. HALKOS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper presents, in brief, the fundamentals of optimal control theory together with some notes for differential games, which is the game theoretic analogue of the optimal control. As it is recommended by literature references the main tool of analysis in open loop information structure for environmental models is the Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle, while the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation is the tool of analysis for any closed loop informational structure. As applications of the above theoretic considerations we present some environmental economic models which are solved both as optimal control problems and as differential games as well.Keywords. Optimal control; Differential games; Renewable resources; Environnemental and Resource Economies.JEL. C61; C62; D43; Q0; Q2; Q20; Q50; Q52; Q53.

  6. The Economics of Gasification: A Market-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Abadie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and IGCC power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.. Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and missions (note that carbon constraints are looming. Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided.

  7. The personnel economics approach to public workforce research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This article argues that the relatively new field of personnel economics (PE) holds strong potential as a tool for studying public sector workforces. This subfield of labor economics is based on a strong foundation of microeconomics, which provides a robust theoretical foundation for studying workforce and organizational design issues. PE has evolved on this foundation to a strong practical emphasis, with theoretical insights designed for practical use and with strong focus on empirical research. The field is also characterized by creative data entrepreneurship. The types of datasets that personnel economists use are described. If similar datasets can be obtained for public sector workforces, PE should be a very useful approach for studying them. PMID:19829236

  8. Economic Analysis of Paddy Threshing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna, P.H.S.N.; L H P Gunaratne; Withana, W.D.R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Post-harvest losses of paddy in Sri Lanka are as high as 15 percent of total production. Of this, about 24 percent of losses occur during the threshing and cleaning stage with tractor treading being the most common paddy threshing method. In order to overcome these deficiencies, recently small and combined threshers have been introduced. This study attempted to determine the efficiency of different paddy threshing methods, and to estimate the profitability of small and combined thresher owner...

  9. Modern environmental and economic approach of mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Drebenstedt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the need of transition to the rational subsoil use (the alternative mining approach is proved, which unlike general one supposes the increasing of extraction rate of valuable components in the deposit and multiple use of raw materials, the maximizing recycling, the decreasing of land occupation, the increasing of the development period of deposit at some income decrease up to the moderate level, which is enough to provide the attraction for investors. The multicriteriality is considered as the crucial principle of rational subsoil use at taking management decisions, i.e. the considering of ecological, economic and social targets, aimed at receiving moderate profit at proper social and environmental standards. The graphic representation of models of the general mining approach and the alternative one allows to emphasize the specified advantages of transition to rational subsoil resources development and reflect them in design equation. In the paper, three performance strategies providing the implementation of the alternative approach are offered: full-field development, application ecologically and economically effective systems and the development processes, consideration of reclamation and minimization of long term environmental effects of mining

  10. [Rational drug use: an economic approach to decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Daniel Marques; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; Sudo, Elisa Cazue; Ortún, Vicente

    2008-04-01

    The present article approaches rational drug use (RDU) from the economical point of view. The implementation of RDU implies in costs and involves acquisition of knowledge and behavioral changes of several agents. The difficulties in implementing RDU may be due to shortage problems, information asymmetry, lack of information, uncertain clinical decisions, externalities, time-price, incentives for drug prescribers and dispensers, drug prescriber preferences and marginal utility. Health authorities, among other agencies, must therefore regularize, rationalize and control drug use to minimize inefficiency in pharmaceutical care and to prevent exposing the population to unnecessary health risks.

  11. The economics of gasification: a market-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and emissions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. (author)

  12. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  13. Les défis de l'évaluation économique du patrimoine urbain des pays en développement / Methods for the economic valuation of urban heritage: a sustainability-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmas, Laurent; Geronimi, Vincent; Noël, Jean-François; Tsang King Sang, Jessy

    2012-01-01

    Publications associées : - Michel VERNIERES (coord.), Valéry PATIN, Christine MENGIN, Vincent GERONIMI, Laurent DALMAS, Jean-François NOEL, Jessy TSANG KING SANG, Méthodologies d'évaluation économique du patrimoine urbain : une approche par la soutenabilité, Paris, AFD, coll. A savoir 13, mai 2012, 213 p. (ISSN : 2105-553 X) - Michel VERNIERES (coord.), Valéry PATIN, Christine MENGIN, Vincent GERONIMI, Laurent DALMAS, Jean-François NOEL, Jessy TSANG KING SANG, Methods for the Economic Valuati...

  14. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  15. A combined energetic and economic approach for the sustainable design of geothermal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exploitation of medium to low temperature geothermal sources: ORC power plants. • Integrated energetic and economic approach for the analysis of geothermal power plants. • A brief overview of the cost items of geothermal power plants. • Analysis of specific cost of geothermal power plants based on the method proposed. • Analysis of sustainability of geothermal energy systems based on resource durability. - Abstract: The perspectives of future development of geothermal power plants, mainly of small size for the exploitation of medium–low temperature reservoirs, are discussed and analyzed in the present paper. Even if there is a general interest in new power plants and investments in this sector are recognized, the new installations are reduced; the apparent advantage of null cost of the energy source is negatively balanced by the high drilling and installation costs. A key element for the design of a geothermal plant for medium temperature geothermal source is the definition of the power of the plant (size): this is important in order to define not only the economic plan but also the durability of the reservoir. Considering that it is not possible that the development of geothermal industry could be driven only by an economic perspective, the authors propose a method for joining energetic and economic approaches. The result of the combined energetic and economic analysis is interesting particularly in case of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plants in order to define a suitable and optimal size and to maximize the resource durability. The method is illustrated with reference to some particular case studies, showing that the sustainability of small size geothermal plants will be approached only if the research for more economic solutions will be combined with efforts in direction of efficiency increase

  16. THE APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC SUPPORT FOR CONTROL PROBLEMS IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov A. I.

    2014-01-01

    For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology

  17. THE APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC SUPPORT FOR CONTROL PROBLEMS IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology

  18. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.

  19. Modeling the economic impact of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: a theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Cobden

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available David S Cobden1, Louis W Niessen2, Frans FH Rutten1, W Ken Redekop11Department of Health Policy and Management, Section of Health Economics – Medical Technology Assessment (HE-MTA, Erasmus MC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USAAims: While strong correlations exist between medication adherence and health economic outcomes in type 2 diabetes, current economic analyses do not adequately consider them. We propose a new approach to incorporate adherence in cost-effectiveness analysis.Methods: We describe a theoretical approach to incorporating the effect of adherence when estimating the long-term costs and effectiveness of an antidiabetic medication. This approach was applied in a Markov model which includes common diabetic health states. We compared two treatments using hypothetical patient cohorts: injectable insulin (IDM and oral (OAD medications. Two analyses were performed, one which ignored adherence (analysis 1 and one which incorporated it (analysis 2. Results from the two analyses were then compared to explore the extent to which adherence may impact incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Results: In both analyses, IDM was more costly and more effective than OAD. When adherence was ignored, IDM generated an incremental cost-effectiveness of $12,097 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained versus OAD. Incorporation of adherence resulted in a slightly higher ratio ($16,241/QALY. This increase was primarily due to better adherence with OAD than with IDM, and the higher direct medical costs for IDM.Conclusions: Incorporating medication adherence into economic analyses can meaningfully influence the estimated cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes treatments, and should therefore be ­considered in health care decision-making. Future work on the impact of adherence on health ­economic

  20. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaid David

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. Methods The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Results Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. Conclusion There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as

  1. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  2. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  3. THE WAY OF PROCESSING DATA IN APPROACHING ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN GHENCEA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic Informatics originates in the industry economy and the electronic processing of information. A clear distinction is made between IT and economic informatics, and further between general and particular economic informatics (the particular economic informatics meaning administration, industrial informatics etc. Economic informatics is deemed to be an applicative science relating to the conception, working modality and representation of IT and communication systems, oriented towards companies which are using electronic computers. This paper pursues to integrate applications allowing the information systems to interconnect at informational level, by information sharing, and at service level, considering the control of the related processes in real time.

  4. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  5. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Döring

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention.

  6. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention. PMID:27649218

  7. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention. PMID:27649218

  8. Ecosystems, ecological restoration, and economics: does habitat or resource equivalency analysis mean other economic valuation methods are not needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W Douglass; Wlodarz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    Coastal and other area resources such as tidal wetlands, seagrasses, coral reefs, wetlands, and other ecosystems are often harmed by environmental damage that might be inflicted by human actions, or could occur from natural hazards such as hurricanes. Society may wish to restore resources to offset the harm, or receive compensation if this is not possible, but faces difficult choices among potential compensation projects. The optimal amount of restoration efforts can be determined by non-market valuation methods, service-to-service, or resource-to-resource approaches such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). HEA scales injured resources and lost services on a one-to-one trade-off basis. Here, we present the main differences between the HEA approach and other non-market valuation approaches. Particular focus is on the role of the social discount rate, which appears in the HEA equation and underlies calculations of the present value of future damages. We argue that while HEA involves elements of economic analysis, the assumption of a one-to-one trade-off between lost and restored services sometimes does not hold, and then other non-market economic valuation approaches may help in restoration scaling or in damage determination.

  9. Islamic Banking and Economic Growth — A cointegration Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mosab I. Tabash; Raj S. Dhankar

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores empirically the relationship between the development of Islamic finance system and economic growth and its direction in Qatar. Using econometric analysis, annually time-series data of economic growth and Islamic banks’ financing from 1990 to 2008 were used. We use Islamic banks’ financing funds given by Islamic banks as a proxy for the development of Islamic finance system and Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) as proxies for real econom...

  10. Measuring economic journals’ citation efficiency: A data envelopment analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2011-01-01

    This paper by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and statistical inference evaluates the citation performance of 229 economic journals. The paper categorizes the journals into four main categories (A to D) based on their efficiency levels. The results are then compared to the 27 “core economic journals” as introduced by Dimond (1989). The results reveal that after more than twenty years Diamonds’ list of “core economic journals” is still valid. Finally, for the first time the paper uses da...

  11. Economics and Rationality: Contributions and Limits of Polanyian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas POSTEL; Sobel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Polanyi analyzes the historical deployment of a "formal" economic science starting from the triptych "market-rarety- instrumental rationality ". It reveals this triptych, and the knowledge which is devoted to it, as being a part of a question broader than should analyze a "substantial" economic science being interested in the triptych "need-nature-institution". If we can and must follow Polanyi in his criticism of economism suited to the first triptytic, we have more reserve to accept his sol...

  12. A Spatial Approach to Energy Economics: Theory, Measurement and Empirics

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Cruz, Juan; Taylor, M. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a simple spatial model of energy exploitation to ask how the location and productivity of energy resources may affect the distribution of economic activity around the globe. This is a very large research question, and we take one small step towards answering it by combining elements from resource and energy economics into one framework that links the spatial productivity of energy sources (both renewable and non-renewable) to the incentives for economic activity to concent...

  13. ECONOMIC APPROACHES TO IMPROVE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF UKRAINIAN TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES ( THE EXAMPLE OF CIVIL AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Baran

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of reforming the air transport in Ukraine is the implementation of market economic transformations in economic and financial methods of the management of civil aviation operational firms, which were still formed on the basis of Soviet plan-army management principles. The author suggests the mechanism of formation of financial supply paradigm for reformed air transport firm because these reformations are to be carried out when the elaborated optimal economic-legal, investment-innovation, and (what is the most important organizational-financial complex unified methodical principles of the interaction of air transport (АТ subjects are absent (which becomes clear in the course of re-structuring them. Vital problems of formation of investment-innovation re-structuring mechanism for functioning the air transport firms are described in this article. New results of subsequent scientific research concerning financial scheme development of enterprising and commercial activities of airlines in today’s economic stabilization and growth, formation of new paradigm of economic theory and reformation of managing practice are suggested to the participants of the Conference in the course of prolonging the author’s discussion; a possible approach to the solution of financing problems for their re-structuring by means of creating new aviationtransport consortia is also suggested. The aim of creating a new consortium is to improve the economic efficiency of activity of airlines, their competitiveness in internal markets of transport services as well as to reform the system of air transport subjects in Ukraine. This is one of the complex trends for solving the problems of creating national air carrier, the organization of optimal forms and methods of financial schemes formation for measures aimed at improving the competitiveness.

  14. A predictive modeling approach to increasing the economic effectiveness of disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerstadler, Andreas; Benstetter, Franz; Heumann, Christian; Winter, Fabian

    2014-09-01

    Predictive Modeling (PM) techniques are gaining importance in the worldwide health insurance business. Modern PM methods are used for customer relationship management, risk evaluation or medical management. This article illustrates a PM approach that enables the economic potential of (cost-) effective disease management programs (DMPs) to be fully exploited by optimized candidate selection as an example of successful data-driven business management. The approach is based on a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) that is easy to apply for health insurance companies. By means of a small portfolio from an emerging country, we show that our GLM approach is stable compared to more sophisticated regression techniques in spite of the difficult data environment. Additionally, we demonstrate for this example of a setting that our model can compete with the expensive solutions offered by professional PM vendors and outperforms non-predictive standard approaches for DMP selection commonly used in the market. PMID:23780751

  15. Multiobjective scatter search approach with new combination scheme applied to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ► Economic dispatch. ► We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ► Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability

  16. A consumption approach to wastes from economic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Boitier, Baptiste; Lancesseur, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    In a context of waste management policies aimed at promoting waste prevention and recycling and, conversely, reducing waste landfilling, this study investigates how waste is generated and treated in a consumption perspective. A Waste Input-Output Analysis is implemented that considers 14 waste fractions and four waste management techniques. Input-Output Tables extended to wastes are initially compiled for the year 2008 considering France and five of its main import suppliers, and further completed with data on waste treatment. Wastes from economic activities are accordingly reallocated to the product categories of household consumption that induce their production. In particular, considering five waste categories (dry recyclable wastes, mixed wastes, mineral wastes, organic wastes, and total wastes) as an aggregation of the 14 waste fractions studied, the ten product categories with the highest contribution account for 64-86% of the total generation of wastes. Waste intensity and volume of expenses are analyzed as the drivers for the amounts of wastes induced by each product category. Similarly, the products responsible for the largest amounts of waste landfilling and incineration without energy recovery, i.e. the management techniques at the bottom of the "waste management hierarchy", are identified. Moreover, this study highlights the relative importance of waste produced abroad as compared to that produced in France, regarding the total amount of waste induced by French household consumption. The sensitivity of results to the modeling of import production is subsequently discussed. Finally, the potential perspectives for this type of consumption approach are considered with respect to its utility and current limitations in a context of waste policy planning, and more particularly regarding the way waste policy targets are set. PMID:26851169

  17. Economic modelling approaches to cost estimates for the control of carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Folmer, H.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives an assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of a variety of economic modelling approaches commonly used for cost estimates for limiting carbon emissions, including the ad hoc approach, dynamic optimization approach, input-output approach, macroeconomic approach, computa

  18. Emotions, perceptions and economic behavior. A critical-philosophical approach to the place of Psychology in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Caballero de la Torre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the origin of the issue of empathy in the History of Ideas and its importance in economics, as well as its revitalization. It concludes that it is not the study of empathy, so fashionable today, but the study of decision making the place where Economics can find the nature of emotions in relation to human behavior. This nature is its power to inhibit behavior. The study of repentance is itself more interesting and helpful for the economy than the study of empathy. Finally, the institutional approach is presented as the best in order to understand the issues related to economic human behavior

  19. Advanced Regression Methods in Finance and Economics: Three Essays

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmarcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis advanced regression methods are applied to discuss and investigate highly relevant research questions in the areas of finance and economics. In the field of credit risk the thesis investigates a hierarchical model which allows to obtain a consensus score, if several ratings are available for each firm. Autoregressive processes and random effects are used to model both a correlation structure between and within the obligors in the sample. The model also allows to validate ...

  20. Applied Methods for Analysis of Economic Structure and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Anderstig, Christer

    1988-01-01

    The thesis comprises five papers and an introductory overview of applied models and methods. The papers concern interdependences and interrelations in models applied to empirical analyses of various problems related to production, consumption, location and trade. Among different definitions of 'structural analysis' one refers to the study of the properties of economic models on the assumption of invariant structural relations, this definition is close to what is aimed at in lire present case....

  1. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  2. Essays in political economy and resource economic: A macroeconomic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions: 1. Why do inefficient institutions emerge and persist over time? And, 2. What are the dynamic consequences of inefficient institutions? The first two chapters investigate these two central questions...

  3. A Transactions Cost Economics (TCE) Approach to Optimal Contract Type

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Franck; Francois Melese; John Dillard

    2006-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) This study examines defense acquisition through the new lens of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE). TCE is an emergent field in economics that has multiple applications to defense acquisition practices. TCE''s original focus was to guide ''make-or-buy?'' decisions that define the boundaries of a firm. This study reviews insights afforded by TCE that impact government outsourcing (''buy'' decisions), paying special attention to defense pro...

  4. Corruption as a field of economics: Experimental approach and design

    OpenAIRE

    Kyyrönen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: This thesis has three main objectives. To provide a thorough review of the theoretical foundation of corruption in economics, introduce the methodologies and their main results and lastly design an economic corruption experiment addressing mechanics and importance of reciprocity for individuals in comparison to other moral costs of corruption. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION: Theoretical foundation reviewed in the thesis comprises of both theoretical and practical ...

  5. Climate Change and Economic Development: A Pragmatic Approach (Invited Lecture)

    OpenAIRE

    John Gowdy; Aneel Salman

    2007-01-01

    Two major problems promise to dominate economic and social policy during the twentyfirst century. These are global climate change and the growing gap between the rich and the poor. Economists are facing these issues at a time when many of the standard tools of economic analysis for example, competitive general equilibrium and the theoretical system that supports it have fallen into disfavour in analysing global issues involving uncertainty and irreversibility. This is both a challenge and an ...

  6. Estimating economic losses from earthquakes using an empirical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We extended the U.S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) empirical fatality estimation methodology proposed by Jaiswal et al. (2009) to rapidly estimate economic losses after significant earthquakes worldwide. The requisite model inputs are shaking intensity estimates made by the ShakeMap system, the spatial distribution of population available from the LandScan database, modern and historic country or sub-country population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, and economic loss data from Munich Re's historical earthquakes catalog. We developed a strategy to approximately scale GDP-based economic exposure for historical and recent earthquakes in order to estimate economic losses. The process consists of using a country-specific multiplicative factor to accommodate the disparity between economic exposure and the annual per capita GDP, and it has proven successful in hindcast-ing past losses. Although loss, population, shaking estimates, and economic data used in the calibration process are uncertain, approximate ranges of losses can be estimated for the primary purpose of gauging the overall scope of the disaster and coordinating response. The proposed methodology is both indirect and approximate and is thus best suited as a rapid loss estimation model for applications like the PAGER system.

  7. Rationality, hermeneutics, and communicational processes: On L. Lachmann's approach of hermeneutical economics

    OpenAIRE

    Priddat, Birger P.

    2012-01-01

    Only a few economists knew about hermeneutical economics. But my request is to confirm hermeneutical economics only for the reason to make it criticable. Without any doubt, hermeneutical economics is worth to be criticized; but it is an incomplete approach. The first part presents Ludwig M. Lachmann's version of hermeneutical economics. Lachmann is picked up from the scenario of hermeneutical economists (i.e. Ebeling, Berger, Lavoie, some authors of Kirzner 1986, etc.), because he is the most...

  8. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European literature as was feasible has been carried out, such a survey is certain to fall short of reviewing the full literature simply because the larger part of it is North American. The latter was being reviewed separately by the US team. However, in making recommendations as to what valuation methods or studies to use, the report draws on the substantial US experience. The whole issue of when a methodology or a particular study can be transferred from one context to another has never been fully addressed. This report makes some suggestions as to when this is may be appropriate although it is recognized that this is by no means a definitive discussion of that issue. Certainly, the fact that the fuel cycle analysis here is location-specific, rather than 'generic', in the sense of providing broad average costs of impacts caused by the use of certain fuels, makes the transferability of estimates more difficult. The report is structured as follows. Part I begins with a discussion of the nature of externalities and a more precise definition of what is being measured. Of particular importance in this context is the extent to which an environmental impact is or is not an 'externality'. Without going into the more complex aspects of the economic theory, the report offers some advice on when the issue is relevant and what criteria might be used to assess whether or not a particular environmental impact really is an externality. The remainder of Part I then deals with a number of general issues that are of practical importance in the context of valuing specific impacts. These are: the question of transferability discussed above; the time period or timescale over which the valuation is to take place; the treatment of uncertainty; the discounting of future costs; and the finally the issue of exactly what is being assumed constant when a particular valuation is being carried out. This is of special significance in the context of the valuation being undertaken here. Part II of the

  9. Economic Consequences of DifferentLean Percentage Estimation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Tolušić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic effects of the choice of two different lean percentage estimation methods and terminal sire breed were investigated on 53 pig carcasses divided in two groups. In the 1st group were progeny of Pietrain used as terminal sire (n=25 and in 2nd the progeny of Large White terminal sire. It was found that the breed of terminal sire haven.t had influence on cold carcass weight and fat thickness measured for TP method of lean percentage estimation. Inclusion of Pietrain as terminal sire had influence on MLD thickness measured for TP and INS methods which was significantly higher, while fat thickness measured for instrumental method was significantly lower (p<0.01. Carcasses of the same group had higher lean percentage estimated by TP and INS methods (p<0.05 and p<0.01, resp.. Also, different methods of lean percentage estimation resulted in different classification of the carcasses into SEUROP classes. The choice of the lean percentage estimation method had no significant effect on the price of the carcasses from 2nd group which had Large White as terminal sire, while in pig carcasses from the 1st group (Pietrain as terminal sire, the choice of lean percentage method of estimation determined the price of the carcasses, and by this also economic surplus (or loss of the producers. It is concluded that both methods are equally applicable in the case of Large White crossbreeds, while caution should be taken in the case of pig carcasses originated from Pietrain as terminal sire because carcasses of such pigs reached higher prices when estimated by instrumental method.

  10. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an

  11. Agent-Based Computational Economics: A Constructive Approach to Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential advantages and disadvantages of Agent-based Computational Economics (ACE) for the study of economic systems. General points are concretely illustrated using an ACE model of a two-sector decentralized market economy. Six issues are highlighted: Constructive understanding of production, pricing, and trade processes; the essential primacy of survival; strategic rivalry and market power; behavioral uncertainty and learning; the role of conventions and organizat...

  12. The Interaction of Obesity Related Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Economics: An Experimental Economics Approach with Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, George C.; Jacob, Jacy; Good, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is greatly influenced by economic factors. Consequently, neuroeconomics has been identified as a new and important area for understanding the interaction between genotypes and phenotypes related to food intake. A foundational element of economics is choice between alternatives. Changing food choices are a central element in the explanation of the increasing obesity rates in human populations. The purpose of this research is to incorporate the key element of choice into the investi...

  13. Effective management models and methods of economic educations in regional industrial complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Butrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the methodical bases of management by the integrated industrial enterprises is developed according to the indicators of sustainable economic development of the region. The scope of the research is the region as the difficult mesosystem consisting of logistic clusters. The subject matter of the research is the organizational and economic relations developing in the course of interaction of participants of the regional economy as mesosystems. The models and methods of management by the large economic systems in the economy of the industrially developed region are developed; the organizational and economic essence of a logistic cluster as the subject of the regional economy us revealed. The mechanism of management by the integrated enterprises with using the cluster approach, technologies of logistics, management of supply chains is offered. They allow to the management of an enterprises to make scientifically reasonable effective decisions developing programs of supply, economic production and realization of finished goods in the close connection with programs of regional economic development.

  14. Improving economics and safety of water cooled reactors. Proven means and new approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) with water cooled reactors [either light water reactors (LWRs) or heavy water reactors (HWRs)] constitute the large majority of the currently operating plants. Water cooled reactors can make a significant contribution to meeting future energy needs, to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and to energy security if they can compete economically with fossil alternatives, while continuing to achieve a very high level of safety. It is generally agreed that the largest commercial barrier to the addition of new nuclear power capacity is the high capital cost of nuclear plants relative to other electricity generating alternatives. If nuclear plants are to form part of the future generating mix in competitive electricity markets, capital cost reduction through simplified designs must be an important focus. Reductions in operating, maintenance and fuel costs should also be pursued. The Department of Nuclear Energy of the IAEA is examining the competitiveness of nuclear power and the means for improving its economics. The objective of this TECDOC is to emphasize the need, and to identify approaches, for new nuclear plants with water cooled reactors to achieve competitiveness while maintaining high levels of safety. The cost reduction methods discussed herein can be implemented into plant designs that are currently under development as well as into designs that may be developed in the longer term. Many of the approaches discussed also generally apply to other reactor types (e.g. gas cooled and liquid metal cooled reactors). To achieve the largest possible cost reductions, proven means for reducing costs must be fully implemented, and new approaches described in this document should be developed and implemented. These new approaches include development of advanced technologies, increased use of risk-informed methods for evaluating the safety benefit of design features, and international consensus regarding commonly acceptable safety requirements that

  15. The Comparison of the Direct Method and the Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽葵

    2011-01-01

    一、 Major Characteristics of the Direct Method and the Communicative Approach The characteristics of the communicative Approach are as follows:(1) The teaching content takes language function as the key link,which is fixed up in accordance with the different demands of studying object.For example,the demands of the scientist and technologist,the translator,the foreign language teacher,the tourist adviser,the diplomatic personnel and the economic worker are different from each other,so the most necessary language materials for achieving certain communication are chosen which are usually the most common structure form.

  16. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF MARKET DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME: APPROACHES TO EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Halushka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a comparison between scientific approaches to understanding the economic and social efficiency of market income distribution. Based on multidisciplinary approaches the essence of the concepts of fairness and efficiency in the distribution; explored approaches to combining efficiency and equity used in policy income distribution at different levels of management; the possible social and economic consequences of ineffective regulation of income in today’s economy. The analysis is based on comparing the four concepts of justice that are considered socially efficient. Considered: utilitarian, formulated by J. Bentham; egalitarian, which provides for equal distribution; market (liberal approach – to polar egalitarian and roulzianskyy that treats justice as fairness, approaches. Based on the generalization of existing approaches analyzed method of estimating social justice in the distribution and the possibility of its application. The structure of the article includes the following sections: 1.Views on terms of efficiency and equity in the distribution of resources and income; 2. Classical and modern approaches to combining efficiency and equity in the distribution; 3. Conflicts combination of the principles of fairness and efficiency in the distribution of incomes policy. The authors also noted that the uneven distribution of income acts as an objective reality, and the question is to prevent dangerous indicators of this unevenness. Market income distribution does not guarantee every person an acceptable level of income. The causes of irregularity are: differences in abilities, mental as well as physical; differences in possession of the property, in the educational level and group reasons associated with luck, chance, surprise win more. This is a definite social injustice market. State, taking a significant share of responsibility for maintaining a basic human right to a dignified life, organizes redistribution.

  17. A Fuzzy MCDM Approach for Green Supplier Selection from the Economic and Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu Mei Wang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the challenge of rising public awareness of environmental issues and governmental regulations, green supply chain management (SCM has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental sustainability. Supplier selection is one of the key operational tasks necessary to construct a green SCM. To select the most suitable suppliers, many economic and environmental criteria must be considered in the decision process. Although numerous studies have used economic criteria such as cost, quality, and lead time in the supplier selection process, only some studies have taken into account the environmental issues. This study proposes a comprehensive fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM approach for green supplier selection and evaluation, using both economic and environmental criteria. In the proposed approach, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP is employed to determine the important weights of criteria under vague environment. In addition, a fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to evaluate and rank the potential suppliers. Finally, a case study in Luminance Enhancement Film (LEF industry is presented to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Fuzzy logic approach to SWOT analysis for economics tasks and example of its computer realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir CHERNOV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the widely used classic method of analysis, forecasting and decision-making in the various economic problems, called SWOT analysis. As known, it is a qualitative comparison of multicriteria degree of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat for different kinds of risks, forecasting the development in the markets, status and prospects of development of enterprises, regions and economic sectors, territorials etc. It can also be successfully applied to the evaluation and analysis of different project management tasks - investment, innovation, marketing, development, design and bring products to market and so on. However, in practical competitive market and economic conditions, there are various uncertainties, ambiguities, vagueness. Its making usage of SWOT analysis in the classical sense not enough reasonable and ineffective. In this case, the authors propose to use fuzzy logic approach and the theory of fuzzy sets for a more adequate representation and posttreatment assessments in the SWOT analysis. In particular, has been short showed the mathematical formulation of respective task and the main approaches to its solution. Also are given examples of suitable computer calculations in specialized software Fuzicalc for processing and operations with fuzzy input data. Finally, are presented considerations for interpretation of the results.

  19. English language teaching methods and approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    This handbook for English language students presents the major teaching methods and approaches that have been used in English language teaching and learning. It is divided into two parts. Part I gives an overview of first and second/foreign language acquisition theories, such as the behaviourist, the innatist, the cognitive, the interactionist and the creative-construction theory. Part II describes the English language teaching methods and approaches that have been popular at different times ...

  20. Constructal Theory: a new approach to spatial economics and finance

    OpenAIRE

    Heitor Reis, António; Dionísio, Andreia

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates an application of Constructal Theory to spatial economics and Þnance. Constructal theory is about the generation of architecture in ßow systems in general. Simply stated, the constructal law proclaims a tendency to maximize ßow access in time, i.e., for a Þnite-size ßow system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to the currents that ßow through it. Constructal optimization in spatial economics is po...

  1. A new approach to secure economic power dispatch

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, JZ; Irving, MR; Xu, GY

    1998-01-01

    This article presents a new nonlinear convex network flow programming model and algorithm for solving the on-line economic power dispatch with N and N−1 security. Based on the load flow equations, a new nonlinear convex network flow model for secure economic power dispatch is set up and then transformed into a quadratic programming model, in which the search direction in the space of the flow variables is to be solved. The concept of maximum basis in a network flow graph was introduced so tha...

  2. A cognitive approach to law and economics: Hayek's legacy,

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Ambrosino

    2014-01-01

    Hayek’s contribution to the analysis of law has been widely criticized and disputed. This paper shares with a recent assessment by Beaulier, Boettke and Coyne the opinion that the significance of Hayek’s legal writings and their relevance to law and economics can only be completely understood by jointly analyzing his economic theory and his legal theory. Moreover it will be argued that both theories must be reconsidered in light of Hayek’s theory of mind. This theory, in fact, represents the ...

  3. Switchgrass biomass to ethanol production economics: Field to fuel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohua

    Scope and Method of Study. Switchgrass has been proposed as a dedicated energy crop. The first essay determines switchgrass yield response to nitrogen fertilizer for a single annual harvest in July and for a single annual harvest in October based on a field experiments conducted at Stillwater, OK. Data were fitted to several functional forms to characterize both the July harvest and the October harvest response functions. Extending the harvest window to take advantage of reduction in harvest machinery investment costs has important biological consequences. The second essay determines the cost to deliver a ton of switchgrass biomass to a 2,000 tons per day plant located in Oklahoma. The model accounts for differences in yield and nitrogen fertilizer requirements across harvest months. The data were incorporated into a multi-region, multi-period, monthly time-step, mixed integer mathematical programming model that was constructed to determine the optimal strategy. Desirable feedstock properties, biomass to biofuel conversion rate, and investment required in plant differs depending on which conversion technology is used. The third essay determines the breakeven ethanol price for a cellulosic biorefinery. A comprehensive mathematical programming model that encompasses the chain from land acquisition to ethanol production was constructed and solved. Findings and Conclusions. The July and October harvest plateau yield of 4.36 and 5.49 tons per acre were achieved with an estimated annual nitrogen fertilizer application of 80 and 63 pounds per acre, respectively. Farm gate production costs were estimated to be 60 per ton for the July harvest and 50 per ton for the October harvest. Based on the model results, the strategy of extending harvest over many months is economically preferable to a strategy of harvesting only in peak yield harvest months. Restricting harvest to a two-month harvest season would increase the cost to deliver feedstock by 23 percent. For a capital

  4. A NEW APPROACH IN ECONOMICS: TRANSACTION COSTS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacobuta Andreea-Oana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ronald Coase article from 1937, The Nature of the Firm, meant a new way of thinking and conceiving of the world, especially of economic organisations. Coase argued that the firm and the market represent two alternative ways to organise the same transactio

  5. Women's Marginalization, Economic Flows, and Environmental Flows: A Classroom Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lear, Shannon

    1999-01-01

    Discusses environmental security, focusing on the meaning of "security." Defines the global economy as a process in which the security of groups is sought, maintained, or threatened. Illustrates connections among environmental security, the global economy, and abuse of women and children in less economically developed places, incorporating the…

  6. Approaches of Extension Specialists to Teaching Community and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leones, Julie

    1995-01-01

    Responses from 64 of 80 extension agents specializing in community resources and economic development identified the "Journal of the Community Development Society" as the primary source of ideas and information. Frequently cited program topics were entrepreneurship, fiscal policy, budgeting, strategic planning, and leadership development. Among…

  7. Effects of approach and withdrawal motivation on interactive economic decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harle, K.M.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Although recent economic models of human decision making have recognised the role of emotion as an important biasing factor, the impact of incidental emotion on decisions has remained poorly explored. To address this question, we jointly explored the role of emotional valence (i.e., positive vs. neg

  8. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  9. Standard and Economical Cascadic Multigrid Methods for the Mortar Finite Element Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun Xu; Wenbin Chen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, standard and economical cascadic multigrid methods are con-sidered for solving the algebraic systems resulting from the mortar finite element meth-ods. Both cascadic multigrid methods do not need full elliptic regularity, so they can be used to tackle more general elliptic problems. Numerical experiments are reported to support our theory.

  10. Regional Economic Policy: Structural Approach and Tools (Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeevich Sukharev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article — the development of the doctrine of “coherent” Regional Development and research of the structural quality of the development of regional systems on the basis of theoretical analysis of institutional factors (parameters that determine the manufacturability of the regional economy. The purpose of the research — to show the possibilities of technological change and shift of economic growth in a particular regional system, with stringent limits for accelerated development, with an emphasis on industrial regions. To this end, formed a number of structural models and analyze the impact of technological factors on the growth parameters of the regional economy, the definition of conditions for the development of the industrial region. Methodology. The correlation and regression analysis are applied, which allows to establish a statistically significant relationship between the relevant parameters, the econometric models are used to demonstrate the possibility of estimating the growth parameters via the control parameters, including the technological factor. The structural aspect of regional economic growth is taken into account by the division of investment on the old and new technologies. Result and scope of the research. Increasing adaptability of the regional economy is possible at the expense of compounding results in the use of (old and the application of new technologies. This principle specifies the algorithm of formation of regional development priorities, provides a choice of strategy of technological development of the regional system. Investing resources only in the field of new technologies can dramatically enhance the disparity of regional economic system, the parameters of diversion of resources and the creation of a new resource will determine the pace of growth in the region. Conclusions. Dynamics of investment into old technology provides a major impact on the rate of economic growth in the

  11. Energy and economic growth in the USA: a multivariate approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, D.I. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies)

    1993-04-01

    This paper examines the casual relationship between Gross Domestic Product and energy use for the period 1947-90 in the United States of America. The relationship between energy use and economic growth has been examined by both biophysical and neoclassical economists. In particular, several studies have tested for the presence of a causal relationships (in the Granger sense) between energy use and economic growth. However, these tests do not allow a direct test of the relative explanatory powers of the neoclassical and biophysical models. A multivariate adaptation of the test-vector autoregression (VAR) does allow such a test. A VAR of GDP, energy use, capital stock and employment is estimated and Granger tests for causal relationships between the variables are carried out. Although there is no evidence that gross energy use Granger causes GDP, a measure of final energy use adjusted for changing fuel composition does Granger cause GDP. (author)

  12. THEORETICAL APPROACHES REGARDING THE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARUNTU ANDREEA LAURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for performance evaluation appears from the importance of the assessment of the available resources usage, the identification of the economic resources potential for future use and the capacity to generate cash flows. Practice has held a number of tools that provide information needed to assess the performance state, obviously, differentiated from one country to another corresponding to the particularities of each economic system and that are useful to a large number of people involved in the life of a trader. This article presents some performance characteristics and refers to the options of measuring the global performance by using the balanced scorecard, the Triple Bottom Line reporting and the GRI G3 guidelines.

  13. New approaches to the economic evaluation of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic evaluation of fusion research to date has focussed on the benefits of essentially unlimited energy for future generations. In this paper it is shown that energy research in general, and fusion research in particular, also provides benefits in the short term, benefitting us today as well as future generations. Short-term benefits are the result of two distinct aspects of fusion research. First, fusion research provides information for decision making on both the continuing fusion research efforts and on other energy research programs. Second, fusion research provides an expectation of a future energy source thereby promoting accelerated consumption of existing fossil fuels today. Both short-term benefits can be quantitatively evaluated and both are quite substantial. Together, these short-term benefits form the primary economic rationale for fusion research

  14. Economic Modelling of Soil Conservation: An Endogenous Growth Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan Soo Kim

    1998-01-01

    This paper ï¬ rst develops the model, based on endogenous growth argument, in which environmental quality is included as input and thus makes possible the explanation of issues related to resource allocation and its impacts on the environment. Second, it analyzes the relationship between land market performance and underinvestment by incorporating information about soil quality into the analytical framework It extends existing literature on the economic modelling of soil conservation in sever...

  15. An Economic Approach to the Self : the Dual Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Lotz, Aïleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends the notion of the rational agent in economics by acknowledging the role of the unconscious in the agent�s decision-making process. It argues that the unconscious can be modelled by a rational agent with his own objective function and set of information. The combination of both the conscious and unconscious agents is called the "dual agent". This dual agent presents rationally biased behaviors that may not disappear through aggregation, and could be potentially measured. It ...

  16. Microalgae downstream processing and economical approaches of biodiesel producton processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos, Sergio Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae oil has been identified as a reliable resource for biodiesel production due to its high lipid productivity and potential cultivation in non-fertile locations. However, high scale production of microalgae based biodiesel depends on the optimization of the entire process to be economically feasible. The present work combine the optimization of microalgae downstream processes with computational tools for the modeling of different scenarios of the harvesting, oil extraction and transes...

  17. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into accoun...

  18. Immigrant Religious Adjustment: An Economic Approach to Jewish Migrations

    OpenAIRE

    Chiswick, Carmel Ullman

    2003-01-01

    An economic theory of immigration and immigrant absorption for a religious minority is developed and applied to Jewish history. Human capital is classified according to whether it is allocative or productive, transferable or location-specific, general or Jewish. Crossclassifying these categories leads to various hypotheses about self-selection among Jewish immigrants and their influence on the Jewish community in their destination. Complementarity between general and Jewish human capital is a...

  19. Different Approaches in Addressing Internal and External Economic Imbalances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭树清

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the internal and external imbalances of China’s economy from a global perspective. The author believes that trade surplus and savings surplus are not the absolute metrics to define a country’s economic strength. China’s balance of payments has continued to maintain a big surplus, which shows China’s unique economic structure and growth model and exposes deep contradictions in income distribution, factor prices and resource allocation. While stimulating rapid growth, the imbalance of China’s economy, at the same time, has long delayed the upgrading of industrial structure, aggravating the threat of inflation and heightening concerns of an asset bubble. Although the external and internal imbalances are closely linked to each other, they are quite different in nature. This similar global economic imbalance has existed for a long time, and to a great extent, is inevitable and rational. However, internal imbalances caused by its own systems and policies, if lasted, would have severe and negative impacts not only on China’s economy, but on the global economy as a whole.

  20. Measuring economic growth in OPEC countries : A panel data approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Taiwo Olajide

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the developing and under-developed countries have been facing a lot of challenges on the issue of economic growth, despite the fact that they are endowed with both natural and human resources. This study examines the determinants of real per Capita GDP growth in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC using a panel of twelve countries for the period of 1986 and 2010.The pooled Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Fixed Effect (FE and Random Effect (RE models were employed to assess the relationship between CGDP and other economic variables used. The result showed that price level of consumptions (pc and investment share (ci are the important factors of CGDP that contribute to the economic growth of OPEC countries. The result also established that exchange rate (Xrat, price of GDP (p, purchasing power parity (ppp and ci have a positive influence on CGDP. The test statistic revealed that Random Effects Model (REM estimator is more efficient than OLS and that there is no significance difference between Fixed Effects Model (FEM and REM estimators.

  1. New approaches to business cycle theory in current economic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica DOBRESCU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern economies, current research generally acknowledges that the central issues in macroeconomics are essentially the same as those identified by Keynes in the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. One way or the other, economists are trying to address the same macroeconomic issues that they did seven decades ago: How can we account for the different growth rates and various fluctuations observed in national economies? Which are the economic policies most suitable to solve the issues of growth and cyclic behavior? Both the new classicals and the new Keynesians have made considerable progress within their research paradigms: to explain economic fluctuations, the new classicals focus on technological perturbations, the intertemporal substitution of leisure and real business cycles; on the other hand, the new Keynesians speak in terms of monopolistic competition, menu costs or efficiency wages. On the whole, the new classicals believe that the business cycle can best be understood within the market-clearing model, whereas the new keynesians believe that business fluctuations are due to certain market failures of various sorts.The present paper focuses on the main directions of research of the new classical school on the business cycle, given that the theoretical progress in this field has been significant and relevant for economic policy during the past four decades.

  2. Examination of European Union economic cohesion: A cluster analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mazurek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past years majority of EU members experienced the highest economic decline in their modern history, but impacts of the global financial crisis were not distributed homogeneously across the continent. The aim of the paper is to examine a cohesion of European Union (plus Norway and Iceland in terms of an economic development of its members from the 1st of January 2008 to the 31st of December 2012. For the study five economic indicators were selected: GDP growth, unemployment, inflation, labour productivity and government debt. Annual data from Eurostat databases were averaged over the whole period and then used as an input for a cluster analysis. It was found that EU countries were divided into six different clusters. The most populated cluster with 14 countries covered Central and West Europe and reflected relative homogeneity of this part of Europe. Countries of Southern Europe (Greece, Portugal and Spain shared their own cluster of the most affected countries by the recent crisis as well as the Baltics and the Balkans states in another cluster. On the other hand Slovakia and Poland, only two countries that escaped a recession, were classified in their own cluster of the most successful countries

  3. Emperical Laws in Economics Uncovered Using Methods in Statistical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2001-06-01

    In recent years, statistical physicists and computational physicists have determined that physical systems which consist of a large number of interacting particles obey universal "scaling laws" that serve to demonstrate an intrinsic self-similarity operating in such systems. Further, the parameters appearing in these scaling laws appear to be largely independent of the microscopic details. Since economic systems also consist of a large number of interacting units, it is plausible that scaling theory can be usefully applied to economics. To test this possibility using realistic data sets, a number of scientists have begun analyzing economic data using methods of statistical physics [1]. We have found evidence for scaling (and data collapse), as well as universality, in various quantities, and these recent results will be reviewed in this talk--starting with the most recent study [2]. We also propose models that may lead to some insight into these phenomena. These results will be discussed, as well as the overall rationale for why one might expect scaling principles to hold for complex economic systems. This work on which this talk is based is supported by BP, and was carried out in collaboration with L. A. N. Amaral S. V. Buldyrev, D. Canning, P. Cizeau, X. Gabaix, P. Gopikrishnan, S. Havlin, Y. Lee, Y. Liu, R. N. Mantegna, K. Matia, M. Meyer, C.-K. Peng, V. Plerou, M. A. Salinger, and M. H. R. Stanley. [1.] See, e.g., R. N. Mantegna and H. E. Stanley, Introduction to Econophysics: Correlations & Complexity in Finance (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999). [2.] P. Gopikrishnan, B. Rosenow, V. Plerou, and H. E. Stanley, "Identifying Business Sectors from Stock Price Fluctuations," e-print cond-mat/0011145; V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, L. A. N. Amaral, X. Gabaix, and H. E. Stanley, "Diffusion and Economic Fluctuations," Phys. Rev. E (Rapid Communications) 62, 3023-3026 (2000); P. Gopikrishnan, V. Plerou, X. Gabaix, and H. E. Stanley, "Statistical Properties of

  4. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance. PMID:27005785

  5. Rule-based query answering method for a knowledge base of economic crimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bak, Jaroslaw

    2011-01-01

    We present a description of the PhD thesis which aims to propose a rule-based query answering method for relational data. In this approach we use an additional knowledge which is represented as a set of rules and describes the source data at concept (ontological) level. Queries are posed in the terms of abstract level. We present two methods. The first one uses hybrid reasoning and the second one exploits only forward chaining. These two methods are demonstrated by the prototypical implementation of the system coupled with the Jess engine. Tests are performed on the knowledge base of the selected economic crimes: fraudulent disbursement and money laundering.

  6. Can the capability approach be evaluated within the frame of mainstream economics?: A methodological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaçay Çakmak Hatice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the capability approach of Amartya Sen and mainstream economic theory in terms of their epistemological, methodological and philosophical/cultural aspects. The reason for undertaking this analysis is the belief that Sen's capability approach, contrary to some economists' claim, is uncongenial to mainstream economic views on epistemology and methodology (not on ontologically. However, while some social scientists regard that Sen, on the whole, is a mainstream economist, his own approach strongly criticizes both the theory and practice of mainstream economics.

  7. Dynamic economic dispatch combining network flow and interior point method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩学山; 赵建国; 柳焯

    2003-01-01

    Under the environment of electric power market, economic dispatch (ED) problem should consider network constraints, unit ramp rates, besides the basic constraints. For this problem, it is important to establish the effective model and algorithm. This paper examines the decoupled conditions that affect the solution optimality to this problem. It proposes an effective model and solution method. Based on the look-ahead technique, it finds the number of time intervals to guarantee the solution optimality. Next, an efficient technique for finding the optimal solution via the interior point methods is described. Test cases, which include dispatching six units over 5 time intervals on the IEEE 30 test system with line flows and ramp constraints are presented. Results indicate that the computational effort as measured by iteration counts or execution time varies only modestly with the problem size.

  8. Maintenance Approaches for Different Production Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungani, Dzivhuluwani Simon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various production methods are used in industry to manufacture or produce a variety of products needed by industry and consumers. The nature of a product determines which production method is most suitable or cost-effective. A continuous process is typically used to produce large volumes of liquids or gases. Batch processing is often used for small volumes, such as pharmaceutical products. This paper discusses a research project to determine the relationship between maintenance approaches and production methods. A survey was done to determine to what extent three maintenance approaches reliability-centred maintenance (RCM, total productive maintenance (TPM, and business-centred maintenance (BCM are used for three different processing methods (continuous process, batch process, and a production line method.

  9. The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane J. Baele

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.

  10. Systematic approach to modelling in economic systems information Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Gorbachev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the systematic approach to developing a system of combined models of discrete processes. Mathematical basis for constructing a model of information Petri nets.

  11. Tax Compliance Models: From Economic to Behavioral Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociological and psychological factors which shape compliance (i.e., attitudes, beliefs, norms, perceptions, motivations. Therefore, the researchers have considered examining taxpayers’ inner motivations, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes in order to accurately predict taxpayers’ behavior. As a response to their quest, behavioral models of tax compliance have emerged. Among the sociological and psychological factors which shape tax compliance, the ‘slippery slope’ framework singles out trust in authorities and the perception of the power of authorities. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of the reasons for which there is a need for a tax compliance model which incorporates both economic and behavioral features and why governments and tax authorities should consider these models when designing fiscal policies.

  12. A Behavioral Economic Approach to Assessing Demand for Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) complet...

  13. Lunar COTS: An Economical and Sustainable Approach to Reaching Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar; Lepsch, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The NASA COTS (Commercial Orbital Transportation Services) Program was a very successful program that developed and demonstrated cost-effective development and acquisition of commercial cargo transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS). The COTS acquisition strategy utilized a newer model than normally accepted in traditional procurement practices. This new model used Space Act Agreements where NASA entered into partnerships with industry to jointly share cost, development and operational risks to demonstrate new capabilities for mutual benefit. This model proved to be very beneficial to both NASA and its industry partners as NASA saved significantly in development and operational costs while industry partners successfully expanded their market share of the global launch transportation business. The authors, who contributed to the development of the COTS model, would like to extend this model to a lunar commercial services program that will push development of technologies and capabilities that will serve a Mars architecture and lead to an economical and sustainable pathway to transporting humans to Mars. Over the past few decades, several architectures for the Moon and Mars have been proposed and studied but ultimately halted or not even started due to the projected costs significantly exceeding NASA's budgets. Therefore a new strategy is needed that will fit within NASA's projected budgets and takes advantage of the US commercial industry along with its creative and entrepreneurial attributes. The authors propose a new COTS-like program to enter into partnerships with industry to demonstrate cost-effective, cis-lunar commercial services, such as lunar transportation, lunar ISRU operations, and cis-lunar propellant depots that can enable an economical and sustainable Mars architecture. Similar to the original COTS program, the goals of the proposed program, being notionally referred to as Lunar Commercial Orbital Transfer Services (LCOTS

  14. A Novel EP Approach for Power Economic Dispatch with Valve-Point Effects and Multiple Fuel Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Manoharan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to economic dispatch problems with valve point effects and multiple fuel options using a hybrid evolutionary programming method. Determination of global optimum solution for the practical economic dispatch problem having non smooth cost functions is difficult by using conventional mathematical approaches. Hence several evolutionary algorithm methods were proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, EP-LMO (Evolutionary Programming with Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization technique is proposed to solve economic dispatch problems with valve point effects and multiple fuel options. The EP-LMO is developed in such a way that a simple evolutionary programming (EP is applied as a base level search to find the direction of the optimal global region. And Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization (LMO method is used as a fine tuning to determine the optimal solution. To illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach, two bench mark problems are considered. First test problem considers multiple fuel options and next problem addresses both valve-point effects and multi-fuel options. To validate the obtained results, the proposed method is compared with the results of conventional numerical methods, Modified Hop-field Neural network, Evolutionary Programming approaches, Modified PSO, Improved PSO and Improved Genetic Algorithm with multiplier updating (IGA_MUmethod.

  15. The Direct Method and the Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽葵

    2014-01-01

    The Direct Method and the Communicative Approach are two different kinds of methods in teaching foreign languages. There are obvious advantages in using the Direct Method. However,people found a number of shortcomings in this method. It is not easy to apply after the first stages of language learning when ideas and concepts become more abstract and complicated. This method assumes that adults can learn a second language the same way that children learn their first language. However,more attention should be paid to the differences between these two groups of people.Obviously,the Communicative Approach contributes a lot to the foreign language teaching. But it is certain that it’s not a perfect teaching system. There are quite a few questions needing resolutions.Developing a methodology involves the synthesis of theory and practice into a program that works. It generally means drawing from several methods and approaches in order to create an integrated curriculum that will meet the needs of the situation and students. Integrative and / or instrumental goals,the particular concepts being taught,learning and teaching preferences,cultural factors,and age and competency levels of students are all important considerations.

  16. Wheat flour based propionic acid fermentation: an economic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagliwal, Lalit D; Survase, Shrikant A; Singhal, Rekha S; Granström, Tom

    2013-02-01

    A process for the fermentative production of propionic acid from whole wheat flour using starch and gluten as nutrients is presented. Hydrolysis of wheat flour starch using amylases was optimized. A batch fermentation of hydrolysate supplemented with various nitrogen sources using Propionibacterium acidipropionici NRRL B 3569 was performed. The maximum production of 48.61, 9.40, and 11.06 g of propionic acid, acetic acid and succinic acid, respectively, was found with wheat flour hydrolysate equivalent to 90 g/l glucose and supplemented with 15 g/l yeast extract. Further, replacement of yeast extract with wheat gluten hydrolysate showed utilization of gluten hydrolysate without compromising the yields and also improving the economics of the process. The process so developed could be useful for production of animal feed from whole wheat with in situ production of preservatives, and also suggest utilization of sprouted or germinated wheat for the production of organic acids. PMID:23357590

  17. A behavioral economic approach to assessing demand for marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  18. A Tripartite Approach to Social and Economic Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Somavía

    2002-01-01

    Reflecting on globalization and civil society's role post-September 11th, Juan Somavía argues that a new globalization can be shaped that will reduce poverty following the policy approach of 'decent work for all'. Development (2002) 45, 17–20. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110342

  19. Permutation statistical methods an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Kenneth J; Johnston, Janis E

    2016-01-01

    This research monograph provides a synthesis of a number of statistical tests and measures, which, at first consideration, appear disjoint and unrelated. Numerous comparisons of permutation and classical statistical methods are presented, and the two methods are compared via probability values and, where appropriate, measures of effect size. Permutation statistical methods, compared to classical statistical methods, do not rely on theoretical distributions, avoid the usual assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance, and depend only on the data at hand. This text takes a unique approach to explaining statistics by integrating a large variety of statistical methods, and establishing the rigor of a topic that to many may seem to be a nascent field in statistics. This topic is new in that it took modern computing power to make permutation methods available to people working in the mainstream of research. This research monograph addresses a statistically-informed audience, and can also easily serve as a ...

  20. Economic-mathematical methods and models under uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Aliyev, A G

    2013-01-01

    Brief Information on Finite-Dimensional Vector Space and its Application in EconomicsBases of Piecewise-Linear Economic-Mathematical Models with Regard to Influence of Unaccounted Factors in Finite-Dimensional Vector SpacePiecewise Linear Economic-Mathematical Models with Regard to Unaccounted Factors Influence in Three-Dimensional Vector SpacePiecewise-Linear Economic-Mathematical Models with Regard to Unaccounted Factors Influence on a PlaneBases of Software for Computer Simulation and Multivariant Prediction of Economic Even at Uncertainty Conditions on the Base of N-Comp

  1. Foundations and social economy: conceptual approaches and socio-economic relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rey García; Luis Ignacio Álvarez González

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical debate about the nature of charitable foundations has traditionally become polarized around two distinct conceptual approaches: the non-profit or third sector approach, versus the social economy approach. This research tries to find a common ground between these two approaches, and to highlight the specificities of the foundation as an organizational formula, supporting its current socio-economic relevance with latest quantitative data on the contemporary Spanish foundation sector...

  2. EVOLUTION OF THE PLACE ATTACHMENT: AN ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar J. Sánchez Carrera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite relatively cheap mobility and intensive globalization processes, the place attachment remains an important part the human existence (Lewicka, 2010:226, . Our aim is to understand the evolution of the place attachment. For this purpose we apply evolutionary game theory with the replicator dynamics and we follow the literature on the identity economics. A novelty which Akerlof i Kranton (2000 introduce is that an individual may choose an activity opposite to her identity in order to maximize her own utility. In other words, the choice of identity and activities is separated. Pavlinović (2012 develops a basic evolutionary game-theory model of spatial identity where agents can only act in line with their own identity. On the contrary, Akerlof i Kranton (2000 introduce the assumption that an individual may choose an activity opposite to her. Thus, we modify the model in Pavlinović (2012 and consider the choice of identity and action separately. We explore if this modification significantly affects the results.

  3. Innovative development of universities: organizational and economic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the innovative activity of universities in Russia is always accompanied by the organizational changes carried out in the framework of the concept of stage-by-stage approach – a combination of natural and subjectively rational principle and based on intra-organizational integration of all subjects of University ethos for joint decisions in the field of organizational change. The authors analyze the mission transformation of universities determined by formation of information society which now is including not only development of the human capital, but also creation of knowledge as the competitive product possessing the essential production and social importance.

  4. A modified differential evolution approach for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic economic dispatch (DED) plays an important role in power system operation, which is a complicated non-linear constrained optimization problem. It has nonsmooth and nonconvex characteristic when generation unit valve-point effects are taken into account. This paper proposes a modified differential evolution approach (MDE) to solve DED problem with valve-point effects. In the proposed MDE method, feasibility-based selection comparison techniques and heuristic search rules are devised to handle constraints effectively. In contrast to the penalty function method, the constraints-handling method does not require penalty factors or any extra parameters and can guide the population to the feasible region quickly. Especially, it can be satisfied equality constraints of DED problem precisely. Moreover, the effects of two crucial parameters on the performance of the MDE for DED problem are studied as well. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated for application example and the test results are compared with those of other methods reported in literature. It is shown that the proposed method is capable of yielding higher quality solutions

  5. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this and previous efforts ECON has provided economic assessment of a fusion research program. This phase of study focused on two tasks, the first concerned with the economics of fusion in an economy that relies heavily upon synthetic fuels, and the second concerned with the overall economic effects of pursuing soft energy technologies instead of hard technologies. This report is organized in two parts, the first entitled An Economic Analysis of Coproduction of Fusion-Electric Energy and Other Products, and the second entitled Arguments Associated with the Choice of Potential Energy Futures

  6. On measuring and explaining neighbourhood success: A behavioural economic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, C.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study combines qualitative and quantitative research methods to explain which factors contribute to a problem-free or problematic functioning of neighbourhoods in general and especially of Dutch neighbourhoods that were built in the first years after World War II. An important part of the book

  7. Method for including operation and maintenance costs in the economic analysis of active solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.D.

    1986-08-01

    For a developing technology such as solar energy, the costs for operation and maintenance (O and M) can be substantial. In the past, most economic analyses included these costs by simply assuming that an annual cost will be incurred that is proportional to the initial cost of the system. However, in assessing the economics of new systems proposed for further research and development, such a simplification can obscure the issues. For example, when the typical method for including O and M costs in an economic analysis is used, the O and M costs associated with a newly developed, more reliable, and slightly more expensive controller will be assumed to increase - an obvious inconsistency. The method presented in this report replaces this simplistic approach with a representation of the O and M costs that explicitly accounts for the uncertainties and risks inherent in the operation of any equipment. A detailed description of the data inputs required by the method is included as well as a summary of data sources and an example of the method as applied to an active solar heating system.

  8. Perturbation approach applied to modal diffraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Joerg; Hehl, Karl

    2011-05-01

    Eigenvalue computation is an important part of many modal diffraction methods, including the rigorous coupled wave approach (RCWA) and the Chandezon method. This procedure is known to be computationally intensive, accounting for a large proportion of the overall run time. However, in many cases, eigenvalue information is already available from previous calculations. Some of the examples include adjacent slices in the RCWA, spectral- or angle-resolved scans in optical scatterometry and parameter derivatives in optimization. In this paper, we present a new technique that provides accurate and highly reliable solutions with significant improvements in computational time. The proposed method takes advantage of known eigensolution information and is based on perturbation method. PMID:21532698

  9. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  10. On measuring and explaining neighbourhood success: A behavioural economic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaanse, C.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study combines qualitative and quantitative research methods to explain which factors contribute to a problem-free or problematic functioning of neighbourhoods in general and especially of Dutch neighbourhoods that were built in the first years after World War II. An important part of the book is about the development of measuring instruments. Special attention is given to the development of a risk scale that offers researchers and policymakers the opportunity to distinguish on a metric ...

  11. Economic-environmental energy and reserve scheduling of smart distribution systems: A multiobjective mathematical programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Environmental/economical scheduling of energy and reserve. • Simultaneous participation of loads in both energy and reserve scheduling. • Aggregate wind generation and demand uncertainties in a stochastic model. • Stochastic scheduling of energy and reserve in a distribution system. • Demand response providers’ participation in energy and reserve scheduling. - Abstract: In this paper a stochastic multi-objective economical/environmental operational scheduling method is proposed to schedule energy and reserve in a smart distribution system with high penetration of wind generation. The proposed multi-objective framework, based on augmented ε-constraint method, is used to minimize the total operational costs and emissions and to generate Pareto-optimal solutions for the energy and reserve scheduling problem. Moreover, fuzzy decision making process is employed to extract one of the Pareto-optimal solutions as the best compromise non-dominated solution. The wind power and demand forecast errors are considered in this approach and the reserve can be furnished by the main grid as well as distributed generators and responsive loads. The consumers participate in both energy and reserve markets using various demand response programs. In order to facilitate small and medium loads participation in demand response programs, a Demand Response Provider (DRP) aggregates offers for load reduction. In order to solve the proposed optimization model, the Benders decomposition technique is used to convert the large scale mixed integer non-linear problem into mixed-integer linear programming and non-linear programming problems. The effectiveness of the proposed scheduling approach is verified on a 41-bus distribution test system over a 24-h period

  12. Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.

  13. Economic Approaches to Estimating Benefits of Regulations Affecting Addictive Goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Jessup, Amber I; Kenkel, Donald S; Starr, Martha A

    2016-05-01

    The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit-cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit-cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers' observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences. Focusing on the important case of tobacco products, the paper describes four possible approaches for estimating benefits when consumers' preferences may not be aligned with their behavior, and identifies one as having the best feasibility for use in applied benefit-cost analyses in the near term. PMID:27102854

  14. Economic Approaches to Estimating Benefits of Regulations Affecting Addictive Goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Jessup, Amber I; Kenkel, Donald S; Starr, Martha A

    2016-05-01

    The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit-cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit-cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers' observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences. Focusing on the important case of tobacco products, the paper describes four possible approaches for estimating benefits when consumers' preferences may not be aligned with their behavior, and identifies one as having the best feasibility for use in applied benefit-cost analyses in the near term.

  15. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic approaches to vasovagal syncope in children and adolescents in China: a health economic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-wen; CHEN Li; DU Jun-bao; YANG Yuan-yuan; JIN Hong-fang

    2010-01-01

    Background Syncope is a common clinical problem with multiple causes. Vasovagal syncope (WS) is by far the most frequent cause of syncope in children and adolescents. The traditional diagnostic approach to VVS of children and adolescents is based on a series of tests to exclude all other causes, which is complex and time and medical resource consuming. Attempts have been made to develop a new cost-effective diagnostic approach to avoid these problems. This study aimed to compare the economic effectiveness and diagnostic value of the traditional diagnostic approach to VVS of children with a new diagnostic approach.Methods One hundred and eighteen children diagnosed as VVS were divided into two groups according to the different diagnostic approaches. The diagnostic value of the two diagnostic approaches was then analyzed. Meanwhile, the costs of hospitalization, diagnostic testing and hospital stay were determined. Data were evaluated by the cost-minimization analysis.Results The diagnostic value of the new diagnostic approach was similar to that of the traditional diagnostic approach (56.57% vs. 53.91%, P=0.697). However, the cost of hospitalization per patient by the new diagnostic approach was (1507.08±144.63) Yuan (RMB) which was less than that of the traditional diagnostic approach (2603.64±P08.19) Yuan.The costs of diagnostic tests per patient by the new diagnostic approach was (1256.04±109.14) Yuan and by the traditional approach (2175.22±153.32) Yuan.Conclusion Compared to the traditional diagnostic approach to diagnose VVS in children and adolescents, the new diagnostic approach is of a good economic value, and it should be popularized in clinical practice.

  17. A New Approach of Investment for the Future Economic Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin OPREANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The investment takes the form of sums of money spent for the acquisition of capital goods, changes in business inventories, and the purchases of new residential housing that are not currently consumed, but will be used in the future for the growth of the wealth. The work covered by this study aims to identify the model that presents, in the best possible way, the method of investment’s calculation and to determine the factors of influence. In the first part, the investment is analyzed as a linear function dependent on the interest rate; and the second part implies a new model for determining long-term investments.

  18. An effortless hybrid method to solve economic load dispatch problem in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We proposed a fast method to get feasible solution and avoid futile search. → The method dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. → Applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 unit. → Superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time is remarkable. - Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach and coding scheme for solving economic dispatch problems (ED) in power systems through an effortless hybrid method (EHM). This novel coding scheme can effectively prevent futile searching and also prevents obtaining infeasible solutions through the application of stochastic search methods, consequently dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. The dominant constraint of an economic dispatch problem is power balance. The operational constraints, such as generation limitations, ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones (POZ), network loss are considered for practical operation. Firstly, in the EHM procedure, the output of generator is obtained with a lambda iteration method and without considering POZ and later in a genetic based algorithm this constraint is satisfied. To demonstrate its efficiency, feasibility and fastness, the EHM algorithm was applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 units. The simulation results obtained from the EHM were compared to those achieved from previous literature in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Results reveal that the superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time.

  19. Organizational and economic bases of logistic approach usage in the management of national education system

    OpenAIRE

    Eu.V. Mishenin; I.I. Koblianska

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The article highlights the lack of effectiveness of existing system of education management in Ukraine from its basic function performance – to satisfy the needs of social and economic system of human resources, according to the required quantity, quality, educational culture, right place and time with the lowest public costs. The results of the analysis. The article is focused on the forming of organizational and economic bases of the use of logistic approach in th...

  20. Self-Employment and Economic Performance: A Geographically Weighted Regression Approach for European Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Pijnenburg, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The self-employment rate includes entrepreneurs out of opportunity and entrepreneurs out of necessity. While the effect of opportunity entrepreneurs on economic development should be positive, there should be no or a negative effect of necessity entrepreneurship. We use a geographically weighted regression (GWR) approach to analyze whether the effect of self-employment on economic development is heterogeneous across European NUTS-2 regions. We find that regions having a significant positive e...

  1. Understanding the Economics of Electronic Identity: Theoretical Approaches and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hoikkanen, Anssi; Bacigalupo, Margherita; Lusoli, Wainer; Maghiros, Ioannis; Nikolov, Stavri

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the economics of electronic identity (eIdentity) from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Personal identity data are becoming increasingly important in online transactions, and they have never been monetised to the extent they are today. Consequently, there is a need for an improved understanding of the economic externalities resulting from the electronic use of identities in transactions. In this context, we distinguish four main theoretical approaches for under...

  2. Integrated Approach To The Analysis Of The Quality Of Socio-Economic Regional Development Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Michailovich Kachalov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of the methods of the analysis and improvement of quality of governance the socio-economic systems application, based conceptual provisions of the system theory of economics, multilevel stratification of the economic space and the operational economical risk management theory are considered. For mesoeconomics, the types of system resources of the economy are defined. Also, it is analyses the influence on the quality of governance socio-economic region development the disparity of different types of system economical resources. Potential possibilities of the improvement of quality of governance due to thinner stratification of economical space and improvement the interaction parameters of the main actors of regional economic space are revealed. Leaning on the operational theory of risk management, ways of justification of administrative, strategic decisions by identification of the relevant economic risk factors and on the basis of received information development the program of anti-risk measures are offered. The methodical solutions promoting successful introduction of considered tools in practice of regional government are proposed.

  3. Economics of Internet of Things (IoT): An Information Market Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Niyato, D.; Lu, X.; Wang, P.; Kim, D I; Han, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Internet of things (IoT) has been proposed to be a new paradigm of connecting devices and providing services to various applications, e.g., transportation, energy, smart city, and healthcare. In this paper, we focus on an important issue, i.e., economics of IoT, that can have a great impact to the success of IoT applications. In particular, we adopt and present the information economics approach with its applications in IoT. We first review existing economic models developed for IoT services....

  4. John Dewey’s theory of democracy and its links with the heterodox approach to economics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Hermann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available John Dewey is one of the most significant figures in pragmatist philosophy, an approach which he systematically applied to the study of economic, social and cultural structure. In our work, we will focus on the main aspects of Dewey’s approach to the study of aspects that make up “human nature” and how do they interact with the characteristics of the cultural context. We will illustrate how the concepts elaborated by Dewey can contribute to the heterodox analysis of a host of economic and social issues. Dewey highlights the crucial role of public policies for facilitating the development of volunteer associations in all areas of the social structure. In the analysis of these aspects, Dewey’s key contribution lies in removing the concepts of democracy and participation from the limbo of abstraction in which they tended to be confined by previous approaches and connecting them to the evolution of economic and social forms.

  5. Economic methods for the utilisation of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałęzia Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several ways of using logging residues, and the two most common ones in the State Forests are wood chip production for energy purposes by mobile machinery and crushing by tractor-powered crushers. In this research, an economy-based approach was used to compare these methods and assess whether chip production is superior to crushing for clearing a felling area. The average revenues from the sale of wood biomass in the form of wood chips and the average costs of crushing in the Pomorze Forest District were analysed for the period from January 2012 until June 2014. Both revenues and costs (such as fuel, operator’s wage, piling costs, depreciation, insurance and garaging costs were extracted from the State Forests’ database using data-mining software.

  6. Efficient integration method for fictitious domain approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duczek, Sascha; Gabbert, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    In the current article, we present an efficient and accurate numerical method for the integration of the system matrices in fictitious domain approaches such as the finite cell method (FCM). In the framework of the FCM, the physical domain is embedded in a geometrically larger domain of simple shape which is discretized using a regular Cartesian grid of cells. Therefore, a spacetree-based adaptive quadrature technique is normally deployed to resolve the geometry of the structure. Depending on the complexity of the structure under investigation this method accounts for most of the computational effort. To reduce the computational costs for computing the system matrices an efficient quadrature scheme based on the divergence theorem (Gauß-Ostrogradsky theorem) is proposed. Using this theorem the dimension of the integral is reduced by one, i.e. instead of solving the integral for the whole domain only its contour needs to be considered. In the current paper, we present the general principles of the integration method and its implementation. The results to several two-dimensional benchmark problems highlight its properties. The efficiency of the proposed method is compared to conventional spacetree-based integration techniques.

  7. Economic evaluation of neutral streams and of river construction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are no current markets for the management and restoration of natural streams. However, economic elements tend to play an increasingly important role when it comes to decisions about river management activities. Although preference structures of market consumers can be analyzed using prices, there are several short-comings in using this technique for goods with no or an insufficient market. This is especially true for 'natural streams'. The non-existence of market prices for goods or their parts does not mean that they do not have a value or that there is no preference structure for them. After an introductory discussion of ethical and value issues, specific methods for evaluating and analyzing the willingness-to-pay for natural streams and theirs restoration are developed further. Using direct interview techniques, locals in three different watersheds in Upper Austria are ask for their preferences and social pricing of natural streams and river management options. The areas the interviews were conducted in, represent a watershed dominated by intensive agricultural and residential uses, another watershed typical for a rural community and a third representing a watershed of a relatively pristine river of the Northern Alpine limestone range mainly used by forestry and tourism. Demographic data, eco-morphological stream characteristics and preferences of the interviewed about elements of a natural stream, user and non-user values were linked and analyzed. The results of a personal interviewing technique conducted in these watersheds showed to be capable to capture the preference structure in small watersheds and may offer some help for decision-making concerning river management issues. (author)

  8. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    demands to river basins to create hydro-economic zones that respect as much as possible both political and hydrologic integrity in different models. - To minimize pre-processing of data and add increased flexibility to modeling water resources and uses, it is recommended that water withdrawal demands be modeled, not consumptive requirements even though this makes the IAM more complex. - IAMs must consider changes in water availability for irrigation under climate change; ignoring them is more inaccurate than ignoring yield changes in crops under climate change. - Determining water availability and cost in river basins must include modeling streamflows, reservoirs and their operations, and ground water and its interaction with surface water. - Scale issues are important. The results from condensing demands and supplies in a large complex river basin to one node can be misleading for all uses under low flow conditions and instream flow uses under all conditions. Monthly is generally the most accurate scale for modeling river flows and demands. Challenges remain in integrating hydrologic units with political boundaries but the gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with political boundaries. - Using minimal reservoir cost data, it is possible to use basin topography to estimate reservoir storage costs. - Reservoir evaporation must be considered when assessing the usable water in a watershed. Several methods are available to estimate the relationship between aggregated storage surface area and storage volume. - For existing or future IAMs that can not use the appropriate aggregation for water, a water preprocessor may be required due the finer scale of hydrologic impacts.

  9. RESEARCH: An Ecoregional Approach to the Economic Valuation of Land- and Water-Based Recreation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat; Bergstrom; Teasley; Bowker; Cordell

    1998-01-01

    / This paper describes a framework for estimating the economic value of outdoor recreation across different ecoregions. Ten ecoregions in the continental United States were defined based on similarly functioning ecosystem characters. The individual travel cost method was employed to estimate recreation demand functions for activities such as motor boating and waterskiing, developed and primitive camping, coldwater fishing, sightseeing and pleasure driving, and big game hunting for each ecoregion. While our ecoregional approach differs conceptually from previous work, our results appear consistent with the previous travel cost method valuation studies.KEY WORDS: Recreation; Ecoregion; Travel cost method; Truncated Poisson model PMID:9419285

  10. Thermodynamic laws, economic methods and the productive power of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Ayres, Robert U.; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Energy plays only a minor role in orthodox theories of economic growth, because standard economic equilibrium conditions say that the output elasticity of a production factor, which measures the factor's productive power, is equal to the factor's share in total factor cost. Having commanded only a tiny cost share of about 5 percent so far, energy is often neglected altogether. On the other hand, energy conversion in the machines of the capital stock has been the basis of industrial growth. How can the physically obvious economic importance of energy be reconciled with the conditions for economic equilibrium, which result from the maximization of profit or overall welfare? We show that these equilibrium conditions no longer yield the equality of cost shares and output elasticities, if the optimization calculus takes technological constraints on the combinations of capital, labor, and energy into account. New econometric analyses of economic growth in Germany, Japan, and the USA yield output elasticities that are for energy much larger and for labor much smaller than their cost shares. Social consequences are discussed.

  11. Influence of Course Delivery Method and Proctoring on Performance in Introductory Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, Cheryl J.

    2011-01-01

    This work was published in the Review of Agricultural Economics. See Wachenheim, C.J. 2009. Final Exam Scores in Introductory Economics Courses: Effect of Course Delivery Method and Proctoring. Review of Agricultural Economics 31(3), pp. 640-652.

  12. Frontiers in economic research on petroleum allocation using mathematical programming methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a state of the art of operations research techniques applied in petroleum allocation, namely mathematical programming methods, with principal attention directed toward linear programming and nonlinear programming (including quadratic programming). Contributions to the economics of petroleum allocation are discussed for international trade, industrial organization, regional/macro economics, public finance and natural resource/environmental economics

  13. Approach and development strategy for an agent-based model of economic confidence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprigg, James A.; Pryor, Richard J.; Jorgensen, Craig Reed

    2004-08-01

    We are extending the existing features of Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool, and introducing new features to simulate the role of confidence in economic activity. The new model is built from a collection of autonomous agents that represent households, firms, and other relevant entities like financial exchanges and governmental authorities. We simultaneously model several interrelated markets, including those for labor, products, stocks, and bonds. We also model economic tradeoffs, such as decisions of households and firms regarding spending, savings, and investment. In this paper, we review some of the basic principles and model components and describe our approach and development strategy for emulating consumer, investor, and business confidence. The model of confidence is explored within the context of economic disruptions, such as those resulting from disasters or terrorist events.

  14. The Analysis of Theoretical Approaches to Identification of Factors of Regional Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosyrieva Olena V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the investigation of current approaches to identification of factors of economic growth in the regions. The theory of new economic geography based on works and studies of P. Krugman has been considered. There highlighted the key issues of regional economic growth requiring an in-depth studying and consideration in the elaboration of strategies for sustainable development of the regions. The views of leading domestic and foreign scholars as well as the OECD experts, the World Bank, the National Statistics Service of the United Kingdom and others on the main drivers of economic growth have been analyzed. On the basis of the study the factors of regional economic growth most commonly encountered in theory and practice have been generalized. It is proved that scientists and analysts most often classify as the factors of regional economic growth the following ones: those characterizing human potential, scientific-technical and innovative activity, management and institutional capacity. The factors less frequently correlated by specialists and scientists with the regional economic growth include: those characterizing the environment, business and sociopolitical factors, which is associated with difficulty of their quantification, but in any case does not diminish their importance.

  15. A simple approach to global optimal feedback solutions : with emphasize on certain management problems in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Berge, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic optimization problems covers a great class of problems in management science and technology. The classical problem formulations being the variational approach as in classical mechanics, like Hamilton's principle and the optimal control theory in economics as the Pontryagin's maximum principle. In this account we start with a general problem formulation as an alternative to an approach based on solving differential equations. We focus on creating an analytical environment aimed at deri...

  16. Comparing Conventional Bank Credit Vis A Vis Shariah Bank Musharakah: Experimental Economic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Abduh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Bank of Indonesia with dual banking system – i.e Shariah and Conventional Bank – keep on developing system that considered as an answer to generate the national economic growth. One of the banking activities that emphasized by the Central Bank of Indonesia is fund distribution through either conventional bank credit or shariah bank fi nancing. Having the Experimental Economic Approach based on Induced Value Theory and employing ANOVA, this paper found that shariah bank musharakah fi nancing system would come up with higher profi t opportunity compare to conventional credit system. One main reason is that musharakah fi nancing in shariah bank applies profi t and lost sharing (PLS scheme so that will not be a burden to the customer when he fi nd low profi t.Keywords: Credit Loan, Musharakah Financing, Induced Value Theory, Experimental Economic Approach, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.

  17. Testing for asymmetry in economic time series using bootstrap methods

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Lupi; Patrizia Ordine

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we show that phase-scrambling bootstrap offers a natural framework for asymmetry testing in economic time series. A comparison with other bootstrap schemes is also sketched. A Monte Carlo analysis is carried out to evaluate the size and power properties of the phase-scrambling bootstrap-based test.

  18. Disease specific methods for economic evaluations of breast cancer therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederix, G.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) are widely considered to be helpful tools for making informative decisions in a resource constrained environment. Since the introduction of economic evaluations in reimbursement submissions in Australia as a formal requirement in 1993, CEAs have become widespread w

  19. The Contribution of the Neo-Schumpeterian Approach to the Development of the Economic Theory: Emphasis on the Meso-Economic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu HERMAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show that there are alternative approaches to the economic theory, besides the well-known economic schools, Classicism, Neoclassicism and Keynesianism. The neoclassical principles allow a formalization – widely accepted by experts – that provide effective tools for measuring the effects of the economic activity. The economic science pays a special attention to the study of the economic agents’ behaviors, and to the economic results obtained by them through economic activity. Any human science uses principles and works with assumptions, and the neoclassical assumptions have generated efficient tools for quantifying the economic outcomes, and for accounting the economic growth. But these hypothesis, such as the assumption of economic agents’ rationality, allow a very limited understanding of the behaviors of economic agents within the markets. The recent invention of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance device, allowed the emrgence of a new scientific paradigm, the development of neurosciences. Researchers can observe at a high level of graphic detail various types of activities that occur in the human brain, and some economists have introduced in the study of the economic theory, for example, the assumption that the consumer is driven by emotions when purchasing quantities of goods and services. So, economists may look for additional theories to explain the behavior of the economic agents. An increasingly importance is given to the theoretical contributions built on the work of the economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter, who has an original economic approach based on his own principles. It is proposed to focus the attention on a mesoeconomic vision about the industry, to understand how resources are being allocated and reallocated between companies, and to study the economic processes of evolution, which are influenced by the emergence and dissemination of the innovations. It is supposed that the price is allocating the

  20. Assessing the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in Egypt : A Ricardian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Helmy M.; El-Marsafawy, Samia M.; Ouda, Samiha A.

    2007-01-01

    This study employed the Ricardian approach to measure the economic impacts of climate change on farm net revenue in Egypt. Farm net revenue were regressed against climate, soil, socioeconomic and hydrological variables to determine which factors influence the variability of farm net revenues. 900 households from 20 governorates were interviewed. The standard Ricardian model was applied, in...

  1. Efficiency at Faculties of Economics in the Czech Public Higher Education Institutions: Two Different Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flégl, Martin; Vltavská, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates research and teaching efficiency at faculties of economics in the public higher education institutions in the Czech Republic. Evaluation is provided in two periods between the years 2006-2010 and 2007-2011. For this evaluation the Data Envelopment Analysis and Index approach are used. Data Envelopment Analysis measures research…

  2. A Technical and Economic Optimization Approach to Exploring Offshore Renewable Energy Development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Kyle B.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Perkins, Casey J.; Oster, Matthew R.; Warwick, William M.; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2015-09-01

    The study focuses on developing a spatially explicit approach to optimize siting of ocean renewable energy in the context of important technical and economic criteria. Hawaii was chosen for a case study and development of the approach due to the complex nature of the energy climate there and DOE’s ongoing involvement to support marine spatial planning for the West Coast. Primary objectives of the study included 1) analyzing the political and economic context for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii, especially with respect to how inter-island transmission may affect the future of renewable energy development in Hawaii; 2) adapting and applying a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach that has been used to assess the technical suitability of offshore renewable energy technologies in Washington, Oregon, and California, to Hawaii’s offshore environment; and 3) develop a mathematical model for exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that seeks to optimize technical and economic suitability within the context of Hawaii’s existing energy policy and planning. The approach presented here represents an initial step toward one that simultaneously considers key factors (political, economic, and technical) that affect decision making with respect to energy policy and planning.

  3. Large-scale 3-D seismic surveys in Gulf of Mexico - economic approach to exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graebner, R.J.

    1987-05-01

    Three-dimensional seismic surveys, designed to meet exploration requirements, were conducted in 465 OCS blocks in the Gulf of Mexico, primarily in the deep-water Flexure trend. The geology is very complex, with both salt-induced structures and structures similar to the Rocky Mountain Overthrust belt. To avoid the prohibitive costs in collecting 3-D seismic data at a spatial sample rate required to image the wide range of dips, interpolation methods, based on pattern recognition techniques, were used with a relatively sparsely sampled data collection grid. Within limits, the method is capable of interpolating both crossing and aliased seismic events. The economic impact of this approach is significant because it essentially reduces the cost of 3-D acquisition to the level normally associated with detailed 2-D surveying. However, the familiar benefits of 3-D migration are retained. Using interactive interpretation systems, the results are presented as a comprehensive series of time and event amplitude maps for structural and preliminary stratigraphic mapping. Regional amplitude maps illustrate a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and other geologic phenomena. In addition to conventional structural mapping, the 3-D data may be used to assist in understanding the salt growth history, especially its effect on sedimentation and hydrocarbon potential. It may provide a significant link between regional geology work and the detailed analysis required to develop drillable prospects.

  4. Scientific and methodical approaches to analysis of enterprise development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrechina Iryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern state of the Ukrainian economy urge enterprises to search for new possibilities of their development, which makes the study subject topical. The article systemises existing approaches to analysis of the potential of enterprise development and marks out two main scientific approaches: first is directed at analysis of prospects of self-development of the economic system; the second – at analysis of probability of possibilities of growth. In order to increase the quality of the process of formation of methods of analysis of potential of enterprise development, the article offers an organisation model of methods and characterises its main elements. It develops methods of analysis, in the basis of which there are indicators of potentialogical sustainability. Scientific novelty of the obtained results lies in a possibility of identification of main directions of enterprise development with the use of the enterprise development potential ration: self-development or probability of augmenting opportunities, which is traced through interconnection of resources and profit.

  5. An economic analysis of a commercial approach to the design and fabrication of a space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putney, Z.; Been, J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses a commercial approach to the design and fabrication of an economical space power system. With the advent of the space shuttle, steps can be taken to back away from the presently used space qualified approach in order to reduce cost of space hardware by incorporating, where possible, commercial design, fabrication, and quality assurance methods. Cost reductions are projected through the conceptual design of a 2 kW space power system built with the capability for having serviceability. The approach to system costing that has been used takes into account both the constraints of operation in space and commercial production engineering approaches. The cost of this power system reflects a variety of cost/benefit tradeoffs that would reduce system cost as a function of system reliability requirements, complexity, and the impact of rigid specifications. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication and reliability and quality assurance cost estimates are detailed.

  6. Getting Patents & Economic Data to Speak to Each Other: An ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ Approach for Joint Analyses of Patenting & Economic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lybbert, Travis J.; Nikolas J. Zolas

    2012-01-01

    International technological diffusion is a key determinant of cross-country differences in economic performance. While patents can be a useful proxy for innovation and technological change and diffusion, fully exploiting patent data for such economic analyses requires patents to be tied to measures of economic activity. In this paper, we describe and explore a new algorithmic approach to constructing concordances between the International Patent Classification (IPC) system that organizes pate...

  7. A novel approach for Milne's phase-amplitude method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbotin, I.; Shu, D.; Côté, R.

    2016-05-01

    We have uncovered a linear equation for the envelope function--fully equivalent with the original non-linear equation of Milne's--and have implemented a highly accurate and efficient numerical method for computing the envelope and the associated phase. Consequently, we obtain a high precision parametrization of the wavefunction, within a very economical approach. The key ingredients are: (i) straightforward optimization for smoothness, and (ii) Chebyshev polynomials as the workhorse for solving integro/differential equations. The latter also give a built-in interpolation, and allow for developing numerical tools that are robust, accurate, and convenient. Partial support from the US Army Research Office (Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0213), and from NSF (Grant No. PHY-1415560).

  8. Fuzzy logic approach to SWOT analysis for economics tasks and example of its computer realization

    OpenAIRE

    Chernov, Vladimir; Oleksandr DOROKHOV; Liudmyla DOROKHOVA

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the widely used classic method of analysis, forecasting and decision-making in the various economic problems, called SWOT analysis. As known, it is a qualitative comparison of multicriteria degree of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat for different kinds of risks, forecasting the development in the markets, status and prospects of development of enterprises, regions and economic sectors, territorials etc. It can also be successfully applied to the eva...

  9. Economic and Financial Diagnosis - Fundamental Method in Management Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the „financial analysis - financial diagnosis phrase is to characterize in a more relevant and more conservative manner the company situation, in order to develop, based on optimal decisions for the establishment and use of resources” . Analysis of company's financial position at a time, usually at the end of the year, permits to assess the size and development of heritage, and making judgments on how to achieve financial balance. In this paper an analysis is made based on diagnostic key economic and financial indicators, calculated using information from the balance sheet and profit and loss account in the period 2006-2011 to Navrom Company Galati, to can measurable effects of the economic crisis on the company.

  10. Raw Material Inventory Analysis with Economic Order Quantity Method

    OpenAIRE

    Muis, Mahlia

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the economic order quantity (EOQ), safety stock, reorder point, and the total cost of raw material inventory (paper) at Harian Tribun Timur Makassar. The data used in this study consisted of qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary data related to the supply of paper as the company???s critical raw material. Primary data were obtained through direct observation and interviews with various stakeholders. Secondary data obtained from document...

  11. Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.

    2011-08-10

    Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

  12. A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner

  13. The Best of Two Worlds: Between-Method Triangulation in Feminist Economic Research

    OpenAIRE

    Blin, Myriam; Siegman, Karin Astrid

    2006-01-01

    Assumptions applied in Orthodox Economic methods are criticised for being an inadequate depiction of reality. This is particularly the case from the perspective of Feminist Economics. Gender biases are reflected in the quantitative data sources and methods commonly applied for economic research. These include male biases in statistical data, a focus on outcomes rather than processes as well as the neglect of reproductive work and its interaction with market work. To overcome these problems...

  14. THE BEST OF TWO WORLDS: BETWEEN-METHOD TRIANGULATION IN FEMINIST ECONOMICS RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Astrid Siegmann; Myriam Blin

    2006-01-01

    Assumptions applied in Orthodox Economic methods are criticised for being an inadequate depiction of reality. This is particularly the case from the perspective of Feminist Economics. Gender biases are reflected in the quantitative data sources and methods commonly applied for economic research. These include male biases in statistical data, a focus on outcomes rather than processes as well as the neglect of reproductive work and its interaction with market work. To overcome these problems, t...

  15. TAX COMPOSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. A PANEL-MODEL APPROACH FOR EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURA PETRU-OVIDIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of tax composition on economic growth, based on a panel-model approach. The dataset includes six East-European countries and covers the period 1995-2012. Specifically, the study explores the relative impact of different components of tax revenue (direct and indirect tax revenue, as percentage of total tax revenue on economic growth. The paper adds marginally to the empirical literature, showing how the two types of tax revenue influence economic growth in Eastern Europe, under an extended set of economic and sociopolitical control variables. The most important empirical output, for the 6 investigated East-European countries during 1995-2012, suggests that direct taxes are significant and negatively correlated with economic growth, while indirect taxes exert a positive influence on the dependent variable, though insignificant. As for the control variables, it seems that only freedom from corruption and political stability have a significant impact on economic growth. The study suggests that the design of tax systems in Eastern European countries is in accordance with the Commission’s priorities regarding its growth-friendliness. As for policy implications, governments should continue shifting the tax burden away from labour on to tax bases linked to consumption, property, and combating pollution, with potential positive effects both for growth and for fighting against tax evasion.

  16. New approaches to social and economic research on schistosomiasis in TDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Vlassoff

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new approaches to social and economic research being developed by the Social and Economic Research component of the Special Programme for Research and Trainning in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization. One of these is a study to acess the possibility of identifying high risk communities for urinary schistosomiasis through a "mailed"questionaire approach distributed through an existing administrative system, thereby eliminating the need for face-to-face interviews by the research or disease control team. This approach, developed by the Swiss Tropical Institute in Ifakara, Tanzania, i s currently being tested in seven other African countries. The paper also describes a change of emphasis of economic research on schistosomiasis, focusing on the intra-household effects of the disease on rural households, rather than, as previously done, studying the impact of the disease on the productivity of individual wage labourers. Other priorities involve the identification of epidemiological information neede for improoved decision-making regarding acceptable treatment strategies in endemic areas with limited financial capacity, as well as research on how the adverse effects of economic development projects can be alleviated.

  17. The Evaluation of Main Methods and Approaches in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏欣

    2008-01-01

    Language teaching has a long,fascinating,but rather tortuous history.(Stern,1984) For over a century,there have been.many methods and approaches in language teaching.This article is mainly focused on three methods and approaches:the Grammar-translation Method;the Direct Method and Audio-lingual Approach and the Com-municative Approach.First We will define"method"and"approach",and then we will focus on the main character-istics.advantages and limitations of each method or approach.

  18. The Review of Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞君

    2016-01-01

    the thesis focuses on the review on the definition and the features of all kinds of approaches and methods in language teaching mainly in⁃cluding the Grammar-Translation Method,the oral approach and situational language teaching,the audiolingual method,total physical response, and sums up the differences and similarities among different language teaching approaches and methods.

  19. New approaches to the design and economics of EHV transmission plant

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Brian

    1972-01-01

    New Approaches to the Design and Economics of EHV Transmission Plant examines the limitations of EHV transmission plant. Analysis is also covered in the book to correct these limitations. The concept behind EHV is that allowable transfer of electricity is related to the square of the voltage. Factors such as the expense of supplying a certain volume of electricity over a given distance and creations of power stations are examined. The book provides economic studies of alternative design policies based on estimation of costs and benefits of the design parameters. The text also focuses on the pr

  20. A classification-based approach to economic event detection in Dutch news text

    OpenAIRE

    Lefever, Els; Hoste, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    Breaking news on economic events such as stock splits or mergers and acquisitions has been shown to have a substantial impact on the financial markets. As it is important to be able to automatically identify events in news items accurately and in a timely manner, we present in this paper proof-of-concept experiments for a supervised machine learning approach to economic event detection in newswire text. For this purpose, we created a corpus of Dutch financial news articles in which 10 types o...

  1. Supply-side approaches to the economic valuation of coastal and marine habitat in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hoagland, P.

    2013-07-01

    The degradation of natural fish habitat in the ocean implies lost economic benefits. These value losses often are not measured or anticipated fully, and therefore they are mainly ignored in decisions to develop the coast for industrial or residential purposes. In such circumstances, the ocean habitat and its associated ecosystem are treated as if they are worthless. Measures of actual or potential economic values generated by fisheries in commercial markets can be used to assess a conservative (lower-bound) value of ocean habitat. With this information, one can begin to compare the values of coastal developments to the values of foregone ocean habitat in order to help understand whether development would be justified economically. In this paper, we focus on the economic value associated with the harvesting of commercial fish stocks as a relevant case for the Saudi Arabian portion of the Red Sea. We describe first the conceptual basis behind supply-side approaches to economic valuation. Next we review the literature on the use of these methods for valuing ocean habitat. We provide an example based on recent research assessing the bioeconomic status of the traditional fisheries of the Red Sea in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We estimate the economic value of ecosystem services provided by the KSA Red Sea coral reefs, finding that annual per-unit values supporting the traditional fisheries only are on the order of 7000/km2. Finally, we develop some recommendations for refining future applications of these methods to the Red Sea environment and for further research. © 2013 .

  2. Neuro-genetic hybrid approach for the solution of non-convex economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ED (Economic Dispatch) is non-convex constrained optimization problem, and is used for both on line and offline studies in power system operation. Conventionally, it is solved as convex problem using optimization techniques by approximating generator input/output characteristic. Curves of monotonically increasing nature thus resulting in an inaccurate dispatch. The GA (Genetic Algorithm) has been used for the solution of this problem owing to its inherent ability to address the convex and non-convex problems equally. This approach brings the solution to the global minimum region of search space in a short time and then takes longer time to converge to near optimal results. GA based hybrid approaches are used to fine tune the near optimal results produced by GA. This paper proposes NGH (Neuro Genetic Hybrid) approach to solve the economic dispatch with valve point effect. The proposed approach combines the GA with the ANN (Artificial Neural Network) using SI (Swarm Intelligence) learning rule. The GA acts as a global optimizer and the neural network fine tunes the GA results to the desired targets. Three machines standard test system has been tested for validation of the approach. Comparing the results with GA and NGH model based on back-propagation learning, the proposed approach gives contrast improvements showing the promise of the approach. (author)

  3. Techno-economic analysis for the evaluation of three UCG synthesis gas end use approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Krawczyk, Piotr; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) enables the utilization of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable because of complex geological boundary conditions. In the present study we investigate UCG as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a synthesis gas and its application within three different utilization options. Related to geological boundary conditions and the chosen gasification agent, UCG synthesis gas composes of varying methane, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide amounts. In accordance to its calorific value, the processed UCG synthesis gas can be utilized in different manners, as for electricity generation in a combined cycle power plant or for feedstock production making use of its various chemical components. In the present study we analyze UCG synthesis gas utilization economics in the context of clean electricity generation with an integrated carbon capture and storage process (CCS) as well as synthetic fuel and fertilizer production (Kempka et al., 2010) based on a gas composition achieved during an in situ UCG trial in the Wieczorek Mine. Hereby, we also consider chemical feedstock production in order to mitigate CO2 emissions. Within a sensitivity analysis of UCG synthesis gas calorific value variations, we produce a range of capital and operational expenditure bandwidths that allow for an economic assessment of different synthesis gas end use approaches. To carry out the integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled systems and the sensitivity analysis, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014). Our techno-economic modeling results demonstrate that the calorific value has a high impact on the economics of UCG synthesis gas utilization. In the underlying study, the synthesis gas is not suitable for an economic competitive electricity generation, due to the relatively low calorific value of 4.5 MJ/Nm³. To be a profitable option for electricity

  4. Technical and economic comparison of irradiation and conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is based on the use of ionizing radiation (gamma radiation, high energy electrons) as a source of energy in different industrial applications. For about 30 years of steady growth it became almost routine in a number of industrial processes. The growth resulted, among other things, from the availability of radiation sources matching requirements of industrial production and from the wide basis of fundamental and applied radiation research. The most important, however, was the fact that radiation processing proved in practice to be safe, reliable, easy to control, and economical. In comparison with other competitive techniques, it also offered a better alternative from the viewpoint of occupational safety and environmental considerations. In order to review the current status of comparative analysis of radiation and competitive techniques from the technological and economic viewpoint, the Agency convened an Advisory Group in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 6-8 October 1986. The present publication is based on contributions presented at the meeting, discussions held at the meeting, and subsequent editing work. It is expected that this updated technological and economic comparative analysis will provide useful information for all those who are implementing or considering the introduction of radiation processing to industry. The presented data may be essential for decision makers and could contribute to all feasibility and pre-investment studies. As such, this publication is expected to promote industrially oriented projects based on radiation processing techniques. The actual figures given in the individual reports are as accurate as possible. However, it should be understood that time factor and local conditions may play a significant role and corresponding adjustment may be required. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. The use of economic-mathematical methods and models in the process of making management decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izotov Viktor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the relevance of the application of methods of decision-making on the basis of economic-mathematical modeling. It is shown, that application of economic and mathematical methods allows to considerably enhance the quality of strategic, tactical and current planning, to receive the additional effect without the involvement in the process of additional resources.

  6. Health and Economic Impacts of Air Pollution in China: A Comparison of the General Equilibrium Approach and Human Capital Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE WAN; HONG-WEI YANG; TOSHIHIKO MASUI

    2005-01-01

    In China, combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has produced serious air pollution that does harm to human health. Based on dose-response relationships derived from epidemiological studies, the authors calculated the number of deaths and people with health problems which were thought to be attributable to China's air pollution in the year of 2000. In order to estimate the corresponding economic impacts from the national point of view, the general equilibrium approach was selected as an analysis tool for this study. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was constructed involving 39 sectors and 32 commodities.The human capital approach (HCA) was also used for comparison. The economic burden of disease for people estimated by HCA was equivalent to 1.26‰ (ranging from 0.44‰ to 1.84‰) of China's gross domestic product (GDP). China's GDP loss estimated by the general equilibrium approach reached 0.38‰ (ranging from 0.16‰ to 0.51‰). The difference between the two approaches and the implications of the results were discussed.

  7. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts.

  8. The political economics of the permanent war and the political economics of the nuclear war. Strategic approaches for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work treats on the hypothesis that the American imperialism uses its nuclear arsenal for reforming geographical spaces that allow him to impel its economic development in the context of the progressive exhaustion of the natural resources of the planet and of the ferocious dispute for market niches and investment destinations, and like the political and military decisions crawl to the different scenarios of economic competition. In the chapter 1 it is insinuated like has been reproduced the Warlike-industrial Complex (CBI) American from the second world postwar period until the present time in the idea of explaining like it is that it is valorized to the capital in scale enlarged starting from the denominated sector producing of destruction means and understanding that the system specifically capitalist is a system where continually the is destroyed previously taken place to manufacture a new merchandise in a luck of creative destruction. In the chapter 2, the topic of the specific contradictions of the CBI is approached that disable him to be the tip of lance of the world imperialism. The chapter 3 try on the productive linkages in the production of nuclear bombs, as well as in the production of the vectors of nuclear transportation and on the implications derived for the world security of the different industries associated to the nuclear energy (as the petroleum, the electricity, the natural gas) and to the transportation vectors of these locating which you/they are the different States where the world supremacy is disputed and that they have like one of its so many negotiation-confrontation letters its nuclear strategic arsenals. What is looked for in a thermonuclear war is the enemy's total elimination, from their offensive capacity, their defensive capacity, until their supplies, their reservations, etc., with the result that the chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis are presented to offer a better understanding that they mean the nuclear arsenals in the

  9. Modelling the economics of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention: a literature review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P; Preston, L; Squires, H; Chilcott, J; Brennan, A

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to review modelling methods for type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention cost-effectiveness studies. The review was conducted to inform the design of a policy analysis model capable of assisting resource allocation decisions across a spectrum of prevention strategies. We identified recent systematic reviews of economic evaluations in diabetes prevention and management of obesity. We extracted studies from two existing systematic reviews of economic evaluations for the prevention of diabetes. We extracted studies evaluating interventions in a non-diabetic population with type 2 diabetes as a modelled outcome, from two systematic reviews of obesity intervention economic evaluations. Databases were searched for studies published between 2008 and 2013. For each study, we reviewed details of the model type, structure, and methods for predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our review identified 46 articles and found variation in modelling approaches for cost-effectiveness evaluations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Investigation of the variables used to estimate the risk of type 2 diabetes suggested that impaired glucose regulation, and body mass index were used as the primary risk factors for type 2 diabetes. A minority of cost-effectiveness models for diabetes prevention accounted for the multivariate impacts of interventions on risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Twenty-eight cost-effectiveness models included cardiovascular events in addition to type 2 diabetes. Few cost-effectiveness models have flexibility to evaluate different intervention types. We conclude that to compare a range of prevention interventions it is necessary to incorporate multiple risk factors for diabetes, diabetes-related complications and obesity-related co-morbidity outcomes.

  10. The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

  11. Guide on Economic Instruments & Non-market Valuation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Bartczak, Anna; Czajkowski, Mikołaj;

    costs on society. A brief summary of the main non-market benefits – biodiversity, soil and water protection, protection of fragile ecosystems, non-wood forest products and socio-cultural values and services - that forests supply to society and their importance is given in Box 1 overleaf. When forest......The aim of this guidance document is to provide forest practitioners, decision makers and forest owners insights into the various economic instruments available to enhance the non-market ecosystem provision of forests such as a high quality biodiversity; enhanced carbon sequestration; improved...... recreation experiences for the public; and a wide range of other important ecosystem services that forests in Poland provide. Non-market ecosystem services from forests are defined as goods and services from forests that benefit society at large and which are not traded in the market. Non-market benefits...

  12. Frame, methods and instruments for energy planning in the new economic order of electricity economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of the new economic order of the electricity economy causes new focal tasks for the individual market participants and therefore new requirements for planning. As a precondition for energy planning, the Internal Market Electricity Directive and the ElWOG are examined and the tasks for the market participants are derived. Liberalization raises the risks for the enterprises. Increasing competition sets up higher requirements for planning. The planning instruments have no longer the destination of minimum costs but have to maximize the results of the enterprise. Price fixing requires a raised alignment to marginal costs considerations. Increasing electricity trade requires the introduction of new planning instruments. Further new tasks refer to electricity transfer via other networks and especially to congestion management. New chances but also new risks arise for the renewable energy sources. From the market result new requirements for the planning instruments. The basics in this respect are prepared and concrete examples from practice are submitted. Models of enterprises are developed, which consist of a technical and a business part. Central importance has the modeling of competition in the liberalized market. A model of competition between enterprises in the electricity market is developed. (author)

  13. The Study of Resource Allocation among Software Development Phases: An Economics-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Yiftachel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an economics-based approach for studying the problem of resource allocation among software development phases. Our approach is structured along two parallel axes: theoretical and empirical. We developed a general economic model for analyzing the allocation problem as a constrained profit maximization problem. The model, based on a novel concept of software production function, considers the effects of different allocations of development resources on output measures of the resulting software product. An empirical environment for evaluating and refining the model is presented, and a first exploratory study for characterizing the model's components and developers' resource allocation decisions is described. The findings illustrate how the model can be applied and validate its underlying assumptions and usability. Future quantitative empirical studies can refine and substantiate various aspects of the proposed model and ultimately improve the productivity of software development processes.

  14. The economic performance of Portuguese and Spanish regions: A network dynamic approach

    OpenAIRE

    João Carlos Lopes; Tanya Araujo

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to further understanding the economic performance of Portuguese and Spanish regions, using a stochastic network approach. The empirical analysis is made at the territorial level of NUT 3 regions and covers the period 1995-2008. The performance of regions is based on GDP per capita at Purchasing Power Standards. The network analysis is based on a metric space built from the correlation coefficients between the log-difference of annual growth rates. The metric space and t...

  15. The economic performance of Portuguese and Spanish regions : a network dynamics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, João Carlos; Araújo, Tânya

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to further understanding the economic performance of Portuguese and Spanish regions, using a stochastic network approach. The empirical analysis is made at the territorial level of NUT 3 regions and covers the period 1995-2008. The performance of regions is based on GDP per capita at Purchasing Power Standards. The network analysis is based on a metric space built from the correlation coefficients between the log-difference of annual growth rates. The metric space an...

  16. Beyond Economics: a Behavioural Approach to Energy Efficiency in Domestic Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Claudy, Marius; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the moderate success of policies aiming to stimulate the uptake of Sustainable Energy Systems (SES) in the domestic sector is grounded in a poor understanding of the ‘consumer’. The predominant economic approach behind most policies assumes that improving the cost-benefit ratio of technologies via grants and subsidies and providing sufficient information will automatically incentivise householders’ to invest into SES. Yet, policymakers often neglect behavioural determin...

  17. Do the FDI, Economic growth and Trade affect each other for India: An ARDL Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Anshul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic causal relationships between foreign direct investment (FDI), trade and economic growth in India by applying the bounds testing (ARDL) approach to cointegration for the period from 1970 to 2012. The bounds tests suggest that the variables of interest are bound together in the long-run when GDP per capita is the dependent variable. The empirical findings confirm that there is bi-directional Granger causality between FDI and trade, unidirectional Granger causalit...

  18. ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC APPROACHS TO ESTIMATE THE FEASIBILITY OF INNOVATIVE-INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov V. A.; Orlov A. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we propose a general theoretical model of estimation of the feasibility of an innovation-investment project. For specifying a general model to estimate the feasibility of a project we have highlighted the stages of development of projects in the aerospace industry. Organizational-economic approaches to estimation of the feasibility of projects to create rocket and space technology are presented in terms of algorithms. They take into account the specifics of the space industry,...

  19. Final Report for Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Innis; Randy Udall; Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-09-30

    Final Report for ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America'': This project, ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop'', helped stimulate wind development by rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in Colorado. To date most of the wind power development in the United States has been driven by large investor-owned utilities serving major metropolitan areas. To meet the 5% by 2020 goal of the Wind Powering America program the 2,000 municipal and 900 rural electric cooperatives in the country must get involved in wind power development. Public power typically serves rural and suburban areas and can play a role in revitalizing communities by tapping into the economic development potential of wind power. One barrier to the involvement of public power in wind development has been the perception that wind power is more expensive than other generation sources. This project focused on two ways to reduce the costs of wind power to make it more attractive to public power entities. The first way was to develop a revenue stream from the sale of green tags. By selling green tags to entities that voluntarily support wind power, rural coops and munis can effectively reduce their cost of wind power. Western Resource Advocates (WRA) and the Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) worked with Lamar Light and Power and Arkansas River Power Authority to develop a strategy to use green tags to help finance their wind project. These utilities are now selling their green tags to Community Energy, Inc., an independent for-profit marketer who in turn sells the tags to consumers around Colorado. The Lamar tags allow the University of Colorado-Boulder, the City of Boulder, NREL and other businesses to support wind power development and make the claim that they are ''wind-powered''. This urban-rural partnership is an important development for the state of Colorado's rural communities

  20. A Technical and Economic Optimization Approach to Exploring Offshore Renewable Energy Development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tagestad, Jerry D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perkins, Casey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oster, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warwick, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) as part of ongoing efforts to minimize key risks and reduce the cost and time associated with permitting and deploying ocean renewable energy. The focus of the study was to discuss a possible approach to exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that attempts to optimize future development based on technical, economic, and policy criteria. The goal of the study was not to identify potentially suitable or feasible locations for development, but to discuss how such an approach may be developed for a given offshore area. Hawaii was selected for this case study due to the complex nature of the energy climate there and DOE’s ongoing involvement to support marine spatial planning for the West Coast. Primary objectives of the study included 1) discussing the political and economic context for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii, especially with respect to how inter-island transmission may affect the future of renewable energy development in Hawaii; 2) applying a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach that has been used to assess the technical suitability of offshore renewable energy technologies in Washington, Oregon, and California, to Hawaii’s offshore environment; and 3) formulate a mathematical model for exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that seeks to optimize technical and economic suitability within the context of Hawaii’s existing energy policy and planning.

  1. Economic Efficiency of Small-Holder Cocoyam Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria: A Translog Stochastic Frontier Cost Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    B.C. Okoye; Onyenweaku, C.E; Asumugha, G.N

    2007-01-01

    This study employed a translog stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and it’s determinants in small-holder cocoyam production in Anambra state, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 cocoyam farmers in the state in 2005 from whom input-output data and their prices were obtained using the cost-route approach. The parameters of the stochastic frontier cost function were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. The re...

  2. A flexible and economical barcoding approach for highly multiplexed amplicon sequencing of diverse target genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W. Herbold

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available High throughput sequencing of phylogenetic and functional gene amplicons provides tremendous insight into the structure and functional potential of complex microbial communities. Here, we introduce a highly adaptable and economical PCR approach to barcoding and pooling libraries of numerous target genes. In this approach, we replace gene- and sequencing platform-specific fusion primers with general, interchangeable barcoding primers, enabling nearly limitless customized barcode-primer combinations. Compared to barcoding with long fusion primers, our multiple-target gene approach is more economical because it overall requires lower number of primers and is based on short primers with generally lower synthesis and purification costs. To highlight our approach, we pooled over 900 different small-subunit rRNA and functional gene amplicon libraries obtained from various environmental or host-associated microbial community samples into a single, paired-end Illumina MiSeq run. Although the amplicon regions ranged in size from approximately 290 to 720 bp, we found no significant systematic sequencing bias related to amplicon length or gene target. Our results indicate that this flexible multiplexing approach produces large, diverse and high quality sets of amplicon sequence data for modern studies in microbial ecology.

  3. Cloud computing methods and practical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents both state-of-the-art research developments and practical guidance on approaches, technologies and frameworks for the emerging cloud paradigm. Topics and features: presents the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models; discusses relevant theoretical frameworks, practical approaches and suggested methodologies; offers guidance and best practices for the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures, and examines management aspects of cloud computing; reviews consumer perspectives on mobile cloud computing an

  4. Seeds of Solutions(TM): An economical & efficient approach towards power engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Eli

    Power demands are set to increase over the next twenty years; however, research shows that there may be a shortage of power engineers due to an appreciable percentage of the current power engineer workforce retiring, insufficient enrollment in power engineering programs and a lack of emphasis in power engineering at the university level. This thesis provides supporting research for future power demands, workforce and faculty shortages. Using temporary research in modern learning / teaching styles, student / teacher perceptions, educational trends and regional course offerings, this thesis describes a learning approach towards power engineering education. Designed specifically for universities with little to no power engineering course offerings and universities that wish to augment their existing approach, the approach incorporates an emphasis in fundamentals and engineering design making it economical and easy to implement. This thesis also includes three (3) video laboratory examples incorporating all elements of the approach.

  5. Identifying the environmental support and constraints to the Chinese economic growth—An application of the Emergy Accounting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economy of China keeps increasing at high rate, although a bit slower recently than in the past due to the international economic turmoil. The Chinese economic performance affects the world economy in many ways (from increased primary resource and commodity imports to a more active financial role of China worldwide). Not unexpectedly, several and diverse environmental problems are coupled with economic growth, linked to resource availability, competition for energy resources and the overall carrying capacity of the environment as a source and a sink. Monodimensional assessments of either economic growth or environmental aspects are unlikely to provide the needed understanding of development opportunities and potential environmental loading. We suggest in this paper an assessment of the evolution of Chinese Economy based on the Emergy Accounting method, developed by H.T. Odum in the Eighties and further refined more recently. The emergy approach is being increasingly applied worldwide, and in China as well, to study individual production processes, sectors and whole economies and provides a comprehensive picture of the interaction of economic growth and the environment, much useful for economic and environmental policy making. A set of emergy-based performance indicators was calculated with reference to the year 2009 and compared with previous studies from literature, by means of a standardization procedure to ensure consistency. The 2009 national Emergy/GDP ratio, an indicator of the emergy investment per unit of economic product generated, has been calculated respectively as 8.61E+11 solar equivalent joules/Yuan RMB (equivalent to 5.88E+12 sej/US$), showing a decreasing trend from 1975 up-to-date, similar to other countries over their development path. The Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), an aggregate measure of economic performance and environmental load, also shows a decreasing trend signaling that the Chinese economic development is strictly coupled to

  6. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TRANSFORMATIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhorayev, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with an analysis of socio economic processes. In the author's opinion to avoid the carrying out of administrative-territorial management reforms by trial and error method it is necessary to study and to be ascertained in the methodological basis of economy transformations under the conditions of regions integration

  7. THE ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF SNOWMOBILING IN WYOMING: A TRAVEL COST APPROACH WITH MARKET SEGMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Coupal, Roger H.; Bastian, Christopher T.; May, Juliet A.; Taylor, David T.

    1999-01-01

    Little research has been done on the economic benefits of snowmobiling. This study used a cluster analysis and the travel cost method to identify different snowmobiler segments and estimate their respective consumer surplus values. Consumer surplus estimates ranged from $12 to $49 per day for the different segments.

  8. A methodological approach for landslide economic damage estimation in rural contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Aucelli, Pietro P.; Balteanu, Dan; Pisano, Luca; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Zumpano, Veronica

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation due to mass wasting and accelerated water erosion represents at global scale a serious threat to socio-economic development not only in urban areas but also in rural and hence less populated territories where the main economic resources are frequently directly linked to the exploitation of the agricultural, pastoral and natural resources, often threatened especially by landslide phenomena. The assessment of damage induced by landslides, thus, provides an important contribution to support decision making concerning the sustainable management of land use. In this paper a methodological approach developed in GIS environment for valuing the economic damage induced by landslides in rural areas is presented. It allows direct damage estimation related to landslide phenomena by means of a synthetic approach which considers the loss of land value associated with landslides state of activity. This approach was tested in a study area (a small-scale catchment in Molise Region, Southern Italy) which is highly representative of the Adriatic flank of the Molise Apennine, highly exploited for farming and, in the same time, very sensible to slope instability. Several environmental calculation matrices were defined at the pixel scale in relation to different states of activity of landslides. For each cell, soil uses and related Average Agricultural Values (AAVs) were determined. The economic damage value (DV) was computed by multiplying the obtained specified AAV with a specific landslide-damage index (LDI) which was calculated on the basis of the extent and state of activity of landslides within each cell. This procedure allowed the estimation of the DV and the real agricultural value for each cell. Summing up the results coming from each cell, the total loss of land value due to landslides and the residual total agricultural value for the entire study area were calculated. Furthermore, in order to assess for the entire study area the landslide exposition of rural

  9. A study on a probabilistic economic analysis method of steam generation replacement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostly, the economic analyses for replacement of major components of nuclear power plants(NPPs) have been performed in deterministic ways. However, the analysis results are more of less affected by the uncertainties associated with input variables. Therefore, it is desirable to use a probabilistic economic analysis method to properly consider uncertainty of real problem. In this paper, the probabilistic economic analysis method and Monte Carlo simulation technique are briefly described. And the result of the probabilistic economic analysis for old steam generators are compared with the result of the deterministic analysis. The differences are not that significant. The probabilistic economy analysis method using Monte Carlo simulation will provide efficient and accurate way of economic analysis for the repair and/or replacement major components of NPPs

  10. An Environmental-Economic Dispatch Method for Smart Microgrids Using VSS_QGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of distributed generation resources demands better economic performance of microgrids under the smart-grid era. In this paper, a comprehensive environmental-economic dispatch method for smart microgrids is proposed, with the objective for minimizing the summation of generation and emission costs in the system. As the proposed model belongs to a large-scale nonlinear and nonconvex programming problem, a hybrid heuristic algorithm, named variable step-size chaotic fuzzy quantum genetic algorithm (VSS_QGA, is developed. The algorithm utilizes complementarity among multiple techniques including the variable step size optimization, the rotation mutational angle fuzzy control, and the quantum genetic algorithm and combines them so as to solve problems with superior accuracy and efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated through a case study on an actual microgrid system and the advantages in the performance of VSS_QGA is also verified through the comparison with genetic algorithm (GA, the evolutionary programming approach (EP, the quantum genetic algorithm (QGA, and the chaotic quantum genetic algorithm (CQGA.

  11. Is it Possible to Describe Economical Phenomena by Methods of Statistical Physics of Open Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Kobelev, L Yu; Kobelev, L Yu; Kobelev, Ya.L.

    2000-01-01

    The methods of statistical physics of open systems are used for describing the time dependence of economic characteristics (income, profit, cost, supply, currency etc.) and their correlations with each other. Nonlinear equations (analogies of known reaction-diffusion, kinetic, Langevin equation) describing appearance of bifurcations, self-sustained oscillational processes, self-organizations in economic phenomena are offered.

  12. Review Article: Economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture - review and analysis of existing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Grelot, F.; Agenais, A.-L.

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, economic evaluation of flood management projects is increasingly used to help decision making. At the same time, the management of flood risk is shifting towards new concepts such as giving more room to water by restoring floodplains. Agricultural areas are particularly targeted by projects following those concepts since they are frequently located in floodplain areas and since the potential damage to such areas is expected to be lower than to cities or industries for example. Additional or avoided damage to agriculture may have a major influence on decisions concerning these projects and the economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture is thus an issue that needs to be tackled. The question of flood damage to agriculture can be addressed in different ways. This paper reviews and analyzes existing studies which have developed or used damage functions for agriculture in the framework of an economic appraisal of flood management projects. A conceptual framework of damage categories is proposed for the agricultural sector. The damage categories were used to structure the review. Then, a total of 42 studies are described, with a detailed review of 26 of them, based on the following criteria: types of damage considered, the influential flood parameters chosen, and monetized damage indicators used. The main recommendations resulting from this review are that even if existing methods have already focused on damage to crops, still some improvement is needed for crop damage functions. There is also a need to develop damage functions for other agricultural damage categories, including farm buildings and their contents. Finally, to cover all possible agricultural damage, and in particular loss of activity, a farm scale approach needs to be used.

  13. The new method to economically operation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of enhancing operation economy without loss any reliability method is called Proactive Ageing Management (PAM in short). PAM can be used for generic and specific plant in almost all situations that concern reliability and economy problem. PAM 2.0 software, which is a professional software during PAM process application, plays an important role to help analysts evaluate all strategies showed above and also provides decision advises to nuclear power plant manager using Net Present Values (NPV) criteria. Additionally, one case was taken as an example to illustrate the role of software during PAM process and explain the results for use. (authors)

  14. Economic analysis of nutrition interventions for chronic disease prevention: methods, research, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John B; Coates, Paul M; Russell, Robert M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Schuttinga, James A; Bowman, Barbara A; Peterson, Sarah A

    2011-09-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development.

  15. Methods of Use of an Online Economics Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon R.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The rising cost of college textbooks over the last decade provides an opportunity for alternatives. Electronic or online textbooks are an effective substitute to the traditional paper-based textbooks, although students have been slow to transition to the new method. A custom, professor-written online textbook not only addresses the reduction in…

  16. An economical method for the continuous production of iodine-123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, J. W.; Smith, W. R.; Sodd, V. J.

    1968-01-01

    Simple and inexpensive method produces iodine 123, in a conventional cyclotron. Tellurium 122, a stable isotope available in enrichments exceeding 95 percent, is held on a porous metal plate by a flowing stream of helium and bombarded with either alpha particles or helium 3.

  17. GROWTH ECONOMIC MODELS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS TO FINANCIAL POLICY DURING TRANSITION. ATHEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN FIRTESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During 1989, the moment of changes in Eastern Europe, in socialist countries political system were transformed, by renouncing communism, and adopting market based economy. The process had major implications on economic systems in countries such Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, that from that moment engaged in wide-ranging political, social, economic and institutional reforms. The year 1989 also marked the beginning of the transition from socialist economy to a market economy to centralized countries mentioned, a process with profound implications on the economic system and financial default. This important structural reforms necessary functioning new economic framework and assumed behavior modification specific old economy, focused on socialist property, presumably achieve in conditions of relative stability allowing rapidly and sustainable growth. This paper takes into discussion some models used by FMI and World Bank (WB that had implications on financial policy applied in transition country, referring to absorption theory, monetary approach to balance of payment and stabilization programs, as short terms models, respectively.

  18. Economic valuation of environmental benefits from wastewater treatment processes: an empirical approach for Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2010-01-15

    Economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). The efficient implementation of policies to prevent the degradation and depletion of water resources requires determining their value in social and economic terms and incorporating this information into the decision-making process. A process of wastewater treatment has many associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often not calculated because they are not set by the market, due to inadequate property rights, the presence of externalities, and the lack of perfect information. Nevertheless, the valuation of these benefits is necessary to justify a suitable investment policy and a limited number of studies exist on the subject of the economic valuation of environmental benefits. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the estimation of shadow prices for the pollutants removed in a treatment process. This value represents the environmental benefit (avoided cost) associated with undischarged pollution. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of wastewater treatment. The comparison of these benefits with the internal costs of the treatment process will provide a useful indicator for the feasibility of wastewater treatment projects.

  19. The application of new economic and ecological approaches to energetics in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orientation on local low-grade coal and nuclear sources also for heat supply, with which the construction of large heating systems and heat transport on large distances is connected, these are specific features of energy economy in Czechoslovakia. The development programme is challenging in economic respect, it causes numerous ecological problems, as well as those connected with coverage of variable loads. In case of additional construction at a later date many problems appear requiring differentiated approach that depends on concrete conditions. In the paper there are described possibilities and conditions of heat accumulation in feed water, in gravity accumulators at very quick changes of output, the accumulation systems involving steam release facilities and heat accumulation in heat conducting systems. Also the manufacture of heat generating equipment has an important role to play. There are given the outlines of construction of hot water accumulators. Specific conditions of the Czechoslovak energy economy also include the problem of efficient combustion of low-grade coal with a high sulfur content. In this connection it is especially the fluidized bed combustion that is under consideration. This combustion process can be run by clinkering of ash particles or a klinkerless process can be used. The combustion process can be either single-stage or double-stage. All these combustion methods are used in boilers made in Czechoslovakia. In the paper two types of boilers are described: the boiler with cooled fluidized bed and the fluidized bed reactor installed in front of a powdered coal fired boiler. There is briefly outlined the experience obtained from the operation of these boilers

  20. Economic Evaluation for Energy Business Using Real Options Pricing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Recently, facing the new era of restructuring, privatization, and liberalization the energy industry in the world is changing rapidly, and thus the uncertain factors tend to increase. This would imply that energy-related business is now confronted with new market risks as well as the simple price risks. The traditional investment valuation method using the concept of net present value (NPV) or internal rate of revenue (IRR) might not incorporate the managerial alternatives which enable managers to respond flexibly to the changes in business environment. This study pointed out the problems of the traditional discounted cash flow (DCF) method when evaluating a certain capital investment in energy industry. As an alternative, the real option pricing method (ROPM) was proposed, which is widely adopted in the field of profit projection for the venture business. In addition, when applying to energy sector the feasibility of ROPM was discussed, and the frameworks and major results of previous related studies were described. For those using the ROPM in real business, I explained the detailed procedures and solutions of ROPM, and introduced the log-transformed binomial model which provides a more efficient solution. In order to verify the usefulness of the ROPM, this study performed an empirical analysis for a virtual construction and operation project of power plant. And, the results from the ROPM was compared to those from the traditional DCF method. Based on the empirical results, the values of various investment opportunities were shown to be high. Therefore, the project not justified in terms of traditional DCF would turn into the project with a positive gross project value, properly reflecting managerial flexibilities inherent in the original project. (author). 58 refs., 32 figs., 33 tabs.

  1. The economic benefits of fertility control: a critical analysis of the investment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badari, V S

    1977-01-01

    Developing countries are experiencing rapid population growth, which hinders development of economic planning. There are 2 ways to determine the gain to the economy resulting from preventing a birth: a macro-economic growth approach, which establishes a comparison of the income per capita of a country with and without fertility control, and the investment approach which weighs the advantages and disadvantages of additional births in terms of the anticipated future production and consumption of these births, compared with the gain of preventing them. If decrease of population growth helps development planning, it makes sense to establish incentive payments for preventing a birth. Arguments against the investment approach are: the amount spent for bonuses could be higher than the amount saved; it could be used for new investment. In the discounting procedure, consumption has been exagerated while reducing the value of production. Leibenstein's contention is that family programs are followed more by middle class families, whose children won't become marginal workers. These critics have been refuted. Enke, main contributor to this approach, states that the incentive payment should not exceede the value of preventing a birth. Also, to avoid the cost of resources the bonus could be given in services and productive goods. The discounting procedure has been considered valid in those cases in which present consumption is more relevant than future consumption and investible funds, in which case discounting is unavoidable. On the other hand, if incentives are offered, more participation of the poorer classes can be expected. Based on the investment approach, some economists, like Enke and Badari, analized the worth of an averted birth in India and agreed that the gains were substantial. This indicated that the investment approach is a useful guide for developing countries. PMID:12261074

  2. A stochastic approach for integrating market and technical uncertainties in economic evaluations of petroleum development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhyup Park; Joe M.Kang; Taewoong Ahn

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a stochastic and economic analysis for petroleum development under uncertain market and technical environments. Mean-reversion with jumps for price forecasting is used to consider market uncertainty, while various scenarios for the reservoir properties and cost are employed to consider technical uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to obtain the feasible range of net present values and internal rates of return. The influence of stochastic parameters is examined through correlation coefficients. The stochastic approach yields more reliable evaluation and effectively investigates the characteristics of development. The integration of uncertainties and contractual terms results in an irregular tendency in the future cash flow and reveals that a larger reserve does not guarantee a greater profit. The reserve and the well rate affect the economic values whereas the parameters for price prediction don't. The research confirms the necessity of qualifying uncertainties for realistic decision-making at the initial stage of development.

  3. Numerical Methods for Stochastic Computations A Spectral Method Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Xiu, Dongbin

    2010-01-01

    The first graduate-level textbook to focus on fundamental aspects of numerical methods for stochastic computations, this book describes the class of numerical methods based on generalized polynomial chaos (gPC). These fast, efficient, and accurate methods are an extension of the classical spectral methods of high-dimensional random spaces. Designed to simulate complex systems subject to random inputs, these methods are widely used in many areas of computer science and engineering. The book introduces polynomial approximation theory and probability theory; describes the basic theory of gPC meth

  4. A novel chaotic particle swarm optimization approach using Henon map and implicit filtering local search for economic load dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based swarm intelligence algorithm driven by the simulation of a social psychological metaphor instead of the survival of the fittest individual. Based on the chaotic systems theory, this paper proposed a novel chaotic PSO combined with an implicit filtering (IF) local search method to solve economic dispatch problems. Since chaotic mapping enjoys certainty, ergodicity and the stochastic property, the proposed PSO introduces chaos mapping using Henon map sequences which increases its convergence rate and resulting precision. The chaotic PSO approach is used to produce good potential solutions, and the IF is used to fine-tune of final solution of PSO. The hybrid methodology is validated for a test system consisting of 13 thermal units whose incremental fuel cost function takes into account the valve-point loading effects. Simulation results are promising and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Methods of the Development Strategy of Service Companies: Logistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toymentseva, Irina A.; Karpova, Natalya P.; Toymentseva, Angelina A.; Chichkina, Vera D.; Efanov, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the analyzed issue is due to lack of attention of heads of service companies to the theory and methodology of strategic management, methods and models of management decision-making in times of economic instability. The purpose of the article is to develop theoretical positions and methodical recommendations on the formation of the…

  6. [Empirical standard costs for health economic evaluation in Germany -- a proposal by the working group methods in health economic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, C; Hessel, F; Hansmeier, T; Wasem, J; Seitz, R; Schweikert, B

    2005-10-01

    Measurement of health care costs is a crucial task in health economic evaluation. Various guidelines with different amount of details have been set up for costing methods in economic evaluation which, however, do not precisely stipulate how to value resource consumption. In this article we present a proposal for the standardisation of the monetary valuation of health care utilisation occurring in the follow up period after the actual intervention to be evaluated. From a societal perspective the primary direct and indirect cost components are considered, such as outpatient medical care, pharmaceuticals, non-physician health services, inpatient care, days of sick leave and early retirement due to sickness. The standard costs are based on administrative charges and rates or on official statistics. They are based on the most current data sources which are mainly from 2002 and 2003. This system of standard costs aims at an average valuation of resource consumption. This makes for the comparability of different health economic studies. Most standard costs are not based on market prices but on administratively specified charges and rates. This implies that institutional changes which are quite common in the health care system, may also affect the valuation rates, for example the introduction of DRGs. This should be taken into account when updating the system of standard costs.

  7. Organizational and economic bases of logistic approach usage in the management of national education system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu.V. Mishenin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article highlights the lack of effectiveness of existing system of education management in Ukraine from its basic function performance – to satisfy the needs of social and economic system of human resources, according to the required quantity, quality, educational culture, right place and time with the lowest public costs. The results of the analysis. The article is focused on the forming of organizational and economic bases of the use of logistic approach in the management of education system. Logistic approach is considered as an instrument to ensure the optimal parameters of education system functioning and development in accordance with the needs of society (employers, learners with minimal public costs. It is pointed out the need to create organizational and managerial mechanisms of active integrative interaction, both between educational institutions and employers, between educational institutions of various levels of educational system in order to improve the functioning of educational institutions and the education system as a whole. It is grounded the necessity of accentuation of social-labor flow as the main object of logistical management in education. It is proposed to consider national education system as a logistic chain. It includes all structural elements of the educational system, the parties of the education system control and employers, which are involved in formation and movement of social labor flow. It is stated that they must be considered as constituting single integrated logistic chain of forming the competitive human and intellectual capital. Its functioning requires the implementation of procedures of external and intra-evaluation of social labor flow parameters and their conformity to the needed. Among the evaluation tools the psychological-pedagogical diagnostics is highlighted. It is grounded the need to analyze total costs in order to optimize the social labor flow movement. They

  8. Methods and Algorithms for Economic MPC in Power Production Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil

    This thesis concerns methods and algorithms for power production planning in contemporary and future power systems. Power production planning is a task that involves decisions across different time scales and planning horizons. Hours-ahead to days-ahead planning is handled by solving a mixed...... concerned with EMPC for minutes-ahead production planning, we show that the proposed EMPC scheme can be extended to days-ahead planning (including unit commitment) as well. The power generation from renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is inherently uncertain and variable. A portfolio....... Benchmarks show that the special-purpose algorithms are significantly faster than current state-of-the-art solvers. As a potential application area of EMPC, we study power production planning in small isolated power systems. A critical part of power production planning in small isolated power systems...

  9. Application of the counterfactual method to assess of the local economic impact of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have examined the local economic effects of nuclear power stations. However, their heterogeneity within countries and between countries indicate that one must be very cautious in drawing general conclusions about the positive and negative local economic effects of nuclear power stations over time. Using information about a specific nuclear facility in Spain and its zone of influence, we investigate the local economic impact of a nuclear facility by applying an infrequently used methodology called the “counterfactual” method. The purpose of this application of the counterfactual method is to establish what would have happened if the nuclear power plant had not been built where it was. This method permits observation of the impact of the nuclear power plant on the evolution of a set of variables whose influence is extremely important for the local area, such as the population, unemployment level, per capita income, and municipal governments’ revenues. Generalization of this method could offer the possibility of providing comparative results. However, the method must be complemented with other short-term approaches to provide a more specific analysis of the economic effects on the local actors involved and to offer incentives to policymakers to design and develop policies aimed at boosting economic activity in the area. - Highlights: • The Trillo Nuclear Power Plant plays a key role in stimulating its local environment. • The counterfactual method is estimated based on the performance of control group. • At least at the beginning of its operation the population dynamism was clear. • There is not strong evidence about the rise of employment and local public revenues. • The expenditure flow assesses the local turnover, jobs and municipal revenues

  10. An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla

    2012-08-01

    Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting.

  11. An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla

    2012-08-01

    Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting. PMID:22503155

  12. Intellectual Property Rights Protection, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in Malaysia: An ARDL Bound Test Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rozilee Asid; Mori Kogid; Dullah Mulok; Jaratin Lily

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of present study is to investigate the implications of intellectual property rights (IPR) protection on foreign direct investment and economic growth in Malaysia. We used the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration for long run relationship between the variables. Although researches with regards to foreign direct investment and economic growth have been conducted extensively in the Malaysian economic context, the role of IPR protection however has yet to be discussed ...

  13. A hybrid HNN-QP approach for dynamic economic dispatch problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, A.Y.; Kamh, M.Z.; Mekhamer, S.F.; Badr, M.A.L. [Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Elsarayat Street, Abdo Basha Square, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-10-15

    This paper introduces a solution of the dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem using a hybrid approach of Hopfield neural network (HNN) and quadratic programming (QP). The hybrid algorithm is based on using enhanced HNN; to solve the static part of the problem; the QP algorithm for solving the dynamic part of the DED. This technique guarantees the global optimality of the solution due to its look-ahead capability. The new algorithm is applied and tested to an example from the literature and the solution is then compared with that obtained by some other techniques to prove the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  14. A Pot-Economical Approach to the Total Synthesis of Sch-725674.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodugam, Mahipal; Javed, Salim; Ganguly, Arghya; Torres, Jessica; Hanson, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    A pot-economical total synthesis of antifungal Sch-725674, 1, is reported. The approach takes advantage of a number of one-pot, sequential transformations, including a phosphate tether-mediated one-pot, sequential RCM/CM/chemoselective hydrogenation protocol, a one-pot tosylation/acrylation sequence, and a one-pot, sequential Finkelstein reaction/Boord olefination/acetonide deprotection procedure to streamline the synthesis route by reducing isolation and purification procedures, thus saving time. Overall, an asymmetric route has been developed that is efficiently accomplished in seven pots from phosphate (S,S)-triene and with minimal purification. PMID:26760683

  15. A non-parametric approach to innovation gaps and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ricardo Perilla

    2015-01-01

    A non-parametric approach based on DEA  techniques is used  to  dis- entangle the  relationship between  innovation growth  and  per-capita GDP growth  in a sample  of 30 countries during  1996-2008.  The decomposition of GDP-growth brings support to the notion of advantage of backward- ness.  It leads to conclude that, in the context of innovation, both the process of catching-up and technological change play an important explanation of the dynamics of economic growth. This is in sharp contr...

  16. An Electric taxi fleet charging system using second life electric car batteries simulation and economical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The industrial car manufacturers see in the high battery price an im-portant obstacle for an electric vehicle mass selling, thus mass production. There-fore, in order to find some cost relieves and better selling opportunities, they look and push forward to find profitable second battery uses. This study presents a sim-ulation and an economical approach for an electric taxi fleet charging system, us-ing these “old” electric car batteries, implemented in the city of Barcelona. The simulation w...

  17. ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC APPROACHS TO ESTIMATE THE FEASIBILITY OF INNOVATIVE-INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov V. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a general theoretical model of estimation of the feasibility of an innovation-investment project. For specifying a general model to estimate the feasibility of a project we have highlighted the stages of development of projects in the aerospace industry. Organizational-economic approaches to estimation of the feasibility of projects to create rocket and space technology are presented in terms of algorithms. They take into account the specifics of the space industry, by virtue of which such projects have both innovative and investment components

  18. Mathematical programming based approaches for classes of complex network problems : economical and sociological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nasini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the theoretical and practical study of mathematical programming methodologies to the analysis complex networks and their application in economic and social problems. More specifically, it applies models and methods for solving linear and integer programming problems to network models exploiting the matrix structure of such models, resulting in efficient computational procedures and small processing time. As a consequence, it allows the study of larger and more complex n...

  19. A Multidisciplinary, Science-Based Approach to the Economics of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Carlin

    2011-01-01

    Economic analyses of environmental mitigation and other interdisciplinary public policy issues can be much more useful if they critically examine what other disciplines have to say, insist on using the most relevant observational data and the scientific method, and examine lower cost alternatives to the change proposed. These general principles are illustrated by applying them to the case of climate change mitigation, one of the most interdisciplinary of public policy issues. The analysis sho...

  20. Mixed method approaches to evaluate conservation impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Burgess, Neil D.; Chamshama, Shabani A.O.;

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 10% of the world's total forest area is formally owned by communities and indigenous groups, yet knowledge of the effects of decentralized forest management approaches on conservation (and livelihood) impacts remains elusive. In this paper, the conservation impact of decentralized forest...... assessed on the basis of analyses of Landsat images. This biophysical evidence was then linked to changes in actual management practices, assessed through records, interviews and participatory observations, to provide a measure of the conservation impact of the policy change. Both forests in the study were...... that decentralized management had led to increased control of forest use and the observed divergence in forest disturbance levels appeared to be linked to differences in the way that village-level forest managers prioritized conservation objectives and forest-based livelihood strategies. The study illustrates...

  1. An approach to determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel and materials recovery processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, H. W.

    1980-06-01

    An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of materials is presented. This information is based on data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area as input for the consideration of a regional resource recovery program which would eventually encompass 4000 t/day of municipal solid waste; it is designed to recover refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous and nonferrous metals, flint and color-mixed glass cullet, color-mixed glass fines, and waste newspapers. The planning process requires estimates of recovery product revenues and of process feasibility; since materials revenues can be predicted with a greater degree of certainty than RDF revenues, it becomes necessary to determine what revenues will be required from the sale of RDF so that predicted economics can be the same as the alternative disposal practice. A technique is described which will assist the decisionmaker in evaluating the economic feasibility of the proposed project by determining the RDF 'Indifference Value'.

  2. Estimating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures in ECO Countries Using Panel Cointegration Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Nahid; Tourani, Sogand; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Bastani, Peivand

    2016-02-01

    Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.

  3. New approaches in teaching the discipline of «Labor protection» at the University of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Гончаров, В. А.; Самойлов, М.В.

    2013-01-01

    The report provides a comparison of different models of education for university students on the issues of labor protection. New approaches to teaching discipline of «Labor protection» at the University of Economics are considered.

  4. Modified economic order quantity (EOQ model for items with imperfect quality: Game-theoretical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Elyasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decade, studying the economic order quantity (EOQ models with imperfect quality has appealed to many researchers. Only few papers are published discussing EOQ models with imperfect items in a supply chain. In this paper, a two-echelon decentralized supply chain consisting of a manufacture and a supplier that both face just in time (JIT inventory problem is considered. It is sought to find the optimal number of the shipments and the quantity of each shipment in a way that minimizes the both manufacturer’s and the supplier’s cost functions. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first paper that deals with imperfect items in a decentralized supply chain. Thereby, three different game theoretical solution approaches consisting of two non-cooperative games and a cooperative game are proposed. Comparing the results of three different scenarios with those of the centralized model, the conclusions are drawn to obtain the best approach.

  5. Economic Evaluation of Mental Health Interventions: A Guide to Costing Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, James; McCrone, Paul; Romeo, Renee

    2016-07-01

    Costing approaches in the economic evaluation of mental health interventions are complicated by the broad societal impacts of mental health, and the multidisciplinary nature of mental health interventions. This paper aims to provide a practical guide to costing approaches across a wide range of care inputs and illness consequences relevant to the treatment of mental health. The resources needed to deliver mental health interventions are highly variable and depend on treatment settings (institutional, community), treatment providers (medical, non-medical) and formats (individual, group, electronic). Establishing the most appropriate perspective is crucial when assessing the costs associated with a particular mental health problem or when evaluating interventions to treat them. We identify five key cost categories (social care, informal care, production losses, crime and education) impacted by mental health and discuss contemporary issues in resource use measurement and valuation, including data sources and resource use instruments. PMID:26922076

  6. The Method of Economic Analysis of International Law: What are its Limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the most recent developments regarding the use of the so-called “economic analysis” approaches to international law. It reviews the main features of this methodology and its potential contribution for promoting critical scholarship in international legal studies, particularly...

  7. Moving Forward in African Economic History: Bridging the Gap Between Methods and Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerven, M.; Austin, G.; Green, E.; Chibuike, U.; Frankema, E.H.P.; Fourie, J.; Inikori, J.E.; Moradi, A.; Hillbom, E.

    2012-01-01

    The field of African economic history is in resurgence. This paper reviews recent and on-going research contributions and notes strengths in their wide methodological, conceptual and topical variety. In these strengths there is also a challenge: different methodological approaches may also result in

  8. TRANSFER PRICES: MECHANISMS, METHODS AND INTERNATIONAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cosmina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are considered the prices paid for the goods or services in a cross-border transaction between affiliates companies, often significant reduced or increased in order to avoid the higher imposing rates from one jurisdiction. Presently, over 60% of cross-border transfers are represented by intra-group transfers. The paper presents the variety of methods and mechanisms used by the companies to transfer the funds from one tax jurisdiction to another in order to avoid over taxation.

  9. The Effect of Exports and Imports on Economic Growth in the Arab Countries: A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    HAMDAN, Bader S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The study focused on the effect exports and imports on economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1995 to 2013. The study used panel data approach in 17 countries: (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Tunisia, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Yemen and Palestine). The study used panel data approach by E views program. The study found that the effect exports and imports have positive effect of economic g...

  10. Mind shift, mode shift: a lifestyle approach to reducing car ownership and use based on behavioural economics and social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stephen; Caisey, Vivienne

    2010-05-01

    This paper sets out a new approach to the Wicked Problems of obesity and climate change, and the linked and causative Wicked Problem of increasing car ownership and use. Policies to bring about modal shift from car dependence to forms of transport that cause lower emissions, and are less obesogenic, are conventionally based on framing car use as an externality to be addressed by policies such as taxation or regulation. These policies have been hampered by the reluctance of politicians and policymakers to countenance electoral risk by impinging on the individual's perceived right to personal mobility. This paper's approach combines insights and methods from behavioural economics and social marketing: it shifts the focus by considering car ownership and use not as an externality to be addressed in the aggregate, but as the product of individual behaviours and lifestyle choices. Behavioural economics can help to uncover the motivations, heuristics and cognitive biases behind such behaviours. Social marketing builds on the premise that people will only change their behaviour if they are sufficiently motivated to do so. It can be used to design interventions which help sectors of the population make transport choices that are more optimal--both for the individuals concerned and for all of us who are affected by these Wicked Problems.

  11. A Multidisciplinary, Science-Based Approach to the Economics of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Carlin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic analyses of environmental mitigation and other interdisciplinary public policy issues can be much more useful if they critically examine what other disciplines have to say, insist on using the most relevant observational data and the scientific method, and examine lower cost alternatives to the change proposed. These general principles are illustrated by applying them to the case of climate change mitigation, one of the most interdisciplinary of public policy issues. The analysis shows how use of these principles leads to quite different conclusions than those of most previous such economic analyses, as follows: The economic benefits of reducing CO2 emissions may be about two orders of magnitude less than those estimated by most economists because the climate sensitivity factor (CSF is much lower than assumed by the United Nations because feedback is negative rather than positive and the effects of CO2 emissions reductions on atmospheric CO2 appear to be short rather than long lasting. The costs of CO2 emissions reductions are very much higher than usually estimated because of technological and implementation problems recently identified. Geoengineering such as solar radiation management is a controversial alternative to CO2 emissions reductions that offers opportunities to greatly decrease these large costs, change global temperatures with far greater assurance of success, and eliminate the possibility of low probability, high consequence risks of rising temperatures, but has been largely ignored by economists. CO2 emissions reductions are economically unattractive since the very modest benefits remaining after the corrections for the above effects are quite unlikely to economically justify the much higher costs unless much lower cost geoengineering is used. The risk of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming appears to be so low that it is not currently worth doing anything to try to control it, including geoengineering.

  12. A multidisciplinary, science-based approach to the economics of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Alan

    2011-04-01

    Economic analyses of environmental mitigation and other interdisciplinary public policy issues can be much more useful if they critically examine what other disciplines have to say, insist on using the most relevant observational data and the scientific method, and examine lower cost alternatives to the change proposed. These general principles are illustrated by applying them to the case of climate change mitigation, one of the most interdisciplinary of public policy issues. The analysis shows how use of these principles leads to quite different conclusions than those of most previous such economic analyses, as follows: The economic benefits of reducing CO(2) emissions may be about two orders of magnitude less than those estimated by most economists because the climate sensitivity factor (CSF) is much lower than assumed by the United Nations because feedback is negative rather than positive and the effects of CO(2) emissions reductions on atmospheric CO(2) appear to be short rather than long lasting. The costs of CO(2) emissions reductions are very much higher than usually estimated because of technological and implementation problems recently identified. Geoengineering such as solar radiation management is a controversial alternative to CO(2) emissions reductions that offers opportunities to greatly decrease these large costs, change global temperatures with far greater assurance of success, and eliminate the possibility of low probability, high consequence risks of rising temperatures, but has been largely ignored by economists. CO(2) emissions reductions are economically unattractive since the very modest benefits remaining after the corrections for the above effects are quite unlikely to economically justify the much higher costs unless much lower cost geoengineering is used.The risk of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming appears to be so low that it is not currently worth doing anything to try to control it, including geoengineering. PMID:21695026

  13. Methods for measuring denitrification: Diverse approaches to a difficult problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groffman, Peter M.; Altabet, Mark A.; Böhlke, J. K.;

    2006-01-01

    , and global scales. Unfortunately, this process is very difficult to measure, and existing methods are problematic for different reasons in different places at different times. In this paper, we review the major approaches that have been taken to measure denitrification in terrestrial and aquatic environments...... balance and stoichiometric approaches that constrain estimates of denitrification at large scales with point measurements (made using multiple methods), in multiple systems, is likely to propel more improvement in denitrification methods over the next few years....... and discuss the strengths, weaknesses, and future prospects for the different methods. Methodological approaches covered include (1) acetylene-based methods, (2) 15N tracers, (3) direct N2 quantification, (4) N2:Ar ratio quantification, (5) mass balance approaches, (6) stoichiometric approaches, (7) methods...

  14. Nicotine reduction as an increase in the unit price of cigarettes: a behavioral economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Sved, Alan F; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    Urgent action is needed to reduce the harm caused by smoking. Product standards that reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes are now possible both in the U.S. and in countries party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Specifically, standards that required substantially reduced nicotine content in cigarettes could enable cessation in smokers and prevent future smoking among current non-smokers. Behavioral economics uses principles from the field of microeconomics to characterize how consumption of a reinforcer changes as a function of the unit price of that reinforcer (unit price=cost/reinforcer magnitude). A nicotine reduction policy might be considered an increase in the unit price of nicotine because smokers are paying more per unit of nicotine. This perspective allows principles from behavioral economics to be applied to nicotine reduction research questions, including how nicotine consumption, smoking behavior, use of other tobacco products, and use of other drugs of abuse are likely to be affected. This paper reviews the utility of this approach and evaluates the notion that a reduction in nicotine content is equivalent to a reduction in the reinforcement value of smoking-an assumption made by the unit price approach. PMID:25025523

  15. Transparency in European banking system – a technical and economic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefănescu Cristina Alexandrina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of possible relationships between two different approaches of “transparency” – the technical vs. the economic one. Thus, irrespective of prior literature, our paper goes beyond a “solo” analysis of either of two above-mentioned “facets”, by providing a combined study. So, we focused on both (1 XBRL’s role in enhancing the quality of disclosure, by assessing its benefices and consequences and (2 corporate governance mechanism’s power to improve efficiency and effectiveness of banking supervision by encouraging transparency. The results of the performed analysis generally reveal that there is a strong and positive relationship between the level of disclosure promoted by corporate governance codes enforced in European Union countries and the degree of implementation of both XBRL-based projects designed for banking environment (FINREP and COREP. Consequently, we can assert that there is a consensus between the economic and technical approach of transparency in European banking system

  16. Equitable fund allocation, an economical approach for sustainable waste load allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Elham Feizi; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin

    2015-08-01

    This research aims to study a novel approach for waste load allocation (WLA) to meet environmental, economical, and equity objectives, simultaneously. For this purpose, based on a simulation-optimization model developed for Haraz River in north of Iran, the waste loads are allocated according to discharge permit market. The non-dominated solutions are initially achieved through multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Here, the violation of environmental standards based on dissolved oxygen (DO) versus biochemical oxidation demand (BOD) removal costs is minimized to find economical total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). This can save 41% in total abatement costs in comparison with the conventional command and control policy. The BOD discharge permit market then increases the revenues to 45%. This framework ensures that the environmental limits are fulfilled but the inequity index is rather high (about 4.65). For instance, the discharge permit buyer may not be satisfied about the equity of WLA. Consequently, it is recommended that a third party or institution should be in charge of reallocating the funds. It means that the polluters which gain benefits by unfair discharges should pay taxes (or funds) to compensate the losses of other polluters. This intends to reduce the costs below the required values of the lowest inequity index condition. These compensations of equitable fund allocation (EFA) may help to reduce the dissatisfactions and develop WLA policies. It is concluded that EFA in integration with water quality trading (WQT) is a promising approach to meet the objectives. PMID:26205280

  17. Hybrid integer coded differential evolution - dynamic programming approach for economic load dispatch with multiple fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel and efficient approach through a hybrid integer coded differential evolution - dynamic programming (ICDEDP) scheme to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem with multiple fuel options. A dynamic programming (DP) based simplified recursive algorithm is developed for optimal scheduling of the generating units in the ED problem. The proposed hybrid scheme is developed in such a way that an integer coded differential evolution (ICDE) is acting as a main optimizer to identify the optimal fuel options, and the DP is used to find the fitness of each agent in the population of the ICDE, which makes a quick decision to direct the search towards the optimal region. The hybrid ICDEDP decision vector consists of a sequence of integer numbers representing the fuel options of each unit to optimize quality of search and computation time. A gene swap operator is introduced in the proposed algorithm to improve its convergence characteristics. In order to show the efficiency and effectiveness, the proposed hybrid ICDEDP approach has been examined and tested with numerical results using the ten generation unit economic dispatch problem with multiple fuel options. The test result shows that the proposed hybrid ICDEDP algorithm has high quality solution, superior convergence characteristics and shorter computation time

  18. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  19. Innovation by discourse - a new approach in the evaluation of sustainable economics success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Standard economic valuation relies on input prices (costs) and product prices (revenues) to communicate the value of economic activity to the firm as well as society at large. This reliance of prices to communicate value discriminates against services, products and activities that are not easily priced or evaluated according to their exchange value. Even when methods are applied which seek to assign monetary value artificially, that is outside the common market mechanism of production and consumption activities, price based valuation remains seriously flawed. It assumes the commensurability of wants, the preference of present value and the ability to express uncertainty in risk assessment categories. This paper outlines the expanded rationality of discourse based valuation and argues the advantages discursive valuation offers in addressing large scale complex systems changes like global climate change.

  20. ARE YOU PANICKED? ECONOMIC AND HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS: A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH IN ROMANIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years the entire world experienced one of the most turmoil period in its history. Economic crisis is the most traumatic event leading to a substantial deterioration in the quality of life of the household. Unemployment, inflation rate increasing, freezing or decreasing of the wages, the purchasing power decreasing, the decreasing of the investments value represent only of some economic shocks that hit most of the individuals, in the last few years. The individual well-being is determinate by many things like the level and secure income, labor market status, job stability and characteristics, health status, social relationships, family etc. In some ways and to a different extent all these were affected by the economic crisis, for many people, around the world. Empirical evidence presented in different international studies emphasized a causal relation between all these aspects. The purpose of the present study was to identify the economic and health consequences of the economic crisis adopting a psychological perspective. The results of the study emphasize that there is a causal relationship between psychological factors and almost all the dimensions of economic behavior and health status measured. Also, the empirical findings uphold that those who are more risk averse and have the highest perception over the risk exposure are taping the highest values regarding the main stressors measured and present more intense symptoms of stress exposure. The limits of the study come from the fact that health consequences were measured in certain period of time (the last six months, thus, this study do not offer a long term evaluation.

  1. Optimizing of radiation protection. Quantitative approaches and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is made of some of the fundamental ideas and notions, concerned with the quantitative methods of optimizing of radiation protection: modern interpretation of the principle ALARA, definition of the terms 'benefit' and 'harm', the general quantitative measures for evaluation, the socio-economic value of the unit 'collective effective equivalent dose', etc

  2. A faster and economical approach to floodplain mapping using the SSURGO soil database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, N.; Merwade, V.

    2014-12-01

    Floods are the most damaging of all natural disasters, adversely affecting millions of lives and causing financial losses worth billions of dollars every year across the globe. Flood inundation maps play a key role in the assessment and mitigation of potential flood hazards. However, there are several communities in the United States where flood risk maps are not available due to the lack of the resources needed to create such maps through the conventional modeling approach. The objective of this study is to develop and examine an economical alternative approach to floodplain mapping using widely available SSURGO soil data in the United States. By using the state of Indiana as a test case, floodplain maps are developed for the entire state by identifying the flood-prone soil map units based on their attributes recorded in the SSURGO database. For validation, the flood extents obtained from the soil data are compared with the extents predicted by other floodplain maps, including the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) issued Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM), flood extents observed during past floods, and other flood maps derived using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). In general, SSURGO based floodplain maps are found to be largely in agreement with flood inundation maps created by FEMA. Comparison between the FEMA maps and the SSURGO derived floodplain maps show an overlap ranging from 65 to 90 percent. Similar results are also found when the SSURGO derived floodplain maps are compared with FEMA maps for recent flood events in other states including Minnesota, Washington and Wisconsin. Although not in perfect conformance with reference flood maps, the SSURGO soil data approach offers an economical and faster alternative to floodplain mapping in areas where detailed flood modeling and mapping has not been conducted.

  3. Marketing during a Recession: An Illustration of How Economic Principles Guide Marketing Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Marks; Scott Wentland; Abbey O'Connor

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical way for economic educators to integrate marketing into economics principles courses by connecting economic principles and data to advertisements used during the "Great Recession." While most business students are required to take economic principles courses, few appreciate how economic theory applies to different disciplines. To help economic educators integrate material across disciplines, we provide specific connections to marketing for topics commonly taught...

  4. Towards Multi-Method Research Approach in Empirical Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Vladimir; Markkula, Jouni; Oivo, Markku

    This paper presents results of a literature analysis on Empirical Research Approaches in Software Engineering (SE). The analysis explores reasons why traditional methods, such as statistical hypothesis testing and experiment replication are weakly utilized in the field of SE. It appears that basic assumptions and preconditions of the traditional methods are contradicting the actual situation in the SE. Furthermore, we have identified main issues that should be considered by the researcher when selecting the research approach. In virtue of reasons for weak utilization of traditional methods we propose stronger use of Multi-Method approach with Pragmatism as the philosophical standpoint.

  5. A SIMULTANEOUS APPROACH TO WATER-RESOURCE PROTECTION AND ECONOMIC STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT-A Case Study of Guanzhong Region in the Huanghe River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A regional multiple-objectiv e water-resource and economic optimization model wasdevelopednsingaqnantita-five method of systematic analysis. Input to the model includes indexes of economic structure and development, wa-ter-resource utilization, wastewater and pollutant discharge, and investment in wastewater treatment. The model, whichconsists of production-structure and industrial-structure optimization modules, was applied to the Guanzhong region in themiddle reaches of the Huanghe (Yellow) River basin in China. By evaluating several alternative production and industrializa-tion schemes, the modal indicate that water pollution will get worsen though wastewater treatment improves if the economycontinues to develop at the planned speed without structural adjustment. However, the results also show that not only econom-ic goals but also water-resource protection and pollution-control targets can be achieved under an alternative, recommend-ed production and industrial structure. This example illustrates that economic development and environmental protectioncan be improved coordinately by the regional multiple-objective water-resource and economic optimization model. It pro-vides an operable approach to the simultaneous sustained development of water resources and economic growth.

  6. Exploring Marketing and Relationship Software SMEs: A Mixed Methods Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Parry; Beata Kupiec-Teahan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this article is to develop an understanding of marketing and customer relationships in software SMEs using a mixed methods approach.Design/Methodology/Approach The methodology combined qualitative research methods along with quantitative Adaptive Conjoint Analysis (ACA). Qualitative methods included two case studies of SMEs in the software industry which was supported by participant observation of both SMEs. In order to ascertain detailed customer perceptions and expectatio...

  7. ICT and Health System Performance in Africa: A Multi-Method Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bankole, Felix Olu; Mimbi, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    For the past two decades, the discussion regarding the effect of ICT on health systems is becoming apparent. However, past studies have mainly focused on ICT impact on specific social-economic phenomena. Little empirical research on ICT and health systems exists. Many African countries have invested in ICT and there is a need to examine if such investments have impacted on health system of these countries. Using a multi-method approach, data for 27 African countries were analysed. We employed...

  8. A supervisory control approach in economic MPC design for refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    A model predictive control at the supervisory level is proposed for refrigeration systems using price and temperature predictions. The control objective is to minimize the overall energy cost within the prediction horizon. The method is mainly developed for demand-side management in the future...... to rearrange the problem to facilitate convex programming. A nonlinear continuous time model validated by real data is employed to simulate system operation. The results show a considerable economic saving as well as a trade-off between the saving level and design complexity....

  9. A Value Transfer Approach for the Economic Estimation of Industrial Pollution: Policy Recommendations.

    OpenAIRE

    Phoebe Koundouri; Nikos Papandreou; Mavra Stithou; Osiel Davila

    2013-01-01

    In order to make possible an economic estimation of industrial pollution, which is one of the main polluters in the Asopos River Basin (RB), another method that of Benefit Transfer (BT) was applied and is presented in this chapter. The fact that gathering primary site-specific data is costly and time-consuming has made BT a more and more popular alternative for the valuation of ecosystem goods and services and it offers a considerable potential in the light of the EU Water Framework Directive...

  10. Research on Assessment Method of Economic Performances of Provenance Trial and Popularization Project of Pinus massoniana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGZhangqi; WENZhihong

    2004-01-01

    Applying the economic principles, this article carries out the assessment of economic performances brought by forestry research achievement through research and discussion on the assessment method of economic performances of provenance popularization of Pinus massoniana L. The article also brings in the option method to fully display the value of forest research achievement.

  11. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  12. Environment contamination by mycotoxins and their occurrence in food and feed: Physiological aspects and economical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented. PMID:26786025

  13. Trans Pacific Stategic Economic Partnership With Japan, South Korea and China Integrate: General Equilibrium Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP is a high standard and broad based Free Trade Agreement that aims to integrate the economies of the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, the US is pressing Japan to join the group. Japan is considering joining the TPP because of the dual considerations of its own economy and the political situation in East Asia. While, South Korea has yet to agree to join the TPP over concerns that their agriculture will be seriously affected. In addition, Japan and the US are employing both military and economic strategies to isolate China. However, China has contacted those already participating in TPP negotiations and shares some common views with Japan and South Korea on agricultural issues. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to assess the possibility of reaching full trade liberalization or trade creation through the TPP with the addition of new member countries including Japan, Korea and China. Approach: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE or Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model is used to evaluate the economic effects of a TPP agreement among TPP countries with trade creation. In this study, seven cases were created to distinguish the welfare and trade effects of policy changes. Results: We found that the new member countries among TPP countries with East Asia countries including Japan, South Korea and China would benefit from the FTA among member countries. They gain much more from the real GDP and welfare than the TPP agreement, particularly Vietnam and Korea. This is particularly a fact for trade in the meat product sectors between TPP with Japan, Korea and China, which most of them gain benefit. Conclusion: Therefore, the TPP would benefit both economies and welfare with the eliminate tariff rate.

  14. Environment contamination by mycotoxins and their occurrence in food and feed: Physiological aspects and economical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented.

  15. Enhancing Sustainable Innovation by Design: an Approach to the Co-creation of Economic, Social and Environmental Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Rocchi

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis introduces a new, flexible and easy-to-use methodological design approach to envisioning product-service systems able to create economic value for business, as well as social and environmental benefits for society. Such an approach has been developed to support business innova

  16. THE IMPACT OF CREDIT AND CAPITAL SUPPORTS ON ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardus Bala de Rosari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.

  17. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE consumption and economic growth (EG in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA, Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK. The overall results indicate that (1 a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2 long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3 a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4 both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5 Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  18. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  19. Estimating the economic impacts of ecosystem restoration—Methods and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Skrabis, Kristin; Sidon, Joshua

    2016-04-05

    Federal investments in ecosystem restoration projects protect Federal trusts, ensure public health and safety, and preserve and enhance essential ecosystem services. These investments also generate business activity and create jobs. It is important for restoration practitioners to be able to quantify the economic impacts of individual restoration projects in order to communicate the contribution of these activities to local and national stakeholders. This report provides a detailed description of the methods used to estimate economic impacts of case study projects and also provides suggestions, lessons learned, and trade-offs between potential analysis methods.

  20. An example of integrated approach to technical and economic optimization of maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a case study of technical and economic optimization of the periodicity of predetermined preventive maintenance actions carried out on a repairable industrial system from an EDF electric power plant. This analysis is conducted with the MARS software tool (MARS for “maintenance assessment of repairable systems”), developed jointly by Grenoble University and EDF R and D. The innovative aspect of this work lies in the integrated approach that is used, combining two steps. A first estimation step retrospectively assesses maintenance effect on system reliability. A second simulation step predicts the behavior of the maintained system over the time period set as an objective by the operator. The different stages of the case study are described in detail with elaborated considerations about optimization of the periodicity of preventive maintenance

  1. A non-parametric approach to innovation gaps and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ricardo Perilla

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A non-parametric approach based on DEA  techniques is used  to  dis- entangle the  relationship between  innovation growth  and  per-capita GDP growth  in a sample  of 30 countries during  1996-2008.  The decomposition of GDP-growth brings support to the notion of advantage of backward- ness.  It leads to conclude that, in the context of innovation, both the process of catching-up and technological change play an important explanation of the dynamics of economic growth. This is in sharp contrast to alternative evidence that brings more support to the importance of capital deepening in explaining labour growth productivity.

  2. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    periods, unit timing (spread of investments over time); and, possibly, greater involvement of local industry and local labour. The effectiveness of all of these approaches to SMR design and deployment depends on the application and on market variables, such as interest rates, and needs to be assessed and demonstrated for specific cases. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA Member States, the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the twenty-first century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR design and technology development. This report was prepared to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of SMR technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); to provide information on available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that are introducing SMRs into their energy mix. The report is intended for a variety of stakeholders including: design organizations involved in SMR development programmes; investors and potential users of innovative SMRs; and officers in the ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear technology development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium and longer term. The main sections of this report highlight the experience with and future plans for SMRs in several Member States, and present the available methodological options to assist design organizations and guide potential users on the economic performance

  3. Comparative analysis of methodical approaches to evaluating the efficiency of investment projects in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present time, a transition is made to market mechanisms of economy functioning based on equilibrium price formation for products of enterprises and their self-financing. Based on long-term forecasts of economic development, electric power industry should not only ensure preservation of the accumulated potential but should also provide for modernization, reconstruction, service life extension of operating power facilities and construction of new ones. Under market conditions, nuclear power installations will have to prove their right to exist and develop in competition with other power technologies. In these conditions, the responsibility is growing for the correctness of investment decisions taken in the power industry and methods on which they are based. This paper analyzes currently used calculation methods for economic efficiency of investment projects. It emphasizes the limitations and drawbacks of the existing methodical approaches, and their inconsistency with market economy and scientific and technological progress (STP). The said drawbacks lead to serious mistakes in evaluating the prospects for the development of nuclear power. The paper describes a methodical approach based on equilibrium price formation that does not have the said drawbacks and may be used as the basis for further work on creation of improved calculation methods for the economic efficiency of investment projects in nuclear power. (authors)

  4. Comparative analysis of methodical approaches to evaluating the efficiency of investment projects in the power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstooukhov, D.A. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, RDIPE, Minatom RF, Moscow (Russian Federation); Karkhov, A.N. [Nuclear Safety Institute, IBRAE, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    At present time, a transition is made to market mechanisms of economy functioning based on equilibrium price formation for products of enterprises and their self-financing. Based on long-term forecasts of economic development, electric power industry should not only ensure preservation of the accumulated potential but should also provide for modernization, reconstruction, service life extension of operating power facilities and construction of new ones. Under market conditions, nuclear power installations will have to prove their right to exist and develop in competition with other power technologies. In these conditions, the responsibility is growing for the correctness of investment decisions taken in the power industry and methods on which they are based. This paper analyzes currently used calculation methods for economic efficiency of investment projects. It emphasizes the limitations and drawbacks of the existing methodical approaches, and their inconsistency with market economy and scientific and technological progress (STP). The said drawbacks lead to serious mistakes in evaluating the prospects for the development of nuclear power. The paper describes a methodical approach based on equilibrium price formation that does not have the said drawbacks and may be used as the basis for further work on creation of improved calculation methods for the economic efficiency of investment projects in nuclear power. (authors)

  5. Teaching methods in economics as a school subject at secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis aims on teaching methods. The theoretical part is about economics as a school subject, its content, aims, key competence and about factors that influence a learning process. The major part deals with teaching methods. They are classified in groups according to different criteria. There are also criteria of choosing the teaching methods. The practical part presents results from questionnaires given to students and teachers at secondary commercial schools. The aim is to fi...

  6. The economic and environmental value of genetic improvements in fattening pigs: An integrated dynamic model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, J K; Sevón-Aimonen, M-L; Stygar, A H; Partanen, K

    2015-08-01

    The selection of animals for improved performance affects the profitability of pig fattening and has environmental consequences. The goal of this paper was to examine how changes in genetic and market parameters impact the biophysical (feeding patterns, timing of slaughter, nitrogen excretion) and economic (return per pig space unit) results describing pig fattening in a Finnish farm. The analysis can be viewed as focusing on terminal line breeding goals. An integrated model using recursive stochastic dynamic programming and a biological pig growth model was used to estimate biophysical results and economic values. Combining these models allowed us to provide more accurate estimates for the value of genetic improvement and, thus, provide better feedback to animal breeding programs than the traditional approach, which is based on fixed management patterns. Besides the benchmark scenario, the results were simulated for 5 other scenarios. In each scenario, genotype was improved regarding daily growth potential, carcass lean meat content, or the parameters of the Gompertz growth curve (maturing rate [], adult weight of protein [α], and adult weight of lipid mass []). The change in each parameter was equal to approximately 1 SD genetic improvement (ceteris paribus). Increasing , , daily growth potential, or carcass lean meat content increased the return on pig space unit by €12.60, €7.60, €4.10, or €2.90 per year, respectively, whereas an increase in decreased the return by €3.10. The genetic improvement in and resulted in the highest decrease in nitrogen excretion calculated in total or per kilogram of carcass gain but only under the optimal feeding pattern. Simulated changes in the Gompertz growth function parameters imply greater changes in ADG and lean meat content than changes in scenarios focusing on improving ADG and lean meat content directly. The economic value of genetic improvements as well as the quantity of nitrogen excreted during the fattening

  7. Economic Comparison of Standard Method with E.Jurdo Simplified Method to Measure Linear Alkyl Benzenesulfonates in Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pirsaheb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Linear alkyl benzene sulfonates are widely used as surfactants in formulated detergent products. Because of their use in household and industrial detergents, LAS is discharged into wastewater collection systems and subsequently entered to wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, it is important to determine the concentration of LAS with accuracy. They are usually determined by standard method which is time-consuming,tedious and requires great quantities of chloroform. IN 2006 E.Jurado et al proposed a simplified method for measurement of LAS. In the present work the standard method and E.Jurado simplified method was compared economically.Material and Methods: In this work NPV method was used for accounting the cost of initial investment, consumable material, non-consumable equipment and annual cost of staff and finally Net Present Value was calculated for them separately. The rate of interest was considered 15%.Results: calculation showed initial investment, annual cost of staff and materials for standard method 13351981, 499968 and 1710981 RLS, respectively. And these costs for simplified method were 12048202, 83328 and 58202 RLS, respectively. Finally NPV for standard method and simplified method were equal to 30360709 and 14681848 RLS.Conclusion: The method proposed by E.Jurdo et al is simple, time consuming and more economical than standard method .This technique can be suggested applying to the routine measurement of LAS in wastewater treatment plants.

  8. Method for use of economical optimization in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    model of the energy use for each component, a function is set up that represents the relation of the marginal cost of conserved energy and the energy use for different qualities of the component. For building envelopes, the energy use will be the heat loss during heating season, and the main quality......Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing buildings to become nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to do it in the most economical way. Therefore it is very important to develop...... methods of designing such buildings in an economical optimized way. A method of finding the economical optimal solutions has been set up based on use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system. By use of information on construction cost and a simple...

  9. Environmental and Economic Optimization Model for Electric System Planning in Ningxia, China: Inexact Stochastic Risk-Aversion Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to provide a novel risk aversion model for long-term electric power system planning from the manager’s perspective with the consideration of various uncertainties. In the proposed method, interval parameter programming and two-stage stochastic programming are integrated to deal with the technical, economics, and policy uncertainties. Moreover, downside risk theory is introduced to balance the trade-off between the profit and risk according to the decision-maker’s risk aversion attitude. To verify the effectiveness and practical application of this approach, an inexact stochastic risk aversion model is developed for regional electric system planning and management in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. The series of solutions provide the decision-maker with the optimal investment strategy and operation management under different future emission reduction scenarios and risk-aversion levels. The results indicated that pollution control devices are still the main measures to achieve the current mitigation goal and the adjustment of generation structure would play an important role in the future cleaner electricity system with the stricter environmental policy. In addition, the model can be used for generating decision alternatives and helping decision-makers identify desired energy structure adjustment and pollutants/carbon mitigation abatement policies under various economic and system-reliability constraints.

  10. The relationship between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth: Hierarchical structure methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviren, Seyma Akkaya; Deviren, Bayram

    2016-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has an essential role in the current debate on sustainable development and environmental protection. CO2 emission is also directly linked with use of energy which plays a focal role both for production and consumption in the world economy. Therefore the relationship between the CO2 emission and economic growth has a significant implication for the environmental and economical policies. In this study, within the scope of sociophysics, the topology, taxonomy and relationships among the 33 countries, which have almost the high CO2 emission and economic growth values, are investigated by using the hierarchical structure methods, such as the minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT), over the period of 1970-2010. The average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) is also used to examine the cluster structure more clearly in HTs. According to their proximity, economic ties and economic growth, different clusters of countries are identified from the structural topologies of these trees. We have found that the high income & OECD countries are closely connected to each other and are isolated from the upper middle and lower middle income countries from the MSTs, which are obtained both for the CO2 emission and economic growth. Moreover, the high income & OECD clusters are homogeneous with respect to the economic activities and economic ties of the countries. It is also mentioned that the Group of Seven (G7) countries (CAN, ENG, FRA, GER, ITA, JPN, USA) are connected to each other and these countries are located at the center of the MST for the results of CO2 emission. The same analysis may also successfully apply to the other environmental sources and different countries.

  11. A risk-economic approach to nuclear power generation. Beyond the myth of absolute safety and unthinkable events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with a risk-economic approach to nuclear power generation, a very timely yet rather neglected area in the economics profession. The economic and psychological consequences of Japan's recent catastrophe have been so grave and wide-spread, thus calling for careful reexamination of the economics of risk and uncertainty. It is Daniel Bernoulli, a mathematical genius of the 18th century, who first introduced the expected utility theory into decision making under risk. Although a great deal of applications has been done in many areas since then, it appears that the most recent nuclear meltdown of Japan is casting serious doubt upon the general validity of existing risk theories. It is high time for us to establish a new comprehensive approach by taking account of psychological, sociological, cultural, and historical factors. (author)

  12. An integrated lean-methods approach to hospital facilities redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, John

    2012-01-01

    Lean production methods for eliminating waste and improving processes in manufacturing are now being applied in healthcare. As the author shows, the methods are appropriate for redesigning hospital facilities. When used in an integrated manner and employing teams of mostly clinicians, the methods produce facility designs that are custom-fit to patient needs and caregiver work processes, and reduce operational costs. The author reviews lean methods and an approach for integrating them in the redesign of hospital facilities. A case example of the redesign of an emergency department shows the feasibility and benefits of the approach.

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial of Teaching Methods: Do Classroom Experiments Improve Economic Education in High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkopf, Gerald; Sulser, Pascal A.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present results from a comprehensive field experiment at Swiss high schools in which they compare the effectiveness of teaching methods in economics. They randomly assigned classes into an experimental and a conventional teaching group, or a control group that received no specific instruction. Both teaching treatments improve economic…

  14. Comparison of Fixed and Fluidized Beds Adsorber with Economic, Engineering, and Environmental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIGHEH ATRKAR-ROSHAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Release  Volatile  organic  compounds  (VOCs  as  environmental  and  occupational  pollutant  cause  macro perspective affect such as climate change, humans and economic consequences. Although fixed bed absorber is widely used as a controlling method because of its economically and availability, but these absorbers are facing some issue like high pressure drop, non-uniform distribution of fluid, channeling and blocking. Fixed and fluidized beds adsorbent was compared from three economic, environmental and engineering perspectives using Multi Criteria Decision Making analysis (MCDA technique. An annular fluidized bed adsorber was designed and charged with 50-100 µm (100-140 ASTM mesh activated carbon (AC particles. Effects of factors like flow rate, particle size, inlet concentration and adsorption capacity of VOCs was investigated under steady state. In the flow rate less than 0.25(Lit.min-1, inlet gas slowly passes through the void spaces of the bed’s particles. By increasing the inlet flow from 0.3(Lit/min-1, bubbles start to form in the bed and the bed pressure drop decrease. The pressure drop of 6 (g of AC in minimum fluidization velocity was 20(KN.m-2. However, the pressure drop of 10 and 20(g of AC were 150 and 420(KN.m-2 respectively. “maximin” technique used for comparison of two beds indicated that minimum score of pack bed absorber are 0.37 while the minimum score of fluidized bed adsorber are 0.5. It indicated when the adsorbent particles are smaller, fluidized bed adsorber are more suitable to use. In addition, using MCDA technique indicated that annular fluidized bed adsorber could considered as an alternative of fixed beds adsorber.

  15. Approaches to greenhouse gas accounting methods for biomass carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation examines different approaches for the GHG flux accounting of activities within a tight boundary of biomass C cycling, with scope limited to exclude all other aspects of the lifecycle. Alternative approaches are examined that a) account for all emissions including biogenic CO2 cycling – the biogenic method; b) account for the quantity of C that is moved to and maintained in the non-atmospheric pool – the stock method; and c) assume that the net balance of C taken up by biomass is neutral over the short-term and hence there is no requirement to include this C in the calculation – the simplified method. This investigation demonstrates the inaccuracies in both emissions forecasting and abatement calculations that result from the use of the simplified method, which is commonly accepted for use. It has been found that the stock method is the most accurate and appropriate approach for use in calculating GHG inventories, however short-comings of this approach emerge when applied to abatement projects, as it does not account for the increase in biogenic CO2 emissions that are generated when non-CO2 GHG emissions in the business-as-usual case are offset. Therefore the biogenic method or a modified version of the stock method should be used to accurately estimate GHG emissions abatement achieved by a project. This investigation uses both the derivation of methodology equations from first principles and worked examples to explore the fundamental differences in the alternative approaches. Examples are developed for three project scenarios including; landfill, combustion and slow-pyrolysis (biochar) of biomass. -- Highlights: • Different approaches can be taken to account for the GHG emissions from biomass. • Simplification of GHG accounting methods is useful, however, can lead to inaccuracies. • Approaches used currently are often inadequate for practises that store carbon. • Accounting methods for emissions forecasting can be inadequate for

  16. Transferability of health technology assessments and economic evaluations: a systematic review of approaches for assessment and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goeree R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ron Goeree1,2, Jing He1,2, Daria O'Reilly1,2, Jean-Eric Tarride1,2, Feng Xie1,2, Morgan Lim1,2, Natasha Burke1,21Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH Research Institute, St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, CanadaBackground: Health technology assessments (HTA generally, and economic evaluations (EE more specifically, have become an integral part of health care decision making around the world. However, these assessments are time consuming and expensive to conduct. Evaluation resources are scarce and therefore priorities need to be set for these assessments and the ability to use information from one country or region in another (geographic transferability is an increasingly important consideration.Objectives: To review the existing approaches, systems, and tools for assessing the geographic transferability potential or guiding the conduct of transferring HTAs and EEs.Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted of several databases, supplemented with web searching, hand searching of journals, and bibliographic searching of identified articles. Systems, tools, checklists, and flow charts to assess, evaluate, or guide the conduct of transferability of HTAs and EEs were identified.Results: Of 282 references identified, 27 articles were reviewed in full text and of these, seven proposed unique systems, tools, checklists, or flow charts specifically for geographic transferability. All of the seven articles identified a checklist of transferability factors to consider, and most articles identified a subset of 'critical' factors for assessing transferability potential. Most of these critical factors related to study quality, transparency of methods, the level of reporting of methods and results, and the applicability of the treatment comparators to the target country. Some authors proposed a sequenced flow chart type approach

  17. Numerical methods in finance and economics a MATLAB-based introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brandimarte, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A state-of-the-art introduction to the powerful mathematical and statistical tools used in the field of financeThe use of mathematical models and numerical techniques is a practice employed by a growing number of applied mathematicians working on applications in finance. Reflecting this development, Numerical Methods in Finance and Economics: A MATLAB?-Based Introduction, Second Edition bridges the gap between financial theory and computational practice while showing readers how to utilize MATLAB?--the powerful numerical computing environment--for financial applications.The author provides an essential foundation in finance and numerical analysis in addition to background material for students from both engineering and economics perspectives. A wide range of topics is covered, including standard numerical analysis methods, Monte Carlo methods to simulate systems affected by significant uncertainty, and optimization methods to find an optimal set of decisions.Among this book''s most outstanding features is the...

  18. Different approaches to the Czech and Chinese university students in Business Economics: A teaching experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Wozniaková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available University internationalization in the field of education as well as in the field of science and research is one of the main priorities of VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava. VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava has several double degree agreements with foreign universities, mostly from Western Europe – e.g. Great Britain, Finland, but also with foreign universities outside Europe. In 2009 VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava signed a memorandum with Hubei University of Technology. This cooperation involves travelling of the Czech teachers to China and teaching several subjects at Hubei University of Technology as well as teaching 3rd year Chinese students at VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava (Czech Republic. This paper brings own teaching experience of the European lecturer who gave the lectures at the Chinese university for the Chinese students studying in English. Ishikawa diagram was used to determine the main causes of Chinese students’ failure in Business Economics. This paper brings modified methods of teaching Business Economics to be more suitable for Chinese students as well as critical review of Chinese students’ learning styles and characteristics observed by the author of the paper.

  19. A SIMULTANEOUS APPROACH TO WATER—RESOURCE PROTECTION AND ECONOMIC STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT —A Case Study of Guanzhong Region in the Huanghe River Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXi-qin; LIUChang-ming; 等

    2002-01-01

    A regional multiple-objective water-resource and economic optimization model was developed using a quantitative method of systematic analysis.Input to the model includes indexes of economic structure and development,water-resource utilization,wastewater and pollutant discharge,and investment in wastewater treatment.The model,which consists of producton-structure and industrial-structure optimization modules,was applied to the Guanzhong region in the middle reaches of the Huanghe(Yellow) River basin in China.By evaluating several alternative production and industrialization schemes,the modal indicate that water pollution will get worsen though wastewater treatment improves if the economy continues to develop at the planned speed without structural adjustment.However,the results also show that not only economic goals but also water-resource protection and pollution-control targets can be achieved under an alternative,recommended production and industrial structure.This example illustrates that economic development and environmental protection can be improved coordinately by the regional multiple-objective water-resource and economic optimization model.It provides an operable approach to the simultaneous sustained development of water resources and economic growth.

  20. Pros and Cons for the Implementation of Target Costing Method in Romanian Economic Entities

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin BRICIU; Sorinel CAPUSNEANU

    2013-01-01

    The article looks at the pros and cons for the implementation of Target Costing method in Romanian household appliances manufacturing entities, based on its specific principle. Based on recent results obtained by experts in this field and taking into account the specific aspects of the Romanian economic entities, among the topic’s pursued objectives we enumerate the following: analysis of critical implementation or non-implementation factors related to the Target Costing method and their impa...

  1. Drug Inventory Control As A Method Of Teaching Health Economics -A Six Stage Lecture Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Soudarssanane M B

    1997-01-01

    Research question: Can drug inventory control be used as a method of teaching health economics to undergraduate medical students? Objectives: 1. To use drug inventory control method for highlighting the concept of cost â€" analysis with cost â€" effectiveness and 2. Preparing a list of the type and quantity of essential drugs at the health center level given the morbidity pattern and population data. Study design: Lecture- discussion. Setting: Health cen...

  2. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  3. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document

  4. Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

  5. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Black Sea Economic Cooperation area: a gravity approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmutoğlu, Gülnihal

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Economics and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1998. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1998. Includes bibliographical references leaves 26. Mahmutoğlu, Gülnihal Master's

  6. The Measurement of Economic, Social and Environmental Performance of Countries: A Novel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracolici, Maria Francesca; Cuffaro, Miranda; Nijkamp, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical framework for assessing spatial disparities among countries. It takes for granted that the analysis of a country's performance cannot be limited solely to either economic or social factors. The aim of the paper is to combine relevant economic and "non-economic" (mainly social) aspects of a country's performance…

  7. Rethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post-WWII Japan--A Fresh Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusago, Takayoshi

    2007-01-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been utilized by academics and policy makers to indicate the economic well-being of the people. However, economic growth measures cannot capture fully the overall well-being of the people. This paper has tested quality of economic growth in Japan after World War II as to whether it has brought about positive…

  8. Adopting a farming systems research approach to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2012-01-01

    and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) used the guideline to structure, manage and carry out an economic and environmental analysis of the food supply chains of concern. The FSR approach enabled the participants to jointly define and model the structure of the supply chains, identify...... as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic...

  9. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Ecological economics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field concerned with the relationship between economic systems and the biological and physical world. This article covers the following topics: A discussion of views on whether ecological economics is just a field or approach within economics or a new ÒtransdisciplinaryÓ field in its own right; Origin of the name of the field; Core common principles of ecological economics; Comparison with environmental economics; Applications; Histor...

  10. Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pauleit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.

  11. An overview of methods and applications to value informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmanschap, Marc A; van Exel, Job N A; van den Berg, Bernard; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares several applied valuation methods for including informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare programmes: the proxy good method; the opportunity cost method; the contingent valuation method (CVM); conjoint measurement (CM); and valuation of health effects in terms of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and well-being. The comparison focuses on three questions: what outcome measures are available for including informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare programmes; whether these measures are compatible with the common types of economic evaluation; and, when applying these measures, whether all relevant aspects of informal care are incorporated. All types of economic evaluation can incorporate a monetary value of informal care (using the opportunity cost method, the proxy good method, CVM and CM) on the cost side of an analysis, but only when the relevant aspects of time costs have been valued. On the effect side of a cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analysis, the health effects (for the patient and/or caregiver) measured in natural units or QALYs can be combined with cost estimates based on the opportunity cost method or the proxy good method. One should be careful when incorporating CVM and CM in cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, as the health effects of patients receiving informal care and the carers themselves may also have been valued separately. One should determine whether the caregiver valuation exercise allows combination with other valuation techniques. In cost-benefit analyses, CVM and CM appear to be the best tools for the valuation of informal care. When researchers decide to use the well-being method, we recommend applying it in a cost-benefit analysis framework. This method values overall QOL (happiness); hence it is broader than just HR-QOL, which complicates inclusion in traditional health economic evaluations that normally define outcomes more narrowly. Using broader, non

  12. Technical and economical evaluation of predictive methods applicable to equipment; Evaluacion tecnico-economica de metodos predictivos aplicados a equipos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagola, Guillermo Alejandro [TRANSENER S.A. - Companhia de Transporte de Energia Eletrica em Alta Tensao, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: pagolgui@transx.com.ar

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the accomplished evaluation analysis in relation to new real time predictive method applicable to circuit breakers through both economical evaluations and reliability calculations.

  13. Multidimensional Programming Methods for Energy Facility Siting: Alternative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, B. D.; Haynes, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of multidimensional optimization methods in solving power plant siting problems, which are characterized by several conflicting, noncommensurable objectives is addressed. After a discussion of data requirements and exclusionary site screening methods for bounding the decision space, classes of multiobjective and goal programming models are discussed in the context of finite site selection. Advantages and limitations of these approaches are highlighted and the linkage of multidimensional methods with the subjective, behavioral components of the power plant siting process is emphasized.

  14. Methods of Economic Valuation of The Health Risks Associated with Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalhevet, S.; Haruvy, N.

    The worldwide market for nanomaterials is growing rapidly, but relatively little is still known about the potential risks associated with these materials. The potential health hazards associated with exposure to nanomaterials may lead in the future to increased health costs as well as increased economic costs to the companies involved, as has happened in the past in the case of asbestos. Therefore, it is important to make an initial estimate of the potential costs associated with these health hazards, and to prepare ahead with appropriate health insurance for individuals and financial insurance for companies. While several studies have examined the environmental and health hazards of different nanomaterials by performing life cycle impact assessments, so far these studies have concentrated on the cost of production, and did not estimate the economic impact of the health hazards. This paper discusses methods of evaluating the economic impact of potential health hazards on the public. The proposed method is based on using life cycle impact assessment studies of nanomaterials to estimate the DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) associated with the increased probability of these health hazards. The economic valuation of DALY's can be carried out based on the income lost and the costs of medical treatment. The total expected increase in cost depends on the increase in the statistical probability of each disease.

  15. Methods for Health Economic Evaluation of Vaccines and Immunization Decision Frameworks : A Consensus Framework from a European Vaccine Economics Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultsch, Bernhard; Damm, Oliver; Beutels, Philippe; Bilcke, Joke; Brueggenjuergen, Bernd; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Greiner, Wolfgang; Hanquet, Germaine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark; Knol, Mirjam; von Kries, Ruediger; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Perleth, Matthias; Postma, Maarten; Salo, Heini; Siebert, Uwe; Wasem, Jurgen; Wichmann, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses [health economic evaluations (HEEs)] of vaccines are routinely considered in decision making on immunization in various industrialized countries. While guidelines advocating more standardization of such HEEs (mainly for curative drugs) exist,

  16. MONOPOLY PROHIBITION ACCORDING TO ISLAMIC LAW: A LAW AND ECONOMICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvie Johan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic law prohibits monopoly. The issue had arose since the advent of Islam, whereby it’s used as a strategy to maximize profit, has experienced rapid developments. This article assess the extent of Islamic law in prohibiting monopoly using law and economics approach. The result is that the exercise of caution shall apply in prohibiting monopoly. There are three steps needed in exercising the rule of caution: (1 defining monopoly as the absence of competition and lack of pricing options; (2 providing criteria of what causes monopoly in form of agreements between business competitors who can go against allocative efficiency effectively; and (3 direct the prohibition on monopoly towards agreement on explicit horizontal mergers and very large horizontal mergers which disregards quick mergers. Hukum Islam melarang monopoli. Isunya adalah sejak kedatangan Islam strategi pelaku usaha untuk memaksimalkan keuntungan telah berkembang pesat. Tulisan ini menentukan jangkauan hukum Islam untuk melarang monopoli dengan pendekatan hukum dan ekonomi. Hasilnya kehati-hatian dalam melarang monopoli. Tulisan menguraikan tiga langkah yang dibutuhkan: (1 memaknai monopoli sebagai ketidakhadiran persaingan dan ketiadaan pilihan harga; (2 memberikan kriteria monopoli berupa kesepakatan antar pelaku usaha pesaing yang mampu melawan efisiensi alokasi secara efektif; dan (3 mengarahkan larangan monopoli pada perjanjian horisontal eksplisit dan penggabungan berukuran besar. 

  17. Environment degradation, economic growth and energy consumption nexus: A wavelet-windowed cross correlation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker

    2015-10-01

    This paper analyzes the interactive linkages between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (EG) using a novel approach namely wavelet windowed cross correlation (WWCC) for six oil-exporting countries from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region over the period 1980-2012. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EC and EG. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EG and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between EC and EG in order to maintain sustainable EG in the GCC region. Our findings will be useful for GCC countries to better evaluate its situation in the future climate negotiations. The overall findings will help GCC countries assess its position better in future climate change negotiations.

  18. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared without harmful organics: A biosafe and economical approach

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-06-01

    Growth of titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles of varying size, ranging from 20-60 nms through a versatile and an economic route, is being reported. The approach is based on a simple reaction of titanium powder and De-Ionized (DI) water at ∼180 °C, without use of any harmful additives. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) reveals the well defined morphology of nanoparticles, whereas X-ray Diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that the, as prepared, nanoparticles are in a mixed phase, with a dominance of a stable rutile phase. Since only water, which is regarded as a benign solvent, is used during the preparation of nanoparticles, we believe that the products so produced are biocompatible and bio-safe and can be readily used for medical applications. The biocompatibility tests are yet to be carried out and shall be reported in forthcoming publications. © 2011 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed. (author)

  20. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed.

  1. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran)

    2010-03-15

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed. (author)

  2. Approaches and methods for econometric analysis of market power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Glauben, Thomas; Grings, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power in agricultu......This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power...... in agricultural and food markets. We provide a framework that may help researchers to evaluate and improve structural models of market power. Starting with the specification of the approaches in question, we compare published empirical studies of market power with respect to the choice of the applied approach......, functional forms, estimation methods and derived estimates of the degree of market power. Thereafter, we use our framework to evaluate several structural models based on PTA and GIM to measure oligopsony power in the Ukrainian dairy industry. The PTA-based results suggest that the estimated parameters...

  3. Why had the Money Market Approach been irrelevant in explaining inflation in Azerbaijan during the rapid economic growth period?

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhri, Hasanov; Khudayar, Hasanli

    2011-01-01

    The study examines whether inflation process can be explained within the framework of the Money Market Approach in the third stage of economic development of Azerbaijan economy covering 2004-2008. By employing dynamic modeling study concludes that the Money Market Approach has not been relevant for explaining Azerbaijani inflation. Because Azerbaijan, a resource rich small open economy in transition processes, has some stylized facts which are important to take into account in the analysis of...

  4. An LP-SAM Approach for Examining Regional Economic Impacts: An Application to Wildfire Disasters in Southeast Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Man-Keun Kim; Ertqian Zhu; Harris, Thomas R.; Jonathan E. Alevy

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of regional economic impacts can be accomplished using either an input-output analysis or a social accounting matrix (SAM) analysis. While these approaches can generate important insights, they have significant limitations for some cases, e.g., the event of the need to reallocate limited resources such as land, labor, etc., because they do not include a complete set of decision makers’ activities and managerial options. This study develops a flexible approach to link the firm lev...

  5. Analysis of Economic Determinants of Fertility in Iran: A Multilevel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moeeni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background During the last three decades, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR in Iran has fallen considerably; from 6.5 per woman in 1983 to 1.89 in 2010. This paper analyzes the extent to which economic determinants at the micro and macro levels are associated with the number of children in Iranian households. Methods Household data from the 2010 Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS is linked to provincial data from the 2010 Iran Multiple-Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS, the National Census of Population and Housing conducted in 1986, 1996, 2006 and 2011, and the 1985–2010 Iran statistical year books. Fertility is measured as the number of children in each household. A random intercept multilevel Poisson regression function is specified based on a collective model of intra-household bargaining power to investigate potential determinants of the number of children in Iranian households. Results Ceteris paribus (other things being equal, probability of having more children drops significantly as either real per capita educational expenditure or real total expenditure of each household increase. Both the low- and the high-income households show probabilities of having more children compared to the middle-income households. Living in provinces with either higher average amount of value added of manufacturing establishments or lower average rate of house rent is associated to higher probability of having larger number of children. Higher levels of gender gap indices, resulting in household’s wife’s limited power over household decision-making, positively affect the probability of having more children. Conclusion Economic determinants at the micro and macro levels, distribution of intra-household bargaining power between spouses and demographic covariates determined fertility behavior of Iranian households.

  6. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  7. MATHEMATICAL METHODS AND TOOLS OF TRENDS’ RESEARCH IN THE EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURAL AND ECONOMIC PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymratova A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the view of the fact that there is no more or less complete theory of time series prediction memory to date. This determines the urgency and necessity of the development of new mathematical methods and algorithms to detect possible potential predictability of the series with the memory and the construction of adequate predictive models. Classical methods of forecasting economic time series are based on the mathematical apparatus of econometrics. It is carried out basing on the assumption that the observations that make up the projected time series are independent, whereby to perform the necessary subordination of the normal law. The latter, however, is the exception rather than the rule for economic time series that have so-called long-term memory. Toolkit implementations of nonlinear dynamics were the new computer technology that made it possible to study complex phenomena and processes “on the display screen”. The proposed approach differs from the classical methods of forecasting by the implementation of a new accounting trends (evolution of centers and the size of a bounding box, and is a new tool (phase portraits to identify the cyclical components of the considered time series

  8. Time-explicit methods for joint economical and geological risk mitigation in production optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Hjuler; Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    Real-life applications of production optimization face challenges of risks related to unpredictable fluctuations in oil prices and sparse geological data. Consequently, operating companies are reluctant to adopt model-based production optimization into their operations. Conventional production...... therefore leave the oil production subject to substantial economical risk. To address this challenge, this paper introduces a novel set of time-explicit (TE) methods, which combine ideas of multi-objective optimization and ensemble-based risk mitigation into a computationally tractable joint effort...... of mitigating economical and geological risks. As opposed to conventional strategies that focus on a single long-term objective, TE methods seek to reduce risks and promote returns over the entire reservoir life by optimization of a given ensemble-based geological risk measure over time. By explicit involvement...

  9. The theory and methods for investigation of the processes synchronized dealing with ecological safety within economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopenko Olga Volodymyrivna

    2014-12-01

    distributed over time as well as current and potential environmental safety concept of the business system. There are designed a table of the value of the coefficient g(z in order to simplify the use of index .It was introduced by the authors and based on a retrospective analysis of parameters , that correspond to the different processes and measures concerning the providing of environmental safety of the business system in accordance to the appropriate level. It was introduced in the terms of the actual concept, directed on the innovational ecological activity in different countries and regions. We shall consider the economic system as a set of economic, ecological and social subsystems. A set of indicators concerning economic system constituents at the enterprise and regional level is formed. A methodological approach to forecasting of economic system development dynamics mutually with the tools for the economic safety provision at the highest level is improved. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The integral results of the performed research improve the conceptual statements of the theory and method of investigation for synchronization of the processes concerning providing the ecology safety of economy system. The practical meaning of the obtained results consists in the possibility to increase the efficiency of controlling economy system for its constant development due to the offered scientific and methodological approach for estimating synchronization of the observed processes. Thus, the issues being proposed by the authors, allow to move towards elaboration of the theoretical and methodological approaches to ecological safety management of the global economic system.

  10. Neumannian Economy in Multi-agent Approach. Investigation of Stability and Instability in Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Katalin Martinas

    2004-01-01

    Axiomatic foundation of non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. The economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials) owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity), and the rate of transport (trade) are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for the Neumannian economy. The emergence of the equilibrium market structure app...

  11. NEUMANNIAN ECONOMY IN MULTI-AGENT APPROACH. INVESTIGATION OF STABILITY AND INSTABILITY IN ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Axiomatic foundation of non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. The economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for the Neumannian economy. The emergence of the equilibrium market structure appears as an order out of chaos process.

  12. Crime and economic conditions in Malaysia: An ARDL Bounds Testing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Habibullah, M.S.; Baharom, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Economists recognized that economic conditions have an impact on crime activities. In this study we employed the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing procedure to analyze the impact of economic conditions on various categories of criminal activities in Malaysia for the period 1973-2003. Real gross national product was used as proxy for economic conditions in Malaysia. Our results indicate that murder, armed robbery, rape, assault, daylight burglary and motorcycle theft exhibit...

  13. Economic Efficiency Of Fadama Telfairia Production In Imo State Nigeria: A Translog Profit Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi Ndubuto; Onyenweaku, Chris E.

    2007-01-01

    The study delved into economic efficiency analysis of Fadama Telfairia farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it identified the production systems; estimated the economic efficiency and their determinants. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of 40 Fadama Telfairia farmers from each of the three agricultural zones of the State. A well-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio - economic characteristics and other relevant variables. ...

  14. The Measurement of Convergence of Economic Freedoms with Haldane-Hall Approach

    OpenAIRE

    AKINCI, Merter; YÜCE AKINCI, Gönül; Yilmaz, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important developments in the last thirty years is the expansion of liberal economic thought and policies in terms of accelerating globalization movements. Libertarian movements the scope of which has been extended with regards to economics and especially neo-liberal movements became an irreplaceable element of social set-up and their economic liberation formed the main core of the developments of macroeconomics with the aim of increasing the welfare level. In this study, ther...

  15. Methods of assessing the environmental quality of socio-economic development of regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ilinbaeva EkaterinaAleksandrovna; Shelomencev Andrej Gennad'evich; Doroshenko Svetlana Victorovna

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the methods of an ecological quality assessment of the regional social and economic development strategies, which is based on system of the criteria considering an inclusiveness of an ecological factor in the analysis of the problems of regional development, the development to scenario conditions, the definition of the priority ecological purposes and the directions of regional development, level of state regulation, productivity assessment. Results of an assessment are a...

  16. Various contact approaches for the finite cell method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyukhov, Alexander; Lorenz, Christian; Schweizerhof, Karl

    2015-08-01

    The finite cell method (FCM) provides a method for the computation of structures which can be described as a mixture of high-order FEM and a special integration technique. The method is one of the novel computational methods and is highly developed within the last decade. One of the major problems of FCM is the description of boundary conditions inside cells as well as in sub-cells. And a completely open problem is the description of contact. Therefore, the motivation of the current work is to develop a set of computational contact mechanics approaches which will be effective for the finite element cell method. Thus, for the FCM method we are developing and testing hereby focusing on the Hertz problem the following algorithms: direct integration in the cell method, allowing the fastest implementation, but suffering from numerical artifacts such as the "stamp effect"; the most efficient scheme concerning approximation properties the cell-surface-to-analytical-surface contact element designed for contact with rigid bodies leading to cell-wisely contact elements; and finally the discrete-cell-to-cell contact approach based on the finite discrete method. All developed methods are carefully verified with the analytical Hertz solution. The cell subdivisions, the order of the shape functions as well as the selection of the classes for shape functions are investigated for all developed contact approaches. This analysis allows to choose the most robust approach depending on the needs of the user such as correct representation of the stresses, or only satisfaction of geometrical non-penetration conditions.

  17. Integrating economic evaluation methods into clinical and translational science award consortium comparative effectiveness educational goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarne, Alexander; Easterwood, Rachel; Russo, Mark J; Wang, Y Claire

    2011-06-01

    With the ongoing debate over health care reform in the United States, public health and policy makers have paid growing attention to the need for comparative effectiveness research (CER). Recent allocation of federal funds for CER represents a significant move toward increased evidence-based practice and better-informed allocation of constrained health care resources; however, there is also heated debate on how, or whether, CER may contribute to controlling national health care expenditures. Economic evaluation, in the form of cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analysis, is often an aspect of CER studies, yet there are no recommendations or guidelines for providing clinical investigators with the necessary skills to collect, analyze, and interpret economic data from clinical trials or observational studies. With an emphasis on multidisciplinary research, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium and institutional CTSA sites serve as an important resource for training researchers to engage in CER. In this article, the authors discuss the potential role of CTSA sites in integrating economic evaluation methods into their comparative effectiveness education goals, using the Columbia University Medical Center CTSA as an example. By allowing current and future generations of clinical investigators to become fully engaged not only in CER but also in the economic evaluations that result from such analyses, CTSA sites can help develop the necessary foundation for advancing research to guide clinical decision making and efficient use of limited resources.

  18. The Langevin Approach: a simple stochastic method for complex phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Reinke, Nico; Medjroubi, Wided; Lind, Pedro G; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple stochastic method, so-called Langevin approach, which enables one to extract evolution equations of stochastic variables from a set of measurements. Our method is parameter-free and it is based on the nonlinear Langevin equation. Moreover, it can be applied not only to processes in time, but also to processes in scale, given that the data available shows ergodicity. This chapter introduces the mathematical foundations of the Langevin approach and describes how to implement it numerically. A specific application of the method is presented, namely to a turbulent velocity field measured in the laboratory, retrieving the corresponding energy cascade and comparing with the results from a computational simulation of that experiment. In addition, we describe a physical interpretation bridging between processes in time and in scale. Finally, we describe extensions of the method for time series reconstruction and applications to other fields such as finance, medicine, geophysics and renewable ener...

  19. Framework for evaluation risk of bankruptcy for economic entities using specific models and methods from economic analysis and information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Cibotariu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Currently, there is greater interest on economic and financial analysis of the firm, due to the feeling of instability caused by the global financial crisis. Simply put, governments, and millions of individuals holding shares in the stock market as small investors were placed in an unprecedented situation. This paper aims to estimate the default risk through the use of IT.

    Keywords: financial analysis, business models, knowledge, rate of economic, expert systems


  20. Place of the method of crime in the sphere of economic activity in the system of criminalistics description

    OpenAIRE

    Дудніков, А. Л.

    2016-01-01

    The criminalistics features of methods of crimes in the sphere of economic activity are analyzed, the concept of criminalistics description of crimes is investigated, the structure of criminalistics description of crimes in the sphere of economic activity is offered and the location of method in its system is determined.

  1. The evaluation of economic methods to assess the social value of medical interventions for ultra-rare disorders (URDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlander, M.; Garattini, S.; Holm, S.; Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L.; Nord, E.; Persson, U.; Postma, M.J.; Richardson, J.; Simoens, S.; De Sola-Morales, O.; Tolley, K.; Toumi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To develop a set of criteria to critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of health economic methods for the systematic valuation of interventions for ultra-rare disorders (URDs). Methods: An international group of clinical and health economic experts met in conjunction with the A

  2. Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning Concept in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Amin Umar; Bala, Dauda; Ladu, Kolomi Mutah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning concepts in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno state, Nigeria. Five objectives: to determine the effectiveness of demonstration method in learning economics concepts among secondary school students in Borno state, determine the effectiveness…

  3. Growth of uniform nanoparticles of platinum by an economical approach at relatively low temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2012-06-01

    Current chemical methods of synthesis have shown limited success in the fabrication of nanomaterials, which involves environmentally malignant chemicals. Environmental friendly synthesis requires alternative solvents, and it is expected that the use of soft options of green approaches may overcome these obstacles. Water, which is regarded as a benign solvent, has been used in the present work for the preparation of platinum nanoparticles. The average particle diameter is in the range of ∼13±5 nm and particles are largely agglomerated. The advantages of preparing nanoparticles with this method include ease, flexibility and cost effectiveness. The prospects of the process are bright, and the technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer F. Ghanem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  5. Engaging Health Professionals in Health Economics: A Human Capital Informed Approach for Adults Learning Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…

  6. Relationship between crimes and economic conditions in Pakistan: a time series approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raja, Mohsin Gulzar; Ullah, Kafait

    2013-01-01

    Using the time series data from 1990-2011, this paper is an attempt to explore the relationship between economic conditions and criminal activities in Pakistan. Three variables are being used for economic conditions like increasing female employment in labor market, CPI which denotes inflation and i

  7. Economically optimal timing for crop disease control under uncertainty: an options approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeffo Mbah, M.L.; Forster, G.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Gilligan, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Severe large-scale disease and pest infestations in agricultural regions can cause significant economic damage. Understanding if and when disease control measures should be taken in the presence of risk and uncertainty is a key issue. We develop a framework to examine the economically optimal timing

  8. Economic Modelling for water Quantity and Quality Management: A Welfare Program Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated economic model which is able to explicitly address both water quantity and quality. We use a welfare program to maximize social welfare subject to the economic and ecological constraints, where interactions, emissions and environmental impacts are incorporated. Such

  9. Estimating Potential GDP for the Romanian Economy and Assessing the Sustainability of Economic Growth: A Multivariate Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of economic recovery and rebalancing, the necessity of modelling and estimating the potential output and output gap emerges in order to assess the quality and sustainability of economic growth, the monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the impact of business cycles. Despite the importance of potential GDP and the output gap, there are difficulties in reliably estimating them, as many of the models proposed in the economic literature are calibrated for developed economies and are based on complex macroeconomic relationships and a long history of robust data, while emerging economies exhibit high volatility. The object of this study is to develop a model in order to estimate the potential GDP and output gap and to assess the sustainability of projected growth using a multivariate filter approach. This trend estimation technique is the newest approach proposed by the economic literature and has gained wide acceptance with researchers and practitioners alike, while also being used by the IMF for Romania. The paper will be structured as follows. We first discuss the theoretical background of the model. The second section focuses on an analysis of the Romanian economy for the 1995–2013 time frame, while also providing a forecast for 2014–2017 and an assessment of the sustainability of Romania’s economic growth. The third section sums up the results and concludes.

  10. Book Review: Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Mcginn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (2nd edition By Mark Bray, Bob Adamson and Mark Mason (Eds. (2014, 453p ISBN: 978-988-17852-8-2, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre and Springer

  11. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Stijn; Zoet, Martijn; Versendaal, Johan; Weerd, Inge van de

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we de

  12. A retrospective approach to testing the DNA barcoding method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Chapple

    Full Text Available A decade ago, DNA barcoding was proposed as a standardised method for identifying existing species and speeding the discovery of new species. Yet, despite its numerous successes across a range of taxa, its frequent failures have brought into question its accuracy as a short-cut taxonomic method. We use a retrospective approach, applying the method to the classification of New Zealand skinks as it stood in 1977 (primarily based upon morphological characters, and compare it to the current taxonomy reached using both morphological and molecular approaches. For the 1977 dataset, DNA barcoding had moderate-high success in identifying specimens (78-98%, and correctly flagging specimens that have since been confirmed as distinct taxa (77-100%. But most matching methods failed to detect the species complexes that were present in 1977. For the current dataset, there was moderate-high success in identifying specimens (53-99%. For both datasets, the capacity to discover new species was dependent on the methodological approach used. Species delimitation in New Zealand skinks was hindered by the absence of either a local or global barcoding gap, a result of recent speciation events and hybridisation. Whilst DNA barcoding is potentially useful for specimen identification and species discovery in New Zealand skinks, its error rate could hinder the progress of documenting biodiversity in this group. We suggest that integrated taxonomic approaches are more effective at discovering and describing biodiversity.

  13. Methodological Challenges to Economic Evaluations of Vaccines: Is a Common Approach Still Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    Economic evaluation of vaccination is a key tool to inform effective spending on vaccines. However, many evaluations have been criticised for failing to capture features of vaccines which are relevant to decision makers. These include broader societal benefits (such as improved educational achievement, economic growth and political stability), reduced health disparities, medical innovation, reduced hospital beds pressures, greater peace of mind and synergies in economic benefits with non-vaccine interventions. Also, the fiscal implications of vaccination programmes are not always made explicit. Alternative methodological frameworks have been proposed to better capture these benefits. However, any broadening of the methodology for economic evaluation must also involve evaluations of non-vaccine interventions, and hence may not always benefit vaccines given a fixed health-care budget. The scope of an economic evaluation must consider the budget from which vaccines are funded, and the decision-maker's stated aims for that spending to achieve.

  14. Methodological Challenges to Economic Evaluations of Vaccines: Is a Common Approach Still Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    Economic evaluation of vaccination is a key tool to inform effective spending on vaccines. However, many evaluations have been criticised for failing to capture features of vaccines which are relevant to decision makers. These include broader societal benefits (such as improved educational achievement, economic growth and political stability), reduced health disparities, medical innovation, reduced hospital beds pressures, greater peace of mind and synergies in economic benefits with non-vaccine interventions. Also, the fiscal implications of vaccination programmes are not always made explicit. Alternative methodological frameworks have been proposed to better capture these benefits. However, any broadening of the methodology for economic evaluation must also involve evaluations of non-vaccine interventions, and hence may not always benefit vaccines given a fixed health-care budget. The scope of an economic evaluation must consider the budget from which vaccines are funded, and the decision-maker's stated aims for that spending to achieve. PMID:26832145

  15. [Health and economic benefits of compulsory regular vaccination in the Slovak Republic. I. Methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudecková, H; Straka, S

    2000-02-01

    The authors will submit in their series of contributions under the common title of "Health and Economic Benefits of Compulsory Regular Vaccination in the Slovak Republic" estimates of benefits and effectiveness of particular vaccinations. In their first contribution they deal with the objectives and methods of this evaluation essential for the allocation of funds for the maintenance of existing preventive programmes and also for the implementation of new preventive measures. On the basis of literary data and their own experience they formulate modified methods of cost/effectiveness and cost/benefit and other parameters adjusted for the conditions of the vaccination programme in the Slovak Republic.

  16. Developing Econometrics Statistical Theories and Methods with Applications to Economics and Business

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Hengqing; Huang, Yangxin

    2011-01-01

    Statistical Theories and Methods with Applications to Economics and Business highlights recent advances in statistical theory and methods that benefit econometric practice. It deals with exploratory data analysis, a prerequisite to statistical modelling and part of data mining. It provides recently developed computational tools useful for data mining, analysing the reasons to do data mining and the best techniques to use in a given situation.Provides a detailed description of computer algorithms.Provides recently developed computational tools useful for data miningHighlights recent advances in

  17. Economic analysis of the organisation of a riding centre; application of the linear programming approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka ŽGAJNAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the economics of an equestrian centre, which in addition to a variety of riding school activities also includes breeding and livery, are analysed. We consider the conditions for a hypothetical holding operating in central Slovenia. Methods of mathematical programming are applied in order to attempt to optimise the holding’s activities. Their use may in the given situation facilitate the evaluation of development prospects from different perspectives and indicate the opportunities of increasing value-added. On the basis of maximizing the gross margin, we try to address the various questions and challenges that arise in managing and planning for such an equestrian centre. The obtained results indicate that breeding is unfavourable in the given price-cost ratio, both for the renewal of the working horses herd and for sale. This reflects the current adverse situation in the field of horse breeding. Livery is an important activity on such holdings and through opportunity perspective provides an optimal set of activities. Activities of the riding school for children are interesting in terms of income diversification, as well as an additional source of revenue. A riding school with one riding instructor and an indoor arena needs 4.6 horses in order to cover the costs of full-time employment.

  18. Technical and Economical Analysis of Regulation Methods for Intermediate Steam Over-Heating in Gas and Fuel Oil Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Nazarov; E. V. Vakulich

    2006-01-01

    Various methods for temperature regulation of intermediate steam over-heating have been investigated. The most economical method, namely, smoke gas recirculation with regular water sprinkling from ПВД-8 drain has been selected in the paper.

  19. Oil and Gas Resources for Sub Saharan African Economic Development: Which One is the Best Approach? The Case of the Selected Approaches in Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riziki M. Nyello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Oil and Gas Sector in Africa is growing so fast due to the new discovery of Oil and Gas reserves and therefore attract the huge amount of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. Considering its role in the African economy, several approaches both local and foreign have been introduced; however the anticipated economic benefits have not yet been realized. The study therefore focused on assessing the effectiveness of the selected approaches that were designed to ensure the economic benefits of oil and gas resources reach to the African local population, particularly the poor ones. The study surveyed various literatures to draw its conclusion. It was realized that the selected approaches have failed to ensure that Oil and Gas resources produce the anticipated economic benefits to the local African population. Among others, it was recommended that the approaches should be improved in order to promote the linkage between Oil and Gas Extractive firms and Small and Medium Enterprises. Additionally, they should be enforceable by law in order to ensure legal commitment among African governments and Oil and Gas Extractive firms to the local population.

  20. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  1. NEW DOMINANT ECONOMIC LOGIC AND ITS IMPACT ON EUROPEAN LEVEL. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella-Cristiana, SIMA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is changing; a new dominant economic logic appears. What we can see now is that this change doesn’t seem to come from economic leaders, it comes from emergent economies like BRICS Group or the “4 Asian Tigers”. The European Union economic links with those groups are more and more obvious, so this thesis wants to be an analysis of how those dominant logical changes influence the European Union economy. In this way, we made an analysis of statistic dates and an econometric analysis using multiple regressions.

  2. Implementation of Electricity Business Competition Framework with Economic Dispatch Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Technically, electricity business under competition structure is more complex than that of vertically integrated one. The main prolems here are how to create an applicable competition framework and to solve electric calculations very quickly to obtain an optimal energi pricing, cost of losses, congestion and transportation costs by less than 15 minutes. This paper proposes a competition framework with the electric calculations, where  a bilateral contract has been accommodated. Optimal energy price in the paper is calculated based on direct method of economic dispatch to obtain the result very quickly. The proposed method has been simulated to a 4-bus system. The simulation results show that the method works well and complies with the expectation. Therefore, electric power business under competition structure can be well realized by the proposed method.  

  3. An economical and combined method for rapid and efficient isolation of fungal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, T; Syguła-Cholewinska, J; Szostak-Kot, J

    2014-12-18

    DNA isolation is a crucial step of conducting genetic studies in any organism. However, this process is quite difficult when studying fungi because of the need to damage the fungal cell walls of specific structures. In this study, we developed a method for the rapid and efficient isolation of fungal DNA based on simultaneous mechanical and enzymatic cell wall degradation. There are several typical modifications of the standard phenol-chloroform DNA extraction method. This method can be modified to degrade the fungal cell wall. The first step of the presented DNA extraction included manual homogenization in modified lysis buffer. Next, enzymatic digestion using 2 enzymes was conducted, including lyticase and proteinase K. To carefully select the most favorable conditions, we developed an economical, rapid, and reliable method for fungal DNA extraction that ensures both high efficiency and proper purity, which are essential for further analyses.

  4. Economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic approaches in infectious diseases: a review of current approaches and evaluation of critical aspects affecting their quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacogenetics holds great potential for improving the effectiveness of treatment modalities in infectious diseases by taking into account the genetic determinants of both the host and infectious agents’ individuality. Better utilization of resources and improved therapeutic efficiency are the expected outcomes of personalized medicine using pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomics information made available by technological advances. However, there has been growing concern in the clinical community regarding the evaluation of the true benefits of these approaches. This perception is partly due to the limited number and perceived poor quality of economic evaluations in this field, and initiatives aimed at harmonizing and communicating strategies improving the quality of these studies and their acceptance by the clinical community are greatly needed. This paper reviews current literature of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetics interventions guiding pharmacotherapy in infectious diseases. PubMed and the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched using a combination of five broad research terms related to pharmacogenetic approaches, and papers relative to economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases retained for further analysis. Using these criteria, a total of 14 papers were included in this review. The area of economic evaluation of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases remains understudied and would benefit from greater harmonization. The main weaknesses of evaluations reviewed in this paper seem to be represented by poor evidence of pharmacogenetic marker validation, inconsistencies in the selection of costs and utility included in the economic models and the choice of sensitivity analysis. All these factors limit the overall transparency of the studies, greater acceptance of their results and applicability to diverse and possibly resourcelimited environments where these

  5. System approach to the study of social and economic effects of information and communication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasyev V.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects the theoretical positions of infotech management by system analyzing social and economic impact of information and communication technologies that contributes to the development of ICT management.

  6. A Modified Approach to the Introductory Economics Course in a School of Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, G. V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes course format, materials development, and evaluation of an introductory economics course which stressed problem solving techniques and conceptual skills instead of rote memorization of factual content. For journal availability, see SO 506 029. (AV)

  7. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S QUEST FOR ENERGY POLICY: A GEO-ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Codoban

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s external energy policy architecture is very important for further energy security and economic development. European normative power on its neighbours represents the most efficient way of integrating neighbouring energy markets, with the EU’s emerging internal market and, in perspective, through economic interdependence and complementarities, there are chances of creating an European geo-energy space. EU’s tools for shaping the geo-energy space are becoming more effective in an extended European economic area that would allow it to act as the main actor in a multilateral interconnected system of energy producer and transit countries. The result of the paper is materialized in a new paradigm for EU’s external energy policy, which can provide future security of supply through market institutions and an active economic diplomacy in the resource energy countries.

  8. Entrepreneurship Education as a Strategic Approach to Economic Growth in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert E.; Johnson, Scott D.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of technical education and training in supporting economic growth in Kenya, including entrepreneurship education, teacher training, and stimulation of small enterprises through training and consultancy. The importance of creating an entrepreneurial culture through education is stressed. (SK)

  9. Framework for evaluation risk of bankruptcy for economic entities using specific models and methods from economic analysis and information technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Cibotariu; Eugenia Iancu; Tiberiu Socaciu

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is greater interest on economic and financial analysis of the firm, due to the feeling of instability caused by the global financial crisis. Simply put, governments, and millions of individuals holding shares in the stock market as small investors were placed in an unprecedented situation. This paper aims to estimate the default risk through the use of IT.

    Keywords: financial analysis, business models, knowledge, rate of...

  10. Workshop Report: concepts and methods in the economics of nutrition – gateways to better economic evaluation of nutrition interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Nuijten, M. J. C.; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I.; Hutton, J.; Poley, M.J.; L. Segal; Bresson, J L; van Ganse, E.; Jones, P.; Moreno, L.; Salminen, S; Dubois, D

    2012-01-01

    Improving health through better nutrition of the population may contribute to enhanced efficiency and sustainability of healthcare systems. A recent expert meeting investigated in detail a number of methodological aspects related to the discipline of nutrition economics. The role of nutrition in health maintenance and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases is now generally recognised. However, the main scope of those seeking to contain healthcare expenditures tends to focus on the man...

  11. A new approach to constructing efficient stiffly accurate EPIRK methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, G.; Tokman, M.

    2016-10-01

    The structural flexibility of the exponential propagation iterative methods of Runge-Kutta type (EPIRK) enables construction of particularly efficient exponential time integrators. While the EPIRK methods have been shown to perform well on stiff problems, all of the schemes proposed up to now have been derived using classical order conditions. In this paper we extend the stiff order conditions and the convergence theory developed for the exponential Rosenbrock methods to the EPIRK integrators. We derive stiff order conditions for the EPIRK methods and develop algorithms to solve them to obtain specific schemes. Moreover, we propose a new approach to constructing particularly efficient EPIRK integrators that are optimized to work with an adaptive Krylov algorithm. We use a set of numerical examples to illustrate the computational advantages that the newly constructed EPIRK methods offer compared to previously proposed exponential integrators.

  12. Behavioral Economics: Past, Present, Future

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.; Loewenstein, George

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral economics increases the explanatory power of economics by providing it with more realistic psychological foundations. This book consists of representative recent articles in behavioral economics. This chapter is intended to provide an introduction to the approach and methods of behavioral economics, and to some of its major findings, applications, and promising new directions. It also seeks to fill some unavoidable gaps in the chapters’ coverage of topics.

  13. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.;

    2006-01-01

    on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...... for each of the four SRES scenario families. In the second step, European agricultural driving forces are derived for each scenario from global driving forces. Finally, parameters for the agricultural land use model are quantified. The stepwise procedure is appropriate when developing socio......Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...

  14. Relationship between crimes and economic conditions in Pakistan: a time series approach

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, Mohsin Gulzar; Ullah, Kafait

    2013-01-01

    Using the time series data from 1990-2011, this paper is an attempt to explore the relationship between economic conditions and criminal activities in Pakistan. Three variables are being used for economic conditions like increasing female employment in labor market, CPI which denotes inflation and income inequality. We check their relationship with total reported crime with reference to Pakistan. The Augmented Dicky Fuller test is used for unit root process which suggested that all the variab...

  15. Estimating the Impact of Gubernatorial Partisanship on Policy Settings and Economic Outcomes: A Regression Discontinuity Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Leigh

    2007-01-01

    Using panel data from US states over the period 1941-2002, I measure the impact of gubernatorial partisanship on a wide range of different policy settings and economic outcomes. Across 32 measures, there are surprisingly few differences in policy settings, social outcomes and economic outcomes under Democrat and Republican Governors. In terms of policies, Democratic Governors tend to prefer slightly higher minimum wages. Under Republican Governors, incarceration rates are higher, while welfar...

  16. The Nationwide Economic and Environmental Impacts of Tourism: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach for Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Anan Wattanakuljarus

    2006-01-01

    Thai economic conditions considerably depend on the performance of tourism sectors. More than half of the Thai industries are directly and indirectly interdependent with tourism sectors. Given these large economic dependences upon tourism, any internal or external changes that affect Thai tourism could have substantial economy-wide impacts on resource allocation, sectoral outputs, income distribution, macroeconomic variables and the environment. Using computable general equilibrium (CGE) mode...

  17. Economically Optimal Timing of Insect Control in Food Processing Facilities: An Options Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Suling; Adam, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    A manager of a food processing facility faces the dilemma that postponing a treatment (such as fumigation) in order to save money, risks allowing insect population to increase to an amount that causes economic damage. This economic damage includes buyer discounts due to presence of insects or insect damage, cost of extra treatments needed, or rejection by a buyer. Conversely, fumigating too early may allow the remaining insect population to rebound sufficiently that another expensive fumigati...

  18. A sustainable architecture approach to the economic and social aspects of the bazaar of Tabriz

    OpenAIRE

    Kalan, Arezou; Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable architecture aims to design buildings and infra-structures, such as squares and bazaars, adapted to the social, economic, cultural and environmental contexts of certain place. The practice of sustainable architecture contributes to sustainable development, therefore for the development of future generations. The concept must integrate not only bioclimatic strategies, but also economic, social and cultural facets. Sustainable architecture research is either carried while the design...

  19. Modelling the role of forests on water provision services: a hydro-economic valuation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguería, S.; Campos, P.

    2015-12-01

    Hydro-economic models that allow integrating the ecological, hydrological, infrastructure, economic and social aspects into a coherent, scientifically- informed framework constitute preferred tools for supporting decision making in the context of integrated water resources management. We present a case study of water regulation and provision services of forests in the Andalusia region of Spain. Our model computes the physical water flows and conducts an economic environmental income and asset valuation of forest surface and underground water yield. Based on available hydrologic and economic data, we develop a comprehensive water account for all the forest lands at the regional scale. This forest water environmental valuation is integrated within a much larger project aiming at providing a robust and easily replicable accounting tool to evaluate yearly the total income and capital of forests, encompassing all measurable sources of private and public incomes (timber and cork production, auto-consumption, recreational activities, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, water production, etc.). We also force our simulation with future socio-economic scenarios to quantify the physical and economic efects of expected trends or simulated public and private policies on future water resources. Only a comprehensive integrated tool may serve as a basis for the development of integrated policies, such as those internationally agreed and recommended for the management of water resources.

  20. The contour method: a new approach in experimental mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure complex residual-stress maps in situations where other measurement methods cannot. This talk first describes the principle of the contour method. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contour of the resulting new surface, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, is then measured. Finally, a conceptually simple finite element analysis determines the original residual stresses from the measured contour. Next, this talk gives several examples of applications. The method is validated by comparing with neutron diffraction measurements in an indented steel disk and in a friction stir weld between dissimilar aluminum alloys. Several applications are shown that demonstrate the power of the contour method: large aluminum forgings, railroad rails, and welds. Finally, this talk discusses why the contour method is significant departure from conventional experimental mechanics. Other relaxation method, for example hole-drilling, can only measure a 1-D profile of residual stresses, and yet they require a complicated inverse calculation to determine the stresses from the strain data. The contour method gives a 2-D stress map over a full cross-section, yet a direct calculation is all that is needed to reduce the data. The reason for these advantages lies in a subtle but fundamental departure from conventional experimental mechanics. Applying new technology to old methods like will not give similar advances, but the new approach also introduces new errors.

  1. Accounting and methodical approaches to display law permanent and temprorary use of land assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Ostapchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The uniqueness of the land resources as an economic category determines the specific construction of the system of accounting which involves the accumulation, systematization, processing and analysis of economic information on quantitative, qualitative, money indicators and legal information about these objects. A large number of lands used by many entities on the rights of permanent or temporary use. Taking into account the need to use temporarily borrowed land resources by business entities, there is a need to develop general methods of displaying operations with limited real rights on accounts of both the land owners and their users. The article researches the question of theoretical and methodical aspects of accounting displaying permanent and temporary rights to use land assets in Ukraine. It examines the issue of economic and legal nature of these rights, the peculiarities of legal regulation of transactions with them. The paper deals with the procedure of their receiving and its impact on the accounting software. The author analyzes the existing approaches of other authors and proposes her own position.

  2. A standard method for economic analyses of inertial confinement fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard method for calculating the total capital cost and the cost of electricity for a typical inertial confinement fusion electric power plant has been developed. A standard code of accounts at the two-digit level is given for the factors making up the total capital cost of the power plant. Equations are given for calculating the indirect capital costs, the project contingency, and the time-related costs. Expressions for calculating the fixed charge rate, which is necessary to determine the cost of electricity, are also described. Default parameters are given to define a reference case for comparative economic analyses

  3. Standard method for economic analyses of inertial confinement fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard method for calculating the total capital cost and the cost of electricity for a typical inertial confinement fusion electric power plant has been developed. A standard code of accounts at the two-digit level is given for the factors making up the total capital cost of the power plant. Equations are given for calculating the indirect capital costs, the project contingency, and the time-related costs. Expressions for calculating the fixed charge rate, which is necessary to determine the cost of electricity, are also described. Default parameters are given to define a reference case for comparative economic analyses

  4. Applying a System Dynamics Approach for Modeling Groundwater Dynamics to Depletion under Different Economical and Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Balali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, due to many different factors, including climate change effects towards be warming and lower precipitation, as well as some structural policies such as more intensive harvesting of groundwater and low price of irrigation water, the level of groundwater has decreased in most plains of Iran. The objective of this study is to model groundwater dynamics to depletion under different economic policies and climate change by using a system dynamics approach. For this purpose a dynamic hydro-economic model which simultaneously simulates the farmer’s economic behavior, groundwater aquifer dynamics, studied area climatology factors and government economical policies related to groundwater, is developed using STELLA 10.0.6. The vulnerability of groundwater balance is forecasted under three scenarios of climate including the Dry, Nor and Wet and also, different scenarios of irrigation water and energy pricing policies. Results show that implementation of some economic policies on irrigation water and energy pricing can significantly affect on groundwater exploitation and its volume balance. By increasing of irrigation water price along with energy price, exploitation of groundwater will improve, in so far as in scenarios S15 and S16, studied area’s aquifer groundwater balance is positive at the end of planning horizon, even in Dry condition of precipitation. Also, results indicate that climate change can affect groundwater recharge. It can generally be expected that increases in precipitation would produce greater aquifer recharge rates.

  5. Methods of projects’ performance estimation in the public sector of economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Aleksandrovna Sheluntsova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The solution of socially important problems by providing budget investments is a prerequisite for the successful development of a country as a whole as well as of a particular region. In terms of a limited budget there is a problem of projects selection. In the paper basic methods of public sector projects performance estimation (cost — benefit, cost — effectiveness, cost — utility are compared. It is determined that these methods can help to increase the efficiency of scarce budgetary resources usage. However they cannot be applied in Russia without necessary adjustments since there are market imperfections, high costs of collecting necessary information, and other factors. Thus further development of performance estimation methods in the public sector of economics is needed.

  6. To Investigation the Relationship between Monetary, Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth in Iran: Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach to Cointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Khosravi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It is important for policy makers to find affect of monetary and fiscal policy on economic growth and to know how those impacts on growth to present a effective policies. Approach: We apply the bounds testing (ARDL approach and to cointegration which is more appropriate for estimation in small sample studies. The data span for the study is from 1960-2006, the empirical results found a cointegration relations between Growth, monetary policy and fiscal policy in Iran. Results: The results indicated the impact of Exchange rate and inflation on growth was negative, government expenditure was found to have significant positive impact on growth. Conclusion: According to results for a sustainable economic growth in Iran, policy makers must try to decrease inflation rate and exchange rate also to find an equilibrium point for government expenditure in futures.

  7. Modeling of loops in proteins: a multi-method approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kolinski Andrzej; Jamroz Michal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Template-target sequence alignment and loop modeling are key components of protein comparative modeling. Short loops can be predicted with high accuracy using structural fragments from other, not necessairly homologous proteins, or by various minimization methods. For longer loops multiscale approaches employing coarse-grained de novo modeling techniques should be more effective. Results For a representative set of protein structures of various structural classes test pred...

  8. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppenbrouwers, S.J.B.A.; Zoet, M.; Versendaal, J.; van de Weerd, I.

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we define a framework that conceptualizes an operational way of working for the development of services, emphatically taking into account agility. As a first level of agility, the framework contains sit...

  9. Efficient Approach To Discover Novel Agrochemical Candidates: Intermediate Derivatization Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changling; Guan, Aiying; Yang, Jindong; Chai, Baoshan; Li, Miao; Li, Huichao; Yang, Jichun; Xie, Yong

    2016-01-13

    Intensive competition of intellectual property, easy development of agrochemical resistance, and stricter regulations of environmental concerns make the successful rate for agrochemical discovery extremely lower using traditional agrochemical discovery methods. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find a novel approach to guide agrochemical discovery with high efficiency to quickly keep pace with the changing market. On the basis of these situations, here we summarize the intermediate derivatization method (IDM) between conventional methods in agrochemicals and novel ones in pharmaceuticals. This method is relatively efficient with short time in discovery phase, reduced cost, especially good innovated structure, and better performance. In this paper, we summarize and illustrate "what is the IDM" and "why to use" and "how to use" it to accelerate the discovery of new biologically active molecules, focusing on agrochemicals. Furthermore, we display several research projects in our novel agrochemical discovery programs with improved success rate under guidance of this strategy in recent years. PMID:25517210

  10. Economic evaluation of task-shifting approaches to the dispensing of anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Nicola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A scarcity of human resources for health has been identified as one of the primary constraints to the scale-up of the provision of Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART. In South Africa there is a particularly severe lack of pharmacists. The study aims to compare two task-shifting approaches to the dispensing of ART: Indirectly Supervised Pharmacist’s Assistants (ISPA and Nurse-based pharmaceutical care models against the standard of care which involves a pharmacist dispensing ART. Methods A cross-sectional mixed methods study design was used. Patient exit interviews, time and motion studies, expert interviews and staff costs were used to conduct a costing from the societal perspective. Six facilities were sampled in the Western Cape province of South Africa, and 230 patient interviews conducted. Results The ISPA model was found to be the least costly task-shifting pharmaceutical model. However, patients preferred receiving medication from the nurse. This related to a fear of stigma and being identified by virtue of receiving ART at the pharmacy. Conclusions While these models are not mutually exclusive, and a variety of pharmaceutical care models will be necessary for scale up, it is useful to consider the impact of implementing these models on the provider, patient access to treatment and difficulties in implementation.

  11. Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve mopane worms in Southern Africa? A bio-economic modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wisdom Akpalu; Edwin Muchapondwa; Precious Zikhali

    2007-01-01

    Imbrasia Belina also known as the mopane worm, like other edible insects and caterpillars, is a vital source of protein to Southern African countries. The worms live and graze on mopane trees, which occupy agricultural land. With increasing commercialization of the worm, the management of the worm, which was hitherto organized as a common property resource, has degraded to a near open access. In this paper, a simple bio-economic modeling approach has been taken to show that, for some optimal ...

  12. The Economic Impacts of Pollinator Declines: An Approach to Assessing the Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truman P. Phillips

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Since agricultural activities were first recorded, there have been shortages of pollinators. Today it seems that pollination systems in many areas of agriculture are threatened by the inadequacy or lack of sustainable managed, indigenous, or imported pollinators. Pollinator shortages can adversely affect crop production and commodity markets. This paper presents an economic model than can be used to measure some of the economic impacts of pollinator deficits on traded commodities. This economic analysis indicates that consumers of a commodity affected by a pollinator deficit may suffer because the commodity costs more and becomes less available. At the same time, although the producers of the affected commodity may experience crop declines, they may also experience economic gains in the form of higher prices. The amount the producer gains or loses depends on the shape of the supply and demand functions, and the magnitude of these losses or gains is an empirical question. Although there are few data available to evaluate this model, those we do have indicate that serious problems for world food supply, security, and trade could be in the offing if current declines in pollinator abundance, diversity, and availability are not reversed. Various crops and cropping systems are suggested as practical starting places for economic studies of the effects of pollinator declines, with emphasis on the type of data required.

  13. External Debt, Internal Debt and Economic Growth Bound in Nigeria using a Causality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amassoma J. Ditimi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the causal nexus between external debt, domestic debt and economic growth in Nigeria between 1970 and 2009 using a Vector Autoregressive (VAR and a Vector Error Correction (VEC models. The variables used in the study were tested for stationarity using the Augmented Dickey Fuller and Philip Perron test. The result showed that the variables are stationary at first differencing. Co-integration test was also performed and the result revealed the absence of co-integration between domestic debt and economic growth while the result also revealed the presence of co-integration between external debt and economic growth. The co-integration results determined the appropriateness of methodological test for causality. The findings of the VAR model revealed that there is a bi-directional causality between domestic debt and economic growth while that of the VEC model revealed a unidirectional causality from economic growth to external debt in Nigeria. The study recommends that government should rely more on domestic debt in stimulating growth than on external debt.

  14. Oil Price Volatility and Economic Growth in Nigeria: a Vector Auto-Regression (VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edesiri Godsday Okoro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examined oil price volatility and economic growth in Nigeria linking oil price volatility, crude oil prices, oil revenue and Gross Domestic Product. Using quarterly data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN Statistical Bulletin and World Bank Indicators (various issues spanning 1980-2010, a non‐linear model of oil price volatility and economic growth was estimated using the VAR technique. The study revealed that oil price volatility has significantly influenced the level of economic growth in Nigeria although; the result additionally indicated a negative relationship between the oil price volatility and the level of economic growth. Furthermore, the result also showed that the Nigerian economy survived on crude oil, to such extent that the country‘s budget is tied to particular price of crude oil. This is not a good sign for a developing economy, more so that the country relies almost entirely on revenue of the oil sector as a source of foreign exchange earnings. This therefore portends some dangers for the economic survival of Nigeria. It was recommended amongst others that there should be a strong need for policy makers to focus on policy that will strengthen/stabilize the economy with specific focus on alternative sources of government revenue. Finally, there should be reduction in monetization of crude oil receipts (fiscal discipline, aggressive saving of proceeds from oil booms in future in order to withstand vicissitudes of oil price volatility in future.

  15. METHODS AND MODELS FOR ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL ECONOMICS ACTIVITY USED FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATICS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORA VĂTUIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of organizational activity and highlighting problem situations that require specific solutions, require a detailed analysis of the models defined for the real system of the economic companies, regarded not as a sum of assets, but as organizations in which there are activities related into processes. In addition to the usual approach of using modeling languages in the development of information systems, in this paper we intend to present some examples that demonstrate the usefulness of a standard modeling language (UML to analyze organizational activities and to report problem situations that may occur in data management registered on primary documents or in processes that bring together activities. Examples that have been focused on a travel agency can be extrapolated to any other organization, and the diagrams can be used in different contexts, depending on the complexity of the activities identified.

  16. Economic Impact of Events and Festivals on Host Regions - Methods in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diedering Madlen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The topic of economic significance of sport events attracts substantial attention in the fields of sport event management and economics. The main objective of this article is to review international literature on economic impact of sport events, and in particular, to give a special thought to key features of primary economic impact studies and potential sources of bias.

  17. Study on Factors Influencing Urban-rural Dual Economic Structure of Chongqing Based on the State Space Variable Parameter Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuchuan; XU; Yuqing; WANG; Xiang; HE

    2013-01-01

    Firstly,this paper reviews and analyzes historic background of urban-rural integration of Chongqing,and the evolution and trend of urban and rural dual economic structure.On the basis of previous researches,it selects factors and variables influencing urban and rural dual economic structure,and establishes an econometric model.By state space Kalman filtering method,it analyzes dynamic influence of factors upon urban-rural dual economic intensity.According to empirical conclusion,it puts forward corresponding policy recommendations for promoting integrated urban and rural economic development of Chongqing.

  18. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic residues in Colombia: a process simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Julián A; Moncada, Jonathan; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-07-01

    In this study a techno-economic analysis of the production of bioethanol from four lignocellusic (Sugarcane bagasse, Coffee cut-stems, Rice Husk, and Empty Fruit Bunches) residues is presented for the Colombian case. The ethanol production was evaluated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer carrying out the simulation and the economic evaluation, respectively. Simulations included the composition of lignocellulosic residues, which was determined experimentally. It was found that empty fruit bunches presents the highest ethanol yield from a dry basis point of view (313.83 L/t), while rice husk produced less ethanol (250.56 L/t). The ethanol production cost was assessed for the standalone ethanol plant and the ethanol plant coupled with a cogeneration system. Moreover, ethanol production cost using EFB was the lowest with (0.49 US$/L) and without (0.58 US$/L) cogeneration scheme. PMID:23665691

  19. THE INTEGRATED APPROACH TO EVALUATING STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE IN WELL- BALANCED MACRO-ECONOMIC FRAMEWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguey Arseniyevich VLADIMIROV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed at an academic substantiation of possibility of reaching the community-measured and utmost available efficiency in public expenditure and investments and tax collection/ revenue in a perfectly arranged well-balanced open-ended macro-economic framework. The model suggested looks similar (by its interpretation to the «econophysical» trend in the contemporary economics concept (Cf.: the Carnot cycle in thermodynamics, that means a specific amount received from the public spending jointly with investments to the national economy (in the event of a successful outcome i.e. «zero-loss» may lead to the maximum expected rate of economic growth, that enables justifying general directions of an appropriate macroeconomic policy (concerning both finance and budget allocations]. 

  20. Probabilistic multiobjective wind-thermal economic emission dispatch based on point estimated method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, wind power generators are being incorporated in the multiobjective economic emission dispatch problem which minimizes wind-thermal electrical energy cost and emissions produced by fossil-fueled power plants, simultaneously. Large integration of wind energy sources necessitates an efficient model to cope with uncertainty arising from random wind variation. Hence, a multiobjective stochastic search algorithm based on 2m point estimated method is implemented to analyze the probabilistic wind-thermal economic emission dispatch problem considering both overestimation and underestimation of available wind power. 2m point estimated method handles the system uncertainties and renders the probability density function of desired variables efficiently. Moreover, a new population-based optimization algorithm called modified teaching-learning algorithm is proposed to determine the set of non-dominated optimal solutions. During the simulation, the set of non-dominated solutions are kept in an external memory (repository). Also, a fuzzy-based clustering technique is implemented to control the size of the repository. In order to select the best compromise solution from the repository, a niching mechanism is utilized such that the population will move toward a smaller search space in the Pareto-optimal front. In order to show the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed framework, three different test systems are represented as case studies. -- Highlights: ► WPGs are being incorporated in the multiobjective economic emission dispatch problem. ► 2m PEM handles the system uncertainties. ► A MTLBO is proposed to determine the set of non-dominated (Pareto) optimal solutions. ► A fuzzy-based clustering technique is implemented to control the size of the repository.

  1. Thermodynamics extends economics potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Alexander V. [Kiev Technical Univ., Dept. of Marketing and Management, Kiev (Ukraine); Brodiansky, Victor M. [Moscow Energy Inst., Dept. of Cryogen Machines, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we consider the use of exergy in economic valuation and its correlation with money. Exergy-based determination of production expenses provides a new base for 'natural' price determination. A new macroeconomic dynamics approach based on this correlation is proposed. This method is relatively general because it is not restricted by certain assumptions used in traditional economic analysis. The exergy model of macroeconomic dynamics was tested by utilizing data from the US economy. This test, covering a period of about 25 years, confirms this approach and opens new potentials in economic analysis. (Author)

  2. Motor fuel taxation, energy conservation, and economic development: A regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Richard W. [Department of Economics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824-3593 (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Combustion of motor fuels has a variety of environmental impacts on local, regional and global scales. Taxing motor fuels more heavily would mitigate those environmental impacts. However, many governments are reluctant to increase motor fuel taxes because they fear that the tax incidence will be regressive and that economic development will be impeded. Using data for the New England region of the United States, this paper argues that an oil-importing region can conserve energy, avoid regressive impacts and encourage economic development by taxing motor fuels more heavily and rebating the incremental revenues to owners of motor vehicles. (author)

  3. Methodical Approach to Managing Resources at an Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonets Olga O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of optimal ways of managing material resources of an industrial enterprise on the basis of economic and mathematical modelling. In the process of analysis and systematisation of works of foreign and domestic scientists the article makes a conclusion about the insufficient degree of development of such complex solutions on formation of logistic systems of resource management, which would be simple and adaptive. The article provides results of the study of specific features of resource management at enterprises, among which – surplus (deficit of resources and availability of non-liquid reserves. In order to eliminate shortcomings the article offers a situational order of management with consideration of a possible state of reserves. The article improves the model of selection of the volume of supply of material resources and identifies optimal solutions with consideration of interval uncertainty. The further direction of the study lies in integration of the proposed approach to resource management with the system of financial planning at an industrial enterprise.

  4. Economics and business economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Silva

    1993-01-01

    The comparison between Economics and Business Management allows the clarification of some of their characteristics and limits as regards method, language, and objectives. Secondly, it allows the verification of the reciprocal contribution relating to research. For such a comparison, the object of study, the method, and the objectives of Economics and Business Management are taken into consideration distinguishing; so far as Business Management is concerned, between the Italian and American tr...

  5. Approaches and Methods of Periodization in Literary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Gholi Sarli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most fundamental acts of historiography is to classify historical information in diachronic axis. The method of this classification or periodization shows the theoretical approach of the historian and determines the structure and the form of his history. Because of multiple criteria of analysis and various literary genres, periodization in literary history is more complicated than that of general history. We can distinguish two approaches in periodization of literary history, although these can be used together: extrinsic or social-cultural approach (based on criteria extrinsic to literature and intrinsic or formalist approach (based on criteria intrinsic to literature. Then periodization in literary history can be formulated in different methods and may be based upon various criteria: chronological such as century, decade and year organic patterns of evolution great poets and writers literary emblems and evaluations of every period events, concepts and periods of general or political history analogy of literary history and history of ideas or history of arts approaches and styles of language dominant literary norms. These methods actually are used together and everyone has adequacy in special kind of literary history. In periodization of Persian contemporary literature, some methods and models current in periodization of poetry have been applied identically to periodization of prose. Periodization based upon century, decade and year is the simplest and most mechanical method but sometimes certain centuries in some countries have symbolic and stylistic meaning, and decades were used often for subdivisions of literary history, especially nowadays with fast rhythm of literary change. Periodization according to organic patterns of evolution equates the changes of literary history with the life phases of an organism, and offers an account of birth, mature and death (and sometimes re-birth of literary genres, but this method have

  6. Approaches and Methods of Periodization in Literary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. N. Gh. Sarli

    Full Text Available One of the most fundamental acts of historiography is to classify historical information in diachronic axis. The method of this classification or periodization shows the theoretical approach of the historian and determines the structure and the form of his history. Because of multiple criteria of analysis and various literary genres, periodization in literary history is more complicated than that of general history. We can distinguish two approaches in periodization of literary history, although these can be used together: extrinsic or social-cultural approach (based on criteria extrinsic to literature and intrinsic or formalist approach (based on criteria intrinsic to literature. Then periodization in literary history can be formulated in different methods and may be based upon various criteria: chronological such as century, decade and year; organic patterns of evolution; great poets and writers; literary emblems and evaluations of every period; events, concepts and periods of general or political history; analogy of literary history and history of ideas or history of arts; approaches and styles of language; dominant literary norms. These methods actually are used together and everyone has adequacy in special kind of literary history. In periodization of Persian contemporary literature, some methods and models current in periodization of poetry have been applied identically to periodization of prose. Periodization based upon century, decade and year is the simplest and most mechanical method but sometimes certain centuries in some countries have symbolic and stylistic meaning, and decades were used often for subdivisions of literary history, especially nowadays with fast rhythm of literary change.Periodization according to organic patterns of evolution equates the changes of literary history with the life phases of an organism, and offers an account of birth, mature and death (and sometimes re-birth of literary genres, but this method have

  7. Multiblock approach for the passive scalar thermal lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying

    2014-04-01

    A multiblock approach for the passive scalar thermal lattice Boltzmann method (TLBM) with multiple-relaxation-time collision scheme is proposed based on the Chapman-Enskog analysis. The interaction between blocks is executed in the moment space directly and an external force term is considered. Theoretical analysis shows that all the nonequilibrium parts of the nonconserved moments should be rescaled, while the nonequilibrium parts of the conserved moments can be calculated directly. Moreover, a local scheme based on the pseudoparticles for computing heat flux is proposed with no need to calculate temperature gradient based on the finite-difference scheme. In order to validate the multiblock approach and local scheme for computing heat flux, thermal Couette flow with wall injection is simulated and good results are obtained, which show that the adoption of the multiblock approach does not deteriorate the convergence rate of TLBM and the local scheme for computing heat flux has second-order convergence rate. Further application of the present approach is the simulation of natural convection in a square cavity with the Rayleigh number up to 109.

  8. Economic valuation of informal care: the contingent valuation method applied to informal caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Bernard; Brouwer, Werner; van Exel, Job; Koopmanschap, Marc

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the results of the application of the contingent valuation method (CVM) to determine a monetary value of informal care. We discuss the current practice in valuing informal care and a theoretical model of the costs and benefits related to the provision of informal care. In addition, we developed a survey in which informal caregivers' willingness to accept (WTA) to provide an additional hour of informal care was elicited. This method is better than normally recommended valuation methods able to capture the heterogeneity and dynamics of informal care. Data were obtained from postal surveys. A total of 153 informal caregivers and 149 care recipients with rheumatoid arthritis returned a completed survey. Informal caregivers reported a mean WTA to provide a hypothetical additional hour of informal care of 9.52 Euro (n=124). Many hypotheses derived from the theoretical model and the literature were supported by the data.CVM is a promising alternative for existing methods like the opportunity cost method and the proxy good method to determine a monetary value of informal care that can be incorporated in the numerator of any economic evaluation.

  9. Basis set approach in the constrained interpolation profile method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a simple polynomial basis-set that is easily extendable to any desired higher-order accuracy. This method is based on the Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP) method and the profile is chosen so that the subgrid scale solution approaches the real solution by the constraints from the spatial derivative of the original equation. Thus the solution even on the subgrid scale becomes consistent with the master equation. By increasing the order of the polynomial, this solution quickly converges. 3rd and 5th order polynomials are tested on the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation and are proved to give solutions a few orders of magnitude higher in accuracy than conventional methods for lower-lying eigenstates. (author)

  10. When Child Development Meets Economic Game Theory: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Investigating Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Keller, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Game theory has been one of the most prominent theories in the social sciences, influencing diverse academic disciplines such as anthropology, biology, economics, and political science. In recent years, economists have employed game theory to investigate behaviors relating to fairness, reciprocity, and trust. Surprisingly, this research has not…

  11. Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs KT; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the funct

  12. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  13. Economic growth and currency crisis: A real exchange rate entropic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Matesanz Gómez, David; Guillermo J. Ortega

    2005-01-01

    We propose a country classification of economic growth currency crisis consequences based on the entropic analysis of the real exchange rate. We show that this ranking is highly correlated with the annual minimum rate of growth, a proxy used to quantify real currency crisis effects.

  14. Rich and Poor Cities in Europe. An Urban Scaling Approach to Mapping the European Economic Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP ∝ Y Ypopβ with β always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, β = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities β > 1 and increases from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of economic convergence in which, under stable political conditions, a linear GMP/pop scaling is expected for all cities. The results suggest that the GMP/pop super-linear scaling represents a phase of economic growth rather than a steady, universal urban feature. The results also suggest that relationships between cities are embedded in their political and economic context and cannot be neglected in explanations of cities, urbanization and urban economics. PMID:27551719

  15. Schumacher and Kautilyan economics from an integral view : A sustainable approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandram, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    The world today is changing rapidly in many areas. On the macroeconomic level this is occurring in the form of climate change, resource depletion, disparity of wealth and possibilities of global nuclear waste. Several scholars express a need for a new paradigm of economics and management addressing

  16. The road to transfer: concept and context approaches to the subject of economics in secondary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Kneppers; C. van Boxtel; B. van Hout-Wolters

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of two forms of instruction: strengthening concepts and strengthening the ability to connect context with concepts. Although students may have acquired a reasonable amount of conceptual knowledge as a result of economics courses, two obstacles may prevent th

  17. Toward quantifying the abuse liability of ultraviolet tanning: A behavioral economic approach to tanning addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. PMID:27400670

  18. Interbank Lending Decisions in An Economic Downturn: An Agent-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy P. Koesrindartoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interbank lending is one mechanism that can make shock, which is accepted by one bank spread to other banks (contagion. There are several researchers that focused their research on analyzing the effect of interbank lending to systemic risk. However, there is a few research that analyzed the effect of banks’ decision maker’s behavior, especially on the bank interbank lending to the systemic risk. In this research, the author creates an agent-based  simulation of the banking system to analyze the effect of banks’ decision maker’s behavior to systemic risk in economic downturn condition. The preliminary result from this research is for an economic downturn in a long time period, the banking system with a low net worth to the asset's ratio threshold will produce more default bank than the banking system with a high net worth to the asset's ratio threshold. However, for an economic downturn in small time period, banking system which all bank in their system has the higher net worth to assets ratio threshold will have the default bank first than the banking system which has the lower net worth to the asset's ratio threshold. Keywords: agent-based simulation, banker behavior, interbank lending, economic downturn

  19. Rich and Poor Cities in Europe. An Urban Scaling Approach to Mapping the European Economic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Emanuele; Sood, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP ∝ Y Ypopβ with β always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, β = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities β > 1 and increases from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of economic convergence in which, under stable political conditions, a linear GMP/pop scaling is expected for all cities. The results suggest that the GMP/pop super-linear scaling represents a phase of economic growth rather than a steady, universal urban feature. The results also suggest that relationships between cities are embedded in their political and economic context and cannot be neglected in explanations of cities, urbanization and urban economics. PMID:27551719

  20. Outline for an integrated modelling approach concerning risks and economic consequences of contagious animal diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Management decisions on control of major infectious animal diseases may have a large impact, but are usually based on scarce and unreliable information. An integrated model which combines the various aspects of outbreaks and risks with economic consequences has yet to be developed. A flexible model

  1. Optimising the management of complex dynamic ecosystems. An ecological-economic modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: ecological-economic modelling; ecosystem services; resource use; efficient; sustainability; wetlands, rangelands.

    Ecosyst

  2. User centric design of smart grid: A social and economical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, C.B.A.; De Jonge, B.; Knigge, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    The energy transition poses challenges for maintaining the energy balance between demand and supply in the future. One of the solutions is Demand Side Management (DSM) where mobilizing flexibility in demand is the main objective. This paper summarizes two research projects on the economical and soci

  3. Sovereign Debt and Economic Policies in Global Markets: A Political Economy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Brandauer, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    This theses deals with the effects of national economic policies in internationally integrated markets. In particular, we look at markets of sovereign debt and intellectual property rights. Further, we provide an explicit analysis of the redistributive and welfare effects of different types of politicians. Finally we study the effects of anticipated competition in models of rent seeking.

  4. Debates, dialectic, and rhetoric: an approach to teaching radiology residents health economics, policy, and advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh

    2013-06-01

    Arguing is an art and essential to the functioning of our political and legal system. Moderated debates between residents are a useful educational vehicle to teach residents health economics and health policy. Articulating the opposing arguments leads to greater mutual understanding, an appreciation of the limits of knowledge and improved advocacy. PMID:23545491

  5. Economics enhancement of APR1400 through the application of new construction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of APR1400 (formerly KNGR) project is one of Korea's national G-7 projects, sponsored by the government and KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.). APR1400, an evolutionary standard reactor with a thermal output of 4000MWt, upgrades the safety and economic competitiveness of nuclear power, incorporating cutting-edge advanced technologies, while standing on the proven experience of Optimized Power Reactor 1000(OPR1000, formerly KSNP) design. APR1400 has been adopted as the design for Shin-Kori Units 3 and 4. APR1400 development project consisted of three phases in order to check and make only necessary adjustments at the end of each phase and the standard design certification (DC) was issued in May 2002. The project set up the top-tier requirements for the design's safety, economy, operability, maintainability, and construct ability in the earliest design stage. The requirements have been evaluated periodically during the design process, and the results of each evaluation were reflected in the final design. Shin-Kori Units 3 and 4 are the first APR1400 projects, and will be built near the Kori NPP site, where four units are currently in operation and two OPR1000 (Improved Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) units called Shin-Kori Units 1 and 2 are under construction. Shin-Kori Units 3 and 4 will be constructed based on APR1400 standardized design, while incorporating the site characteristics and construction and operation experiences of OPR1000. This paper describes new construction methods to improve economics and construct ability of APR1400 to meet the target schedule, which is set to 41.5 months from the first concrete pouring to the fuel loading for the Nth plant. The new construction methods consist of 'Open Top Method' for installation of major NSSS equipment, 'Large Modularization' for the Building Structures, Reactor Vessel Internals and Major Components and deck plate method, etc

  6. A THEORETICAL APPROACH OF THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN SUPPORTING ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldea Monica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Any activity requires the presence of labor resources. If centuries ago the concept was that their presence was enough, now it takes a lot more. Moreover, since Aristotle the issue was taking into consideration all aspects of the community life that can lead to a "better life". In the current conditions we may consider resources in the broader context of the human factor and of the relations established within a society. Thus social capital was conceptualized. As opportunities of economic growth - based purely on the quantitative aspects of the determinants – were limited, the need occurred to reconsider the qualitative and structural components. Social capital considers a number of the integrative components of social life. These refer to the relations established at family level up to the level of societal institutions. It is necessary that these relationships be well established, and for the proper performance it is necessary that aspects of education and health should be properly valued and assessed. This helps setting up strong institutions. Developed countries have the ability to create a proper environment for the manifestations of social capital; in these countries one can observe the growing importance of formal and more impersonal relations. But this just reinforces the occurrence and development of economic activities based on efficiency criteria leading to the countries’ economic development. The interpretations of economic development issues have undergone changes in recent decades. If previously it was considered that the essential difference between rich and poor countries is reflected in the amount of physical capital per person, later on the concept of capital has been expanded to include as well human capital, the lack of which was considered a serious obstacle to development, particularly in the case of poor countries. And given the fact that the transactions within an economic system take place in an

  7. Rule-based query answering method for a knowledge base of economic crimes

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Jaroslaw

    2011-01-01

    We present a description of the PhD thesis which aims to propose a rule-based query answering method for relational data. In this approach we use an additional knowledge which is represented as a set of rules and describes the source data at concept (ontological) level. Queries are posed in the terms of abstract level. We present two methods. The first one uses hybrid reasoning and the second one exploits only forward chaining. These two methods are demonstrated by the prototypical implementa...

  8. Approach for Realization of Economic Development and Social Stability in Ethnic Region of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yousheng

    2013-01-01

    The stability of Sichuan ’ s ethnic regions cannot be separated from their economic development.Hence, the necessary conditions for promoting the development and stability of Si-chuan ’ s ethnic regions include: fully applying the “Scientific Concept of Development”; enhan-cing the integrative and comprehensive utilization of resources;developing resource -saving and en-vironment -friendly industries; and constructing an industrial system based upon the advantages of local characteristics . 1. Integrating Advantaged Resources and Constructing Advantaged Industrial Systems ( 1 ) Enhancing Resource Development and Resource Integration Firstly, we should strengthen geological ex-ploration , and especially strengthen the investiga-tion and evaluation of those mineral resources which have a national shortage , but also have both a large potential market and big development po-tential in Sichuan ’ s ethnic regions . Secondly , we should strengthen resource ac-cumulation and its sustainable utilization;insist on“Development in Protection , and Protection in De-velopment”;strengthen the saving and sustainable utilization of resources , especially land , energy and water resources; and actively develop renew-able resources, including solar energy , biogas, bi-omass energy and wind power . with the development of tourism resources as well as agricultural and husbandry resources . ( 2 ) Advance Agriculture and Husbandry with Traditional Characteristics towards Ones with Modern Characteristics If we want to develop an agriculture and hus-bandry with modern characteristics , and realize the transformation of traditional farming and animal husbandry to ones with modern characteristics in the Sichuan ethnic regions , then, we should take the lead in building a national -level demonstra-tion base of modern agriculture and husbandry in the ethnic regions .Taking the construction of the“Four Big Systems” into consideration , we should perfect the support system for

  9. Children are costly, but raising them may pay: The economic approach to fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Werding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article provides a non-technical introduction to analyses of fertility which are based on a rational-choice paradigm and which acknowledge that raising children may have a strong impact on the well-being of parents that can be described in terms of costs and benefits. It surveys different types of economic fertility models which can be used to address a variety of research questions, and it also discusses some basic strengths and weaknesses of applying economic analyses in this particular field. Results: Starting from a seminal contribution by Becker (1960 which may have been of little use for applied research or for interdisciplinary work, the economic theory of fertility has unfolded a differentiated research programme with indispensable contributions to the broader field of fertility research. Important features are the inclusion of (i different bargaining positions and differing incentives of partners interacting in fertility choices; (ii simultaneous decisions regarding labour force participation (as well as education and fertility, and the role played by employers, labour market institutions, and other public interventions; (iii the idea that children (or their "human capital" are investment goods with various kinds of returns that may be dispersed over an extremely long period of time, are subject to enormous uncertainties, and are strongly influenced by the social context and, again, by public policies. Conclusions: Economic aspects and elements of economic models should be included in any large-scale attempt at understanding fertility behaviour through interdisciplinary research. Improvements in the data infrastructure, which are only partly underway thus far, would be an important pre-requisite.

  10. Selection of Construction Methods: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Ferrada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate selection of construction methods to be used during the execution of a construction project is a major determinant of high productivity, but sometimes this selection process is performed without the care and the systematic approach that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This paper proposes a knowledge management approach that will enable the intelligent use of corporate experience and information and help to improve the selection of construction methods for a project. Then a knowledge-based system to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system, semistructured interviews were conducted within three construction companies with the purpose of studying the way that the method’ selection process is carried out in practice and the knowledge associated with it. A prototype of a Construction Methods Knowledge System (CMKS was developed and then validated with construction industry professionals. As a conclusion, the CMKS was perceived as a valuable tool for construction methods’ selection, by helping companies to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The described benefits as provided by the system favor a better performance of construction projects.

  11. Water Quality Assessment in the Vouga Catchment (Portugal) through the Integration of Hydrologic Modeling, Economic Valuation, and Optimization Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawtree, Daniel; Julich, Stefan; Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Feger, Karl-Heinz

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic model assessments of the impacts of land-cover / use change (LCLUC) are fundamental for the development of catchment management plans, which are increasingly needed for meeting water quality standards (i.e. Water Framework Directive). These assessments can be difficult to conduct at the spatial scale required for such plans, due to data limitations and the challenge of up-scaling from field / small scale studies to larger regions. Furthermore, such hydrologic assessments are of limited practical use if the financial impacts of any potential land-cover / management changes on local stakeholders are adequately quantified and taken into planning consideration. To address these challenges, this study presents an approach that integrates hydrologic modeling, economic valuation, and landscape optimization methods. This approach is applied to the Vouga catchment, a large (2,298 km^2) mixed land-use catchment in north-central Portugal. The Vouga has high nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) impacts in a number of reaches, which have negative impacts on downstream wetlands and groundwater supplies. To examine potential improvements to water quality, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated over a five period (2002 - 2007) to establish the baseline hydrologic and nutrient fluxes. This calibration relies upon the up-scaling of findings from previous field studies (on vegetation and soils), hydrologic assessments, and modeling studies. The agricultural income for local stakeholders was estimated from existing land-cover and management approaches is made, to establish the baseline financial conditions. An optimization algorithm is then applied to the baseline scenario using both the biophysical and financial information, which seeks to determine various (most) optimal states. The preliminary results from this work are presented, and the advantages and challenges of using such an approach for scenario analysis for catchment management are discussed

  12. An Integrated Approach to Explore the Relationship Among Economic, Construction Land Use, and Ecology Subsystems in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyu Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhejiang Province, China is experiencing rapid urbanization, facing the challenge of coupling socioeconomic development and ecological conservation. This paper establishes a comprehensive index system to assess coordinating development of economic, construction land use (CLU, and ecology subsystems. A Granger test and a coupling coordination model were applied to explore the causal relationship and the coordinated development state among the three subsystems from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that: (1 changes in the integrated value of the economic subsystem were the Granger cause of changes in the ecology and CLU subsystems, and the changes in the integrated values of ecology and CLU was each other’s Granger cause; (2 the coupling coordination relationship of the integrated value for economic–CLU–ecology was constrained by the relationship between the economic and the CLU subsystems from 2000 to 2004, and that between the ecology and the economic subsystems was the impediment of the sustainable development of economic–CLU–ecology from 2004 to 2012. This research helps to identify approach to sustainable development through analyzing synergistic effects, interdependencies, and trade-offs among the integrated economic–CLU–ecology values, and to make significant contribution to urban planning policies in rapid urbanization region.

  13. THE TOWER OF BABEL? THE INNOVATION SYSTEM APPROACH VERSUS MAINSTREAM ECONOMICS.

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Hers; Niek Nahuis

    2004-01-01

    The Innovation systems (IS) approach and the system failures it identifies, play an important role in the design and legitimization of innovation policy. This paper analyses the usefulness of this concept. We conclude that the IS-approach can be useful to visualize the complexity of the innovation processes. However, for policy design this approach is less suited, because system failures aim at symptoms in stead of underlying incentive structures. In our view, policy design should be based on...

  14. Numerical method for dam break problem using Godunov approach

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kartono; Mamat, M; Ahmad, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this study a numerical scheme was developed in order to overcome the problem of shock wave for the test case of dam break. The numerical scheme was based on Godunov approach of finite volume method to solve the shallow water equation. In order to expedite and improve the solution an approximate Roe’s Riemann solver associated with Monotone Upstream-centred Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL) was applied. The results were presented in one and two dimensional and verifications were made wit...

  15. Numerical method for dam break problem using Godunov approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kartono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study a numerical scheme was developed in order to overcome the problem of shock wave for the test case of dam break. The numerical scheme was based on Godunov approach of finite volume method to solve the shallow water equation. In order to expedite and improve the solution an approximate Roe’s Riemann solver associated with Monotone Upstream-centred Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL was applied. The results were presented in one and two dimensional and verifications were made with analytical solution. The results are comparable and a good agreement is achieved between numerical and analytical.

  16. Methodical approaches to assessment of quality of the bank loan portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysyachna Yunna S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of basic methodical approaches to assessment of the quality of the bank loan portfolio, identification of specific features of their practical application and justification of selection of the most appropriate for the modern economic conditions. The article considers three main groups of methods of assessment of the quality of the bank loan portfolio: expert evaluation methods and statistical and analytical methods. It goes without saying that in order to obtain an objective assessment of quality of the bank loan portfolio it is necessary to apply a complex approach, however, due to some advantages and shortcomings of the studied methods, the author marks expediency of building an integral indicator, taxonomic in particular, in order to obtain a complex, objective and efficient assessment of the bank loan portfolio. Prospects of further studies in this direction are assessment of the quality of the loan portfolio of the first group banks by the size of their assets through building integral taxonomic indicators and identification, on this basis, of factors that influence the quality of the loan portfolio with the aim of improvement of the mechanism of management of the bank lending activity.

  17. Why is the place of economics among other sciences and it’s method interrogated ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Durusoy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to emphasize that transforming of the interaction of economics with mathematics into the domination relationship has caused a methodological monopoly and to explain that it has caused that the dominated economics discipline has led to a rupture risk from the main events and problems. On the other hand, the study reveals that the integration of economics with a heavy formulization process, having an excessive interest of modern mathematics in economics and the impact of mathematical developments in other disciplines on economic theory have changed the power balance and have shaken the fundamentals of neoclassical economic theory. In addition, beyond that the various methodological discussions among economists about the fact that economics discipline should consider the matters of the real world, it investigates the reasons of why the ties of economical research with social problems have weaken recently. Even though economics is a social science that assumes that it is impossible to put a distance among people as converted into a dominant ideology of modern era, the study analyzes the location of economics in the classification of natural and social sciences within the framework of arguments accepting that it has resembled to the natural sciences.In this regard, the study reaches the conclusion that economics will become more scientific as mathematical modeling has been playing a guiding role in this field, otherwise intensive use of mathematics in economics will exclude the sociological. Therefore, behavioral and institutional factors have to be considered in economic analyses.

  18. Assessment of the efficiency and economic viability of various methods of treatment of sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2007-12-01

    This study assesses the efficiency of various physico-chemical, biological and other tertiary methods for treating leachate. An evaluation study on the treatability of the leachate from methane phase bed (MPB) reactor indicated that at an optimum hydraulic retention time of 6 days, the efficiency of the reactor in terms of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 91.29 and 82.69%, respectively. Recycling of the treated leachate through the municipal solid waste layers in the leachate recycling unit (LRU) resulted in a significant increase in the biodegradation of organics present in the leachate. Optimum BOD and COD removal efficiencies were achieved at the third recycle; additional recycling of the leachate did not produce any significant improvement. Physico-chemical treatment of the leachate demonstrated that alum and lime (Option 2) were more economical than coagulants lime and MgCO(3). A cost analysis of the economics of the various treatments revealed that the alternative treatment consisting of a MPB bed followed by a LRU and aerated lagoon is the most cost-effective treatment. However, the alternative consisting of a MPB followed by the LRU and a soil column, which is slightly more costly, would be the most appropriate treatment when adequate land is readily available. PMID:17505905

  19. A formative multi-method approach to evaluating training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Holly; Scott, Victoria; Abraczinskas, Michelle; Scaccia, Jonathan; Stout, Soma; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    This article describes how we used a formative multi-method evaluation approach to gather real-time information about the processes of a complex, multi-day training with 24 community coalitions in the United States. The evaluation team used seven distinct, evaluation strategies to obtain evaluation data from the first Community Health Improvement Leadership Academy (CHILA) within a three-prong framework (inquiry, observation, and reflection). These methods included: comprehensive survey, rapid feedback form, learning wall, observational form, team debrief, social network analysis and critical moments reflection. The seven distinct methods allowed for both real time quality improvement during the CHILA and long term planning for the next CHILA. The methods also gave a comprehensive picture of the CHILA, which when synthesized allowed the evaluation team to assess the effectiveness of a training designed to tap into natural community strengths and accelerate health improvement. We hope that these formative evaluation methods can continue to be refined and used by others to evaluate training. PMID:27454882

  20. MODERN APPROACHES WHEN TEACHING ECONOMICS IN TERMS OF CONSTRUCTIVE EDUCATION. ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DRĂGAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The quick development of science and technique within the information society we live in automatically involves the necessity of paradigm shift in the making of the young generation. At a European level, there is an interest for the use of participative teaching strategies based on experiments, cooperation and the stimulation of creativity. We are, thus, in a situation that must lead to rethinking the teaching strategies in order to ensure a natural dynamics in the evolution of our education system. The current article wants to underline the need for using the constructive strategies when studying Economics, as well as the feedback of the participants in this new teaching, respectively learning process. The objective will be met with the help of an empirical study carried out in a High School of Economics.

  1. Insurance penetration and economic growth in Africa: Dynamic effects analysis using Bayesian TVP-VAR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Olayungbo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic interactions between insurance and economic growth in eight African countries for the period of 1970–2013. Insurance demand is measured by insurance penetration which accounts for income differences across the sample countries. A Bayesian Time Varying Parameter Vector Auto regression (TVP-VAR model with stochastic volatility is used to analyze the short run and the long run among the variables of interest. Using insurance penetration as a measure of insurance to economic growth, we find positive relationship for Egypt, while short-run negative and long-run positive effects are found for Kenya, Mauritius, and South Africa. On the contrary, negative effects are found for Algeria, Nigeria, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Implementation of sound financial reforms and wide insurance coverage are proposed recommendations for insurance development in the selected African countries.

  2. A FUTURE APPROACHES, SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE INFORMATIONAL SOCIETY – KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULAE DAVIDESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the result of scientific study under doctoral thesis “Information Society and its Economic Effects” and contains seven sections: -section 1: “Globalization, Development and Information Society”; -section 2: “The Impact of the “Digital Divide” and “Digital Inequality” Phenomena” ; -section 3: “Information Society –Knowledge Society, Definition, Objectives and Strategies” ; -section 4: “Social Structures and New Life Patterns in Information Society” ; -section 5: “Virtual Organizations, Activities and Businesses” ; -section 6: “Strategies, Programmes and Courses of the Information Society Approach” ; -section 7: “The Economic Effects Foreseeable through the Implementation of Information Society–Knowledge Society”.

  3. Climate change economics on a small island: new approaches for Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Murray [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Birch, Tom

    2011-01-15

    For small islands like Tobago — that depend heavily on tourism driven by their natural 'beauty' — climate change poses a double-edged threat on supply and demand. Rising sea levels, increasing temperatures and more frequent and intense storms will damage the island's natural assets, such as coral reefs and beaches. This could have a heavy impact on tourism, which will also be affected by climate policy in 'source' countries. But what exactly will that impact be? How much will it cost? And what can be done about it? Traditional economic analysis is ill-equipped to answer these questions because it offers static and highly uncertain models and assessments of damage and loss, rather than flexible response options that consider system dynamics. We urgently need to use and expand new forms of economic analysis to better support the difficult decisions that Caribbean policymakers face as a result of climate change.

  4. Social Capital in the creation of Human Capital and Economic Growth: A Productive Consumption Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2006-01-01

    Social capital is a broad term containing the social networks and norms that generate shared understandings, trust and reciprocity, which underpin cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits, and creates the base for economic prosperity. This study deals with the formation of social capital through development of human capital that is created from productive consumption. This paper attempts to formalize incorporation of social capital (SK). This paper sets up a one-sector growth mod...

  5. Financial Sector Reform and Its Impact on Investment and Economic Growth: An Econometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M. Aynul Hasan; Ashfaque H. Khan; S. Sajid Ali

    1996-01-01

    The financial sector is central to economic development as it serves the role of intermediary by mobilising savings and subsequently allocating credit for productive activities. However, in many developing countries including Pakistan, administered interest rate, domestic credit controls, high reserve requirements, use of captive banking system to finance large budgetary requirements of the government and controls on international capital inflows have remained the main features of the monetar...

  6. Trust, power and transaction costs in B2B exchanges - A socio-economic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bunduchi, R.

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the Internet has enabled organisations to reconfigure their inter-organisational relationships. This study presents three frameworks to analyse the outcome that the use of Internet based electronic markets has on the nature of inter-organisational relationships: transaction cost economics, social exchange theory and an integrated framework that combines the first two. The integrated framework proposes that the nature of inter-organisational relationships depends on the interacti...

  7. Economic Analysis of Tourism Consumption Dynamics: A Time-varying Parameter Demand System Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, DC; Li, G.; Song, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the dynamics of the consumption behaviour of tourists from an economic perspective. The evolution of various demand elasticities is explored using a time-varying parameter almost ideal demand system model. The top four source markets for tourism in Hong Kong are examined, and three major tourist expenditure categories, including shopping, hotel accommodation and meals outside hotels, are investigated for each market. Elasticity analysis reveals different consumption trend...

  8. Optimising the management of complex dynamic ecosystems. An ecological-economic modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: ecological-economic modelling; ecosystem services; resource use; efficient; sustainability; wetlands, rangelands.Ecosystems supply a wide range of goods and services to mankind. This includes, for example, timber supplied by forests, and animal feed supplied by rangeland systems. In addition, ecosystems supply a range of essential life support services, such as the regulation of climatic and biochemical processes, and they have a non-use value related to their importance for the con...

  9. Study on alternative approaches to corrosion protection of ballast tanks using an economic model

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays is corrosion in ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic lifespan of such a vessel depends, to a large degree, upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand these ballast tanks, located between the outer hull and the cargo tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance a difficult task. Today, ship's ballast tanks are usuall...

  10. Reducing the cost of ballast tank corrosion: an economic modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays concerns the corrosion in the double hull space ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic life span of such a vessel depends primarily upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand, the position of these tanks, squeezed between the outer hull and the loading tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance almost impossible. To...

  11. Causal relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan: a multivariate approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hazuki Ishida

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causalit...

  12. The conflict trap in the Greek Civil War 1946-1949: an economic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulakis, Nicos

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a quantitative analysis of the armed confrontation that took place in Greece between the Communist Party and the Centre-Right Government during 1946-1949. Using monthly data for battle casualties a dynamic Lotka-Volterra framework is estimated, pointing to the existence of a conflict trap that explains the prolongation of the civil war and its dire consequences for the country. To examine the extent to which the confrontation was influenced by socio-economic factors, a regi...

  13. Analysis of future agricultural change: a farm economics approach applied to Dutch arable farming.

    OpenAIRE

    Wossink, G.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This study of agricultural change deals simultaneously with: (a) farm planning, ie. the constant adaptation to changing circumstances at the level of the individual farm firm and (b) conditional forecasting, ie. the analysis of alternative agricultural and environmental policy views and their impact.Chapter I gives a general introduction and sets out the objectives and scope of the study. The specific research objectives were: (1) to develop a model system based on farm economics to assess th...

  14. A multi-factor approach to understanding socio-economic segregation in European capital cities

    OpenAIRE

    Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van der Ham; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe, even in the most egalitarian countries, are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. Surprisingly, though, there is a lack of systematic and representative research on the spatial dimension of rising inequalities. This gap is filled by our book project Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West, with empirical evidence from Amsterdam, Athens, Budapest, London, Mad...

  15. Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Technological Innovation in the Automobile Industry: The Input-Output Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the economic impacts of technological innovation, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, in the automobile industry in Japan are examined. The automobile industry has to develop environmentally friendly vehicles in the face of the global warming issue and the exhaustion problem of petroleum. The conventional automobiles with gasoline and diesel oil don’t meet the demands of present age. The new generation automobiles will become popular for coming several decades. The indust...

  16. Public governance of central banks: an approach from new institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiharu Oritani

    2010-01-01

    The governance of central banks has two dimensions: corporate governance and public governance. Public governance is an institutional framework whereby the general public governs a central bank by and through the legislative and executive bodies in a country. This paper argues that the literature of new institutional economics sheds new light on the public governance of central banks. First, Williamson’s theory of "governance as integrity" (probity) is applied to the internal management of ce...

  17. National approach to economic performance indicators for nuclear power plants: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the US electric power industry comprises a combination of traditional electric utilities and less traditional electricity producing companies. The electric utilities include investor owned, publicly owned, federal and cooperative firms. Approximately three quarters of the electricity generated by utilities is generated by investor owned companies. These utilities are, for the most part, franchised monopolies that have an obligation to provide electricity to all customers within a service area. Most provide for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, although the distinctions between these services are breaking down as the electricity industry becomes more deregulated. The shares are publicly traded and their areas of business operation are expanding into new ones, sometimes unrelated to the provision of electricity or even energy. Under deregulation and open market pricing of electricity, the business and financial success of operating nuclear plants must be considered to a much greater extent along with the successful achievement of safety and reliability objectives. In developing strategic and operational goals, nuclear plant managers are required to embrace clear and measurable business objectives and goals that not only assure the achievement of safety and reliability but, in addition, eliminate unnecessary costs and identify investment opportunities. These goals must balance operating and safety risk while optimizing plant revenues and earnings and ultimately ensure the profitability of electricity generating facilities. In doing so, it is essential that plant managers articulate goal achievement through the application of effective, measurable, economic performance indicators. Individual nuclear plants will sell their output competing on electricity price, ultimately to ensure the safe, reliable and economic dispatch of their generation either onto open spot markets or by competitive bidding for bilateral contracts. In

  18. An approach to investigating socio-economic tussles arising from building the future internet

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogiros, Costas; Courcoubetis, Costas; Stamoulis, George D; Boniface, Michael; Meyer, Eric T.; Waldburger, Martin; Field, Daniel; Stiller, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    With the evolution of the Internet from a controlled research network to a worldwide social and economic platform, the initial assumptions regarding stakeholder cooperative behavior are no longer valid. Conflicts have emerged in situations where there are opposing interests. Previous work in the literature has termed these conflicts tussles. This article presents the research of the SESERV project, which develops a methodology to investigate such tussles and is carrying out a survey of tussle...

  19. An economic approach to soil fertility management for wheat production in New South Wales and Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Farquharson, Robert J.; Cacho, Oscar J.; Mullen, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Soil fertility decline and soil management for crop production are important issues for grain growers in northern New South Wales and southern and central Queensland. In this paper a stochastic dynamic economic analysis of soil fertility management is presented to derive optimal fertility levels, and the management practices to achieve them. A sequential analysis of first deriving the optimal nitrogen stock and application, ceteris paribus, was followed by an assessment of tillage, stubble an...

  20. METHODICAL BASES OF CONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRAL AND RATING ESTIMATIONS OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Prokhorova, V.

    2009-01-01

    Article is devoted the analysis of existing ways of development of economic systems. Author's vision of set of indicators for an integrated estimation of a financial condition of economic system is given.