Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Tikoff, B.
Spatial thinking skills are critical to success in many subdisciplines of the geosciences (and beyond). There are many components of spatial thinking, such as mental rotation, penetrative visualization, disembedding, perspective taking, and navigation. Undergraduate students in introductory and upper-level geoscience courses bring a wide variety of spatial skill levels to the classroom, as measured by psychometric tests of many of these components of spatial thinking. Furthermore, it is not unusual for individual students to excel in some of these areas while struggling in others. Although pre- and post-test comparisons show that student skill levels typically improve over the course of an academic term, average gains are quite modest. This suggests that it may be valuable to develop interventions to help undergraduate students develop a range of spatial skills that can be used to solve geoscience problems. Cognitive science research suggests a number of strong strategies for building students' spatial skills. Practice is essential, and time on task is correlated to improvement. Progressive alignment may be used to scaffold students' successes on simpler problems, allowing them to see how more complex problems are related to those they can solve. Gesturing has proven effective in moving younger students from incorrect problem-solving strategies to correct strategies in other disciplines. These principles can be used to design instructional materials to improve undergraduate geoscience students' spatial skills; we will present some examples of such materials.
The provision of mathematics curriculum that encourages students to develop their powers of spatial thinking and visualisation, as important components of their geometrical reasoning, is seen as a key area for development in mathematics education. This short article reviews the nature of spatial thinking and visualisation, both in mathematics education more generally and in geometry in particular, illustrating how both forms of thinking are vital to mathematics.
Johnson-Sheehan, Richard; Baehr, Craig
Explores what it means to think visually and spatially in hypertexts and how users react and maneuver in real and virtual three-dimensional spaces. Offers four principles of visual thinking that can be applied when developing hypertexts. Applies these principles to actual hypertexts, demonstrating how selectivity, fixation, depth discernment, and…
Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson
This article describes the initial implementation of an innovative program for elementary-age children involving origami and pop-up paper engineering to promote visuospatial thinking. While spatial ability measures correlate with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, a focus on spatial thinking is all but missing in elementary…
Shin, Euikyung E.; Milson, Andrew J.; Smith, Thomas J.
The spatial thinking skills and attitudes of geography majors were compared with those of future teachers majoring in elementary education and secondary social studies education. Scores were obtained for each group on two measures: the spatial skills test and the attitude toward spatial thinking inventory. Mean differences were examined based on…
Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice. PMID:26285997
Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Plummer, Julia; Sadler, Philip M.; Johnson, Erin; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Helen; Dussault, Mary E.
Critical breakthroughs in science (e.g., Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, and Watson & Crick's discovery of the structure of DNA), originated with those scientists' ability to think spatially, and research has shown that spatial ability correlates strongly with likelihood of entering a career in STEM. Mounting evidence also shows that spatial skills are malleable, i.e., they can be improved through training. We report early work from a new project that will build on this research to create a series of middle schools science labs called "Thinking Spatially about the Universe" (ThinkSpace), in which students will use a blend of physical and virtual models (in WorldWide Telescope) to explore complex 3-dimensional phenomena in space science. In the three-year ThinkSpace labs project, astronomers, technologists, and education researchers are collaborating to create and test a suite of three labs designed to improve learners' spatial abilities through studies of: 1) Moon phases and eclipses; 2) planetary systems around stars other than the Sun; and 3.) celestial motions within the broader universe. The research program will determine which elements in the labs will best promote improvement of spatial skills within activities that emphasize disciplinary core ideas; and how best to optimize interactive dynamic visualizations to maximize student understanding.
Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert
A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…
Newcombe, Nora S.; Stieff, Mike
Visualizations are an increasingly important part of scientific education and discovery. However, users often do not gain knowledge from them in a complete or efficient way. This article aims to direct research on visualizations in science education in productive directions by reviewing the evidence for widespread assumptions that learning styles, sex differences, developmental stages, and spatial language determine the impact of visualizations on science learning. First, we examine the assumption that people differ in their verbal versus visual learning style. Due to the lack of rigorous evaluation, there is no current support for this distinction. Future research should distinguish between two different kinds of visual learning style. Second, we consider the belief that there are large and intractable sex differences in spatial ability resultant from immutable biological reasons. Although there are some spatial sex differences (in some types of spatial tests although not all), there is actually only very mixed support for biological causation. Most important, there is conclusive evidence that spatial skills can be improved through training and education. Third, we explore educators' use of Piaget's ideas about spatial development to draw conclusions about 'developmental appropriateness'. However, recent research on spatial development has focused on identifying sequences that begin with early starting points of skill, and spatial education is possible in some form at all ages. Fourth, although spatial language does not determine spatial thought, it does frame attention in a way that can have impact on learning and understanding. We examine the empirical support for each assumption and its relevance to future research on visualizations in science education.
Stieff, Mike; Lira, Matthew E.; Scopelitis, Stephanie A.
The present article describes two studies that examine the impact of teaching students to use gesture to support spatial thinking in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) discipline of chemistry. In Study 1 we compared the effectiveness of instruction that involved either watching gesture, reproducing gesture, or reading…
Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada
This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.
Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert
This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…
Hou, Huei-Tse; Yu, Tsai-Fang; Wu, Yi-Xuan; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En
The theory of spatial thinking is relevant to the learning and teaching of many academic domains. One promising method to facilitate learners' higher-order thinking is to utilize a web map mind tool to assist learners in applying spatial thinking to cooperative problem solving. In this study, an environment is designed based on the theory of…
Milson, Andrew J.; Curtis, Mary D.
The authors developed and implemented a project for high school geography students that modeled the processes in a site selection analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). They sought to explore how spatial thinking could be fostered by using the MyWorld GIS software that was designed specifically for educational uses. The task posed…
Scholz, Michael A.; Huynh, Niem Tu; Brysch, Carmen P.; Scholz, Ruojing Wang
Geography textbooks contain chapter or review questions that may engage students in spatial thinking. This research used Jo and Bednarz's (2009) "Taxonomy of Spatial Thinking" to evaluate the percentage of spatial thinking questions in four university-level world geography course textbooks. The results from this study were then…
Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S; Frick, Andrea
Previous research has indicated a close link between spatial and mathematical thinking. However, what shared processes account for this link? In this study, we focused on the spatial skill of map reading and the mathematical skill of proportional reasoning and investigated whether scaling, or the ability to relate information in different-sized representations, is a shared process. Scaling was experimentally manipulated in both tasks. In the map task, 4- and 5-year-olds (N=50) were asked to point to the same position shown on a map in a larger referent space on a touch screen. The sizes of the maps were varied systematically, such that some trials required scaling and some did not (i.e., the map had the same size as the referent space). In the proportional reasoning task, children were presented with different relative amounts of juice and water and were asked to estimate each mixture on a rating scale. Again, some trials required scaling, but others could be solved by directly mapping the proportional components onto the rating scale. Children's absolute errors in locating targets in the map task were closely related to their performance in the proportional reasoning task even after controlling for age and verbal intelligence. Crucially, this was only true for trials that required scaling, whereas performance on nonscaled trials was not related. These results shed light on the mechanisms involved in the close connection between spatial and mathematical thinking early in life. PMID:25705050
Street networks, as one of the oldest infrastructures of transport in the world, play a significant role in modernization, sustainable development, and human daily activities in both ancient and modern times. Although street networks have been well studied in a variety of engineering and scientific disciplines, including for instance transport, geography, urban planning, economics, and even physics, our understanding of street networks in terms of their structure and dynamics remains limited, especially when dealing with such real-world problems as traffic jams, pollution, and human evacuations for disaster management. One goal of this special issue is to promote different ways of thinking about understanding street networks, and of conducting spatial analysis.
Ben Youssef, Belgacem; Berry, Barbara
Spatial thinking skills are vital for success in everyday living and work, not to mention the centrality of spatial reasoning in scientific discoveries, design-based disciplines, medicine, geosciences and mathematics to name a few. This case study describes a course in spatial thinking and communicating designed and delivered by an…
Zhang, Jun; Cai, Kai-Quan; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin
Inspired by the realistic process of taking decisions in social life, we have proposed a repeated thinking mechanism in the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are denoted by the vertices and play games with their direct neighbors. Under our mechanism, a player i will randomly select a neighbor j and then deliberate for M times before strategy updating. It will remain unchanged if not all M considerations suggest it to learn the strategy of j. We mainly focus on the evolution of cooperation in the systems. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level fC is remarkably promoted and fC has a monotonic dependence on the caution parameter M, indicating that being cautious facilitates the emergence and persistence of cooperation. We give a simple but clear explanation for this cooperation promotion via detecting the cooperator-defector transition process. Moreover, the robustness of this mechanism is also examined on different noise levels and game models.
Inspired by the realistic process of taking decisions in social life, we have proposed a repeated thinking mechanism in the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are denoted by the vertices and play games with their direct neighbors. Under our mechanism, a player i will randomly select a neighbor j and then deliberate for M times before strategy updating. It will remain unchanged if not all M considerations suggest it to learn the strategy of j. We mainly focus on the evolution of cooperation in the systems. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level fC is remarkably promoted and fC has a monotonic dependence on the caution parameter M, indicating that being cautious facilitates the emergence and persistence of cooperation. We give a simple but clear explanation for this cooperation promotion via detecting the cooperator-defector transition process. Moreover, the robustness of this mechanism is also examined on different noise levels and game models. (paper)
Jo, Injeong; Bednarz, Sarah Witham
The primary objectives of this article are: (1) to conceptualize teacher dispositions related to teaching spatial thinking in geography classrooms; and (2) to propose an exemplar assessment that can be used to prepare teachers who are disposed toward teaching spatial thinking through geography. A detailed description of the construction procedures…
Newcombe, Nora S.
Spatial thinking--such as visualizing the earth rotating--is crucial to student success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Since spatial thinking is associated with skill and interest in STEM fields (as well as in other areas, such as art, graphic design, and architecture), the immediate question is whether it can be…
Jo, Injeong; Hong, Jung Eun; Verma, Kanika
Advocates for geographic information system (GIS) education contend that learning about GIS promotes students' spatial thinking. Empirical studies are still needed to elucidate the potential of GIS as an instructional tool to support spatial thinking in other geography courses. Using a non-equivalent control group research design, this study…
Weakley, Kevin Douglas
This study examined the effectiveness of two geography courses at improving student spatial thinking skills. Spatial thinking is an important cognitive skill in the sciences and everyday life. A taxonomy of spatial thinking was constructed by Gersmehl (2008) in geography education which included core modes assessed in this study: comparison, region, transition, analogy, pattern, and association. Two additional modes related to space over time, change and movement, were also assessed. The central research question in this study is: What are the effects of a pre-service teacher education earth science content course (Geography 1900) that is conceptually designed and inquiry-based on the spatial thinking of university students compared to the Geography 1020 course that follows a lecture format with an atlas study component? The six sub-questions to this central question were: (1) What spatial thinking modes are embedded in the Geography 1900 course based on the Gersmehl (2008) classification of modes of spatial thinking? (2) What modes of spatial thinking do pre-service elementary education students exhibit prior to instruction in Geography 1900 and 1020? (3) What changes occur in spatial thinking and spatial skills as a result of enrolling in and completing a conceptually based, inquiry course (Geography 1900) that has embedded clearly identifiable spatial tasks based on Gersmehl's classification? (4) What are the effects of Geography 1900 on the modes of spatial thinking that students apply at the completion of the course? (5) What modes of spatial thinking do students transfer from the classroom to the outdoors as they move about campus? (6) Are there differences in spatial thinking between the Geography 1900 population and the Geography 1020 comparison sample of students that received a different course treatment? The research used a mixed methods approach with both quantitative and qualitative information. Statistically significant changes were observed in the
The challenge of extending students' skills in spatial thinking to astronomical scales was the central focus of our K-8 curriculum development. When the project's lead teacher requested a curriculum that cumulatively built on each prior year's learning in a spiral fashion, I knew exactly what the school was asking for. Second and third graders began by noticing the cyclical patters that the sun, moon, and stars make in the sky. Fourth graders explored the phases of the moon by taking turns modeling and sketching them in their classroom and then comparing them to the real sky. Sixth !graders used real telescopes to observe a moving model of our solar system and walked a scale model of the planets' orbits. The curriculum is designed to expand students' capacity to visualize space in a hierarchical fashion that asks them to imagine themselves from a broader number of spatial perspectives through hands-on activities. The "situational awareness" Peter's story describes is a hallmark of high-performance engineering and innovation. Keeping in mind the potential outcomes of multiple paths of pursuit from multiple perspectives while keeping track of their relative merits and performance requirements is a demanding spatial task. What made it possible for Peter to transform the failure of his first glove into triumph was the mental space in which that failure provided exactly the information needed for a new breakthrough. In at least two cases, Peter could immediately "see" the full implications of what his hands were telling him. He tells the story of how putting his hands in a Phase VI astronaut glove instantly transformed his understanding of the glove challenge. Six months into his development, the failure of circumferentially wrapped cords to produce a sufficiently flexible glove again forced him to abandon his assumptions. His situational awareness was so clear and compelling it became a gut-level response. Peter's finely developed spatial skills enabled him to almost
Anneli Hoel Fjærli
Full Text Available The modern world is continuously engaged in a racing processes aimed towards building a favourable future society. In this development, the apparent tools seem to be related to theoretical thought, new technology, avant-garde approaches and innovation. The bodily focus and the societal micro level processes are often left behind in this race. Though, in our aspiration towards urban development and the future society, we should not forget that the bodily functions and the possibilities that these give, represent one of the most fundamental and basic tools we have. This article would like to form an argument carrying out the seeming advantage of bringing in not just technological and theoretic avant-garde to the term of innovation and development, but to invite the whole body into the forming of the future, thereby seeing the term innovation from a material perspective. As the art field today is more often approaching subject matters that are primarily societal, we would like to introduce the potential of a mutual approach from the other end, seeing the art field as a central part in the creation of engagement and progress that can instigate another form of efficiency and present an expanded understanding of what innovative activity can be, and how it can be perceived and comprehended. We would like to debate an art form that takes the bodily, active and relational focus and its social context as a base and starting point on the road towards societal consciousness and potential development. Looking at the example of the art project «The Collectivity Project», this article takes it’s starting point in the following question; How can applied art projects in connection to social contexts, like The Collectivity Project, show the art field and the bodily sensuousness as a tool in the forming of values pointing towards an alternative way of thinking societal consciousness and development?
Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Dutrow, B. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Hickson, T. A.; Tikoff, B.; Atit, K.; Gagnier, K. M.; Resnick, I.
Spatial visualization is an essential skill in the STEM disciplines, including the geological sciences. Undergraduate students, including geoscience majors in upper-level courses, bring a wide range of spatial skill levels to the classroom. Students with weak spatial skills may struggle to understand fundamental concepts and to solve geological problems with a spatial component. However, spatial thinking skills are malleable. Using strategies that have emerged from cognitive science research, we developed a set of curricular materials that improve undergraduate geology majors' abilities to reason about 3D concepts and to solve spatially complex geological problems. Cognitive science research on spatial thinking demonstrates that predictive sketching, making visual comparisons, gesturing, and the use of analogy can be used to develop students' spatial thinking skills. We conducted a three-year study of the efficacy of these strategies in strengthening the spatial skills of students in core geology courses at three universities. Our methodology is a quasi-experimental quantitative design, utilizing pre- and post-tests of spatial thinking skills, assessments of spatial problem-solving skills, and a control group comprised of students not exposed to our new curricular materials. Students taught using the new curricular materials show improvement in spatial thinking skills. Further analysis of our data, to be completed prior to AGU, will answer additional questions about the relationship between spatial skills and academic performance, spatial skills and gender, spatial skills and confidence, and the impact of our curricular materials on students who are struggling academically. Teaching spatial thinking in the context of discipline-based exercises has the potential to transform undergraduate education in the geological sciences by removing one significant barrier to success.
Full Text Available This paper explores the issues of landscape teaching and its connection and potential for the development of spatial thinking in students.We will first present a brief overview of the way landscapes have been addressed in research and educational activities by Geographical Education. Next, the theoretical questions on spatial thinking are explored.As an empirical exercise of the study,we analyzed how landscapes are presented in practical activities in three basic education Geography textbooks from three countries (Portugal, France and the UK and characterize them by their level of capacity to develop spatial thinking, comparing the results. Finally we present some conclusions and reflections.
Elhorst, J. Paul
This paper places the key issues and implications of the new 'introductory' book on spatial econometrics by James LeSage & Kelley Pace (2009) in a broader perspective: the argument in favour of the spatial Durbin model, the use of indirect effects as a more valid basis for testing whether spatial sp
Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos
The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…
Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.
This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…
Now that digital technology has accessed the Z-space in cinema, narrative artistry is at a loss. Motion picture professionals no longer can readily resort to familiar tools. A new language and new linguistics for Z-axis storytelling are necessary. After first examining the roots of monocular thinking in painting, prior modes of visual narrative in twodimensional cinema obviating true binocular stereopsis can be explored, particularly montage, camera motion and depth of field, with historic examples. Special attention is paid to the manner in which monocular cues for depth have been exploited to infer depth on a planar screen. Both the artistic potential and visual limitations of actual stereoscopic depth as a filmmaking language are interrogated. After an examination of the historic basis of monocular thinking in visual culture, a context for artistic exploration of the use of the z-axis as a heightened means of creating dramatic and emotional impact upon the viewer is illustrated.
Research in the cognition and learning sciences has demonstrated that the human brain contains basic structures whose functions are to perform a variety of specific spatial reasoning tasks and that children are capable of learning basic spatial concepts at an early age. There has been a call from within geography to recognize research on spatial…
The aim of this paper is to discuss the conceptual framework and principles to guide knowledge mapping to foster critical and creative thinking in open content environments. We introduce knowledge mapping techniques and tools and present examples of knowledge maps applied to open learning. Then we present some principles to develop thinking skills, highlighting the importance of mapping techniques to organise knowledge. At the end of this paper, we discuss important issues required to foster...
Geospatial analysis is very much dominated by a Gaussian way of thinking, which assumes that things in the world can be characterized by a well-defined mean, i.e., things are more or less similar in size. However, this assumption is not always valid. In fact, many things in the world lack a well-defined mean, and therefore there are far more small things than large ones. This paper attempts to argue that geospatial analysis requires a different way of thinking - a Paretian way of thinking that underlies skewed distribution such as power laws, Pareto and lognormal distributions. I review two properties of spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity, and point out that the notion of spatial heterogeneity in current spatial statistics is only used to characterize local variance of spatial dependence. I subsequently argue for a broad perspective on spatial heterogeneity, and suggest it be formulated as a scaling law. I further discuss the implications of Paretian thinking and the scaling law for better understan...
Sorudeykin, Kirill A
Trying to be effective (no matter who exactly and in what field) a person face the problem which inevitably destroys all our attempts to easily get to a desired goal. The problem is the existence of some insuperable barriers for our mind, anotherwords barriers for principles of thinking. They are our clue and main reason for research. Here we investigate these barriers and their features exposing the nature of mental process. We start from special structures which reflect the ways to define relations between objects. Then we came to realizing about what is the material our mind uses to build thoughts, to make conclusions, to understand, to form reasoning, etc. This can be called a mental dynamics. After this the nature of mental barriers on the required level of abstraction as well as the ways to pass through them became clear. We begin to understand why thinking flows in such a way, with such specifics and with such limitations we can observe in reality. This can help us to be more optimal. At the final step...
Center for Spatial Studies, UCSB; Spatial Intelligence Learning Center, Temple University
More than 40 position papers were prepared by participants prior to meeting in Santa Barbara. The objective was to explore from a multi-discipline perspective the potential values and challenges of formulating curricula to advance the role of spatial reasoning in undergraduate education. The authors consider the following general questions: • What are best current practices in spatial education at the college level? • What role do technologies, such as geographic i...
Mathewson, James H.
Thinking with images plays a central role in scientific creativity and communication but is neglected in science classrooms. This article reviews the fundamental role of imagery in science and technology and our current knowledge of visual-spatial cognition. A novel analogic and thematic organization of images and visualization within science and technology is proposed that can help in the generation and evaluation of classroom activities and materials, and serve as a focus for professional development programs in visual-spatial thinking for science teachers. Visual-spatial thinking includes vision - using the eyes to identify, locate, and think about objects and ourselves in the world, and imagery - the formation, inspection, transformation, and maintenance of images in the mind's eye in the absence of a visual stimulus. A spatial image preserves relationships among a complex set of ideas as a single chunk in working memory, increasing the amount of information that can be maintained in consciousness at a given moment. Vision and imagery are fundamental cognitive processes using specialized pathways in the brain and rely on our memory of prior experience. Visual-spatial thinking develops from birth, together with language and other specialized abilities, through interactions between inherited capabilities and experience. Scientific creativity can be considered as an amalgam of three closely allied mental formats: images; metaphors; and unifying ideas (themes). Combinations of images, analogies, and themes pervade science in the form of master images and visualization techniques. A critique of current practice in education contrasts the subservient role of visual-spatial learning with the dominance of the alphanumeric encoding skills in classroom and textbooks. The lack of coherence in curriculum, pedagogy, and learning theory requires reform that addresses thinking skills, including imagery. Successful integration of information, skills and attitudes into cohesive
Nielsen, Curtis P.; Oberle, Alex; Sugumaran, Ramanathan
Understanding geospatial technologies (GSTs) and spatial thinking is increasingly vital to contemporary life including common activities and hobbies; learning in science, mathematics, and social science; and employment within fields as diverse as engineering, health, business, and planning. As such, there is a need for a stand-alone K-12…
Full Text Available Systems thinking is the art of understanding interconnections between various disciplines thereby unwinding the existing complexity. Most of the real world problems are complex, take for the example the increasing dependency rate on food banks. While various factors contribute towards it, not much has been done to bring the take off the number of dependents. By viewing this system from a holistic systems thinking lens, one explores the issue in depth. We realise the universally acceptable solution is not alleviating the problem in the long run. By applying systems thinking principles several hidden factors are brought to attention and subsequently can be dealt with more aptly. A movement that transcends disciplines results in delivering better solutions.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of implicit teaching of critical thinking and its practice on the attitude the participants hold towards the subject matter being taught. For the observation of the practicality of critical thinking in altering students’ attitudes, 25 Iranian EFL college students -16 girls and 9 boys- were selected as the participants of this study, and the application of critical thinking techniques was operationalized during their English Literature course. A 20-item questionnaire was devised in order to measure the participants’ attitudes towards literature prior to the beginning of the intervention and the same questionnaire was used after the completion of the experiment in order to examine probable differences in their attitudes towards the taught subject. Throughout the course, some promoted techniques by critical thinking advocates including identifying arguments, detecting evidence in its support, reasoning for held stands, and forming analyses were applied for 12 sessions. Statistical calculation of a paired samples t-test after the treatment indicted a significance increase in the participants’ positive attitudes towards literature. The findings of this study are believed to be useful in encouraging the inclusion of critical pedagogies in academic systems for the goal of creating interest in students towards the subject matter.Keywords: critical thinking, critical pedagogy, English literature, group discussion
This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…
A number of theoretical models can be applied to help guide quality improvement and patient safety interventions in hospitals. However there are often significant differences between such models and, therefore, their potential contribution when applied in diverse contexts. The aim of this paper is to explore how two such models have been applied by hospitals to improve quality and safety. We describe and compare the models: (1) The Organizing for Quality (OQ) model, and (2) the Design for Integrated Safety Culture (DISC) model. We analyze the theoretical foundations of the models, and show, by using a retrospective comparative case study approach from two European hospitals, how these models have been applied to improve quality and safety. The analysis shows that differences appear in the theoretical foundations, practical approaches and applications of the models. Nevertheless, the case studies indicate that the choice between the OQ and DISC models is of less importance for guiding the practice of quality and safety improvement work, as they are both systemic and share some important characteristics. The main contribution of the models lay in their role as boundary objects directing attention towards organizational and systems thinking, culture, and collaboration
Madsen, Lene Møller; Rump, Camilla Østerberg
studied. We empirically analyse students’ learning processes and the influences of teaching practice in an introductory course in GIS. We show that students have different strategies for creating their personal instrument for spatial thinking and how teaching interacts with the students’ learning...
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in pre-service Science teachers' astronomy achievement, attitudes towards astronomy and skills for spatial thinking in terms of their years of study. Another purpose of the study was to find out whether there was correlation between pre-service teachers' astronomy achievement, attitudes towards…
Moore, Dana W.; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A.; Billings, Rebecca L.; Fulwiler, Carl; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Rood, Kenneth M. J.; Gansler, David A.
Background/hypothesis: Divergent thinking is an important measurable component of creativity. This study tested the postulate that divergent thinking depends on large distributed inter- and intra-hemispheric networks. Although preliminary evidence supports increased brain connectivity during divergent thinking, the neural correlates of this…
Buchen, Irving H.
The focus of this book is to explore the extent to which our thinking, learning, and leading is influenced and shaped by the future. In the process, professionals and organizations are classified into three basic types: future-oriented, future-poised, and future-driven. The last typically employs divergent and convergent thinking and planning; and…
Promraksa, Siwarak; Sangaroon, Kiat; Inprasitha, Maitree
The objectives of this research were to study and analyze the characteristics of computational thinking about the estimation of the students in mathematics classroom applying lesson study and open approach. Members of target group included 4th grade students of 2011 academic year of Choomchon Banchonnabot School. The Lesson plan used for data…
Peterson, M J; Bechtel, G A
The quality of care that nurses provide to patients is strongly influenced by the nurses' ability to think critically and to solve problems. In response to the dynamic changes in healthcare and rapid technological advancements, nursing educators must prepare nursing students to meet the challenges. Baccalaureate nursing students must be taught to utilize critical thinking skills for problem solving during the application of the nursing process. Nursing students who use critical thinking skills will provide high quality and efficient patient care in the acute care and community settings. During the simulated laboratory experience, incorporating creative teaching strategies to promote critical thinking and enhance problem-solving skills can enable nursing graduates to enter the workforce feeling confident and competent. PMID:12016668
Systems thinking is the art of understanding interconnections between various disciplines thereby unwinding the existing complexity. Most of the real world problems are complex, take for the example the increasing dependency rate on food banks. While various factors contribute towards it, not much has been done to bring the take off the number of dependents. By viewing this system from a holistic systems thinking lens, one explores the issue in depth. We realise the universally acceptable sol...
Hoffman, Steve G
Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course. PMID:26477207
Goodwillie, A. M.
Commonly, geoscience data is presented to students in the lab and classroom in the form of data tables, maps and graphs. Successful data interpretation requires learners to become proficient with spatial thinking skills, allowing them to gain insight and understanding of the underlying real-world 3-D processes and concepts. Yet, educators at both the school and university level often witness students having difficulty in performing that translation. As a result, tools and resources that help to bridge that spatial capability gap can have useful application in the educational realm. A free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory caters to students and teachers alike by providing a variety of data display and manipulation techniques that enhance geospatial awareness. Called GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), the tool provides access to hundreds of built-in authentic geoscience data sets. Examples include earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, lithospheric plate boundary information, geochemical, oceanographic, and environmental data. Barriers to entry are lowered through easy installation, seamless integration of research-grade data sets, intuitive menus, and project-saving continuity. The default base map is a cutting-edge elevation model covering the oceans and land. Dynamic contouring, artificial illumination, 3-D visualisations, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Data sets can also be layered for easier comparison. Students may import their own data sets in Excel, ASCII, shapefile, and gridded format, and they can gain a sense of ownership by being able to tailor their data explorations and save their own projects. GeoMapApp is adaptable to a range of learning environments from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. A new Save Session
An active learning process has the potential to provide educational benefits above-and-beyond what they might receive from more traditional, passive approaches. The Socratic Method is a unique approach to passive learning that facilitates critical thinking, open-mindedness, and teamwork. By imposing a series of guided questions to students, an…
Grillo, Elizabeth U.; Koenig, Mareile A.; Gunter, Cheryl D.; Kim, Sojung
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of teaching modules designed to enhance the use of critical thinking (CT), evidence-based practice (EBP), and professional writing (PW) skills by graduate students in communication sciences and disorders. Three single-session teaching modules were developed to highlight key features of CT,…
Mingo, Wendye Dianne
This study attempts to determine if authentic learning strategies can be used to acquire knowledge of and increase motivation for computational thinking. Over 600 students enrolled in a computer literacy course participated in this study which involved completing a pretest, posttest and motivation survey. The students were divided into an…
Gryl, Inga; Carlos, Vânia
Although Spatial Citizenship is rooted deeply in critical theories and is based on ideas of reflexivity, the link to Critical Thinking has not been systematically developed yet. Nevertheless, intersections of both concepts are considered likely due to the closeness of the semantic fields around them. Identifying such overlaps is expected to significantly contribute to advancing the theoretical depth of Spatial Citizenship. Additionally, Critical Thinking – an influential and field-tested appr...
Petrov, Laura Oana; Shahumyan, Harutyun; Williams, Brendan;
information products and tools, policy-makers can be given the opportunity to spatially interrogate the driving forces and the current state of urban development. Understanding how trends will develop in the future and the possible impacts of their decisions on the development process is vital for......Indicators are helpful tools for land use management, particularly in the context of sustainable urban development. Together with scenarios they are a key requirement in order to produce information for stakeholders and policy-makers and aid their understanding of development processes. Using these...
Full Text Available This contribution explains the connection between spatial intelligence and spatial competences and by indicating how the first is the cognitive matrix of abilities necessary to move in space as well as to represent it. Indeed, two are principal factors involved in the spatial intelligence: orientation and representation. Both are based on a close interaction between spatial thought and movement in space. I show the basic features of spatial intelligence through the analysis of specialist literature. This point, however, requires a further step to be taken into consideration: how can spatial intelligence be strengthened together with the related spatial competences? Moreover, which branch of knowledge is the most suitable to do so? By referring to the existing literature on the subject, we would like to indicate that geography has a pre-eminent role in dealing with the connection between man and space and as such it is the most suitable academic discipline to aid the development of spatial abilities through a series of precise didactic activities. The second part of this paper presents an experimental prototype of this kind of targeted teaching activity following the research-action method, an approach where theory and practice meet allowing a systematic collection of data. In effect, the stages of an experimental framework which has allowed the spatial intelligence of primary school children to be developed has been described and the methods of monitoring the results have also be illustrated.
Taylor, Lloyd J; Churchwell, Lana
Managers for years have known that the best way to run a business is to constantly be looking for ways to improve the way to do business. The barrier has been the ability to identify and solve the right problems. Eliyahu Goldratt (1992c), in his book The Goal, uses a love story format to illustrate his "Theory of Constraints." In Goldratt's (1994) next book, It's Not Luck, he further illustrates this powerful technique called "The Thinking Process" which is based on the Socratic method, using the "if ... then" reasoning process, The first step is to identify UDEs or undesirable effects within the organization and then use these UDEs to create a Current Reality Tree (CRT) which helps to identify the core problem. Next, use an Evaporating Cloud to come up with ideas and a way to break the constraint. Finally, use the injections in the Evaporating Cloud to create a Future Reality Tree, further validating the idea and making sure it does not create any negative effects. In this article, the "Thinking Process" will be used to identify and solve problems related to the General Medical Department of an MHMR State Hospital. PMID:15704641
Bey, Niki; McAloone, Timothy Charles
optimisations on all system levels. However, as the act of ecodesign conventionally focuses on physical products, the search for potential optimisations is usually directed ‘downwards’, i.e. towards lower system levels, resulting in optimised components within products rather than optimised products within...... their surrounding systems. This paper will exemplify that when broadening the ecodesign horizon to environmental product/service-system (PSS) design, there is a better possibility of applying a system-oriented life cycle thinking approach, and therefore a potential to yield extreme improvements towards...
Canada, Amanda N
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Probing the Relationship Between Evidence-Based Practice Implementation Models and Critical Thinking in Applied Nursing Practice," found on pages 161-168, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until March 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Describe the key components and characteristics related to evidence
BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention. PMID:22467637
Lind, Sophie E.; Williams, David M.; Raber, Jacob; Peel, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M.
Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unc...
Newcombe, Nora S.
The author discusses four specific strategies for enhancing and supporting the spatial aspects of the science, mathematics, and social studies curricula. However, these four strategies are examples of what can be done, not an exhaustive list. The overarching concept is to embrace the spatial visualizations used for discovery and communication in…
Green, A. E. S.; Singhal, R. P.
An analytic representation for the spatial (radial and longitudinal) yield spectra is developed in terms of a model containing three simple 'microplumes'. The model is applied to electron energy degradation in molecular nitrogen gas for 0.1 to 5 keV incident electrons. From the nature of the cross section input to this model it is expected that the scaled spatial yield spectra for other gases will be quite similar. The model indicates that each excitation, ionization, etc. plume should have its individual spatial and energy dependence. Extensions and aeronomical and radiological applications of the model are discussed.
Full Text Available Background Systems Thinking (ST has recently been promoted as an important approach to health systems strengthening. However, ST is not common practice, particularly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs. This paper seeks to explore the barriers that may hinder its application in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR and possible strategies to mitigate them. Methods A survey consisting of open-ended questions was conducted with a purposive sample of health policymakers such as senior officials from the Ministry of Health (MoH, researchers, and other stakeholders such as civil society groups and professional associations from ten countries in the region. A total of 62 respondents participated in the study. Thematic analysis was conducted. Results There was strong recognition of the relevance and usefulness of ST to health systems policy-making and research, although misconceptions about what ST means were also identified. Experience with applying ST was very limited. Approaches to designing health policies in the EMR were perceived as reactive and fragmented (66%. Commonly perceived constraints to application of ST were: a perceived notion of its costliness combined with lack of the necessary funding to operationalize it (53%, competing political interests and lack of government accountability (50%, lack of awareness about relevance and value (47%, limited capacity to apply it (45%, and difficulty in coordinating and managing stakeholders (39%. Conclusion While several strategies have been proposed to mitigate most of these constraints, they emphasized the importance of political endorsement and adoption of ST at the leadership level, together with building the necessary capacity to apply it and apply the learning in research and practice.
Full Text Available Such teaching strategy collaborates to improve the knowledge of Spatial Geometry, trying to end the educational gap related to this subject, and instigating reflections about its importance in the students’ lives since the mathematical concepts are present in our daily lives through shapes, areas and volumes. In order to make a change in the school environment it is important to take the first step with a change in the pedagogical practices, thus contributing to learning processes and helping in the decision of the school subjects and the way they will be discussed in the classroom. Considering learning as a process, and being aware that each student has its own way to learn, classes should be planned considering dynamic and active methodologies, involving the students and allowing them to be protagonists of their own learning while they think about and interact with the object of knowledge, as the mere memorization of formulas is not acceptable anymore. Thus, the following study proposes didactic ways to work some Spatial Geometry concepts, emphasizing the volumes and using technological resources as GeoGebra software and concrete materials.
Bodzin, Alec M.
This study investigated whether a geospatial information technology (GIT)-supported science curriculum helped students in an urban middle school understand land use change (LUC) concepts and enhanced their spatial thinking. Five 8th grade earth and space science classes in an urban middle school consisting of three different ability level tracks…
Ham, van den A.; Veenstra, J.
In a first part of this study van den Ham reacts to the increased free-market thinking and makes in chapter 1 a plea for continued efforts in active, public socio-spatial development policies in order to contribute to sustainable poverty alleviation in remote areas. This policy should aim at lifting
The paper Inquires engineering graphics education developing spatial thinking from view of cognition psychology and points out emphatically that the spatial skills which cerebrum processes spatial images play an important part in developing spatial thinking according to analysing characteristics of spatial thinking in solving spatial geometry problems. It points out that the sense of graphics education work is not only teaching graphics concepts and drawing skills but also a work of scheme and enforcement in student's "not language" intellectual development. Teaching methods to spur improving effectively spatial thinking ability of students are put forward.%从认知心理学观点出发，对发展空间思维的工程图学教育研究进行了探讨。根据对解决空间几何问题时空间思维特征分析，强调指出大脑加工空间表象的技能性因素，对发展该思维有着重要作用。指出图学教育工作的意义不仅在于讲授图学概念、图示技能，还是一项开发学生的这种"非语言"智力的策划与实施工作。提出了几点教学法以促使有效提高学生的空间想象力。
Mathematical ability of students creative thinking is a component that must be mastered by the student. Mathematical creative thinking plays an important role, both in solving the problem and well, even in high school students. Therefore, efforts are needed to convey ideas in mathematics. But the reality is not yet developed the ability to…
Mossad, Sarah I; AuCoin-Power, Michelle; Urbain, Charline; Smith, Mary Lou; Pang, Elizabeth W; Taylor, Margot J
Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to understand the perspectives, mental states and beliefs of others in order to anticipate their behaviour and is therefore crucial to social interactions. Although fMRI has been widely used to establish the neural networks implicated in ToM, little is known about the timing of ToM-related brain activity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the neural processes underlying ToM, as MEG provides very accurate timing and excellent spatial localization of brain processes. We recorded MEG activity during a false belief task, a reliable measure of ToM, in twenty young adults (10 females). MEG data were recorded in a 151 sensor CTF system (MISL, Coquitlam, BC) and data were co-registered to each participant's MRI (Siemens 3T) for source reconstruction. We found stronger right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) activations in the false belief condition from 150ms to 225ms, in the right precuneus from 275ms to 375ms, in the right inferior frontal gyrus from 200ms to 300ms and the superior frontal gyrus from 300ms to 400ms. Our findings extend the literature by demonstrating the timing and duration of neural activity in the main regions involved in the "mentalizing" network, showing that activations related to false belief in adults are predominantly right lateralized and onset around 100ms. The sensitivity of MEG will allow us to determine spatial and temporal differences in the brain processes in ToM in younger populations or those who demonstrate deficits in this ability. PMID:27039146
Keehner, M; Montello, D; Fabrikant, Sara I; Riggs, E M; Dalton, R C
This symposium will address how the breadth of investigation within the cognitive sciences can be brought to bear on applied everyday common problems, such as difficulties with reading charts and maps, and difficulties in using an in-car navigation device. Research with a problem-based focus often requires a systems approach that requires assimilation of work from many different disciplines. Such problems thus constitute ideal domains for illustrating the benefits of such multi-discipline and...
Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Godfrey, Martine; Miller, Joel D.; Anderson, Mark R.
From the perspective of human factors engineering, the inclusion of spatial audio within a human-machine interface is advantageous from several perspectives. Demonstrated benefits include the ability to monitor multiple streams of speech and non-speech warning tones using a cocktail party advantage, and for aurally-guided visual search. Other potential benefits include the spatial coordination and interaction of multimodal events, and evaluation of new communication technologies and alerting systems using virtual simulation. Many of these technologies were developed at NASA Ames Research Center, beginning in 1985. This paper reviews examples and describes the advantages of spatial sound in NASA-related technologies, including space operations, aeronautics, and search and rescue. The work has involved hardware and software development as well as basic and applied research.
Huang, J.; Hong, C.; Hsu, Y.
Climate change is a consequence of interaction among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. The causes of climate change are extremely complicated for scientists to explain. The fact that the global climate has kept warming in the past few decades is one example. It remains controversial for scientists whether this warming is the result of human activity or natural causes. This research aims to lead students to discuss the causes of global warming from distinct and controversial viewpoints to help the students realize the uncertainty and complicated characteristics of the global warming issue. The context of applying the critical thinking model to teaching the scientific concepts of climate change and global warming is designed for use in junior high schools. The videos of the upside concept 'An Inconvenient Truth' (a 2006 documentary film directed by Davis Guggenheim) and the reverse-side concept 'The Great Global Warming Swindle' (a 2007 documentary film made by British television producer/director Martin Durkin) about the global warming crisis are incorporated into lessons in order to guide students to make their own decisions appropriately when discussing the earth climate change crisis. A questionnaire, individual teacher interviews and observations in class were conducted to evaluate the curriculum. The pre-test and post-test questionnaires showed differences in the students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior towards the global warming phenomenon before and after attending the lessons. The results show that those students who attended the whole curriculum had a significant increase in their knowledge and behavior factors of global climate (P value class and improve the efficiency of learning.
Ham, van den, R.; Veenstra, J
In a first part of this study van den Ham reacts to the increased free-market thinking and makes in chapter 1 a plea for continued efforts in active, public socio-spatial development policies in order to contribute to sustainable poverty alleviation in remote areas. This policy should aim at lifting restrictions, both material and socio-cultural, of people to realise their human capabilities to qualitatively and sustainably change the conditions of life and livelihood. It is argued why, from ...
以往会计教学欠缺提高学生思辨、批判思考能力。为了让学生能够培养批判思考、带着走的能力，将批判思考教学应用于会计教学，让理论与实际结合。批判思考教学法并非新的教学方法，而是在现有的教学法上改变心态，强调以学生为主的教学方式。以常见的问答法、讨论法为教学主轴，降低一般教师对批判思考教学法的疑虑，培养批判思考能力并非空谈。%The previous accounting teaching did not focus on improving the critical thinking skills of students.In order to cultivate the autonomous critical thinking skills of students,the teaching of critical thinking is applied to accounting teaching to integrate theory with practice.The critical thinking teaching method is not new.It changes the mentality on the basis of existing teaching methods and emphasizes the student-oriented teaching methods.It takes the common question and answer method and discussion method as the main teaching shaft to lower the common doubt of teachers against the critical thinking teaching method.It is not an empty talk to cultivate the critical thinking skill.
Riga, Vassiliki; Chronopoulou, Elena
The purpose of this study was to identify certain strategies and conditions that should be used by teachers in kindergarten so as to foster creative thinking and creative behaviours to children. We used a quasi-experimental research design for 6 months in a public kindergarten in a suburban area of Greece, and we developed a creative music and…
Evgeniy K. Khenner
Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research is to draw attention of the educational community to the phenomenon of computational thinking which actively discussed in the last decade in the foreign scientific and educational literature, to substantiate of its importance, practical utility and the right on affirmation in Russian education.Methods. The research is based on the analysis of foreign studies of the phenomenon of computational thinking and the ways of its formation in the process of education; on comparing the notion of «computational thinking» with related concepts used in the Russian scientific and pedagogical literature.Results. The concept «computational thinking» is analyzed from the point of view of intuitive understanding and scientific and applied aspects. It is shown as computational thinking has evolved in the process of development of computers hardware and software. The practice-oriented interpretation of computational thinking which dominant among educators is described along with some ways of its formation. It is shown that computational thinking is a metasubject result of general education as well as its tool. From the point of view of the author, purposeful development of computational thinking should be one of the tasks of the Russian education.Scientific novelty. The author gives a theoretical justification of the role of computational thinking schemes as metasubject results of learning. The dynamics of the development of this concept is described. This process is connected with the evolution of computer and information technologies as well as increase of number of the tasks for effective solutions of which computational thinking is required. Author substantiated the affirmation that including «computational thinking » in the set of pedagogical concepts which are used in the national education system fills an existing gap.Practical significance. New metasubject result of education associated with
Robertson, Peter J.
Amartya Sen's capability approach characterizes an individual's well-being in terms of what they are able to be, and what they are able to do. This framework for thinking has many commonalities with the core ideas in career guidance. Sen's approach is abstract and not in itself a complete or explanatory theory, but a case can be…
Existence is concrete discerned bodily, thinking considers existents, and so concrete thinking is primal, at the base of logical thinking. Still, concrete actuality is reasonable beyond logical analysis. So, concrete thinking is “illogical” bodily reasonable. Thus this essay explores 1) concrete thinking various and 2) concrete thinking concretely. All this concrete thinking culminates in kids’ joys alive.
Olinda, R. A.; Blanchet, J.; dos Santos, C. A. C.; Ozaki, V. A.; Ribeiro, P. J., Jr.
Most of the mathematical models developed for rare events are based on probabilistic models for extremes. Although the tools for statistical modeling of univariate and multivariate extremes are well developed, the extension of these tools to model spatial extremes includes an area of very active research nowadays. A natural approach to such a modeling is the theory of extreme spatial and the max-stable process, characterized by the extension of infinite dimensions of multivariate extreme value theory, and making it possible then to incorporate the existing correlation functions in geostatistics and therefore verify the extremal dependence by means of the extreme coefficient and the Madogram. This work describes the application of such processes in modeling the spatial maximum dependence of maximum monthly rainfall from the state of Paraná, based on historical series observed in weather stations. The proposed models consider the Euclidean space and a transformation referred to as space weather, which may explain the presence of directional effects resulting from synoptic weather patterns. This method is based on the theorem proposed for de Haan and on the models of Smith and Schlather. The isotropic and anisotropic behavior of these models is also verified via Monte Carlo simulation. Estimates are made through pairwise likelihood maximum and the models are compared using the Takeuchi Information Criterion. By modeling the dependence of spatial maxima, applied to maximum monthly rainfall data from the state of Paraná, it was possible to identify directional effects resulting from meteorological phenomena, which, in turn, are important for proper management of risks and environmental disasters in countries with its economy heavily dependent on agribusiness.
Time to shift from systems thinking-talking to systems thinking-action: Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".
Holmes, Bev J; Noel, Kevin
A recent International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) article by Fadi El-Jardali and colleagues makes an important contribution to the literature on health system strengthening by reporting on a survey of healthcare stakeholders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) about Systems Thinking (ST). The study's main contributions are its confirmation that healthcare stakeholders understand the importance of ST but do not know how to act on that understanding, and the call for collective action by the global community of systems thinkers committed to healthcare improvement. We offer three basic considerations for next steps by this community, derived from our recent work in ST and the related field of Knowledge Translation (KT): resist the temptation to adopt a reductionist approach; recognize not everyone needs to understand ST; and do not wait for everything to be in place before getting started. PMID:25844387
Time to Shift from Systems Thinking-Talking to Systems Thinking-Action; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”
Bev J. Holmes
Full Text Available A recent International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM article by Fadi El-Jardali and colleagues makes an important contribution to the literature on health system strengthening by reporting on a survey of healthcare stakeholders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs about Systems Thinking (ST. The study’s main contributions are its confirmation that healthcare stakeholders understand the importance of ST but do not know how to act on that understanding, and the call for collective action by the global community of systems thinkers committed to healthcare improvement. We offer three basic considerations for next steps by this community, derived from our recent work in ST and the related field of Knowledge Translation (KT: resist the temptation to adopt a reductionist approach; recognize not everyone needs to understand ST; and do not wait for everything to be in place before getting started.
The Dynamic Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Children (DOTCA-Ch) is a tool for finding out about cognitive problems in school-aged children. However, the DOTCA-Ch was developed in English for Western children. For this reason, it’s not appropriate for Thai children because of the differences of culture and language. The objectives of this study were aimed at translating the DOTCA-Ch in Orientation, Spatial Perception, and Thinking Operations subtests to a Thai version with a Worl...
Isaeva E. A.
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Isaeva E. A.
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Chang, Chuen-Jung; Tu, Hsiao-Han; Yeh, Shiou-Wen
Developing interactive history learning materials to facilitate historical thinking is one of the challenges in history teaching and learning. This study developed a web-based history educational system, which has used the acronym HES-SPATO (history educational system based on SPATO), to increase the understandability of history learning…
Dynamic image sequences allow physiological mechanisms to be monitored after the injection of a tracer. Factor analysis of medical image sequences (FAMIS) hence creates a synthesis of the information in one image sequence. It estimates a limited number of structures (factor images) assuming that the tracer kinetics (factors) are similar at each point inside the structure. A spatial regularization method for computing factor images (REG-FAMIS) is proposed to remove irregularities due to noise in the original data while preserving discontinuities between structures. REG-FAMIS has been applied to two sets of simulations: (a) dynamic data with Gaussian noise and (b) dynamic studies in emission tomography (PET or SPECT), which respect real tomographic acquisition parameters and noise characteristics. Optimal regularization parameters are estimated in order to minimize the distance between reference images and regularized factor images. Compared with conventional factor images, the root mean square error between regularized images and reference factor images is improved by 3 for the first set of simulations, and by about 1.5 for the second set of simulations. In all cases, regularized factor images are qualitatively and quantitatively improved. (author)
Full text: Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) is widely used and provides high-speed measurements for academic and industrial research. Characterized by simple optical setup and full digital data acquisition and -processing, it provides some advantages to holography which is still bound to wet photo processing. The main drawbacks of DSPI are the grainy structure of the interferograms and the related inherent noise which imposes high demands to evaluation software. Though DSPI is utilized mainly for measurements of mechanical stress and vibration, it can also be used for refractive index measurement in phase objects. With experience in plasma diagnostics by classic and holographic interferometry, we also applied DSPI in this field of research for a more industrial oriented approach. Measurements to determine number densities include 2-wavelength interferometry for electrons and resonant interferometry for heavy particles. The resonant measurement requires a tomographic reconstruction procedure to obtain spatially resolved data from a cross-section of the plasma. The presentation shows the specific implementation of DSPI and assesses its performance within this demanding experimental environment. (author)
Razumnikova, O M; Bryzgalova, A O
Gender differences in EEG patterns associated with verbal creativity were studied by EEG mapping. The EEGs of 18 males and 21 females (right-handed university students) were recorded during a performance of Remote Associates Task (RAT) compared with the letter-fluency and simple associate's tasks. Gender differences were found in a factor structure of the indices of verbal thinking and a score of generating words was greater in women than men. No significant gender differences in originality of associations were revealed, however, gender-related differences in the EEG-patterns were found at the final and initial stages of RAT. In men, the beta2-power was increased in both hemispheres at the beginning of test. To the end of testing, the power of oscillations in the beta2 band increased only in the central part of the cortex. In women, the beta2-power was increased to a greater extent in the right than in the left hemisphere at the initial stage of task performance, whereas the final stage was characterized by a relative decrease in beta-activity in parietotemporal cortical regions and increase in the left prefrontal region. It is suggested that the verbal creative thinking in men is based mostly on "insight" strategy whereas women additionally involve the "intellectual" strategy. PMID:16217962
Saro Lee; Woo Jeon Seong; Kwan-Young Oh; Moung-Jin Lee
The aim of this study is to predict landslide susceptibility caused using the spatial analysis by the application of a statistical methodology based on the GIS. Logistic regression models along with artificial neutral network were applied and validated to analyze landslide susceptibility in Inje, Korea. Landslide occurrence area in the study were identified based on interpretations of optical remote sensing data (Aerial photographs) followed by field surveys. A spatial database considering fo...
Nielsen, O. F.; Ploug, C.; Mendoza, J. A.; Martínez, K.
The need for increaseding accuracy and reduced ambiguities in the inversion results has resulted in focus on the development of more advanced inversion methods of geophysical data. Over the past few years more advanced inversion techniques have been developed to improve the results. Real 3D-inversion is time consuming and therefore often not the best solution in a cost-efficient perspective. This has motivated the development of 3D constrained inversions, where 1D-models are constrained in 3D, also known as a Spatial Constrained Inversion (SCI). Moreover, inversion of several different data types in one inversion has been developed, known as Mutually Constrained Inversion (MCI). In this paper a presentation of a Spatial Mutually Constrained Inversion method (SMCI) is given. This method allows 1D-inversion applied to different geophysical datasets and geological information constrained in 3D. Application of two or more types of geophysical methods in the inversion has proved to reduce the equivalence problem and to increase the resolution in the inversion results. The use of geological information from borehole data or digital geological models can be integrated in the inversion. In the SMCI, a 1D inversion code is used to model soundings that are constrained in three dimensions according to their relative position in space. This solution enhances the accuracy of the inversion and produces distinct layers thicknesses and resistivities. It is very efficient in the mapping of a layered geology but still also capable of mapping layer discontinuities that are, in many cases, related to fracturing and faulting or due to valley fills. Geological information may be included in the inversion directly or used only to form a starting model for the individual soundings in the inversion. In order to show the effectiveness of the method, examples are presented from both synthetic data and real data. The examples include DC-soundings as well as land-based and airborne TEM
Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Grosz, Nathaniel
We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after…
The aim of this paper is to present how literature can be a powerful tool for teaching critical thinking as it offers the potential for higher level thinking. Benjamin S. Bloom’s critical thinking questioning strategies are applied into the reading of a short story, "The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson. Pre-, while-, and post-reading activities which are designed according to Bloom’s taxonomy are presented to show how the students learn to read personally, actively, and deeply - questioning, unde...
Bishop, Bradley Wade; Johnston, Melissa P.
Geospatial thinking skills inform a host of library decisions including planning and managing facilities, analyzing service area populations, facility site location, library outlet and service point closures, as well as assisting users with their own geospatial needs. Geospatial thinking includes spatial cognition, spatial reasoning, and knowledge…
Gosset, Eric; Surdej, Jean; Swings, Jean-Pierre
The authors discuss the application of different statistical tests to the study of the spatial distribution of quasars. Applications to data sets of optically selected quasars lead to the detection of a clustering at a typical scale of 10 arcmin. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of quasars in a field around NGC 450 shows a deviation from randomness, towards clustering, at a scale of 10 h[SUP]-1[/SUP]Mpc.
Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Grosz, Nathaniel
We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after instruction specifically designed to address student conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified by rigorous research, many undergraduate physics students fail to build reasoning chains from fundamental principles even though they possess the required knowledge and skills to do so. Instead, they often rely on a variety of intuitive reasoning strategies. In this study, we developed and employed a methodology that allowed for the disentanglement of student conceptual understanding and reasoning approaches through the use of sequences of related questions. We have shown that the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning can be used to account for, in a mechanistic fashion, the observed inconsistencies in student responses. In particular, we found that students tended to apply their correct ideas in a selective manner that supported a specific and likely anticipated conclusion while neglecting to employ the same ideas to refute an erroneous intuitive conclusion. The observed reasoning patterns were consistent with the heuristic-analytic theory, according to which reasoners develop a "first-impression" mental model and then construct an argument in support of the answer suggested by this model. We discuss implications for instruction and argue that efforts to improve student metacognition, which serves to regulate the interaction between intuitive and analytical reasoning, is likely to lead to improved student reasoning.
Distinguishes between critical and creative thinking and discusses critical-thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy. Outlines goals in critical-thinking curriculum, critical thinking skills (student disposition, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, presenting argument, and reflection), and…
Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.
Formulating general hypotheses from limited observations is one of the fundamental principles of scientific discovery. The data mining approach consists, among others, in generating new knowledge analyzing massive amounts of data and using background knowledge. Knowledge representation is one of the fundamental topics of data mining, because the representation language dictates which algorithms to use, as well as the effective usefulness of the learned hypotheses. Programs that use richer representation languages have the advantage of generating hypotheses that are compact and easy to understand, and the disadvantage of being more complex, slower and ususally with more control parameters. On the other hand, programs that use simpler representaiton languages overcome these shortcomings, but fail to generate hypotheses that can be easily interpreted and used for problem solving and decision making. Symbolic machine learning methods, such as decision rule classifiers, use a complex representation language which can be used to describe difficult concepts, and allow to cope with spatial and temporal data, such as remote sensing data. Because data are usually collected as a sequence of observations over time and in specific locations, very often it is necessary to find relations not only in the data per se, but also in the temporal and spatial distribution of the observations. Due to the increasingly large amount of spatial and temporal data collected and analyzed in several fields such as remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS), bioinformatics, medicine, bank transactions, etc, spatial and temporal knowledge representaion has become a problem of crucial importance. Present research investigates methods to use existing symbolic machine learning classifiers with temporal and spatial data. The data are converted in a representation language which is suitable to learn spatial and temporal relationship without modifying the existing algorithms. Results from
Full Text Available Early reforms in Serbia (Yugoslavia were announced immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. From the beginning of the 1990s few attempts of the kind announced have taken place, and, altogether, they still remain more or less uncompleted. To a large extent, this is a result of choices taken by the political and economic elites, in effect without any broader public dialogue undertaken about the strategic directions, contents and means for the implementation of such reforms. So far no overall societal consensus on the key strategic issues has been reached whatsoever, and, therefore, the choices in question have simply been imposed on the society at large by decree. The economic recovery from 2000 onwards, while fairly dynamic, has still been insufficient, and more or less assumes the form of “growth without development”. Serbia still keeps one of the most dissipating and non-sustainable economies, social services and spatial development patterns in Europe. Its “post-socialist Argonautics” has been facing a number of difficulties, also exacerbated by a lack of adequate institutional and organizational adjustments, as well as by a lack of proper cognitive and heuristic support. The spatial and environmental planning practice represents a mixture of old habits and substandard approaches, with only some new initiatives. There have been few attempts to redirect the improper development path, however, which have so far either failed of been uncompleted, mostly reflecting the collapse an overall collapse of strategic thinking, research and governance in this country.
Eldon Glen Caldwell Marin
Full Text Available The Markov Chains Model was proposed to analyze stochastic events when recursive cycles occur; for example, when rework in a continuous flow production affects the overall performance. Typically, the analysis of rework and scrap is done through a wasted material cost perspective and not from the perspective of waste capacity that reduces throughput and economic value added (EVA. Also, we can not find many cases of this application in agro-industrial production in Latin America, given the complexity of the calculations and the need for robust applications. This scientific work presents the results of a quasi-experimental research approach in order to explain how to apply DOE methods and Markov analysis in a rice production process located in Central America, evaluating the global effects of a single reduction in rework and scrap in a part of the whole line. The results show that in this case it is possible to evaluate benefits from Global Throughput and EVA perspective and not only from the saving costs perspective, finding a relationship between operational indicators and corporate performance. However, it was found that it is necessary to analyze the markov chains configuration with many rework points, also it is still relevant to take into account the effects on takt time and not only scrap´s costs.
People in different cultures are taught to think differently. How we gather information, process, rationalise, justify and communicate our ideas is culturally determined. Europe is divided between the pragmatic, inductive thinking of North Sea cultures and the rationalist thinking of the rest of the continent. Westerners and Asians have different mental skills and capacities deriving from the nature of written and spoken language, the relative importance of learning by rote or investigation and the social environment. Western children are expected to ask questions and test ideas for themselves, while in Asia it is unacceptable to question anyone senior in age or authority, including teachers. Westerners base thinking on reason; Asians base thinking on harmony. Whenever people of different cultures work together, different ways of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication. This applies to many spheres of work, including the medical profession. PMID:12195863
The paper presents an adaptive illumination system for image quality enhancement in vision-based quality control systems. In particular, a spatial modulation of illumination intensity is proposed in order to improve image quality, thus compensating for different target scattering properties, local reflections and fluctuations of ambient light. The desired spatial modulation of illumination is obtained by a digital light projector, used to illuminate the scene with an arbitrary spatial distribution of light intensity, designed to improve feature extraction in the region of interest. The spatial distribution of illumination is optimized by running a genetic algorithm. An image quality estimator is used to close the feedback loop and to stop iterations once the desired image quality is reached. The technique proves particularly valuable for optimizing the spatial illumination distribution in the region of interest, with the remarkable capability of the genetic algorithm to adapt the light distribution to very different target reflectivity and ambient conditions. The final objective of the proposed technique is the improvement of the matching score in the recognition of parts through matching algorithms, hence of the diagnosis of machine vision-based quality inspections. The procedure has been validated both by a numerical model and by an experimental test, referring to a significant problem of quality control for the washing machine manufacturing industry: the recognition of a metallic clamp. Its applicability to other domains is also presented, specifically for the visual inspection of shoes with retro-reflective tape and T-shirts with paillettes. (paper)
Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson
As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…
Application of systems thinking in health: opportunities for translating theory into practice Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: a regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".
Malik, Asmat Ullah
Systems thinking is not a new concept to health system strengthening; however, one question remains unanswered: How policy-makers, system designers and consultants with a system thinking philosophy should act (have acted) as potential change agents in actually gaining opportunities to introduce systems thinking? Development of Comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs) for Immunization System is one such opportunity because almost all Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) develop and implement cMYPs every five years. Without building upon examples and showing practical application, the discussions and deliberations on systems thinking may fade away with passage of time. There are opportunities that exist around us in our existing health systems that we can benefit from starting with an incremental approach and generating evidence for longer lasting system-wide changes. PMID:26340394
Application of Systems Thinking in Health: Opportunities for Translating Theory into Practice; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”
Asmat Ullah Malik
Full Text Available Systems thinking is not a new concept to health system strengthening; however, one question remains unanswered: How policy-makers, system designers and consultants with a system thinking philosophy should act (have acted as potential change agents in actually gaining opportunities to introduce systems thinking? Development of Comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs for Immunization System is one such opportunity because almost all Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs develop and implement cMYPs every five years. Without building upon examples and showing practical application, the discussions and deliberations on systems thinking may fade away with passage of time. There are opportunities that exist around us in our existing health systems that we can benefit from starting with an incremental approach and generating evidence for longer lasting system-wide changes.
Thinking Shift on Health Systems: From Blueprint Health Programmes towards Resilience of Health Systems; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”
International health is still highly dominated by equilibrium approaches. The emergence of systems thinking in international health provides a great avenue to develop innovative health interventions adapted to changing contexts. The public health community, nevertheless, has the responsibility to translate concepts related to systems thinking and complexity into concrete research methods and interventions. One possibility is to consider the properties of systems such as resilience and adaptab...
Thinking Shift on Health Systems: From Blueprint Health Programmes towards Resilience of Health Systems; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”
Full Text Available International health is still highly dominated by equilibrium approaches. The emergence of systems thinking in international health provides a great avenue to develop innovative health interventions adapted to changing contexts. The public health community, nevertheless, has the responsibility to translate concepts related to systems thinking and complexity into concrete research methods and interventions. One possibility is to consider the properties of systems such as resilience and adaptability as entry points to better understand how health systems react to shocks.
Thinking shift on health systems: from blueprint health programmes towards resilience of health systems Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".
International health is still highly dominated by equilibrium approaches. The emergence of systems thinking in international health provides a great avenue to develop innovative health interventions adapted to changing contexts. The public health community, nevertheless, has the responsibility to translate concepts related to systems thinking and complexity into concrete research methods and interventions. One possibility is to consider the properties of systems such as resilience and adaptability as entry points to better understand how health systems react to shocks. PMID:25905481
Juliano de Bastos Pazini
Full Text Available Tibraca limbativentris (rice stem bug is an insect highly injurious to the rice crop in Brazil. The aim of this research was to define the spatial distribution of the T. limbativentris and improve the sampling process by means of geostatistical application techniques and construction of prediction maps in a flooded rice field located in the "Planalto da Campanha" Region, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil. The experiments were conducted in rice crop in the municipality of Itaqui - RS, in the crop years of 2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12, counting fortnightly the number of nymphs and adults in a georeferenced grid with points spaced at 50m in the first year and in 10m in the another years. It was performed a geostatistical analysis by means adjusting semivariogram and interpolation of numeric data by kriging to verify the spatial dependence and the subsequent mapping population. The results obtained indicated that the rice stem bug, T. limbativentris, has a strong spatial dependence. The prediction maps allow estimating population density of the pest and visualization of the spatial distribution in flooded rice fields, enabling the improvement of the traditional method of sampling for rice stem bug
Carver, Steve; Evans, Andy; Kingston, Richard
The development and testing of a Web-based GIS e-learning resource is described. This focuses on the application of GIS for siting a nuclear waste disposal facility and the associated principles of spatial decision-making using Boolean and weighted overlay methods. Initial student experiences in using the system are analysed as part of a research…
Wu, Jiansheng; Li, Jiacheng; Peng, Jian; Li, Weifeng; Xu, Guang; Dong, Chengcheng
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is the major air pollutant in Beijing, posing serious threats to human health. Land use regression (LUR) has been widely used in predicting spatiotemporal variation of ambient air-pollutant concentrations, though restricted to the European and North American context. We aimed to estimate spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 by building separate LUR models in Beijing. Hourly routine PM2.5 measurements were collected at 35 sites from 4th March 2013 to 5th March 2014. Seventy-seven predictor variables were generated in GIS, including street network, land cover, population density, catering services distribution, bus stop density, intersection density, and others. Eight LUR models were developed on annual, seasonal, peak/non-peak, and incremental concentration subsets. The annual mean concentration across all sites is 90.7 μg/m(3) (SD = 13.7). PM2.5 shows more temporal variation than spatial variation, indicating the necessity of building different models to capture spatiotemporal trends. The adjusted R (2) of these models range between 0.43 and 0.65. Most LUR models are driven by significant predictors including major road length, vegetation, and water land use. Annual outdoor exposure in Beijing is as high as 96.5 μg/m(3). This is among the first LUR studies implemented in a seriously air-polluted Chinese context, which generally produce acceptable results and reliable spatial air-pollution maps. Apart from the models for winter and incremental concentration, LUR models are driven by similar variables, suggesting that the spatial variations of PM2.5 remain steady for most of the time. Temporal variations are explained by the intercepts, and spatial variations in the measurements determine the strength of variable coefficients in our models. PMID:25487555
Fischer, B. M. C.; Mul, M. L.; Savenije, H. H. G.
With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the probability of dry spell occurrence. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. This map is then related to the critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the probability of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels, which makes rainfed agricultural practices unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully practiced. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells, and subsequently to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.
Spatial data is a powerful form of information, capable of providing information of great interest and tremendous use to a variety of users. However, much like other data representing the 'real world', precision and accuracy must be high for the results of data analysis to be deemed reliable and thus applicable to real world projects and undertakings. The spatial data quality control (QC) procedure presented here was developed as the topic of a Master's thesis, in the sphere of and using data from the Okavango Basin Information System (OBIS), itself a part of The Future Okavango (TFO) project. The aim of the QC procedure was to form the basis of a method through which to determine the quality of spatial data relevant for application to hydrological, solute, and erosion transport modelling using the Jena Adaptable Modelling System (JAMS). As such, the quality of all data present in OBIS classified under the topics of elevation, geoscientific information, or inland waters, was evaluated. Since the initial data quality has been evaluated, efforts are underway to correct the errors found, thus improving the quality of the dataset.
Following recently proposed approaches on gamma/hadron separation, spatial correlations among secondary charged particles in extensive air showers have been studied for the case of the ARGO-YBJ experiment, which represents a particularly suited detector in this respect because of its “continuous-carpet” geometry. Two different types of statistics have been considered, namely the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution (NNSD) and the variance of the number of secondary particles at given distance. The results of this preliminary investigation are reported
Examines creative thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy and compares creative and critical thinking. Discusses teaching for thinking, techniques for sparking creativity, activities for creating a mental museum, synectics (a group creative process to create new insights), and creating meaning through story…
Use of Design Thinking in Development of Professional Conferences : Increasing Teaching Staff Participation in International Week of School of Art, Music, and Media of Tampere University of Applied Sciences
Primary aim of this thesis is to propose practical solutions to improve staff attendance at the International Week of School of Art, Music, and Media at Tampere University of Applied Sciences. In order to effectively apply design thinking approaches, methods, and principles an extensive theoretical research was conducted. This research presents global, university, and teaching staff perspectives on the international week; positions the event; and explores professional development, idea ex...
The method of characteristics is an efficient and flexible technique to solve the neutron transport equation and has been extensively used in two-dimensional calculations because it permits to deal with complex geometries. However, because of a very fast increase in storage requirements and number of floating operations, its direct application to three-dimensional routine transport calculations it is not still possible. In this work we introduce and analyze several modifications aimed to reduce memory requirements and to diminish the computing burden. We explore high-order spatial approximation, the use of intermediary trajectory-dependent flux expansions and the possibility of dynamic trajectory reconstruction from local tracking for typed subdomains. (authors)
Feltmate, B. E.
Several new and seemingly successful scene analysis techniques for application to real image processing are presented. These techniques consist of particular combinations of spatial low pass filtering, global thresholding and Boolean operators, specifically the AND, OR and NOT operators. These combinatorial operators, hereafter referred to as the Boolpass operators, perform the task of picture energy/information reduction, while retaining the fundamental picture primitives such as edges which characterize the images. Over 150 figures are included which illustrate the results obtained from application of the Boolpass techniques to eight different natural scenes. These results indicate that the Boolpass operators do display great potential as important components of a larger more comprehensive pattern recognition machine. Such a machine would encompass further processing (for target classification/recognition) of the resulting Boolpass operator information.
In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…
Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281
“Wood Already Touched by Fire is not Hard to Set Alight”; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”
Irene Akua Agyepong
Full Text Available A major constraint to the application of any form of knowledge and principles is the awareness, understanding and acceptance of the knowledge and principles. Systems Thinking (ST is a way of understanding and thinking about the nature of health systems and how to make and implement decisions within health systems to maximize desired and minimize undesired effects. A major constraint to applying ST within health systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs would appear to be an awareness and understanding of ST and how to apply it. This is a fundamental constraint and in the increasing desire to enable the application of ST concepts in health systems in LMIC and understand and evaluate the effects; an essential first step is going to be enabling of a wide spread as well as deeper understanding of ST and how to apply this understanding.
"Wood already touched by fire is not hard to set alight": Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".
Agyepong, Irene Akua
A major constraint to the application of any form of knowledge and principles is the awareness, understanding and acceptance of the knowledge and principles. Systems Thinking (ST) is a way of understanding and thinking about the nature of health systems and how to make and implement decisions within health systems to maximize desired and minimize undesired effects. A major constraint to applying ST within health systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) would appear to be an awareness and understanding of ST and how to apply it. This is a fundamental constraint and in the increasing desire to enable the application of ST concepts in health systems in LMIC and understand and evaluate the effects; an essential first step is going to be enabling of a wide spread as well as deeper understanding of ST and how to apply this understanding. PMID:25774378
Brewer, Jonathan; Bloksgaard, Maria; Kubiak, Jakub; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Bagatolli, Luis A
A multiphoton excitation-based fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method, Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), was used to measure the local diffusion coefficients of distinct model fluorescent substances in excised human skin. In combination with structural information obtained by multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy imaging, the acquired diffusion information was processed to construct spatially resolved diffusion maps at different depths of the stratum corneum (SC). Experiments using amphiphilic and hydrophilic fluorescently labeled molecules show that their diffusion in SC is very heterogeneous on a microscopic scale. This diffusion-based strategy was further exploited to investigate the integrity of liposomes during transdermal penetration. Specifically, the diffusion of dual-color fluorescently labeled liposomes--containing an amphiphilic fluorophore in the lipid bilayer and a hydrophilic fluorophore encapsulated in the liposome lumen--was measured using cross-correlation RICS. This type of experiment allows discrimination between separate (uncorrelated) and joint (correlated) diffusion of the two different fluorescent probes, giving information about liposome integrity. Independent of the liposome composition (phospholipids or transfersomes), our results show a clear lack of cross-correlation below the skin surface, indicating that the penetration of intact liposomes is highly compromised by the skin barrier. PMID:23223136
Within this thesis a conceptual model is presented which allows for the definition of a vulnerability assessment according to its time and spatial scale and within a multi-dimensional framework, which should help to design and develop appropriate methodologies and adaptation of concepts for the required scale of implementation. Building on past experiences with participatory approaches in community mapping in the District of Buzi in Mozambique, the relevance of such approaches for a community-based disaster risk reduction framework is analysed. Finally, methodologies are introduced which allow the assessment of vulnerability and the prioritisation of vulnerability factors at the community level. At the district level, homogenous vulnerability regions are identified through the application of integrated modelling approaches which build on expert knowledge and weightings. A set of indicators is proposed, which allow the modelling of vulnerability in a data-scarce environment. In developing these different methodologies for the community and district levels, it has been identified that the monitoring of vulnerability and the identification of trends is essential to addressing the objective of a continuous and improved disaster risk management. In addition to the technical and methodological challenges discussed in this thesis, the commitment from different stakeholders and the availability of capacity in different domains is essential for the successful, practical implementation of the developed approaches. (author)
Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM) is capable of providing two-dimensional information about dopant and carrier concentrations in semiconducting devices. This information can be used to calibrate models used in the simulation of these devices prior to manufacturing and to develop and optimize the manufacturing processes. To provide information for future generations of devices, ultra-high spatial accuracy (<10 nm) will be required. One method, which potentially provides a means to obtain these goals, is inverse modeling of SCM data. Current semiconducting devices have large dopant gradients. As a consequence, the capacitance probe signal represents an average over the local dopant gradient. Conversion of the SCM signal to dopant density has previously been accomplished with a physical model which assumes that no dopant gradient exists in the sampling area of the tip. The conversion of data using this model produces results for abrupt profiles which do not have adequate resolution and accuracy. A new inverse model and iterative method has been developed to obtain higher resolution and accuracy from the same SCM data. This model has been used to simulate the capacitance signal obtained from one and two-dimensional ideal abrupt profiles. This simulated data has been input to a new iterative conversion algorithm, which has recovered the original profiles in both one and two dimensions. In addition, it is found that the shape of the tip can significantly impact resolution. Currently SCM tips are found to degrade very rapidly. Initially the apex of the tip is approximately hemispherical, but quickly becomes flat. This flat region often has a radius of about the original hemispherical radius. This change in geometry causes the silicon directly under the disk to be sampled with approximately equal weight. In contrast, a hemispherical geometry samples most strongly the silicon centered under the SCM tip and falls off quickly with distance from the tip's apex. Simulation
Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Ricca, Mark A.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Blomberg, Erik J.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Overton, Cory T.; Davis, Dawn M.; Niell, Lara E.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Gardner, Scott C.; Delehanty, David J.
multiple spatial scales. As applied to sage-grouse, the composite map identifies spatially explicit management categories within sagebrush steppe that are most critical to sustaining sage-grouse populations as well as those areas where changes in land use would likely have minimal impact. Importantly, collaborative efforts among stakeholders guide which intersections of habitat selection indices and abundance and space use classes are used to define management categories. Because sage-grouse are an umbrella species, our joint-index modelling approach can help target effective conservation for other sagebrush obligate species, and can be readily applied to species in other ecosystems with similar life histories, such as central-placed breeding.
Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; da Cunha, Elias Rodrigues; Correa, Caio Cezar Guedes; Torres, Francisco Eduardo; Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Gois, Givanildo; Ribeiro, Larissa Pereira
The State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) located in Brazil Midwest is devoid of climatological studies, mainly in the characterization of rainfall regime and producers' meteorological systems and rain inhibitors. This state has different soil and climatic characteristics distributed among three biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal. This study aimed to apply the cluster analysis using Ward's algorithm and identify those meteorological systems that affect the rainfall regime in the biomes. The rainfall data of 32 stations (sites) of the MS State were obtained from the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) database, collected from 1954 to 2013. In each of the 384 monthly rainfall temporal series was calculated the average and applied the Ward's algorithm to identify spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Bartlett's test revealed only in January homogeneous variance at all sites. Run test showed that there was no increase or decrease in trend of monthly rainfall. Cluster analysis identified five rainfall homogeneous regions in the MS State, followed by three seasons (rainy, transitional and dry). The rainy season occurs during the months of November, December, January, February and March. The transitional season ranges between the months of April and May, September and October. The dry season occurs in June, July and August. The groups G1, G4 and G5 are influenced by South Atlantic Subtropical Anticyclone (SASA), Chaco's Low (CL), Bolivia's High (BH), Low Levels Jet (LLJ) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Maden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Group G2 is influenced by Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) and Front Systems (FS). The group G3 is affected by UTCV, FS and SACZ. The meteorological systems' interaction that operates in each biome and the altitude causes the rainfall spatial and temporal diversity in MS State.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to predict landslide susceptibility caused using the spatial analysis by the application of a statistical methodology based on the GIS. Logistic regression models along with artificial neutral network were applied and validated to analyze landslide susceptibility in Inje, Korea. Landslide occurrence area in the study were identified based on interpretations of optical remote sensing data (Aerial photographs followed by field surveys. A spatial database considering forest, geophysical, soil and topographic data, was built on the study area using the Geographical Information System (GIS. These factors were analysed using artificial neural network (ANN and logistic regression models to generate a landslide susceptibility map. The study validates the landslide susceptibility map by comparing them with landslide occurrence areas. The locations of landslide occurrence were divided randomly into a training set (50% and a test set (50%. A training set analyse the landslide susceptibility map using the artificial network along with logistic regression models, and a test set was retained to validate the prediction map. The validation results revealed that the artificial neural network model (with an accuracy of 80.10% was better at predicting landslides than the logistic regression model (with an accuracy of 77.05%. Of the weights used in the artificial neural network model, ‘slope’ yielded the highest weight value (1.330, and ‘aspect’ yielded the lowest value (1.000. This research applied two statistical analysis methods in a GIS and compared their results. Based on the findings, we were able to derive a more effective method for analyzing landslide susceptibility.
Saro, Lee; Woo, Jeon Seong; Kwan-Young, Oh; Moung-Jin, Lee
The aim of this study is to predict landslide susceptibility caused using the spatial analysis by the application of a statistical methodology based on the GIS. Logistic regression models along with artificial neutral network were applied and validated to analyze landslide susceptibility in Inje, Korea. Landslide occurrence area in the study were identified based on interpretations of optical remote sensing data (Aerial photographs) followed by field surveys. A spatial database considering forest, geophysical, soil and topographic data, was built on the study area using the Geographical Information System (GIS). These factors were analysed using artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression models to generate a landslide susceptibility map. The study validates the landslide susceptibility map by comparing them with landslide occurrence areas. The locations of landslide occurrence were divided randomly into a training set (50%) and a test set (50%). A training set analyse the landslide susceptibility map using the artificial network along with logistic regression models, and a test set was retained to validate the prediction map. The validation results revealed that the artificial neural network model (with an accuracy of 80.10%) was better at predicting landslides than the logistic regression model (with an accuracy of 77.05%). Of the weights used in the artificial neural network model, `slope' yielded the highest weight value (1.330), and `aspect' yielded the lowest value (1.000). This research applied two statistical analysis methods in a GIS and compared their results. Based on the findings, we were able to derive a more effective method for analyzing landslide susceptibility.
Jackson, Philip W.
Background: The intellectual context of this essay is the nature of human thought as examined by philosophers and psychologists past and present. Focus of study: The study focuses on the treatment of thinking by John Dewey in his two editions of "How We Think" and by William James in his "Talks to Teachers". Research Design: This is a…
Kinnell, P. I. A.
The assumption that runoff is produced uniformly over the eroding area underlies the traditional use of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and the revised version of it, the RUSLE. However, although the application of the USLE/RUSLE to segments on one dimensional hillslopes and cells on two-dimensional hillslopes is based on the assumption that each segment or cell is spatially uniform, factors such as soil infiltration, and hence runoff production, may vary spatially between segments or cells. Results from equations that focus on taking account of spatially variable runoff when applying the USLE/RUSLE and the USLE-M, the modification of the USLE/RUSLE that replaces the EI30 index by the product of EI30 and the runoff ratio, in hillslopes during erosion events where runoff is not produced uniformly were compared on a hypothetical a 300 m long one-dimensional hillslope with a spatially uniform gradient. Results were produced for situations where all the hillslope was tilled bare fallow and where half of the hillslope was cropped with corn and half was tilled bare fallow. Given that the erosive stress within a segment or cell depends on the volume of surface water flowing through the segment or cell, soil loss can be expected to increase not only with distance from the point where runoff begins but also directly with runoff when it varies about the average for the slope containing the segment or cell. The latter effect was achieved when soil loss was predicted using the USLE-M but not when the USLE/RUSLE slope length factor for a segment using an effective upslope length that varies with the ratio of the upslope runoff coefficient and the runoff coefficient for the slope to the bottom of the segment or cell was used. The USLE-M also predicted deposition to occur in a segment containing corn when an area with tilled bare fallow soil existed immediately upslope of it because the USLE-M models erosion on runoff and soil loss plots as a transport limited system. In a
Bravos, Cynthia; Adler, Isabel K.
This paper aims at presenting how a Brazilian innovation consultancy guided a collaborative development of a mobile solution using the Design Thinking approach (Vianna et al, 2012) and Lean principles (Ries, 2011). It will describe tools and methods used and how it was applied to requirement...
This article presents a lesson in which students examine current field research on global change. In particular, students investigate the effect of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on ecosystems by applying their knowledge of scientific inquiry and photosynthesis. The goal of the activity is for students to think like ecologists and draw…
Why are there still problems concerning the management of spatial changes? Are spatial development projects really unique or are there typical patterns, which occur regularly? Is there a possibility to generalise such principles towards a 'theory of practice', which will be able to provide better management strategies for spatial development?
Huynh, Niem Tu; Sharpe, Bob
Spatial thinking is fundamental to the practice and theory of geography, however there are few valid and reliable assessment methods in geography to measure student performance in spatial thinking. This article presents the development and evaluation of a geospatial thinking assessment instrument to measure participant understanding of spatial…
Evgeniy K. Khenner
Abstract. The aim of the research is to draw attention of the educational community to the phenomenon of computational thinking which actively discussed in the last decade in the foreign scientific and educational literature, to substantiate of its importance, practical utility and the right on affirmation in Russian education.Methods. The research is based on the analysis of foreign studies of the phenomenon of computational thinking and the ways of its formation in the process of education;...
Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.
There is a compelling need to develop the geoscience workforce of the future to address the "grand challenges" that face humanity. This workforce must have a strong understanding of Earth history, processes and materials and be able to communicate effectively and responsibly to inform public policy and personal and societal actions, particularly with regard to geohazards and natural resources. Curricula to train future geoscientists must be designed to help students develop critical thinking skills across the curriculum, from introductory to senior capstone courses. Students will be challenged in their pre-professional training as geoscientists as they encounter an incomplete geologic record, ambiguity and uncertainty in observed and experimental results, temporal reasoning ("deep time", frequency, recurrence intervals), spatial reasoning (from microns to mountains), and complex system behavior. Four instructional approaches can be combined to address these challenges and help students develop critical thinking skills: 1) Geoethics and ethical decision making includes review and integration of the context/facts of the situation, stakeholders, decision-makers, and possible alternative actions and expected outcomes; 2) The affective domain which encompasses factors such as student motivation to learn, curiosity, fear, attitudes, perceptions, social barriers and values; 3) Metacognition which encourages students to be aware about their own thinking processes, and to develop self-monitoring and self-regulating behaviors; and 4) Systems thinking which requires integrative thinking about the interactions between physical, chemical, biological and human processes, feedback mechanisms and emergent phenomena. Guided inquiry and scaffolded exercises can be used to present increasingly complex situations that require a thorough understanding of geologic principles and processes as applied to issues of societal concern. These approaches are not "owned" by any single course or
Huang, Yu-Hsien; Lin, Mei-Feng; Ho, Hsueh-Jen; Chang, Lu-Na; Chen, Shiue
Lack of knowledge and experience is prevalent in undergraduate students who are taking their clinical practicum for mental-health nursing. This issue negatively affects the learning process. This article shares an experience of implementing a practicum-teaching program. This program was developed by the authors to facilitate the cooperative learning and clinical care competence of students. A series of multidimensional teaching activities was designed by integrating the strategies of peer cooperation and creative thinking to promote group and individual learning. Results indicate that the program successfully encouraged the students to participate more actively in the learning process. Additionally, the students demonstrated increased competence in empathetic caring toward patients, stronger friendship relationships with peers, and improved self-growth. The authors hope this teaching program provides a framework to increase the benefits for students of participating in clinical practicums and provides a teaching reference for clinical instructors. PMID:25854950
Thanos, Sotirios; Bristow, Abigail L; Wardman, Mark R
Incorporating spatial econometric tools in hedonic pricing (HP) models for environmental valuation has become the standard approach in the literature. The effect of house prices on other house prices is taken into account and usually measured by distance or contiguity in spatial weight matrices. Disaggregate house sale datasets are composed from observations each at a specific location and time. Nevertheless, the symmetric spatial weight matrices commonly employed in HP studies ignore the tem...
Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.
Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard
years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted with...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects over 250 million people worldwide. Many in Malta suffer from the disease because of our high carbohydrate diet and lack of physical activity. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/diabetes-from-genes-to-blood/
Costa, José Vilton; Silveira, Liciana Vaz de Arruda; Donalísio, Maria Rita
Dengue incidence occurs predominantly within city limits. Identifying spatial distribution of the disease at the local level helps formulate strategies to control and prevent the disease. Spatial analysis of counting data for small areas commonly violates the assumptions of traditional Poisson models due to the excessive amount of zeros. This study compared the performance of four counting models used in mapping diseases: Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial. The methods were compared in a simulation study. The models analyzed in the simulation were applied to a spatial ecological study of dengue data aggregated by census tracts in the city of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2007. Spatial analysis was conducted with Bayesian hierarchical models. The zero-inflated Poisson model showed the best performance for estimating relative risk of dengue incidence in the census tracts. PMID:27509547
Evans, T. P. O.; Bishop, S.R.
We present a simple mathematical model to replicate the key features of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for controlling pest species, with particular reference to the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever. The model differs from the majority of those studied previously in that it is simultaneously spatially explicit and involves pulsed, rather than continuous, sterile insect releases. The spatially uniform equilibria of the model are identified and analysed. Simulations a...
Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl
typology of think tanks, quantitative data and interviews with think tank practitioners, the interplay between state and market dynamics and the development of different types of think tanks is analysed. Although think tanks develop along different institutional trajectories, it is concluded that the Anglo......In the 21st century, think tanks have become more than a buzzword in European public discourse. They now play important roles in the policy-making process by providing applied research, building networks and advocating policies. The book studies the development of think tanks and contemporary...... consequences in the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark and at the EU-level. A Continental think tank tradition in which the state plays a pivotal role and an Anglo-American tradition which facilitates interaction in public policy on market-like terms have shaped the development of think tanks. On the basis of a...
Bottino, Rosa; Chioccariello, Augusto
Digital technology has radically changed the way people work in industry, finance, services, media and commerce. Informatics has contributed to the scientific and technological development of our society in general and to the digital revolution in particular. Computational thinking is the term indicating the key ideas of this discipline that might be included in the key competencies underlying the curriculum of compulsory education. The educational potential of informatics h...
Full Text Available The twenty-first century has brought lots of challenges for people in all spheres, including education. In the new context, traditional approaches often seem ineffective and therefore new tools and methods have to be applied. An alternative approach that might be useful in the given context is design thinking – the approach that originated in architecture, design and art, and nowadays is applied in many fields. It is a human-centered problem-solving approach that may be used in the teaching/learning process to develop twenty-first century skills and enhance creativity and innovation. This paper introduces readers to the origin of design thinking, its attributes and processes as well as its application in pedagogy.
Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.
Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…
Full Text Available Science, medicine and ophthalmology have all evolved and progressed through varied but powerful influences over the centuries. While the tremendous technological advances in ophthalmology in the past 20 years are readily appreciated, many clinicians fail to grasp the impact of the several clinical trials that have contributed to better patient care. This article briefly traces the history of science, medicine and ophthalmology, and explains how scientific thinking could be applied to the clinical and academic aspects of ophthalmology.
The article briefly describes the relatively young field of cognitive science dedicated to the research of lived human experience – the so-called phenomenological inquiry (or first-person research). It enumerates the reasons for the renewed interest in the study of experience and outlines the field’s relation to the rest of cognitive science. With the help of an example (phenomenology of thinking), the article attempts to illustrate the importance of systematic study of experience and address...
The ability of thinking creatively is the obvious mark of the successful people.This demands teachers to train the students to think creatively and arouse them to learn more so that they can develop their abilities of thinking.The relationship between the teachers and the students should become friendly, equal and relax so that the students try to think creatively.The training of thinking indirectly or differently should be often applied in class.It is necessary to change the traditional teaching methods in English class.
Ossés de Eicker, Margarita; Zah, Rainer; Triviño, Rubén; Hurni, Hans
The spatial accuracy of top-down traffic emission inventory maps obtained with a simplified disaggregation method based on street density was assessed in seven mid-sized Chilean cities. Each top-down emission inventory map was compared against a reference, namely a more accurate bottom-up emission inventory map from the same study area. The comparison was carried out using a combination of numerical indicators and visual interpretation. Statistically significant differences were found between the seven cities with regard to the spatial accuracy of their top-down emission inventory maps. In compact cities with a simple street network and a single center, a good accuracy of the spatial distribution of emissions was achieved with correlation values>0.8 with respect to the bottom-up emission inventory of reference. In contrast, the simplified disaggregation method is not suitable for complex cities consisting of interconnected nuclei, resulting in correlation valuessituation to get an overview on the spatial distribution of the emissions generated by traffic activities.
Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard
The paper probes the background of the dire rhetoric of the Danish National Health Board’s 40 week anti-alcohol consumption campaign, in particular the model of communication implied by the campaign's strategy. Contrasting the campaign's strategy in 2011 with the results of evaluations of previous...... years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted with...
Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this de...
Ibrahim, Mohamed; Bridges, Alan; Chase, Scott Curland;
This paper describes a teaching experience conducted and carried out as part of the coursework of first year students of architecture at Strathclyde University. The workshop is the Third of three workshops planned to take place during the course of the first year studio, aimed at introducing new ...... ways of thinking and introducing students to a new pattern of architectural education. The experiment was planned under the theme of “Evaluation” during the Final stage. A grammatical approach was chosen to deliver the methodology in the design studio, based on shape grammars....
Madsen, Troels Bo Haarh; Soelberg, Søren
This project seeks to discuss the possibility of thinking machines. First the technical side of Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) is discussed with reference to Alan Turing’s Turing machines and John Haugeland’s automated formal systems. This is followed by a definition of A.I. as put forth in Turing’s famous description of the Turing Test. John Searle’s Chinese Room argument is presented as an objection to the notion of Strong A.I.. Bram van Heuveln proves through an advanced Systems Reply that...
In this article we examine location, space and spatial representation in two classic adventure games belonging to the same game series: Gabriel Knight Sins of the Fathers, a one screen at a time point-and-click adventure and Gabriel Knight Blood of the Sacred Blood of the Damned, a 3D game. Our aim
Ogden, Thomas H
The author believes that contemporary psychoanalysis has shifted its emphasis from the understanding of the symbolic meaning of dreams, play, and associations to the exploration of the processes of thinking, dreaming, and playing. In this paper, he discusses his understanding of three forms of thinking-magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking-and provides clinical illustrations in which each of these forms of thinking figures prominently. The author views magical thinking as a form of thinking that subverts genuine thinking and psychological growth by substituting invented psychic reality for disturbing external reality. By contrast, dream thinking--our most profound form of thinking-involves viewing an emotional experience from multiple perspectives simultaneously: for example, the perspectives of primary process and secondary process thinking. In transformative thinking, one creates a new way of ordering experience that allows one to generate types of feeling, forms of object relatedness, and qualities of aliveness that had previously been unimaginable. PMID:20496835
Fischer, B. M. C.; Mul, M. L.; Savenije, H. H. G.
With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource-intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the length of dry spells for fixed probabilities of non-exceedance. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. The dry spell map thus obtained is compared to the spatially variable critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure in different locations. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the length of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels that make rainfed agricultural unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully being practised. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells and, subsequently, to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.
B. M. C. Fischer
Full Text Available With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource-intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the length of dry spells for fixed probabilities of non-exceedance. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. The dry spell map thus obtained is compared to the spatially variable critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure in different locations. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the length of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels that make rainfed agricultural unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully being practised. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells and, subsequently, to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.
H. H. G. Savenije
Full Text Available With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the probability of dry spell occurrence. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. This map is then related to the critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the probability of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels, which makes rainfed agricultural practices unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully practiced. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells, and subsequently to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.
Semerci, Nuriye; Fırat Üniversitesi Teknik Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü
The main purpose of this study is to develop the scale for critical thinking. The Scale of Critical Thinking was applied to 200 student. In this scale, there are total 55 items, four of which are negative and 51 of which are positive. The KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.75, the Bartlett test value is 7145.41, and the Cronbach Alpha value is 0.90. Bu çalışmanın amacı, kritik düşünme ölçeğini geliştirmektir. Ölçek 200 öğrenciye uygulanmıştır. Ölçeğin son halinde dördü olumsuz, 51'i'oluml...
Baars, Daniela; Bajzík, Michal; Pisarčík, Stanislav; Weiser, Ines
1. What does critical thinking mean? 2. Critical thinking in school 3. Critical thinking as a process 4. Analysing and evaluating the questionnaire 5. Interview with one of the students 6. Analysis and evaluation of the assignments 7. Conclusion
Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.
Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.
The focus of the study is on water availability for energy development in the Ohio River Basin; however, the techniques developed are applicable to water supply investigations for other regions and uses. The study assesses the spatial association between water supply and demand for future energy development in the Basin. The problem is the development of a method that accurately portrays the actual spatial coincidence of water availability and use within a basin. The issues addressed involve questions of scale and methods used to create a model distribution of streamflow and to compare it with projected patterns of water requirements for energy production. The analysis procedure involves the compilation of streamflow data and calculation of 7-day/10-year low-flow estimates within the Basin. Low-flow probabilities are based on historical flows at gaging stations and are adjusted for the effects of reservoir augmentation. Once streamflow estimates have been determined at gaging stations, interpolation of these values is made between known data points to enable direct comparison with projected energy water-use data. Finally, a method is devised to compare the patterns of projected water requirements with the model distribution of streamflow, in sequential downstream order.
Elena Tikhonova; Natalia Kudinova
The information-based society determines that the key factor to achieve success is the development of sophisticated thinking. That said, the thinking process cannot be just a mere imitation of cognitive work, since the digital age requires the authentic skills of working with a flow of information that is being constantly updated. This paper deals with the last stage of the study devoted to the development of sophisticated thinking. It focuses on the enhancement of higher order thinking sk...
Thinking, including critical thinking, is indispensable to a person so that a person can base his or her decisions on solid reasoning and facts. Even so, to think critically requires more than just being critical; it requires skills and aptitude for applying the skills in practice. In addition, to become an advanced thinker, the skills need to be practiced, and for that classroom offers a natural venue. Among numerous alternatives, Bloom’s taxonomy and Paul’s model provide two applicable ...
Spirov, Alexander V; Myasnikova, Ekaterina M; Holloway, David M
Gene network simulations are increasingly used to quantify mutual gene regulation in biological tissues. These are generally based on linear interactions between single-entity regulatory and target genes. Biological genes, by contrast, commonly have multiple, partially independent, cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) for regulator binding, and can produce variant transcription and translation products. We present a modeling framework to address some of the gene regulatory dynamics implied by this biological complexity. Spatial patterning of the hunchback (hb) gene in Drosophila development involves control by three CRMs producing two distinct mRNA transcripts. We use this example to develop a differential equations model for transcription which takes into account the cis-regulatory architecture of the gene. Potential regulatory interactions are screened by a genetic algorithms (GAs) approach and compared to biological expression data. PMID:27122317
Full Text Available A subtropical old-growth forest was analyzed over a twelve year period to investigate temporal and spatial fluctuations of biomass and stem fluxes under disturbances. Vegetations were categorized into three types caused by biotic factors and abiotic factors, including Castanopsis chinensis population, insect direct-influenced population, and insect indirect-influenced population according to disturbance scenarios. The biomass fluxes (including biomass growth and mortality and stem fluxes (including stem recruitment and mortality were used to quantify the fluctuation of population. The results showed that annual average biomass growth rate was stable throughout the three periods, 1992–1994, 1994–1999, and 1999–2004, while annual biomass mortality and stem fluxes kept increasing through the three periods. Castanopsis chinensis population contributed the most in biomass fluxes of the community. Biomass and stem mortalities of insect direct-influenced population increased significantly during the whole study period (1992–2004. Dynamics of indirect-influenced population were compared by dominate species, diameter classes, and spatial patterns of subplots, respectively. Results of indirect-influenced population showed that (1 the increase of biomass of the dominant species was well correlated between different intervals. Similar relationships were found in stem fluxes; (2 higher stem mortality was observed when DBH ranged from 1 to 10 cm as compared with individuals in other DBH classes; (3 stem fluxes in the canopy gaps were remarkably higher than those in closed canopy. The biomass growth rate in gaps increased remarkably after the formation of the gaps.
隋扬帆; 王梦君; 巫程成; 周艳艳
Objective To probe into the relationship between cognitive style ,spatial pattern cognitive ability and creative thinking . Methods The study investigated 283 middle school students with the implements of GEET ,Spatial Pattern Cognitive Ability Test ,Crea-tive Thinking Test.Results ①Spatial pattern cognitive ability was related to originality significantly (r=0.17,P<0.01).②Spatial pattern cognitive ability had positive predication to cognitive style (β=0.37,P<0.01);cognitive style could also do positive predication to creative thinking(β=0.26,P<0.01)and spatial pattern cognitive ability could do positive predication to the originality of creative thinking significantly(β=0.16,P<0.01).③Cognitive style fully mediated between spatial pattern cognitive ability and originality of creative thinking .Conclusion There is complicated relationship among cognitive style , spatial pattern cognitive ability and creative thinking .%目的：探讨认知方式、空间图形认知能力与创造性思维之间的关系。方法采用团体镶嵌图形测验（ GEET ）、空间图形认知能力测验和创造性思维测验对283名初中生进行研究。结果①空间图形认知能力与独创性存在显著的正相关（ r＝0．17，P＜0．01）；②空间图形认知能力对认知方式具有显著的预测作用（β＝0．37，P＜0．01）；认知方式对创造性思维有显著的预测作用（β＝0．26，P＜0．01）；空间图形认知能力对独创性也有显著的预测作用（β＝0．16，P＜0．01）；③认知方式在空间图形认知能力与独创性的关系上起中介作用。结论认知方式、空间图形认知能力与创造性思维三者之间存在复杂关系。
Full Text Available A subtropical old-growth forest was studied over a twelve-year period to investigate temporal and spatial fluctuations of biomass and stem fluxes under disturbances. Vegetations were categorized into three types according to disturbances caused by biotic and abiotic factors, including Castanopsis chinensis population, insect direct-influenced population, and insect indirect-influenced population according to disturbance scenarios. The biomass fluxes (growth and mortality and stem fluxes (stem recruitment and mortality were used to quantify population fluctuations. Annual average biomass growth rate was stable throughout the study while annual biomass mortality and stem fluxes increased consistently. C. chinensis population predominantly contributed to biomass fluxes of the community. Biomass and stem mortalities of insect direct-influenced population increased significantly during the whole study period (1992–2004. Results of indirect-influenced population showed that (1 the increase in biomass of the dominant species was well correlated between different intervals. Similar relationships were found in stem fluxes; (2 higher stem mortality occurred within the DBH range of 1 to 10 cm; (3 stem fluxes in the canopy gaps were remarkably higher than those in closed canopy.
In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…
This article applies theories of alternative thinking and problem solving to the teaching context. Teachers working in static situations are prone to stagnation leading to a paradigm crisis where they are forced to question the status quo. Techniques for confronting such situations are examined, along with personal management strategies and the…
Holmes, N G; Bonn, D A
The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and while it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics lab course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the...
Good, Alice; Sambhanthan, A.; Adda, Mo; Johnstone, J.
Where there is an emphasis on critical thinking being an essential component learning at University level education, there needs to be a clear focus upon integrating the development of these skills within the curriculum. This paper looks at the importance of critical thinking in higher education and the difficulties that students have in applying critical thinking. Results from a short study show students' understanding of what critical thinking actually means.
Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very conditi...
Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa
Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…
Wing, Jeannette M.
Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing.
Brizuela, Jose; Katchadjian, Pablo; Garcia, Alejandro; Desimone, Carlos
The aim of this work is to obtain a C-Scan view of an austenitic stainless steel weld from a nuclear use pipe. In order to obtain this result Sectorial Scans (S-Scan) from both sides of the weld are obtained by Ultrasonic Phase Array (UT-PA). Then, spatial image compounding is performed to generate a single image from the S-Scans acquired at the same circumferential position of the transducer. These joints have a coarse grain structure which significantly reduce the transmission of the ultrasonic wave due to attenuation characteristics and backscattered noise from microstructures inside the material. For this reason, phase coherence imaging technique has been also applied to reduce the structural noise and improve the image quality. To verify detected defects, and given the impossibility of cutting the component, gammagraphy were performed with Co60.
Ørsten, Mark; Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete
Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...... outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re...
Gampe, David; Ludwig, Ralf; Qahman, Khalid; Afifi, Samir
In the Mediterranean region, particularly in the Gaza strip, an increased risk of drought is among the major concerns related to climate change. The impacts of climate change on water availability, drought risk and food security can be assessed by means of hydro-climatological modeling. However, the region is prone to severe observation data scarcity, which limits the potential for robust model parameterization, calibration and validation. In this study, the physically based, spatially distributed hydrological model WaSiM is parameterized and evaluated using satellite imagery to assess hydrological quantities. The Triangle Method estimates actual evapotranspiration (ETR) through the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) provided by Landsat TM imagery. So-derived spatially distributed evapotranspiration is then used in two ways: first a subset of the imagery is used to parameterize the irrigation module of WaSiM and second, withheld scenes are applied to evaluate the performance of the hydrological model in the data scarce study area. The results show acceptable overall correlation with the validation scenes (r=0.53) and an improvement over the usual irrigation parameterization scheme using land use information exclusively. This model setup is then applied for future drought risk assessment in the Gaza Strip using a small ensemble of four regional climate projections for the period 2041-2070. Hydrological modeling reveals an increased risk of drought, assessed with an evapotranspiration index, compared to the reference period 1971-2000. Current irrigation procedures cannot maintain the agricultural productivity under future conditions without adaptation. PMID:26283619
The nature of thinking is the subject of this second part in a series which is examining various topics and issues related to the controversy of whether or not computers can think. Suggests that intelligence is the ability to develop general ideas and not the ability to apply those ideas. (JN)
Full Text Available This paper describes the possibility of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS as a means to support decision making in solving spatial problems. Spatial problems accompany every human activity, of which agriculture is no exception. The solutions to these problems requires the application of available knowledge in the relevant decision-making processes. GISs integrate hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. Coupled with GISs, geography helps to better understand and apply geographic knowledge to a host of global problems (unemployment, environmental pollution, the loss of arable land, epidemics etc.. The result may be a geographical approach represents a new way of thinking and solutions to existing spatial problems. This approach allows to apply existing knowledge to model and analyze these problems and thus help to solve them.
With the development of English teaching, English teaching methods have been paid more and more attention to. Language learning is a complicated process, creative thinking is very important for students to learn language. According to analyzing several factors of affecting students' thinking, the author points out five areas of suggestions on developing students' thinking in this paper.
Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.
"Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…
Olivares, Sonia; Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.
Introduction: Here we report the results obtained in an innovative teaching experience that encourages the development of Critical Thinking skills through motivational intervention. Understanding Critical Thinking as a theory of action, "we think to solve problems", and accompanying this concept with a program aimed at teaching/learning…
Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl
The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their...... national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...... Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how and...
In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both. Martin argues that this process of consideration and synthesis (rather than superior strategy or faultless execution) is the hallmark of exceptional businesses and the people who run them. To support his point, he examines how integrative thinkers approach the four stages of decision making to craft superior solutions. First, when determining which features of a problem are salient, they go beyond those that are obviously relevant. Second, they consider multidirectional and nonlinear relationships, not just linear ones. Third, they see the whole problem and how the parts fit together. Fourth, they creatively resolve the tensions between opposing ideas and generate new alternatives. According to the author, integrative thinking is an ability everyone can hone. He points to several examples of business leaders who have done so, such as Bob Young, cofounder and former CEO of Red Hat, the dominant distributor of Linux opensource software. Young recognized from the beginning that he didn't have to choose between the two prevailing software business models. Inspired by both, he forged an innovative third way, creating a service offering for corporate customers that placed Red Hat on a path to tremendous success. PMID:17580648
McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Blevins, B.; Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Prados, A. I.
The utility of spatial data products and tools to assess risk and effectively manage wildfires has increased, highlighting the need for communicating information about these new capabilities to decision makers, resource managers, and community leaders. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program works directly with agencies and policy makers to develop in-person and online training courses that teach end users how to access, visualize, and apply NASA Earth Science data in their profession. The expansion of ARSET into wildfire applications began in 2015 with a webinar and subsequent in-person training hosted in collaboration with Idaho State University's (ISU) GIS Training and Research Center (TReC). These trainings featured presentations from the USDA Forest Service's Remote Sensing Training and Applications Center, the Land Processes DAAC, Northwest Nazarene University, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and ISU's GIS TReC. The webinar focused on providing land managers, non-governmental organizations, and international management agencies with an overview of 1) remote sensing platforms for wildfire applications, 2) products for pre- and post-fire planning and assessment, 3) the use of terrain data, 4) new techniques and technologies such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP), and 5) the RECOVER Decision Support System. This training highlighted online tools that engage the wildfire community through collaborative monitoring and assessment efforts. Webinar attendance included 278 participants from 178 organizations in 42 countries and 33 US states. The majority of respondents (93%) from a post-webinar survey indicated they displayed improvement in their understanding of specific remote-sensing data products appropriate for their work needs. With collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local agencies and academic institutions, increased use of NASA Earth Observations may lead to improved near real
José L. Villaveces; Guillermo Restrepo
Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffro...
Blevis, Eli; Churchill, Elizabeth; Odom, William; Pierre, James; Roedl, David; Wakkary, Ron
This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI. Drawing on emerging critical perspectives, the workshop will address visual literacy and visual thinking from an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary design-orientation [2, 8], foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking. Imagery—which subsumes digital imagery—goes well beyond sketching and beyond storyboards, screenshots and wireframes. We will address how a broa...
Strategic thinking in a bussines – summary This diploma work deals with the issue of strategic thinking in business, which is an inseparable part of the development of company strategy. The utilisation of the principles of strategies thinking as well as the processes and analyses of strategic management is shown on the example of REBYTO BEAR Ltd. The Theoretical Background Chapter provides explanation of important terminology whose knowledge is necessary for the practical use of strate...
Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture and...... modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Michel Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long...
Wenchong Shi; Maohua Liu; Peter Hendler
The paper aims at revealing the essence and connotation of Computational Thinking. It analyzed some of the international academia’s research results of Computational Thinking. The author thinks Computational Thinking is discipline thinking or computing philosophy, and it is very critical to understand Computational Thinking to grasp the thinking’ s computational features and the computing’s thinking attributes. He presents the basic rules of screening the representative term...
Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Tikoff, B.; Manduca, C. A.; Dutrow, B. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Hickson, T.; Atit, K.; Gagnier, K. M.; Resnick, I.
Spatial visualization is an essential skill in many, if not all, STEM disciplines. It is a prerequisite for understanding subjects as diverse as fluid flow through 3D fault systems, magnetic and gravitational fields, atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns, cellular and molecular structures, engineering design, topology, and much, much more. Undergraduate geoscience students, in both introductory and upper-level courses, bring a wide range of spatial skill levels to the classroom. However, spatial thinking improves with practice, and can improve more rapidly with intentional training. As a group of geoscience faculty members and cognitive psychologists, we are collaborating to apply the results of cognitive science research to the development of teaching materials to improve undergraduate geology majors' spatial thinking skills. This approach has the potential to transform undergraduate STEM education by removing one significant barrier to success in the STEM disciplines. Two promising teaching strategies have emerged from recent cognitive science research into spatial thinking: gesturing and predictive sketching. Studies show that students who gesture about spatial relationships perform better on spatial tasks than students who don't gesture, perhaps because gesture provides a mechanism for cognitive offloading. Similarly, students who sketch their predictions about the interiors of geologic block diagrams perform better on penetrative thinking tasks than students who make predictions without sketching. We are developing new teaching materials for Mineralogy, Structural Geology, and Sedimentology & Stratigraphy courses using these two strategies. Our data suggest that the research-based teaching materials we are developing may boost students' spatial thinking skills beyond the baseline gains we have measured in the same courses without the new curricular materials.
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss
Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The industrial milieu is a traditional area for hard systems analysis, and the optimization of processes using reductionist approaches.
Soft Systems Thinking, with its powerful use of conceptual modelling, has been neglected in the West, but has been applied by the Japanese - with some very surprising results.
It is suggested that South African industry could benefit from an injection of soft systems thinking.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die bedryfsomgewing is h tradisionele gebied vir die toepassing van hardestelselontleding, en die optimalisering van prosesse deur die gebruik van benaderings wat die probleme maklik kan herlei.
Sagtestelselontleding, met die klem op konsepsuele modulering, word min in Westerse lande gebruik, maar het in Japan verbasende resultate opgelewer.
Dit word voorgestel dat ondernemings in Suid Afrika sal kan baat deULgebruik te maak van die sagtestelselbenadering.
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field
Yukalov, V I
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.
Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…
Downs, Christopher J.
Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…
When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…
Elwenspoek, Miko; Birke, Dorothee; Butter, Michael; Köppe, Tilmann
Counterfactual thinking plays a key role in research in physics and, I believe, in research in all natural sciences. In this contribution I will describe a few examples of counterfactual thinking, how it is used, the power of this method of inquiry, and the types of results that can be achieved. A b
Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis of...... technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our...
Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a challenge to show how HE may benefit of thinking in complexity. For me thinking in complexity is a way of humanizing our scientific thinking. It asks for a reform of our thinking. The rethinking of com...
Many ELT experts believe that the inclusion of critical thinking skills in English classes is necessary to improve students’ English competence. Students’ critical thinking skills will be optimally increased if meaning is prioritized in English lessons. Those two inter-related elements can be implemented when teachers do collaborative activities stimulating students’ thinking process and meaning negotiation. Yet, the realization might be counter-productive if they are applied without careful ...
Voskoglou, Michael Gr.; Buckley, Sheryl
Computational thinking is a new problem soling method named for its extensive use of computer science techniques. It synthesizes critical thinking and existing knowledge and applies them in solving complex technological problems. The term was coined by J. Wing, but the relationship between computational and critical thinking, the two modes of thiking in solving problems, has not been yet learly established. This paper aims at shedding some light into this relationship. We also present two cla...
Tok, Emel; Pamukkale Üniversitesi; Sevinç, Müzeyyen; Marmara Üniversitesi
The aim of this study was to test the effects of “Thinking Skills Training Program” which is based on Sternberg’s “Theory of Successful Intelligence” on preschool teacher candidates’ creative thinking.A quasi-experimental design was applied with three samples. Treatment group (n=34), Comparison I (n=34) and Comparison II group (n=33). Data were collected by Torrance Creative Thinking Test (TCTT). According to the results derived from the treatment group, the total scores obtained from the pre...
Kinach, Barbara M.
Learning to reason spatially is increasingly recognized as an essential component of geometry education. Generally taken to be the "ability to represent, generate, transform, communicate, document, and reflect on visual information," "spatial reasoning" uses the spatial relationships between objects to form ideas. Spatial thinking takes a variety…
Computational thinking was brought to the forefront in 2006 by Jeannette Wing. Computational thinking is a problem solving method that uses computer science techniques. The thesis is analyzing computational thinking and how it could be applied to graph theory. Characteristics and main fields from computational thinking is being analysed. This analysis is applied to graph theory to see the potential in developing a proposal for how an exercise can look for an introductory course in discrete da...
Semerci, Çetin; Fırat Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü
The aims of this research are to determine if the doctorate students of various institutes of Fırat University have critical thinking skills, and to find out if the two education courses, “Development and Learning” and “Planning and Assessment in Instruction” offered in the same term help to develop critical thinking. For this aim, “The Scale of Critical Thinking Skills” is used. The KMO (Kaiser- Meyer- Olkin) value of the scale is 0.75 and Cronbach Alpha Coefficient is 0.90. The results have...
Desmet, Klaus; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban
We present a theory of spatial development. Manufacturing and services firms located in a continuous geographic area choose each period how much to innovate. Firms trade subject to transport costs and technology diffuses spatially across locations. The result is a spatial endogenous growth theory that can shed light on the link between the evolution of economic activity over time and space. We apply the model to study the evolution of the U.S. economy in the last few decades and find that the...
Lam, Mei-Yung Lam; Lim, Swee Eng; Ma, Jung Chen; Adams, Leah D.
This study examined the perceptions of teachers and parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong regarding what constitutes thinking skills, the importance of thinking skills in children's lives, strategies they use to foster thinking skills in young children, and their perceived roles in facilitating thinking skills. Responses revealed the need for more…
Nørgård, Rikke Toft
specifically, a clash between educational organization and design thinking paradigms emerges, tensions between goal-oriented education and vision-driven design build, and unproductive war on what education through design implies flare. Children are caught in the middle. Drawing on central works within design...... thinking (e.g. Nelson & Stolterman or Cross), empathic design (e.g. Bannon or Gagnon & Coté), technological imagination (McCarthy & Wright or Balsamo), educational design and technology use within education (Laurrilard or Donohue), the paper builds a case for new ways of thinking through technologies in...... formal and informal educational settings where children’s creative, innovative, and entrepreneurial design processes are the goal. Based on works such as the above as well as data on these matters (see below) the paper develops a conceptual framework for Educational Design Thinking. Here, the focus is on...
This paper argues that in the context of human activity systems, the concept of purpose is critically important and that giving purpose a central role in the development and management of human activity systems can lead to more flexible, effective and autonomous systems. The systems thinking literature is reviewed in order to consolidate and assess current thinking about purpose. The importance of intrinsic purpose is highlighted. Implications for practice in terms of information systems desi...
Perlovsky, L.I; R. ILIN
Computing with words, CWW, is considered in the context of natural language functioning, unifying language with thinking. Previous attempts at modeling natural languages as well as thinking processes in artificial intelligence have met with computational complexity. To overcome computational complexity we use dynamic logic (DL), an extension of fuzzy logic describing fuzzy to crisp transitions. We suggest a possible architecture motivated by mathematical and neural considerations. We discuss ...
Malek Hossein; Hossein Hosseini Abstract
This article investigates connections between critical thinking and moral virtues. Critical thinking, demonstrating the sound principles of arguments, can bring order and clarity to our mind and intensify our critical power. Furtheremore, it can be efficient in creating honesty and improving our relations with each other. In this manner, being logical is related to many virtues such as fairness, honesty and truthfulness, while fallacious reasoning- if intentional – arises from dishonesty and ...
Vepoo公司在创立之前，经历了三次创业转型。用他们的话来说，从“think big go small”转到“think small go big”用了一年的时间。这期间他们耗尽了初期筹备资金，幸运的是在最后一刻迎来了黎明的曙光。
Full Text Available Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condition under which it is least likely to be applied. Instead, avoidance of controversy seems to be the predominant policy of institutions fearful of expensive lawsuits or damaging public relations. Several trends are decreasing the likelihood that critical thinking is applied in the classroom to challenging topics: demands for increased accountability from legislatures; scrutiny of adopted content standards; oversight of Internet and other intellectual work of professors affiliated with the universities; student challenges to faculty instruction; and attempts to curtail ideological diversity. This paper describes these current dynamics which erode academic freedom and thus the ability to apply critical thinking to controversial topics. The paper also recommends that institutions and faculty adopt clearly delineated policies related to academic freedom in order to ensure faculty freedom to promote critical thinking. Awareness of how these trends impact the instructional climate enables teachers to design instruction and be more proactive in guaranteeing that critical thinking about controversial topics is able to flourish under academic freedom.
The Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) program uses microcomputers to help high risk students master basic thinking processes, grasp course content, and apply learned information in various problem-solving situations. Specifically, HOTS aids students with metacognition, inference from context, and generalization skills. It also improves…
Hill, Mark E.; McGinnis, John
This article identifies the curiosity in marketing thinking and offers ways to teach for marketing thinking through an environment that fosters students' curiosity. The significance of curiosity in its relationship with thinking is that when curiosity is absent, so is thinking. Challenges are discussed in recognizing the fragility of curiosity…
Full Text Available Many ELT experts believe that the inclusion of critical thinking skills in English classes is necessary to improve students’ English competence. Students’ critical thinking skills will be optimally increased if meaning is prioritized in English lessons. Those two inter-related elements can be implemented when teachers do collaborative activities stimulating students’ thinking process and meaning negotiation. Yet, the realization might be counter-productive if they are applied without careful consideration of task purposes and of students’ roles. Based on the consideration, this paper is focused on presenting how critical thinking skills and meaning should be properly incorporated in an English lesson.
Roberts, Jess P; Fisher, Thomas R; Trowbridge, Matthew J; Bent, Christine
The business community has learned the value of design thinking as a way to innovate in addressing people's needs - and health systems could benefit enormously from doing the same. This paper lays out how design thinking applies to healthcare challenges and how systems might utilize this proven and accessible problem-solving process. We show how design thinking can foster new approaches to complex and persistent healthcare problems through human-centered research, collective and diverse teamwork and rapid prototyping. We introduce the core elements of design thinking for a healthcare audience and show how it can supplement current healthcare management, innovation and practice. PMID:27001093
Basawapatna, Ashok Ram
Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.
The thesis presents the critical analysis of the work Thinking in Education by M. Lipman It deals with the problemc of fostering thinking through education. It explains the reasons of the relevance of the dialoque ability, critical thinking and also use of the creative and caring thinking. Also it explains that the thinking skills should be the effect of the education not only as a preparation for a life in the democratic society. The thesis summarize the views of it's critics.
Alla Belousova; Vlada Pishchik
The results of psychometric analysis of the new technique of thinking styles diagnostics are presented. The fundamental principles of thinking style concept by A. Belousova, according to which the thinking style is determined by the dominance of a person’s function in the structure of thinking activity during the problem solving, are covered. In accordance with A. Belousova’s ideas that the collaborative thinking activity as a self-organizing system is carried out by means of functions assume...
Coffman, Diane M.
Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…
McInerney, James; Cummins, Carla; Haggerty, Leanne
While it has become increasingly clear that the Tree of Life hypothesis has limitations in its ability to describe the evolution of all evolving entities on the planet, there has been a marked reluctance to move away from the tree-based language. Ironically, while modifying the idea of the Tree of Life to the extent that it is only very distantly related to its original descriptions, there has been a very careful attempt to retain the language of tree-thinking. The recent movement away from a...
Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P
Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863
Als, Benedikte Skibsted; Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.
Constructive interaction provides natural thinking-aloud as test subjects collaborate to solve tasks. Since children may face difficulties in following instructions for a standard think-aloud test, constructive interaction has been suggested as evaluation method when usability testing with children....... However, the relationship between think-aloud and constructive interaction is still poorly understood. We present an experiment that compares think-aloud and constructive interaction in usability testing. The experiment involves 60 children with three setups where children apply think-aloud, and...... acquainted pairs reported that they had to put less effort into the testing than the think-aloud and non-acquainted children....
Rhombus thinking, a new creative thinking method,is the combination of divergent thinking process and convergent thinking process,in which qualitative analysis is carried out before quantitative analysis. This method tries to solve the bottle neck problem in intelligent CAD based on the extension theory. The rhombus thinking method to the scheme design of new products is applied. In this process, firstly, the matter-element expression for the know information are set up, and then a set of matter-elements are opened up by matter-elements extension method; Finally,the useful information are got by appraisal method of dependent degree. It has been successfully applied to the scheme design for the cutter-store of machining center. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrated fhat the method is much more accurate,objective and efficient than the traditional one.
Frins, E.; U. Platt; Wagner, T
Topographic Target Light scattering – Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (ToTaL-DOAS), also called Target-DOAS, is a novel experimental procedure to retrieve trace gas concentrations present in the low atmosphere. Scattered sunlight (diffuse or specular) reflected from natural or artificial targets located at different distances are analyzed to retrieve the spatial distribution of the concentration of different trace gases like NO2, SO2 and others. We report high s...
Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya
The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…
Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.
This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…
In his landmark bestseller The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell redefined how we understand the world around us. Now, in Blink, he revolutionizes the way we understand the world within. Blink is a book about how we think without thinking, about choices that seem to be made in an instant-in the blink of an eye-that actually aren't as simple as they seem. Why are some people brilliant decision makers, while others are consistently inept? Why do some people follow their instincts and win, while others end up stumbling into error? How do our brains really work-in the office, in the classroom, in the kitchen, and in the bedroom? And why are the best decisions often those that are impossible to explain to others?In Blink we meet the psychologist who has learned to predict whether a marriage will last, based on a few minutes of observing a couple; the tennis coach who knows when a player will double-fault before the racket even makes contact with the ball; the antiquities experts who recognize a fake at a glance. Her...
Laura Beth Nielsen
Full Text Available This essay argues that one way to “think law” is to think “law in motion”. I will argue that a “law in motion” perspective embodies four core elements or ‘multiplicities’ which are: (1 multiple methodologies; (2 multiple perspectives; (3 multiple vocalities; and (4 multiple media including objects. As will become evident by the number of inspiring colleagues that have articulated rationales and perspectives for each of these multiplicities, these are not original ideas for which I can claim credit. And yet, the attempt to put them together in a comprehensive schema with consideration for all four of the multiplicities in the same project, demonstrates that a law in motion perspective can bear new fruit. To do this, my article combines analysis of some of the research in Law & Society that exemplifies these trends and my own research on employment civil rights litigation to interrogate the necessity of a “multiple” approach for our “multiple futures.”
José L. Villaveces
Full Text Available Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity table, Lavoisier's classification of substances and their relationships, Mendeleev's periodic table, Cayley's enumeration of alkanes, Sylvester's association of algebra and chemistry, and Wiener's relationship between molecular structure and boiling points. These examples show that mathematical chemistry has much more than a century of history.
Koray, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Özlem
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of science education based on creative thinking on creative thinking ability and sub dimensions of creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, elaboration, originality) of preservice science teachers (4th grade). This research is an experimental study, which includes pretest, posttest with control group. To collect data of this research, the instrument which is Torrance Test of Creative Thinking Figural Form A was applied on experimental and ...
The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy
The main purpose of the author's research was to investigate whether thinking styles significantly contribute to critical thinking dispositions. Two samples of Chinese university students, one from Beijing and the other from Nanjing, participated in the study. The participants responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) based on Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and to the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (P. Facione & N. Faci...
Full Text Available Tomographic Target Light scattering – Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (ToTaL-DOAS, also called Target-DOAS, is a novel experimental procedure to retrieve trace gas concentrations present in the low atmosphere. Scattered sunlight (partially or totally reflected from natural or artificial targets of similar albedo located at different distances is analyzed to retrieve the concentration of different trace gases like NO2, SO2 and others. We report high spatial resolution measurements of NO2 mixing ratios in the city of Montevideo (Uruguay observing three buildings as targets with a Mini-DOAS instrument. Our instrument was 146 m apart from the first building, 196 m from the second and 286 m from the third one. All three buildings are located along a main Avenue. We obtain temporal variation of NO2 mixing ratios between 30 ppb and 65 ppb (±2 ppb. Our measurements demonstrate that ToTaL-DOAS measurements can be made over very short distances. In polluted air masses, the retrieved absorption signal was found to be strong enough to allow measurements over distances in the range of several ten meters, and achieve a spatial resolution of 50 m approximately.
Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt
Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…
Scheffer, M.; Bascompte, J.; Bjordam, T.K.; Carpenter, S.R.; Clarke, L.; Folke, C.; Marquet, P.A.; Mazzeo, N.; Meerhoff, M.; Sala, O.; Westley, F.R.
Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces rea
Bolor, B.; TSERENDULAM SH.
The article considers an understanding of the importance of entrepreneurship in the world and the need to improve the educational program of the Institute of business students to have interests and skills to successfully run the start -up business and eventually the widespread development of entrepreneurial thinking in Mongolia.
This paper describes some ideas and experiences with training student engineers in creativity and critical thinking. In our survey, a large majority (82%) of respondents felt that as compared to all other kind of academic engagements, their projects had contributed most to develop their creativity. About 50% had also felt that their projects were…
One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…
Ioannidou, Andri; Bennett, Vicki; Repenning, Alexander; Koh, Kyu Han; Basawapatna, Ashok
The iDREAMS project aims to reinvent Computer Science education in K-12 schools, by using game design and computational science for motivating and educating students through an approach we call Scalable Game Design, starting at the middle school level. In this paper we discuss the use of Computational Thinking Patterns as the basis for our…
Watson, Andrew D.
According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…
Full Text Available Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces reasoning. System-I can help see novel solutions and associations instantaneously, but is prone to error. System-II has other biases, but can help checking and modifying the system-I results. Although thinking is the core business of science, the accepted ways of doing our work focus almost entirely on facilitating system-II. We discuss the role of system-I thinking in past scientific breakthroughs, and argue that scientific progress may be catalyzed by creating conditions for such associative intuitive thinking in our academic lives and in education. Unstructured socializing time, education for daring exploration, and cooperation with the arts are among the potential elements. Because such activities may be looked upon as procrastination rather than work, deliberate effort is needed to counteract our systematic bias.
The sociopolitical context in which we carry out our caregiving profession influences our methods of working. In our world marked by rationalism, thinking about care, in the framework of a seminar, is a way of engaging ourselves and of not simply becoming a functionary of care. PMID:25095584
Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Dombernowsky, Per
This paper adresses the theme of thinking construction in a changing world. In more specific terms it adresses two topics. The first being the necessary competences and skills in construction, that can be expected in the profile of the future architect after graduation. The second, being the...
Seabrooke, Leonard; Ban, Cornel; Helgadóttir, Oddný;
This memo outlines key concepts and the methodological approach involved in a recently funded Institute for New Economic Thinking project. Our aim is to pinpoint the relationship between the reception of academic ideas, traced by citation networks with qualitative coding, and positions of...
Webster, Peter R.
Identifies four characteristics of the creative endeavor: (1) musical imagination; (2) model of the creative process; (3) measures of creative aptitude; and (4) the observation of creative behavior. Examines the role of technology in creativity, and contends that creative thinking can be measured. Includes suggested readings. (RW)
Scott, Catherine; Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.
A fear of snakes developed into an opportunity to teach students about the process of science: formulating questions, collecting and analyzing data, and communicating findings to the public. By using snakes to help students "think like a scientist," the authors engaged students in a five-day unit on inquiry while providing information about snakes…
This book on middle school uses a very free-form structure to encourage educators to think about middle school's philosophy and purpose, and about how to create a successful middle school. The preface claims that it is not a book "about" teaming, advisory, interdisciplinary units, intramurals, parent-teacher conferences, and other middle school…
Whitney, Eli M; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Walton, Joanne N
Critical thinking is a key element of complex problem-solving and professional behavior. An ideal critical thinking measurement instrument would be able to accurately predict which dental students are predisposed to and capable of thinking critically and applying such thinking skills to clinical situations. The aims of this study were to describe critical thinking disposition and skills in dental students at the beginning and end of their first year, examine cohort and gender effects, and compare their critical thinking test scores to their first-year grades. Volunteers from three student cohorts at the University of British Columbia were tested using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills instruments at the beginning and end of their first year. Based on the preliminary findings, one cohort was retested at graduation when their final-year grades and clinical advisor rankings were compared to their critical thinking test scores. The results showed that students who entered dental school with higher critical thinking scores tended to complete their first year with higher critical thinking scores, achieve higher grades, and show greater disposition to think critically at the start of the program. Students who demonstrated an ability to think critically and had a disposition to do so at the start of the program were also likely to demonstrate those same attributes at the completion of their training. High critical thinking scores were associated with success in both didactic and clinical settings in dental school. PMID:27480706
Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due
Objective: We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Background: Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which a...... person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. Method: In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two...... levels of time constraint (timed, untimed) and resulted in two levels of success (solved, unsolved). Results: The ratio of perceived time to clock time was lower for thinking-aloud than control participants. Participants overestimated time by an average of 47% (thinking aloud) and 94% (control). The...
Lean Thinking is currently often positioned as the underlying theory of lean production among practitioners and academics, although its originators, Womack and Jones, seem not to have presented it as a theory. This paper endeavors to analyze whether Lean Thinking can be viewed as a theory of lean production. For this purpose, a critical assessment of Lean Thinking is carried out. Lean Thinking is argued to lack an adequate conceptualization of production, which has led to imprecise concepts, ...
楊淑晴 Shu-Ching Yang
Full Text Available 近來歷史教育的目標，已逐漸從傳統史實傳遞中鬆綁，走向強化學生歷史思維能力之趨勢。其中，「歷史神入」（historical empathy）與「歷史觀點取替」（historical perspective taking,HPT）乃為一適合應用於中學生歷史思維教學的切入點。本研究參照Hartmann 與Hasselhorn（2008）提出的歷史觀點取替模式為架構，編擬一份適用於國、高中生之歷史觀點取替測驗工具，以高雄市某八年級、九年級學生，以及某高中二年級學生為施測對象，得有效問卷1,017份。研究結果顯示，因素分析抽取出含括「以現代觀點取替」（present-oriented perspective taking, POP）和「歷史人物的角色」（the role of the historical agent, ROA）的「現代觀點」與「歷史脈絡的理解能力」（students’ ability for historical contextualization, CONT）兩個因素。年級、性別之差異結果發現：男、女生在整體歷史思維能力上並無顯著差異存在；但在「歷史人物的角色」層面中，女學生的分數比男學生高；在「歷史脈絡的理解能力」因子中，九年級學生的得分顯著高於八年級學生，而高二學生的得分亦顯著高於八年級學生。相關分析研究結果則顯示中學生閱讀歷史小說或故事的頻率愈高，愈會將歷史相關事件放在合適的脈絡中去理解、思考。本研究並進一步針對研究結果提出具體建議，供教師、後續研究者作為參考與修訂之方向。 History education should emphasize student competencies of historical thinking instead of learning historical facts. Of all the competencies, historical empathy and historical perspectivetaking are well adopted points for teaching historical thinking to high school students. This study uses the historical perspective-taking (HPT model (Hartmann & Hasselhorn, 2008 to develop an HPT measure, to investigate the historical perspective
Viator, Martha Graham
The social studies classroom can and should be a place where students learn critical thinking skills, but too often, especially in the middle grades, students are asked to focus on discrete facts on which they can be tested. The purpose of this article is to suggest that sixth graders can learn the critical thinking skills of "historical thinking"…
How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…
Shaw, Ryan D.
Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…
Hester, Patrick T
Whether you’re an academic or a practitioner, a sociologist, a manager, or an engineer, one can benefit from learning to think systemically. Problems (and messes) are everywhere and they’re getting more complicated every day. How we think about these problems determines whether or not we’ll be successful in understanding and addressing them. This book presents a novel way to think about problems (and messes) necessary to attack these always-present concerns. The approach draws from disciplines as diverse as mathematics, biology, and psychology to provide a holistic method for dealing with problems that can be applied to any discipline. This book develops the systemic thinking paradigm, and introduces practical guidelines for the deployment of a systemic thinking approach.
Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl
view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate that......This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes in...
Logic not only helps to solve complicated and safety-critical problems, but also disciplines the mind and helps to develop abstract thinking, which is very important for any area of Engineering. In this technical report, we present an overview of common challenges in teaching of formal methods and discuss our experiences from the course Applied Logic in Engineering. This course was taught at TU Munich, Germany, in Winter Semester 2012/2013.
Genné-Bacon, Elizabeth A.
Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there i...
Marten Scheffer; Jordi Bascompte; Tone K. Bjordam; Stephen R. Carpenter; Laurie B. Clarke; Carl Folke; Pablo Marquet; Nestor Mazzeo; Mariana Meerhoff; Osvaldo Sala; Frances R. Westley
Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces reasoning. System-I can help see novel solutions and associations instantaneously, but is prone to error. System-II has other biases, but can help checking and modifying the system-I results. Although...
In this essay, I discuss poetry as an important style of thinking and exploration. Poetry, I maintain, is a leap, a risk, a gambit that opens unexpected linguistic possibilities and imaginative opportunities. Based on my own experience of teaching poetry, I suggest strategies in this essay for encouraging students to take the kinds of risks that engender sense and confront nonsense. The central claim of this essay is that by creating new and surprising associations, poetry teaches us differen...
Minors, Helen Julia; Thomspon, Walter
The Soundpainting Think Tank brought together over 30 international Soundpainters to workshop ways in which Soundpainting is sued to create a multimodal piece. Over a week the workshop produced a series of live performances, including a flash mob in the centre of Kingston, as well as shooting footage which will lead to a movie/documentary about Soundpainting. The research question: what is it to build a piece across musicians, dancers, actors and visual artists using the specific creative lan...
they also enlist them to symbolize, dramatize, and illuminate aspects of humans' experience and fantasy. Humans merge with animals in stories, films, philosophical speculations, and scientific treatises. In their performance on many stages and in different ways, animals move us to think." "Essays in the book investigate the changing patterns of anthropomorphism across different time periods and settings, as well as their transformative effects, both figuratively and literally, upon animals, h...
A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning
Frensch, Peter; Funke, Joachim
Human thinking, and in particular, the human ability to solve complex, real-life problems contributes more than any other human ability to the development of human culture and the growth and development of human life on earth. However, the human ability to solve complex problems is still not well understood, partly because it has for a long time been largely ignored by traditional problem-solving research in the field of psychology. In this article, we present a definition of complex problem ...
Azar, Ofer H.
The article presents a theory that I denote “Relative Thinking Theory,” which claims that people consider relative differences and not only absolute differences when making various economics decisions, even in those cases where the rational model dictates that people should consider only absolute differences. The article reviews experimental evidence for this behavior, summarizing briefly several experiments I conducted, as well as some earlier related literature. It then discusses how we can...
Clara Oniovokoyubu Aagbedia
Full Text Available The emphasis on the use of the nursing process in both nursing education and clinical practice would lead one to expect that the process of critical thinking is well understood and applied in nursing situation. But this is not the case. There is a substantial body of evidence to show that tasks, ward routines and rituals and procedures socialization of neophytes in nursing are strong obstacles to use of critical thinking skills in nursing. Rapid technological changes and increase consumer demand for health services dictate the need for professionally prepared nurses who are competent and capable of critical thinking abilities to process complex data and make and intelligent decision. But the question is, is nursing education and practice promoting critical thinking? This paper examines critical thinking in relation to other modes of thinking used by clinical nurses and issues in providing quality nursing care. In addition, thought processes that can influence nurse’s ability to provide safe, high-quality care are explored. The importance of exploring these thought process is to offer the reader a context in which to judge the appropriateness of nursing actions. Implications to nursing are discussed. Keywords: Critical thinking, nursing, disposition to critical thinking, evidence-based practice, uncertainty in nursing.
McKay, Alison; Chase, Scott Curland; Shea, Kristina;
fluid, demands conceptual design tools that support designers’ ways of thinking and working, and enhance creativity, for example, by offering design alternatives, difficult or not, possible without the use of such tools. The potential of spatial grammars as a technology to support such design tools has...... been demonstrated through experimental research prototypes since the 1970s. In this paper, we provide a review of recent spatial grammar implementations, which were presented in the Design Computing and Cognition 2010 workshop on which this paper is based, in the light of requirements for conceptual...
Randall, Troy D.
The phrase “think globally, act locally” was coined in the early 1970s and directed individuals to clean up their local environment with the ultimate goal of improving the health of the entire planet. Several recent studies indicate that similar considerations apply to the immune system, in which small numbers of leukocytes, such as pulmonary dendritic cells, can modify the local immune environment in the lung and promote a positive outcome for the organism.
Crossetti, Maria da Graça Oliveira; Bittencourt, Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias; Schaurich, Diego; Tanccini, Thaíla; Antunes, Michele
This study aimed at characterizing the teaching strategies applied to nursing in order to develop critical thinking skills. An integrative review was elaborated on the Web of Science and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) data base, with the descriptors critical thinking, nursing and teaching from 1987 to 2008. The sample comprised 64 articles and the analysis provided the identification of 27 strategies for teaching critical thinking in nursing. Among those, the most referred to were questioning, case study, online teaching and interactive learning, concept map and teaching based on problem solving. Different strategies described in the study revealed a wide range of possibilities which can be applied to teaching and to clinical practice. It was concluded that the development of the critical thinking skills through these teaching strategies can help nursing students to be more critical and reflexive. PMID:20586218
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that strategic entrepreneurial thinking is a unitary concept which should be viewed as a standalone construct. Design/Methodology/Approach: The concept strategic entrepreneurial thinking is modelled from an analysis of strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking from available literature. The strategic entrepreneurial mindset imperative is then emphasised and confirmed. Findings: This paper's finding is that there is no difference between strategic thinking and the entrepreneurial mindset. Instead, the composite strategic entrepreneurial mindset construct should be treated as a unitary construct. Practical implications: The importance for practitioners is that the paper integrates two constructs, strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking into a new concept, strategic entrepreneurial thinking. The paper shows how difficult it is to split this thinking and behaviour into separate strategic and entrepreneurial thought and action processes. Originality/Value: The paper explores the ''thinking'' aspect of the strategic entrepreneurial concept which prominent authors on the strategic entrepreneurship topic seem to have not focused on. The resultant strategic entrepreneurial mindset is modelled into a new stand alone concept on its own.
Robertson, William Haviland
The Critical Thinking Curriculum Model (CTCM) utilizes a multidisciplinary approach that integrates effective learning and teaching practices with computer technology. The model is designed to be flexible within a curriculum, an example for teachers to follow, where they can plug in their own critical issue. This process engages students in collaborative research that can be shared in the classroom, across the country or around the globe. The CTCM features open-ended and collaborative activities that deal with current, real world issues which leaders are attempting to solve. As implemented in the Critical Issues Forum (CIF), an educational program administered by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the CTCM encompasses the political, social/cultural, economic, and scientific realms in the context of a current global issue. In this way, students realize the importance of their schooling by applying their efforts to an endeavor that ultimately will affect their future. This study measures student attitudes toward science and technology and the changes that result from immersion in the CTCM. It also assesses the differences in student learning in science content and problem solving for students involved in the CTCM. A sample of 24 students participated in classrooms at two separate high schools in New Mexico. The evaluation results were analyzed using SPSS in a MANOVA format in order to determine the significance of the between and within-subjects effects. A comparison ANOVA was done for each two-way MANOVA to see if the comparison groups were equal. Significant findings were validated using the Scheffe test in a Post Hoc analysis. Demographic information for the sample population was recorded and tracked, including self-assessments of computer use and availability. Overall, the results indicated that the CTCM did help to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills for students, thereby positively effecting critical thinking. No matter if the
毛泽东认为，学习马克思主义，必须认真研读马克思主义经典著作、系统把握马克思主义；运用马克思主义，必须掌握马克思主义的立场、观点和方法，并用以解决中国革命的具体问题；创新马克思主义，必须以坚持马克思主义为基本前提，反对教条主义，在实践中丰富和发展马克思主义。%Mao Zedong holds that, to study Marxism, one must read the classic works of Marxism and grasp Marxism systematically; to apply Marxism, one must hold its standpoint, viewpoint and meth- odologies, and use it in solving the specific problems in Chinese revolution; to innovate Marxism, one must adhere to the basic premise of Marxism, oppose dogmatism, and enrich and develop Marxism in practice.
Morgan, John Andrew
Colleges and universities require applicants to have completed chemistry because students develop scientific literacy and critical thinking skills by learning and applying chemistry content. Due to the factual nature of standards assessments, chemistry curriculum is focused on student memorization of facts. As a result, many high school chemistry students are learning chemistry test facts rather than critical thinking skills. Students at Orange County high school, in southern California, part...
ZOBISCH, Paula J.; PLATINE, Donald G.; SWANSON, Andree
Educators believe that in order to thrive in the 21st century and the Information Age, individuals must ask questions, challenge assumptions, invent new ways of solving problems, connect new knowledge to information already known, and apply their knowledge and reasoning skills in new situations. Individuals must develop critical thinking skills. Using techniques based on Gardner’s (1983, 1993a) theory of multiple intelligences has been shown to increase student critical thinking skills
Meral Guven; Dilruba Kurum
â€œInformation societyâ€ requires individuals to have many diverse qualifications. These qualifications include knowing and applying various ways of thinking, such as researching, problem solving, and creative and critical thinking. Educating individuals with such qualifications is only possible by making students become more active in learning-teaching process and this requires adaptation of education to different students with different learning styles. â€œLearning styleâ€ is the sum of cha...
Signe Oksefjell Ebeling
This paper takes Aijmer (1997, 1998) and Simon-Vandenbergen’s (1998) contrastive work on I think as its starting point. In their studies, both Aijmer and Simon-Vandenbergen show that English think is a fuzzy verb and that this becomes particularly evident in a cross-linguistic perspective. Neither Swedish, Dutch or French seems to have one verb corresponding to the whole semantic range of think. In this article, the polysemous nature of think will be further explored in an English-Portug...
The ability to accurately and effectively predict the interaction between proteins and small drug-like compounds has long intrigued researchers for pedagogic, humanitarian and economic reasons. Protein docking methods (AutoDock, GOLD, DOCK, FlexX and Glide to name a few) rank a large number of possible conformations of protein-ligand complexes using fast algorithms. Previously, it has been shown that structural congruence leading to the same enzymatic function necessitates the congruence of electrostatic properties (CLASP). The current work presents a methodology for docking a ligand into a target protein, provided that there is at least one known holoenzyme with ligand bound - DOCLASP (Docking using CLASP). The contact points of the ligand in the holoenzyme defines a motif, which is used to query the target enzyme using CLASP. If there are significant matches, the holoenzyme and the target protein are superimposed based on congruent atoms. The same linear and rotational transformations are also applied to the ligand, thus creating a unified coordinate framework having the holoenzyme, the ligand and the target enzyme. In the current work, the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor vildagliptin was docked to the PI-PLC structure complexed with myo-inositol using DOCLASP. Also, corroboration of the docking of phenylthiourea to the modelled structure of polyphenol oxidase (JrPPO1) from walnut is provided based on the subsequently solved structure of JrPPO1 (PDBid:5CE9). Analysis of the binding of the antitrypanosomial drug suramin to nine non-homologous proteins in the PDB database shows a diverse set of binding motifs, and multiple binding sites in the phospholipase A2-likeproteins from the Bothrops genus of pitvipers. The conformational changes in the suramin molecule on binding highlights the challenges in docking flexible ligands into an already ’plastic’ binding site. Thus, DOCLASP presents a method for ’soft docking’ ligands to proteins with low
Hamilton Lima Wagner
Full Text Available
Background: Working in family health requires a holistic framework, which includes all aspects of health. The biological paradigm is not an adequate one because it fails to answer many important questions. The authors present the systemic theory as one that is more applicable to their work in family and community health.
Material and Method: The authors review the literature, and apply the systemic theory to their family health practice at Vila Verde Health Unit, Curitiba, Brazil.
Conclusion: The practice of an integrated approach to health, based on the systemic theory, appears to have changed the relationship between the health team and the community. The model of health care delivery has been modified to include health promotion activities and community outreach, in addition to dealing with the health concerns of patients who present at the clinic.
Contexto: Trabalhar em saúde da família é abranger um contexto integral da atenção a saúde, em todos os seus aspectos, onde o referencial biológico se mostra um paradigma inadequado, deixando muitas exceções sem uma explicação adequada. Neste contexto os autores buscaram na teoria sistêmica uma explicação mais abrangente para o seu trabalho junto a comunidade. Material e Método: Foi feita uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema, e aplicado na prática de trabalho da Unidade de Saúde Vila Verde da Prefeitura Municipal de Curitiba um modelo de atendimento sistêmico. Conclusão: A prática da atenção integral, baseada no paradigma do pensamento sistêmico, parece mudar a relação da equipe de saúde com a comunidade, alterando o modelo de atendimento de demanda a doença para um modelo que além da necessidade sentida promove atividades comunitárias e atende a necessidades correlatas à saúde.
'Geometry is often given less time in the teaching timetable than other aspects of mathematics. This book encourages practitioners to think about and raise its profile, indeed achieving what its title suggest' - Primary Practice `This creative, innovative and fascinating book/CD package is one you ""MUST BUY"". All prospective, new and experienced teachers of mathematics can use it to transform their teaching. All readers can use it to reignite their fascination with mathematics' - Professor Sylvia Johnson, Sheffield Hallam University 'This book exudes activity and interactivity. Moreov
Shumway, Jessica F.
Spatial reasoning, which involves "building and manipulating mental representations of two-and three-dimensional objects and perceiving an object from different perspectives" is a critical aspect of geometric thinking and reasoning. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two-and three-dimensional shapes, students develop a foundation…
The term computational thinking has received some discussion in the field of computer science education research. The term is defined as the concept of thinking about problems in a way that can be implemented in a computing device. Of course, after having thought about a problem using computational thinking skills, the next step should be to use programming skills to implement the solution. This work in progress is exploring ways in which programming can be employed as a tool to teach comp...
Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy
In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change. PMID:18647948
Computational thinking is a fundamental skill set that is learned by studying Informatics and ICT. We argue that its core ideas can be introduced in an inspiring and integrated way to both teachers and students using fun and contextually rich cs4fn ‘Computer Science for Fun’ stories combined with ‘unplugged’ activities including games and magic tricks. We also argue that understanding people is an important part of computational thinking. Computational thinking can be fun fo...
Van Vuuren, M; Botes, A
The nursing practice is described as a scientific practice, but also as a practice where caring is important. The purpose of nursing education is to provide competent nursing practitioners. This implies that future practitioners must have both critical analytical thinking abilities, as well as empathy and moral values. Reflective thinking could probably accommodate these thinking skills. It seems that the facilitation of reflective thinking skills is essential in nursing education. The research question that is relevant in this context is: "What is reflective thinking?" The purpose of this article is to report on the concept analysis of reflective thinking and in particular on the connotative meaning (critical attributes) thereof. The method used to perform the concept analysis is based on the original method of Wilson (1987) as described by Walker & Avant (1995). As part of the concept analysis the connotations (critical attributes) are identified, reduced and organized into three categories, namely pre-requisites, processes and outcomes. A model case is described which confirms the essential critical attributes of reflective thinking. Finally a theoretical definition of reflective thinking is derived and reads as follows: Reflective thinking is a cyclic, hierarchical and interactive construction process. It is initiated, extended and continued because of personal cognitive-affective interaction (individual dimension) as well as interaction with the social environment (social dimension). to realize reflective thinking, a level of internalization on the cognitive and affective domain is required. The result of reflective thinking is a integrated framework of knowledge (meaningful learning) and a internalized value system providing a new perspective on and better understanding of a problem. Reflective thinking further leads to more effective decision making- and problem solving skills. PMID:11040626
Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele
Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.
Critical thinking, as higher-order thinking, is the use of relatively complex cognitive skills like analyzing, reasoning, making judgments. This paper analyzed the distribution of exercises on critical thinking skills in EAP writing context for EFL stu-dents. The data were randomly collected and systematically coded according to the new version of Bloom 's taxonomy of critical thinking cue questions:lower-order thinking (LOT, including remembering, understanding, and applying) and higher-order think-ing (HOT, including analyzing, evaluating, and creating). The findings showed that HOT exercises have a higher proportion than LOT exercises in EAP writing context for EFL students. Most cue questions in HOT exercises greatly emphasize the training of crit-ical thinking skills and enhance the effectiveness of promoting learners'critical thinking skills. Therefore, critical thinking skills, as a product of training and practice, tend to be trained to improve students'language learning and development, and especially to facilitate development of cognitive and higher-order cognitive skills. Based on the findings, the training of critical thinking is ex-pected to be improved in English learning for EFL undergraduates, so as to make improvement in cultivating Chinese EFL stu-dents'critical thinking skills.
Jere Lazanski, Tadeja
Systems thinking as a modern approach for problem solving was revived after WWII even though it had been an ancient philosophy. We can track systems thinking back to antiquity. Making a distinction from Western rationalist traditions of philosophy, C. West Churchman often identified with the I Ching as a systems approach sharing a frame of reference similar to pre-Socratic philosophy and Heraclitus. In this paper, we will compare the evolutionary system of consciousness, which was presented in the Tun calendar of Mayan Indians and contemporary systems theory and systems thinking, which is nothing else but highly evolved human consciousness in society. We will present Mayan calendar systems to contemporary systems thinking principles and explain the answer to the Ackoff's judgment on four hundred years of analytical thinking as the dominant mode of society. We will use the methods of historical comparison and a method of a systems approach. We will point out the big picture and Mayan divine plan as main systems principles. The Mayan numerical system and long count units has been proven as one of the most accurate systems for describing the present and future of the civilization in which we have all evolved. We will also explain the Mayan nine-level pyramids system that represents the evolutionary system, i.e. the consciousness, which in our time shows the actual level of human consciousness. Deriving from all described, we will show the main systems principles, discussed by contemporary systems authors and Mayan systems principles, which differ only in one expression—they named "the big picture" as "the divine plan". The final results can be perfectly applied to the society we live in. Seeing the world from the big picture point of view is reaching a level of awareness, in which linear thinking is replaced by systems thinking. The Mayans explained that the civilization would achieve the system of conscious co-creation. We can claim that linear thinking guides us
Full Text Available The research on cognitive thinking is important to construct the efficient intelligent design systems. But it is difficult to describe the model of cognitive thinking with reasonable mathematical theory. Based on the analysis of design strategy and innovative thinking, we investigated the design cognitive thinking model that included the external guide thinking of "width priority - depth priority" and the internal dominated thinking of "divergent thinking - convergent thinking", built a reasoning mechanism of design information with the thinking mathematics theory and established a product image form design model with the generalized interactive genetic algorithm. The example of testing machine form design shows that the method is reasonable and feasible.
Cotter, Ellen M.; Tally, Carrie Sacco
Although textbooks routinely include exercises to improve critical thinking skills, the effectiveness of these exercises has not been closely examined. Additionally, the connection between critical thinking skills and formal operational thought is also relatively understudied. In the study reported here, college students completed measures of…
Retna, Kala S.
Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…
was applied to all dataset for spatial and temporal analysis. Results showed a spatial and temporal dependence between spectral response and precipitation. The cluster analysis indicated two spatial groups, suggesting the need for the analysis of the entire study area. The principal components analysis allowed to distinguish four behaviors: the areas permanently flooded; nonflooded areas composed by vegetation; flooded areas with higher spectral vegetation response; and riparian vegetation areas.
ByeongSeob You; DongWook Lee; SangHun Eo; SookKyung Cho; HaeYoung Bae
For spatial based decision making such as choice of best place to construct a new department store, spatial data warehousing system is required more and more previous spatial data warehousing systems; however, provided decision making of non-spatial data on a map and so those cannot support enough spatial based decision making. The spatial aggregations are proposed for spatial based decision making in spatial data warehouses. The meaning of aggregation operators for applying spatial data was modified and new spatial aggregations were defined. These aggregations can support hierarchical concept of spatial measure. Using these aggregations, the spatial analysis classified by non-spatial data is provided. In case study, how to use these aggregations and how to support spatial based decision making are shown.
Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Díaz, María D. Martín
Three studies explored the relation between affect and production of creative divergent thinking, assessed with the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural TTCT). In the first study, general, positive, and negative affect, assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were compared with creative production. In the second study,…
The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…
Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…
Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Hersby, Mette D.; Bongiorno, Renata
The "think manager think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people
Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands A.G.D.Jorg@ivlos.uu.nl ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a chal
Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.
Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…
Fliegel, Richard; Holland, John
This article describes a three-year study assessing change in critical thinking demonstrated in essays written for regular class assignments. A rubric was designed and scorers trained to assess critical thinking holistically without knowledge of the writing prompt or author's status. The longitudinal improvement in scores earned by freshmen…
The essay introduces the author’s experiences in the UK and Canada to explain the difference of educational methods in China and western countries:from memorization to critical thinking.The author explains what the critical thinking is and what features should a critical thinker have,then give some suggestions to improve Chinese educational system.
Smith, Gerald F.
The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student…
We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.
Full Text Available Students in literature classes are expected to think critically and apply their critical and analytical skills to the texts they study. As to the writers, the factors counted by some scholars (e.g. Topping, 1968 as the demerits of the employment of literature in EFL/ESL classes including difficulty level of vocabulary, structural complexity, non-normative use of language, and even remote cultural perspectives are neither persuasive nor logical, but are exactly what can be employed to enrich language learning experiences, and enhance critical thinking. In any way, although providing students with tools of critical thinking, and more importantly, stabilize the stance of literature in its proper position is difficult, it is not far-fetched. The study was an attempt to investigate the efficacy of developing critical thinking through literature reading.
The main purpose of the research was to determine the contributions of the teachers' thinking styles to critical thinking dispositions. Hence, it is aimed to determine whether thinking styles are related to critical thinking dispositions and thinking styles measure critical thinking dispositions or not. The research was designed in relational…
Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web
I was listening to a retrospective talk recently about research projects. The speaker was describing the work he had done a decade earlier on video-on-demand. At the time, video-on-demand had been considered the potential big new moneymaker for the telephone companies. By today's standards, though, the technology for video storage and transport that was being described seems quaint and primitive. Moreover, the expectations for customer behavior proved misguided. It would have been almost humorous if it hadn't been embarrassingly sad. I had been involved with it back then, and I remembered, but I couldn't re-create, the feeling of those circumstances. What had we been thinking?
An information security strategy of an organization participating in a networked business sets out the plans for designing a variety of actions that ensure confidentiality, availability, and integrity of company’s key information assets. The actions are concerned with authentication and nonrepudiati
... between pregnancies > Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth E-mail to ... talk to other women like me who are thinking about pregnancy after having a premature baby? Visit ...
Russell, James; Alexis, Dean; Clayton, Nicola
Assessing children's episodic future thinking by having them select items for future use may be assessing their functional reasoning about the future rather than their future episodic thinking. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we capitalised on the fact that episodic cognition necessarily has a spatial format (Clayton & Russell, 2009; Hassabis & Maguire, 2007). Accordingly, we asked children of 3, 4, and 5 to chose items they would need to play a game (blow football) from the opposite side of the table on which they had never before played. The crucial item was the box that was needed by children to reach the table from the other side. Over four experiments, we demonstrated that, while children of 3 perform poorly on future questions and children of 5 generally perform quite well, children of 4 years find a question about what they themselves will need to play in the future harder to answer than a similar question posed about another child. We suggest that this result is due to the 'growth error' of over-applying newly-developed Level 2 perspective-taking skills (Flavell et al., 1981), which encourages the selection of non-functional items. The data are discussed in terms of perspective-taking abilities in children and of the neural correlates of episodic cognition, navigation, and theory of mind. PMID:19781693
Mandernach, B. Jean
The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students' critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate…
Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.
This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…
Edward F. Redish
Physics Education Research (PER) applies a scientific approach to the question, "How do our students think about and learn physics?" PER allows us to explore such intellectually engaging questions as, "What does it mean to understand something in physics?" and, "What skills and competencies do we want our students to learn from our physics classes?" To address questions like these, we need to do more than observe student difficulties and build curricula. We need a theoretical framework -- a s...
Davis, MC; Challenger, R; Jayewardene, D; Clegg, CW
Socio-technical systems thinking has predominantly been applied to the domains of new technology and work design over the past 60 years. Whilst it has made an impact, we argue that we need to be braver, encouraging the approach to evolve and extend its reach. In particular, we need to: extend our conceptualization of what constitutes a system; apply our thinking to a much wider range of complex problems and global challenges; and engage in more predictive work. To illustrate our agenda in nov...
Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane
The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...
Malini Ganapathy; Sarjit Kaur
The transformation of the education curriculum in the Malaysia Education Development Plan (PPPM) 2013-2025 focuses on the Higher Order Thinking (HOT) concept which aims to produce knowledgeable students who are critical and creative in their thinking and can compete at the international level. HOT skills encourage students to apply, analyse, evaluate and think creatively in and outside the classroom. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the impact of using HOT skills in a ...
BULUT, İlhami; SÜNKÜR, Meral ÖNER; Behçet ORAL; Mustafa İLHAN
This research aims to analyze the relationship between geometric thinking levels of 8th grade students and their intelligence domains. The participants of the study consist of 308 students from four schools in Diyarbakır city center during the 20102011 education year. Geometric thinking test and multiple intelligence inventory are applied to the participants. During the research, it is determined that 8th grade students focus level-1 (visual level) in terms of geometric thinking. The results...
Describes 18 books on thinking and learning for elementary school-aged children. Each book is critically discussed and evaluated in an appropriate category--problem solving, the scientific method, observation, or logic. (BK)
Be aware of what attachments you open and what Internet programs you agree to download, the simple click of a mouse can be enough to introduce a virus at CERN and cause widespread damage. Modern viruses are a serious threat to our computers and networks. CERN limits the security risks that these programs pose through the use of its firewall, by constantly updating its anti-virus software, by detecting un-patched security holes, and by blocking many dangerous attachments as they pass through e-mail gateways, but these defenses do not guarantee 100% security. Our habits of clicking "ok" automatically on the Internet and opening attachments without thinking, are the behaviors that modern viruses are using to get past our security protections. Viruses can sit on the Internet waiting for us to activate them as we surf the web. Many of us simply click 'ok' when presented with dialogue boxes and this is exactly what the virus wants: clicking can be enough to download and infect our computers. Viruses can travel as...
Researchers seem to be stuck reiterating the now-familiar argument that barren boxes are bad for welfare and that rodents are due ethical consideration. But the prerequisites for real progress are new kinds of arguments, new types of data, and removal of very real practical and cultural obstacles to implementation of meaningful enrichment. We must discover what we have to do to effectively change the practices of people who have care and control of rodents in the laboratory, not just husbandry staff but those who develop the institution's protocols, job descriptions, and resourcing. Researchers are inventers of information, and like any inventor we should experience no satisfaction until our ideas are fully implemented-and we must be an active participant in that process. If we are asking animal caretakers to make deep, paradigmatic changes in their thinking, it is imperative that we in turn develop an emotionally positive understanding of areas important to them. For unless the welfare advocates truly understand the issues such as budgets, biosecurity, and branding, why should the people responsible for those subjects listen to us? PMID:20017050
Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel
Information and knowledge workers as well as other employees who are not part of a research or product development team are barely exposed to innovation creation processes. Design Thinking as an innovation method is typi- cally used in R&D. This research analyses whether a short-cycled Design Think......- ing method can be developed, so employees outside R&D can be taken out of their daily jobs and innovate without falling too much behind with their opera- tional work. Alongside with short-cycled DT session there are potential impacts on business and hence on management. Business Thinking barriers are...... tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...
This review illustrates aspects of cognitive psychology relevant to the understanding of how people think mathematically. Developments in memory research, artificial intelligence, visually mediated processes, and problem-solving research are discussed. (MP)
Consider the mode of enquiry that involves thinking about thinking. The expansion methodology originates within it, from an analysis of the thought processes presiding upon the construction of any mathematical models of any realities. The focal point of this paper is a discussion of the relations between the expansion methodology, mathematical modeling, and spatial econometrics.
Chan, Joel; Nokes-Malach, Timothy J.
People often use spatial metaphors (e.g., think "laterally," "outside the box") to describe exploration of the problem space during creative problem solving. In this paper, we probe the potential cognitive underpinnings of these spatial metaphors. Drawing on theories of situative cognition, semantic foraging theory, and…
Selby, Cynthia; Woollard, John
Since Jeanette Wing’s use of the term computational thinking in 2006, various discussions have arisen seeking a robust definition of the phrase. With little consensus having been found in the intervening years, there are even suggestions that a definition is not important. Perhaps focus should be on how computational thinking is taught and how its acquisition might be observed. However, in order to facilitate consistent curriculum design and appropriate assessment, it is argued that a defi...
Since Jeanette Wing’s use of the term computational thinking in 2006, various discussions have arisen seeking a robust definition of the phrase. With no consensus having been found in the intervening years, there are even suggestions that a definition is not important. Perhaps focus should be on how computational thinking is taught and how its acquisition might be observed. However, in order to facilitate consistent curriculum design and appropriate assessment, it is argued that a definiti...
Selby, Cynthia; Dorling, Mark; Woollard, John
Computational thinking is at the heart of the new English national curriculum for computing. There is a range of academic and pedagogic interpretations of the concept of computational thinking, a lack of understanding of the concepts and a close association of the subject with writing computer code using a programming language. Teachers might focus on a small aspect of the programme of study, thereby neglecting the breadth of content and the broader aims. In addition, the level descriptors as...
To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs), i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thi...
Wu, Jun-Chieh; Chen, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Hsin-Chia
The internal design thinking behaviour of designers in the concept development has been an important issue of cognitive psychology. In this study, the design thinking process designers have in applying digital media and traditional paper in the early concept development stage was explored. Special focus was made on the structure and procedure of…
Cook, R.; Calkins, S.
The authors focused on how a personalized response system ("clickers") could be used to promote more complex thinking in two sections of an intermediate college-level Spanish class. Using Bloom's Revised Taxonomy (2001), they designed questions to go beyond Bloom's lower-order thinking levels (recalling, understanding, and applying) to the…
Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.
Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…
Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive
This book takes both a retrospective and prospective view of the field of spatial analysis by combining selected reprints of classic articles by Arthur Getis with current observations by leading experts in the field. Four main aspects are highlighted, dealing with spatial analysis, pattern analysis, local statistics as well as illustrative empirical applications. Researchers and students will gain an appreciation of Getis' methodological contributions to spatial analysis and the broad impact of the methods he has helped pioneer on an impressively broad array of disciplines including spatial epidemiology, demography, economics, and ecology. The volume is a compilation of high impact original contributions, as evidenced by citations, and the latest thinking on the field by leading scholars. This makes the book ideal for advanced seminars and courses in spatial analysis as well as a key resource for researchers seeking a comprehensive overview of recent advances and future directions in the field.
The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors
Part I of this article, the author explained the difficulties of achieving accuracy of nurses' diagnoses, the relevance of critical thinking to the achievement of accuracy, and newer views of critical thinking. In Part II, the critical thinking dimensions identified as important for nursing practice are applied in the diagnostic process using a case study of a 16 year old girl with type 1 diabetes. Application of seven cognitive skills and ten habits of mind illustrate the importance of using critical thinking for accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. Ten strategies are proposed for self-development of critical thinking abilities. PMID:14686054
Redish, Edward F
Physics Education Research (PER) applies a scientific approach to the question, "How do our students think about and learn physics?" PER allows us to explore such intellectually engaging questions as, "What does it mean to understand something in physics?" and, "What skills and competencies do we want our students to learn from our physics classes?" To address questions like these, we need to do more than observe student difficulties and build curricula. We need a theoretical framework -- a structure for talking about, making sense of, and modeling how one thinks about, learns, and understands physics. In this paper, I outline some aspects of the Resources Framework, a structure that some of us are using to create a phenomenology of physics learning that ties closely to modern developments in neuroscience, psychology, and linguistics. As an example of how this framework gives new insights, I discuss epistemological framing -- the role of students' perceptions of the nature of the knowledge they are learning a...
This paper shows how the design thinking skills of students learning at a distance can be consciously developed, and deliberately applied outside of the creative industries in what are termed 'embedded' contexts. The distance learning model of education pioneered by The Open University is briefly described before the technological…
Nelson, Larry P.; Crow, Mary L.
Improving students' ability to recognize work-related problems and apply effective strategies and solutions to fundamental challenges in the field is at the crux of a good college preparation. This paper attempts to investigate if active-learning strategies improve students' critical thinking ability in this regard. Participants were pre-service…
This paper puts forward the idea that social system is an open complex macrosystem and summarized its eight characteristics. The research object of social system is also an open complex macro-system, thus the complex theory and systems thinking should be applied to research rather than the simplicity theory.
About the book: In reflective problem solving and thoughtful decision making using critical thinking one considers evidence, the context of judgment, the relevant criteria for making the judgment well, the applicable methods or techniques for forming the judgment, and the applicable theoretical constructs for understanding the problem and the question at hand. In this book, the authors present topical research in the study of critical thinking. Topics discussed include developing critical ...
B. Jean Mandernach
The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. ...
TÜRNÜKLÜ, Elif B.; YEŞİLDERE, Sibel
Critical thinking is an essential skill that all people from various sectors should have and need. Problem solving skill which is one of the main purpose of mathematics teaching can be effective in developing critical thinking. The purpose of this study is to emphasize the importance of problem solving in developing critical thinking skills and to expose critical thinking to the pre-service primary mathematics teachers. Aiming these, some mathematical critical thinking problems are prepa...
Bonnema, G.M.; Denkena, B.; Gausemeijer, J.; Scholz-Reiter, B.
The paper investigates systems thinking and systems engineering. After a short literature review, the paper presents, as a means for systems thinking, twelve thinking tracks. The tracks can be used as creativity starter, checklist, and as means to investigate effects of design decisions taken early in the process. Tracks include thinking about time, risk and safety, and different types of life-cycles. The thinking tracks are based on literature, teaching experience and practice as a system de...
B. Jean Mandernach
Full Text Available The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. To address this dilemma, it is essential to integrate instructional strategies and techniques that can efficiently and effectively maximize student learning and critical thinking. Modern advances in educational technology have produced a range of online tools to assist instructors in meeting this instructional goal. This review will examine the theoretical foundations of critical thinking in higher education, discuss empirically-based strategies for integrating online instructional supplements to enhance critical thinking, offer techniques for expanding instructional opportunities outside the limitations of traditional class time, and provide practical suggestions for the innovative use of critical thinking strategies via online resources.
Meijer, M; Vullings, L.A.E.; J. D. Bulens; F. I. Rip; M. Boss; Hazeu, G.; Storm, M.
Although by many perceived as important, spatial data quality has hardly ever been taken centre stage unless something went wrong due to bad quality. However, we think this is going to change soon. We are more and more relying on data driven processes and due to the increased availability of data, there is a choice in what data to use. How to make that choice? We think spatial data quality has potential as a selection criterion. In this paper we focus on how a workflow tool can help th...
Full Text Available Around the world, it is common to both talk and think about time in terms of space. But does our conceptualization of time simply reflect the space/time metaphors of the language we speak? Evidence from the Australian language Kuuk Thaayorre suggests not. Kuuk Thaayorre speakers do not employ active spatial metaphors in describing time. But this is not to say that spatial language is irrelevant to temporal construals: non-linguistic representations of time are shown here to correlate with the linguistic system of describing space. This article contrasts two populations of ethnic Thaayorre from Pormpuraaw—one comprising Kuuk Thaayorre/English bilinguals and the other English-monolinguals—in order to distinguish the effects of language from environmental and other factors. Despite their common physical, social and cultural context, the two groups differ in their representations of time in ways that are congruent with the language of space in Kuuk Thaayorre and English respectively. Kuuk Thaayorre/English bilinguals represent time along an absolute east-to-west axis, in alignment with the high frequency of absolute frame of reference terms in Kuuk Thaayorre spatial description. The English-monolinguals, in contrast, represent time from left-to-right, aligning with the dominant relative frame of reference in English spatial description. This occurs in the absence of any east-to-west metaphors in Kuuk Thaayorre, or left-to-right metaphors in English. Thus the way these two groups think about time appears to reflect the language of space and not the language of time. Around the world, it is common to both talk and think about time in terms of space. But does our conceptualization of time simply reflect the space/time metaphors of the language we speak? Evidence from the Australian language Kuuk Thaayorre suggests not. Kuuk Thaayorre speakers do not employ active spatial metaphors in describing time. But this is not to say that spatial language is
It has been advocated that life cycle thinking (LCT) should be applied in impact assessment (IA) to a greater extent, since some development proposals pose a risk of significant impacts throughout the interconnected activities of product systems. Multiple authors have proposed the usage of life...... cycle assessment (LCA) for such analytical advancement, but little to no research on this tool application has been founded in IA practice so far. The aim of this article is to elaborate further on the gains assigned to application of LCA. The research builds on a review of 85 Danish IA reports, which...... reveal that LCT is appropriate for most of the IAs, but that LCA is rarely applied to provide such a perspective. Without LCA, the IAs show mixed performance in regard to LCT. Most IAs do consider the product provision of development proposals, but they rarely relate impacts to this function explicitly...
Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V
Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures. PMID:17434420
Clara Oniovokoyubu Aagbedia; Joseph Ogbe
The emphasis on the use of the nursing process in both nursing education and clinical practice would lead one to expect that the process of critical thinking is well understood and applied in nursing situation. But this is not the case. There is a substantial body of evidence to show that tasks, ward routines and rituals and procedures socialization of neophytes in nursing are strong obstacles to use of critical thinking skills in nursing. Rapid technological changes and increase consumer d...
Sarrazanas, Thomas; Salman, Omer
The Swedish Tax Office, Skatteverket, aims at providing a good service to its customers in order to favor compliance to taxes. The Tax Audit process of businesses plays a key role in this as Skatteverket and the taxpayer interact directly within this process. The focus of this thesis is to apply Lean philosophy to improve the Tax Audit process. Eliminating non value-adding steps, developing visual management tools and implementing a continuous improvement mindset are the tools used to achieve...
S. Chee Choy; Pou San Oo
The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to show a link between reflective thinking and its ability to stimulate critical thinking. Teachers often perceive that critical thinking skills need to...
This study aimed at investigating the nature of thinking styles as described in the theory of mental self-government. Two-hundred-and-twelve US university students responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory and the Styles of Learning and Thinking. Results from convergent statistical analysis procedures indicated that thinking styles and modes of thinking share certain common variance in the data. It was evident that the more creativity-generating and more complex thinking styles are significa...
Cillizza, Joseph; Devine, John M.
The purpose of this teaching module is to enable participants to demonstrate and apply their knowledge of comprehension and critical thinking skills, using the Watson-Glaser Test of Critical Thinking Ability. Critical thinking is defined as an attitude of thoughtful consideration of the problems and subjects that come within one's experience,…
Daisuke Murakami; Morito Tsutsumi
Differences in spatial units among spatial data often complicate analyses. Spatial unit conversion, called areal interpolation, is often applied to address this problem. Of the many proposed areal interpolation methods, few consider spatial autocorrelation, which is the general property of spatial data. In this paper an areal interpolation method is constructed by combining a spatial process model, a primal model in spatial statistics, and the linear-regression-based areal interpolation metho...
Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is Vygotsky's thesis that the prerequisite of conceptual thinking and concepts in general is the systematic influence upon the child effectuated by his/her inclusion into the process of education. The aim of this work is to examine characteristics of conceptual thinking of people who have not attended school, by which they have been devoid of formative role of education. Four different methods for examination of conceptual development have been used on the sample consisting of seventeen respondents who have not attended school. The results state that the majority of respondents have not demonstrated that they master the concepts on the highest level of development in none of these four methods. However, some respondents in some tests and some individual tasks within the tests show some characteristics of the high level of the conceptual thinking development.
The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri; Arcavi, Abraham
The observation that the human mind operates in two distinct thinking modes – intuitive and analytical – has occupied psychological and educational researchers for several decades now. Cognitive and social psychologists have done an extensive experimental and theoretical work on the two modes of...... thinking, much of it under the umbrella of the so-called Dual-Process Theory, where the intuitive and analytical modes has been called System 1 and System 2, respectively. (Gilovich et al, 2002; Kahnemann, 2002; Kahneman, 2011, Evans & Frankish, 2009.) Much of the relevant research in psychology and in...... mathematics education has focused on the explanatory power of intuitive thinking as source of errors and misconceptions in human behavior, decision making, reasoning, and problem solving (e.g., Fischbein, 1987, Stavy & Tirosh, 2000; Leron & Hazzan, 2006, 2009), but in this article the emphasis is more on the...
Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel
- ing method can be developed, so employees outside R&D can be taken out of their daily jobs and innovate without falling too much behind with their opera- tional work. Alongside with short-cycled DT session there are potential impacts on business and hence on management. Business Thinking barriers are...... tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...... Media for SAP store case study combines a conceptual and product oriented solution deri- vation with Design Thinking....
Full Text Available The general target of this paper is to establish methodological guidelines for comparative thinking that will show the latter’s merits for the development of global thinking in cultural and human sciences. Furthermore, the paper solves questions of how the inter-action of cultures and the intra-relation of societies and communication work for the benefit of human beings of various cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the purpose of this project is not limited to pure methodology. The project shows in detail how comparative thinking works in every aspect of human sciences and how effective it is as applied cultural philosophy. Contrary to materialist and physical reductionism, the comparative method opens a wide gate to understanding the principles of cultures, including various dimensions of the inter-action of different thinking methods. From this viewpoint, comparative thinking shows an effective way of interdisciplinary thinking which supports the basis of human and cultural sciences in this globalizing world. The special focus of this work is on how comparative thinking grasps the basic terminology of the cultural philosophies of East and West, e.g., the basic thoughts of Heidegger about being, life, death and nothingness versus the same problems treated by Dōgen, one of the most important thinkers and authors of Zen Buddhism in Japan and East Asia. Until about ten years ago, many philosophers regarded Heidegger and Buddhist thinkers in a harmonized one-sided dimension. The effort was successful, and we have entered an era of intercultural “oneness philosophy.” Starting from this point a further step leads to a better understanding of the basic differences of insight into similar problems approached by Heidegger and Dōgen. An intensified dialogue and a more lively inter-action will lead to the emergence of profound conceptions and hermeneutics, capable of constructing a new philosophy in the contemporary world.
Full Text Available Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15-17 and 20 young adults aged 25-30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted.
Cousijn, Janna; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Zanolie, Kiki; Kleibeuker, Sietske W; Crone, Eveline A
Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task) and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test) domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15-17 and 20 young adults aged 25-30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency) was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted. PMID:25514366
Batzri, Or; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cohen, Carmit; Orion, Nir
In this two-part study, we examine undergraduate university students' expression of two important system thinking characteristics—dynamic thinking and cyclic thinking—focusing particularly on students of geology. The study was conducted using an Earth systems questionnaire designed to elicit and reflect either dynamic or cyclic thinking. The study's first part was quantitative. Its population consisted of a research group (223 students majoring in geology or physical geography) and a control group (312 students with no background in geology). The students were asked to rate their agreement with each statement on a Likert scale. Overall, the students in the research group expressed higher levels of dynamic thinking than those in the control group. The geology students showed relatively strong dynamic thinking toward the geosphere and hydrosphere, but not the biosphere. In cyclic thinking, their levels were significantly higher for all Earth systems, suggesting a connection between learning about different cycles in Earth systems, developing cyclic thinking and applying it to other Earth cycles. The second part was qualitative and administered only to the students who majored in geology. They were asked to freely explain their answers to the questionnaire's statements. Our aim was to identify recurring patterns in how these students express their dynamic and cyclic thinking. Their explanations were given to four experts in the field of Earth science, who then presented, in a semi-structured interview, the recurring characteristics of dynamic thinking that they found in the students' explanations.
Walter R Stahel
From an economic point of view, the industrial economy is efficient to overcome situations of a scarcity of goods. From a technological point of view, the resource efficiency of the manufacturing processes of the industrial economy has been permanently improved during the last 200 years. In addition, cleaner processes have been developed. However, from an ecologic point of view, an increasing world population with increasing consumption has produced a "global footprint" which approaches the carrying capacity of the planet.A circular economy and its high-value spin-offs-a lake economy and a performance or functional service economy-can fulfil customers'needs with considerably less resource consumption, less environmental impairment in production and considerably less end-of-life product waste, especially in situations of affluence, when a considerable stock of physical goods and infrastructures exists.Also, in situations of a scarcity of natural resources, both energy and materials, often characterised by rapidly rising resource prices, the economic actors of a circular economy have a high competitive advantage over the actors of the industrial economy, due to much lower procurement costs for materials and energy.From a social point of view, a circular economy increases the number of skilled jobs in regional enterprises.However, the shift from a linear manufacturing economy to a circular or service economy means a change in economic thinking, from flow(throughput)management to stock(asset)management: in a manufacturing economy with largely unsaturated markets, total wealth increases through accumulation as resource throughput(flow)is transformed into a higher stock of goods of better quality(but in a manufacturing economy with largely saturated markets, wealth represented by the stock of goods will no longer increase);in a circular or service economy, total wealth increases through a smart management of existing physical assets(stock)that are adapted to changes in
Furedy, John J.; Furedy, Christine
A fourth year honors thesis research course in psychology at the University of Toronto uses the device of adversarial interaction to improve critical thinking. Course components, including thesis submission, research seminar, student relations, and supervision, are designed to simulate the constraints, criticism, and relationships of actual…
Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare. PMID:26764958
Mescolotto, Lee M.
In his book, "A Whole New Mind", Daniel Pink champions the benefits of right-brained thinking: creativity, flexibility, empathy, and meaning. He stresses the need to not only be logical, but also aware of emotion; to not only be sequential, but also conceptual; and to not only be calculating, but also recognize value. The project described in this…
In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…
De Bono, Edward
Critical thinking alone is reactive, in that it lacks the creative elements necessary for social progress. Accordingly, the author has developed the CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) program to teach the two aspects of perception: breadth (developing a perceptual map) and change (using the map to discover solutions). (TE)
Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena
People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…
Reynolds, Nicholas; Swainston, Andrew; Bendrups, Faye
A project involving the composition of a number of pieces of music by public participants revealed levels of engagement with and mastery of complex music technologies by a number of secondary student volunteers. This paper reports briefly on some initial findings of that project and seeks to illuminate an understanding of computational thinking across the curriculum.
Twardy, Dr. Charles R.
Computer-based argument mapping greatly enhances student critical thinking, more than tripling absolute gains made by other methods. I describe the method and my experience as an outsider. Argument mapping often showed precisely how students were erring (for example: confusing helping premises for separate reasons), making it much easier for them to fix their errors.
Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...
application of complex and expensive technolo- gies are mostly absent, although they seem appropriate in urban de- sign. A survey of existing approaches confirms the statement, and an example of the application of basic knowledge of geometry and para- metric thinking to urban design forms the argument of the...
Examines the process of teaching critical thinking in an adult basic education classroom. Introduces an alternative learning process that challenges the traditional model of unquestioning, uncritical acceptance of teacher and text and enables students to become more active and equal participants in learning. (Author/JOW)
Focuses on ways to develop student creative thinking, improvisation, and composition skills in instrumental classes. Provides suggestions, such as the importance of offering students creative opportunities, supplying examples, giving control to students, and encouraging expressive integrity. Includes a bibliography of resources for developing…
Stich, Amy E.; Colyar, Julia E.
In this paper, the authors argue that despite a resurgence of elite studies, the majority of existing scholarship works to reify and legitimize social inequality through its language and method. In particular, the authors utilize Pierre Bourdieu's concept of relational thinking to review and critique contemporary research on elite education and…
Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda
In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…
Technology Teacher, 2004
Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…
1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the
Introduction Sociology of Teaching sociology is seen as a fresh new place to explore the importance and role of critical thinking in the sociology of education has been one of the most important issues to consider.Principles of Sociology course ample opportunities for students to develop critical thinking skills and attitudes and serves as a missionary spirit, critical thinking has suggested an alternative,Areas has brought the development of critical thinking. Learn the basics of critical...
Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but qualitative data indicate that the way discussions are used and facilitated is vital for encouraging critical thinking. Online discussions typically hav...
Ahern, Aoife; Mac Ruairc, Gerry; McNamara, Martin; O'Connor, Tom
This paper describes a multi-qualitative study undertaken to examine the issue of critical thinking as a graduate attribute. Critical thinking is a graduate attribute that many courses claim to produce in students. However, it is important to understand how academics define and describe critical thinking and whether their understandings of critical thinking differ, depending on their discipline or subject area. The paper describes a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with aca...
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education needs re-thinking. In this paper, we explore how and what creativity and design thinking could contribute with, if included as a part of the HCI curriculum. The findings from courses where design thinking was included, indicate that design thinking contributed to increased focus on innovation and creativity, as well as prevented too early fixation on a single solution in the initial phases of HCI design processes, fostering increased flexibility and ...
Meijer, M.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Bulens, J.D.; Rip, F.I.; Boss, M.; Hazeu, G.W.; Storm, M.H.
Although by many perceived as important, spatial data quality has hardly ever been taken centre stage unless something went wrong due to bad quality. However, we think this is going to change soon. We are more and more relying on data driven processes and due to the increased availability of data, t
This paper surveys some major trends from research on visual and spatial thinking coming from cognitive science, developmental psychology, science literacy, and science studies. It explores the role of visualisation in creativity, in building mental models, and in the communication of scientific ideas, in order to place these findings in the…
These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics
Su Yun Kang
Full Text Available Discretization of a geographical region is quite common in spatial analysis. There have been few studies into the impact of different geographical scales on the outcome of spatial models for different spatial patterns. This study aims to investigate the impact of spatial scales and spatial smoothing on the outcomes of modelling spatial point-based data. Given a spatial point-based dataset (such as occurrence of a disease, we study the geographical variation of residual disease risk using regular grid cells. The individual disease risk is modelled using a logistic model with the inclusion of spatially unstructured and/or spatially structured random effects. Three spatial smoothness priors for the spatially structured component are employed in modelling, namely an intrinsic Gaussian Markov random field, a second-order random walk on a lattice, and a Gaussian field with Matérn correlation function. We investigate how changes in grid cell size affect model outcomes under different spatial structures and different smoothness priors for the spatial component. A realistic example (the Humberside data is analyzed and a simulation study is described. Bayesian computation is carried out using an integrated nested Laplace approximation. The results suggest that the performance and predictive capacity of the spatial models improve as the grid cell size decreases for certain spatial structures. It also appears that different spatial smoothness priors should be applied for different patterns of point data.
Assaf, Mohammad Ahmad
The purpose of this literature review was to study some of the most famous works in teaching thinking skills. Teaching thinking is an arguable issue in the UAE. Some teachers are in favour of teaching thinking skills implicitly while others support the view that students have to learn thinking skills explicitly. The study aimed at answering two…
"Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…
Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico
Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…
Savage, Glenn C.
The past decade has seen think tanks operate in sophisticated ways to influence the development of education policies. In this paper, I reflect upon the influence of think tanks in the formation of national reform, using the Common Core State Standards initiative in the USA as an illustrative case. In doing so, I explore how certain think tanks,…
Systems thinking is an essential cognitive skill that enables individuals to develop an integrative understanding of a given subject at the conceptual and systemic level. Yet, systems thinking is not usually an innate skill. Helping students develop systems-thinking skills warrants attention from educators. This paper describes a study examining…
Aubrey, Carol; Ghent, Kathryn; Kanira, Eleni
A case study approach was adopted to investigate two thinking skills programmes for a maximum variation sample of five- to six-year-olds in four schools, in two local authorities (LAs), in England and Wales, using multiple methods. School staff interviewed felt that thinking skills programmes enhanced critical thinking skills and improved use of…
This paper aims to develop, through a literature analysis, a portrait of the functioning and practice of teacher thinking at government and university levels. Teacher thinking is defined as habits and strategies or the habit of thinking used to collect information, analyze, understand institution, reflect, solve problems, inform decisions,…
Discusses whether critical thinking is biased, examining what is meant by critical thinking and bias and what the consequences are for addressing bias in different ways. The paper responds to the three previous papers in the critical thinking symposium in this issue of the journal. (SM)
Johnson, Andrew P.
In theory, effective thinking is a trait that is valued by schools at all levels; however, it is a skill that is very rarely taught. Teaching thinking skills explicitly and embedding them into a literacy curriculum can help students become more effective critical and creative thinkers. This article defines thinking skills, describes how they…
Lodewyk, Ken R.
Critical thinking is essentially "better thinking." When students think critically they consider complex information from numerous sources and perspectives in order to make a reasonable judgment that they can justify. It has been associated with academic qualities such as decision-making, creativity, reasoning, problem-solving, debating,…
Bastug, Özlem Yesim Özbek; Çelik, Bünyamin
Much of current studies focus on the investigation of the thinking styles of students and teachers. However, exploring school administrators' and inpectors' thinking styles is also critical for increasing students' achievement at school. For that purpose, this study was performed to determine the thinking styles of teachers,…
Coleman, Mary Catherine
This past school year, the author set out to develop lessons that incorporated the design thinking process into her literature exploration curriculum in the school library. Design thinking is a term that the author has heard many times over the past few years in the context of education. Design thinking has been incorporated into the school…
Salmon, Angela K.; Lucas, Teresa
A growing body of evidence supports the importance of nurturing children's thinking. This article reports on an investigation of the influence of teachers' implementation of the Visible Thinking approach developed within the Harvard Graduate School of Education Project Zero on very young children's concepts of thinking, as measured by the…
Bonnema, G.M.; Denkena, B.; Gausemeijer, J.; Scholz-Reiter, B.
The paper investigates systems thinking and systems engineering. After a short literature review, the paper presents, as a means for systems thinking, twelve thinking tracks. The tracks can be used as creativity starter, checklist, and as means to investigate effects of design decisions taken early
Chan Swee Heng
Full Text Available In the 21st century, students are required to master thinking skills in order to deal with many situations that arise in the tertiary environment which later would translate into the workplace. Nowadays, thinking skills play a vital role in tertiary education. To provide an approach for teachers, this paper identifies a 4-step model that can be implemented in test design with reference to Bloom’s Taxonomy for thinking skills. This model illustrates a feasible procedure of test construction built upon existing resource. The procedures can easily be applied to different fields of study. It provides an appropriate way for teachers who may want to add more ideas to their repertoire skills in addressing the learning of HOT (higher-order thinking skills.Keywords: thinking skills, Bloom’s Taxonomy, 4-step model
Moser, Hubert Anton
This book focuses on systems engineering, systems thinking, and how that thinking can be learned in practice. It describes a novel analytical framework based on activity theory for understanding how systems thinking evolves and how it can be improved to support multidisciplinary teamwork in the context of system development and systems engineering. This method, developed using data collected over four years from three different small space systems engineering organizations, can be applied in a wide variety of work activities in the context of engineering design and beyond in order to monitor and analyze multidisciplinary interactions in working teams over time. In addition, the book presents a practical strategy called WAVES (Work Activity for a Evolution of Systems engineering and thinking), which fosters the practical learning of systems thinking with the aim of improving process development in different industries. The book offers an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners interested in system...
The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards are given to young teams of web site designers. This year, the award ceremony was hosted by CERN on 19 March. Young visitors to CERN are not unusual. But those you may have seen around the Laboratory last Monday were here for a special event - the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards. This is an international program for students from 12 to 19 working in teams, across different schools and cultures, to design exciting, interactive, and educational web sites. At stake in the competition was over $1 million in scholarships and awards. Martine Brunschwig Graf (top left), Geneva State Councillor responsible for public education, at the ThinkQuest award ceremony at CERN where some 70 young finalists were assembled. For this year's Award Ceremony, the 70 finalists were CERN's guests on Monday after spending three days in Geneva. Ranging in age from 14 to 19 years and representing over 20 countries, the finalists were welcomed to the awards day by CERN Director G...
The author investigated the relationship of thinking styles to modes of thinking. Participants were 371 freshmen (aged 18 and 19) from the University of Hong Kong. Participants responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternnberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) and the Style of Learning and Thinking (Youth Form; E. P. Torrance, B. McCarthy, & M. T. Kolesinski, 1988). A major finding was that creativity generating and complex thinking styles were significantly positively correlated with the holi...
Newhouse, Vernon L
Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec
Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines. For all the great works, critical thinking plays an important role, critical thinking is a process of consideration and understanding of the known problem and the information receiver will consider and evaluate the problem in new ways. As a teacher, there is an important task that is foster the ability of "critical thinking", we must always willing and ready to accept the students’ doubts and always cultivate their critical thinking abilities. We also need to doubt, correct and improve ourselves; this is a very good way to enhance our teaching.
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of future thinking, and the fit between future thinking and future orientation on creative thinking. In Study 1, 83 undergraduates were randomly assigned to three groups: 50-year future thinking, 5-year future thinking, and the present-day thinking. First, the priming tasks, in which…
Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.
Interpretations of patient data are complex and diverse, contributing to a risk of low accuracy nursing diagnoses. This risk is confirmed in research findings that accuracy of nurses' diagnoses varied widely from high to low. Highly accurate diagnoses are essential, however, to guide nursing interventions for the achievement of positive health outcomes. Development of critical thinking abilities is likely to improve accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. New views of critical thinking serve as a basis for critical thinking in nursing. Seven cognitive skills and ten habits of mind are identified as dimensions of critical thinking for use in the diagnostic process. Application of the cognitive skills of critical thinking illustrates the importance of using critical thinking for accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. Ten strategies are proposed for self-development of critical thinking abilities. PMID:14649031
Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learn...
Rabindra Kumar Pradhan; Updesh Kumar
Culture has always been a source of influence on human behaviour. It affects the way in which individual processes information and reasons in negotiation and other organisational decisions. In today's competitive world, the work place is more unstable and unpredictable than before. To make right judgment in the right context is the right choice of the present time. This study made an attempt to establish a link between organizational culture and managerial thinking. This kind of analysis woul...
Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...
The social negotiation maintains that the main roles of the environment are to offer alternative views, to develop knowledge, to seek knowledge that is compatible with students??? own construction and understanding of the world. It also enhances critical thinking skills such as studying a subject or problem with openmindedness, determining the facts of a new situation or subject without prejudice, placing these facts and information in a pattern so that students can understand ...
In an increasingly globalized and competitive world, larger numbers of entrepreneurs with creative minds are needed. This paper discusses the role of visual literary in nurturing creativity and explores the experience gained in a course in creative thinking through visual literacy that was taught as an elective at Nanyang Technological University (NTU). It discusses the teaching methodologies to nurture creative minds in Business undergraduates, teaching issues encountered when teaching the c...
We often lack clear procedures for assessing statements and arguments advanced in everyday conversations, political campaigns, advertisements, and the other multifarious uses to which ordinary language can be put. Critical thinking is a method for evaluating arguments couched in ordinary, non-formal language. Legal education should foster this argumentative skill as an ability to assess the open-end variety of arguments that may arise in legal disputes. I will argue that the ability of critic...
Systems thinking in practice is a heuristic framework based upon ideas of boundary critique for guiding the use and development of tools from different traditions in managing complex realities. Three interrelated features of the framework are drawn out – contexts of systemic change, practitioners as change agents, and tools as systems constructs that can themselves change through adaptation. A range of tools associated with the Systems tradition have demonstrable capacity to change and adapt ...
Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Hove Henriksen, Morten; Frier, Claus;
' stakeholder-oriented sustainability activities. Findings – The paper illustrates how a company is striving to transform the general stakeholder principles into concrete, manageable actions. Moreover, the paper describes some of the needs, challenges, and paradoxes experienced by an organisation that is trying...... to make sense of stakeholder thinking. Originality/value – The contribution of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how various stakeholder relations management methods can be used in practice to integrate sustainability in an organisation....
Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata
The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed. PMID:21171729
Lucas, Spencer G.
Stratigraphy is a cornerstone of the Earth sciences. The study of layered rocks, especially their age determination and correlation, which are integral parts of stratigraphy, are key to fields as diverse as geoarchaeology and tectonics. In the Anglophile history of geology, in the early 1800s, the untutored English surveyor William Smith was the first practical stratigrapher, constructing a geological map of England based on his own applied stratigraphy. Smith has, thus, been seen as the first “industrial stratigrapher,” and practical applications of stratigraphy have since been essential to most of the extractive industries from mining to petroleum. Indeed, gasoline is in your automobile because of a tremendous use of applied stratigraphy in oil exploration, especially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Applied stratigraphy, thus, is a subject of broad interest to Earth scientists.
Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning
The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....
Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.
Becherer, Vicky H.
With the ever-changing healthcare systems, nursing students need to think at a high level by applying their knowledge from theory to the clinical setting by prioritizing, delegating, and problem solving to provide safe, competent, quality nursing care. Using action research, nursing students participated in R.A.V.E. (Reflective Thinking Allows…
With advances in complex network theory, the thinking and methods regarding complex systems have changed revolutionarily. Network biology and network pharmacology were built by applying network-based approaches in biomedical research. The cardiovascular system may be regarded as a complex network, and cardiovascular diseases may be taken as the damage of structure and function of the cardiovascular network. Although Chinese medicine (CM) is effective in treating cardiovascular diseases, its m...
Any ambitious construction project requires architects for its design and engineers who apply the design to the real world. As scientific research shifts towards large groups which focus on the engineering aspects of linking data to existing models, architectural skills are becoming rare among young theorists. Senior researchers should mentor qualified students and postdocs to think creatively about the big picture without unwarranted loyalty to ancient blueprints from past generations of architects.
Margaret B. Hargreaves; Donna Podems
This article reviews four books published in 2010 and 2011 on the topic of systems thinking in evaluation: Developmental Evaluation: Applying Complexity Concepts to Enhance Innovation and Use by Michael Q. Patton; Purposeful Program Theory: Effective Use of Theories of Change and Logic Models by Sue Funnell and Patricia Rogers; Systems Concepts in Action: A Practitioner's Toolkit by Bob Williams and Richard Hummelbrunner, and Evaluation in the Face of Uncertainty: Anticipating Surprise and Re...
Pollock, John L
John Pollock aims to construct a theory of rational decision making for real agents--not ideal agents. Real agents have limited cognitive powers, but traditional theories of rationality have applied only to idealized agents that lack such constraints. Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of ""real rationality.""
Kacar, Esen; Cicekli, Nihan K.
Discovering interesting, implicit knowledge and general relationships in geographic information databases is very important to understand and use these spatial data. One of the methods for discovering this implicit knowledge is mining spatial association rules. A spatial association rule is a rule indicating certain association relationships among a set of spatial and possibly non-spatial predicates. In the mining process, data is organized in a hierarchical manner. However, in real-world applications it may not be possible to construct a crisp structure for this data, instead some fuzzy structures should be used. Fuzziness, i.e. partial belonging of an item to more than one sub-item in the hierarchy, could be applied to the data itself, and also to the hierarchy of spatial relations. This paper shows that, strong association rules can be mined from large spatial databases using fuzzy concept and spatial relation hierarchies.
Logan, J David
Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat
Papp, Klara K; Huang, Grace C; Lauzon Clabo, Laurie M; Delva, Dianne; Fischer, Melissa; Konopasek, Lyuba; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Gusic, Maryellen
Critical thinking is essential to a health professional's competence to assess, diagnose, and care for patients. Defined as the ability to apply higher-order cognitive skills (conceptualization, analysis, evaluation) and the disposition to be deliberate about thinking (being open-minded or intellectually honest) that lead to action that is logical and appropriate, critical thinking represents a "meta-competency" that transcends other knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors required in health care professions. Despite its importance, the developmental stages of critical thinking have not been delineated for nurses and physicians. As part of a task force of educators who considered different developmental stage theories, the authors have iteratively refined and proposed milestones in critical thinking. The attributes associated with unreflective, beginning, practicing, advanced, accomplished, and challenged critical thinkers are conceived as independent of an individual's level of training. Depending on circumstances and environmental factors, even the most experienced clinician may demonstrate attributes associated with a challenged thinker. The authors use the illustrative case of a patient with abdominal pain to demonstrate how critical thinking may manifest in learners at different stages of development, analyzing how the learner at each stage applies information obtained in the patient interaction to arrive at a differential diagnosis and plan for evaluation. The authors share important considerations and provide this work as a foundation for the development of effective approaches to teaching and promoting critical thinking and to establishing expectations for learners in this essential meta-competency. PMID:24667504
Everett, Susan Ann
In this study the relationships among the topological spatial structures were examined in students in kindergarten, second, and fourth grades. These topological spatial structures are part of the three major types of spatial thinking: topological, projective, and Euclidean (as defined by Jean Piaget and associates). According to Piaget's model of spatial thinking, the spatial structures enable humans to think about spatial relationships at a conceptual or representational level rather than only at a simpler, perceptual level. The clinical interview technique was used to interact individually with 72 children to assess the presence of each of the different topological spatial structures. This was accomplished through the use of seven task protocols and simple objects which are familiar to young children. These task protocols allowed the investigator to interact with each child in a consistent manner. The results showed that most of the children in this study (97.2%) had not developed all of the topological spatial structures. The task scores, were analyzed using non-parametric statistical tests due to the ordinal nature of the data. From the data the following results were obtained: (1) the spatial structures did not develop in random order based on the task scores but developed in the sequence expected from Piaget's model, (2) task performance improved with grade level with fourth grade students outperforming second graders and kindergartners on each of the seven tasks, and (3) no significant differences on task performance due to gender were found. Based on these results, young elementary children are beginning to develop topological spatial thinking. This is critical since it provides the foundation for the other types of spatial thinking, projective and Euclidean. Since spatial thinking is not a "gift" but can be developed, educators need to provide more opportunities for students to increase their level of spatial thinking since it is necessary for conceptual
Park, W.C.; Hausen, D.M.; Hagni, R.D. (eds.)
A conference on applied mineralogy was held and figures were presented under the following headings: methodology (including image analysis); ore genesis; exploration; beneficiations (including precious metals); process mineralogy - low and high temperatures; and medical science applications. Two papers have been abstracted separately.
Noraini Ahmad Shukri
Full Text Available Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process especially those learning the target language at higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009; Odenwald, 2010. As it enables language learners to engage in a more purposeful and self-regulatory in judgment, helping them in their evaluation of the arguments of others and of their own, coming to well-reasoned resolutions to any complex problems and to be able to resolve conflicts encountered in their daily lives. Critical thinking requires them to be actively involved in their own learning process as they attempt to individually understand and apply the information they are exposed to during the classroom interaction (Landsberger, 1999; Tung & Chang, 2009. The many advantageous and feasibility of teaching instruction that incorporates the study of literature in the ESL classroom which suggests that literature texts, if correctly chosen and instructed, can prove to be beneficial to ESL students’ overall level of literacy and critical thinking skills. Numerous empirical researches also asserted that literary texts that are authentic, enjoyable, and motivating would naturally increase both their knowledge of the target language patterns and cultural awareness.Keywords: Critical thinking, ESL classroom, literature, literary text
Loni Kreis Taglieber
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of
La Rocca, Santa; Colombo, Gianluca
This article elaborates on the need for a sub-field of ‘Strategic Thinking’ as the science exploring the hidden side of strategy emergence. The site of our exploration is the discourse. We will investigate the intersystemic link between self-reflection and communication embedded in discourses among strategists for paradigm deconstruction and reconstruction. The rationale for a sub-field of Strategic Thinking is related to applying new research ‘technologies’. By engaging in action-research, r...
GÜRGEN, Elif TEKİN; BİLEN, Sermin
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the main courses of Music Education Department of Fine Arts Education Section in D.E.U Buca Faculty of Education on the creative thinking ability of music teacher candidates. It is also investigated whether there is statistically significant difference between creativity levels and the type of high school education of music educator candidates. This study was carried out by applying Torrance Creative Thinking Test Verbal Form A ...
Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.
The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed
Patrisius Istiarto Djiwandono
Full Text Available Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this areahave begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners’ mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was conducted partly to seek the answers to the issue. A brief training on critical thinking and critical attitude was given to a group of language learners who were studying Business Correspondence. Questionnaires were then used to capture traces of their thinking as they were preparing to accomplish a learning task and while they were listening to their classmates’ presentation of ideas. The data show the change of their thinking process. After the training there is a tendency from the students to ask more critical questions with slightly higher frequencies. It is concluded then that the brief training has prompted their awareness of critical thinking.
Roland, P E; Friberg, L
These experiments were undertaken to demonstrate that pure mental activity, thinking, increases the cerebral blood flow and that different types of thinking increase the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in different cortical areas. As a first approach, thinking was defined as brain work in the...... they started at their front door and then walked alternatively to the left or the right each time they reached a corner. The rCBF increased only in homotypical cortical areas during thinking. The areas in the superior prefrontal cortex increased their rCBF equivalently during the three types of...... thinking. In the remaining parts of the prefrontal cortex there were multifocal increases of rCBF. The localizations and intensities of these rCBF increases depended on the type of internal operation occurring. The rCBF increased bilaterally in the angular cortex during 50-3 thinking. The rCBF increased in...
Gervais-Lambony, Philippe; Dufaux, Frédéric
International audience The notion of spatial justice was developed by Anglo-Saxon radical geographyin the 1970’s. Today it is often used in different contexts, mostly within thefield of urban studies. The central idea in this paper is to demonstrate thata revisited form of the concept of « spatial justice » may be used to promoteinteraction between the very diverse contemporary approaches of geography atevery scale. The theoretical background of political philosophy is presented first,we t...
Andersson, Hans; Hoffmann, Ruben
Changes in EU agricultural policies towards an increased focus on rural development issues raise questions regarding the economic impact of local and regional spatial competition. Farmers are typically price takers in the traditional markets for the major agricultural products. This is, however, not necessarily the case for “new enterprises” active in local and regional markets. This paper examines local/regional spatial competition for farm tourism. A spatial econometrics framework is applie...
Redish, Edward F.
Physics Education Research (PER) applies a scientific approach to the question, "How do our students think about and learn physics?" PER allows us to explore such intellectually engaging questions as "What does it mean to understand something in physics?" and "What skills and competencies do we want our students to learn from our physics classes?" To address questions like these, we need to do more than observe student difficulties and build curricula. We need a theoretical framework—a structure for talking about, making sense of, and modeling how one thinks about, learns, and understands physics. In this paper, I outline some aspects of the Resources Framework, a structure that some of us are using to create a phenomenology of physics learning that ties closely to modern developments in neuroscience, psychology, and linguistics. As an example of how this framework gives new insights, I discuss epistemological framing—the role of students' perceptions of the nature of the knowledge they are learning and what knowledge is appropriate to bring to bear on a given task. I discuss how this foothold idea fits into our theoretical framework, show some classroom data on how it plays out in the classroom, and give some examples of how my awareness of the resources framework influences my approach to teaching.
Ison, R. L.
This chapter offers some grounding in systems thinking and practice for doing action research. There are different traditions within systems thinking and practice which, if appreciated, can become part of the repertoire for practice by action researchers. After exploring some of these lineages the differences between systemic and systematic thinking and practice are elucidated – these are the two adjectives that come from the word 'system', but they describe quite different understandings and...
Two main approaches in the conceptualization of critical thinking, logical and epistemological, are presented and analyzed in this paper. The review of logical approach begins with defining its general framework (relationship between critical thinking and informal logic) and afterwards we analyze abilities and skills which are seen as basic constituents of critical thinking. In the review of epistemological approach we analyze four conceptions that present the main directions in criticizing l...
Aiken, John M.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Douglas, Scott S.; Burk, John B.; Scanlon, Erin M.; Thoms, Brian D.; Schatz, Michael F.
Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". 9th Grade students taking a physics course that employed the Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced an...
Mehrdad Rezaee; Majid Farahian; Ali Morad Ahmadi
Success in adult life and effective functioning in education depends among other things on critical thinking. The present study consisted of two parts. First, critical thinking (CT) skill of a group of 68 students majoring in education in Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch was evaluated. The participants, divided into two experimental and control groups, received California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) which is a 34 item Multiple-Choice test. The students in the control group...
Hang, Wing-sum; 幸穎沁
The present study examines the relations between questioning and critical thinking in Liberal Studies. In particular, it introduces the use of Questioning Cycle to investigate the effectiveness of questioning in cultivating students’ critical thinking skills and dispositions. By identifying difficulties and constrains in teaching critical thinking, it is hope to offer insights to improving questioning skills, in hope of developing questioning as an effective teaching strategy in Liberal Studi...
Patrisius Istiarto Djiwandono
Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this areahave begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners’ mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was conducted partly to seek the answers to the issue. A brief training on critical thinking and critical attitude was given to a group of language learners ...
Computational thinking is a paradigm of solving problems, designing systems and understanding human behavior by drawing on the fundamental concepts of computer science. The foundation for computational thinking is abstraction - abstracting concepts from cases and evaluating and selecting the appropriate abstraction. Computational thinking has already influenced a research in many science and engineering disciplines. In education, it is part of mathematics, biology, chemistry, economics, finan...
Duygu PİJİ KÜÇÜK; Yusuf Barış UZUN
In this study, determining critical thinking and education levels, which are in sub-dimensions, of music teacher candidates, determining critical thinking tendency and the relations between sub dimensions and detecting if or if not critical thinking tendency creates a difference in terms of gender, class and what type of school they graduated from are aimed. Work group composes of 274 students being educated in the Departments of Music Education GSEB of Education Faculty of Bolu Abant İzzet B...
Barrouillet, Pierre Noël; Gauffroy, Caroline
Thinking and reasoning are key activities for human beings. In this book a distinguished set of contributors provides a wide readership with up-to-date scientific advances in the developmental psychology of thinking and reasoning, both at the theoretical and empirical levels. The first part of the book illustrates how modern approaches to the study of thinking and reasoning have gone beyond the Piagetian legacy: through the investigation of avenues previously not explored, and by demonstratin...
The relationship between thinking styles and personality types is investigated within the contexts of Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and Holland's theory of personality types. A total of 600 university students from Hong Kong responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) and the Short-version Self-directed Search (SVSDS) that was specially designed for the present study. A major finding of this study is that thinking styles and personality types overlap to a degree. A seconda...
Gershenson, Carlos; Heylighen, Francis
In this chapter we want to provide philosophical tools for understanding and reasoning about complex systems. Classical thinking, which is taught at most schools and universities, has several problems for coping with complexity. We review classical thinking and its drawbacks when dealing with complexity, for then presenting ways of thinking which allow the better understanding of complex systems. Examples illustrate the ideas presented. This chapter does not deal with specific tools and techn...
Brylina Irina V.; Turchevskaya Bella K.; Bogoryad Nataliya V.; Brylin Vladimir I.; Chaplinskaya Yana I.
The article deals with higher education issues related to the formation of students’ intellectual work skills. The research objective of the paper was to consider critical thinking as a cognitive technology in education. In this regard, the didactic and structural approaches to the study of critical thinking do not contradict one another: each approach is a logical complement of the other and reveals certain aspects of the complex concept of critical thinking, giving emphasis to the argument,...
Whole-life thinking for engineers working on the built environment has become more important in a fast changing world.Engineers are increasingly concerned with complex systems, in which the parts interact with each other and with the outside world in many ways – the relationships between the parts determine how the system behaves. Systems thinking provides one approach to developing a more robust whole life approach. Systems thinking is a process of understanding how things influence one anot...
Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun
wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are descri...
Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines. For all the great works, critical thinking plays an important role, critical thinking is a process of consideration and understanding of the known problem and the information receiver will consider and evaluate the problem in new ways. As a teacher, there is an important task that is foster the ability of“critical thinking”, we must always willing and ready to accept the students’ doubts and always cultivate their critical thinking abilities. We also need to doubt, correct and improve ourselves;this is a very good way to enhance our teaching.
Nielsen, Janni; Yssing , Carsten
Thinking Aloud Thinking Aloud is the most commonly used technique used to test users´ interaction with computers. The assumption is that Think Aloud gives access to what goes on in the users´ minds. However, interfaces are multi modal and play heavily on user´s visual perception. Reflecting upon Think Aloud (TA), we ask the question: what happens when users are required to verbalise their visual perceptions and interactions? We argue that TA may have a disruptive effect, suggesting that other...
Full Text Available According to the increasing awareness of the importance, advantagesand feasibility of representing/visualizing spatial relations and spatial content through corresponding cartography –maps are becoming increasingly more frequent and elaborate when one needs to represent some aspect of reality from various standpoints: economical, natural scientific or politological. Some contents practically impose the need for applied cartography which is especially true of international-political, military, geopolitical and transport issues. Therefore, mass communication media have been increasingly accepting and adopting specific cartography as significant content which successfully compete with the importance of the text itself – this is the case everywhere, including in Croatia. The French geographical-political-cartographic school is the model and exceptional accomplishment. It also has predecessors in the German/Nazi geopolitical school from the first half of the 20th century.
Lowi-Young, Mimi; DuBois-Wing, Gwen
Amol Verma and Sacha Bhatia's (2016) paper presents policy recommendations that merit serious consideration on a system-wide level. While they make compelling arguments about why provincial governments are ideally suited to adapt Triple Aim innovation, we are concerned that the current health system climate limits this possibility. In our commentary, we present our thoughts about the authors' admittedly aspirational goals and the realities of the pan-Canadian healthcare system. We commence our commentary by confirming our agreement about the potential inherent within the Triple Aim framework. Second, we argue how important progress can take place that may not reflect a provincial-wide system. Next, we maintain that a learning health system is an essential ingredient to advancing Triple Aim and other health system-wide improvements. Third, we wonder whether the stewardship role of government is real and possible. Finally, we question the concept of our current health system's readiness for system change. While we have raised some questions about Verma and Bhatia's thinking around provincial adoption of the Triple Aim, we applaud their ideas. We believe that transformation in provincial health systems requires bold thinking. PMID:27009585
Aizikovitsh-Udi, Einav; Clarke, David; Kuntze, Sebastian
Even though statistical thinking and critical thinking appear to have strong links from a theoretical point of view, empirical research into the intersections and potential interrelatedness of these aspects of competence is scarce. Our research suggests that thinking skills in both areas may be interdependent. Given this interconnection, it should be possible to stimulate both forms of thinking through the one task. This paper explores the implications of an exploratory qualitative study into...
Gong, Yunlong; Boelhouwer, Peter; Haan, Jan
"Spatial thinking" is increasingly popular in housing market studies and spatial dependence across properties has been widely investigated in the intra-city housing market. The contribution of this paper is to study the spatial dependence and spillover effect of house prices from an interurban perspective, referring to the spatial interaction across local housing markets. The extensive literature study concludes that following behavior, migration and equity transfer and spatial arbitrage of c...
S. Chee Choy
Full Text Available The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to show a link between reflective thinking and its ability to stimulate critical thinking. Teachers often perceive that critical thinking skills need to be taught, however research has shown that they may not know how to do this effectively. The use of reflective thinking may be a precursor to stimulating critical thinking in teachers. The research questions are on the reflective thinking skills of teachers and how they perceive themselves and their teaching. In this study a total of 60 participants from institutions of higher learning volunteered to answer a questionnaire to determine the level at which they reflected on their teaching practices as an indicator of their level of critical thinking. It was found that most of the teachers did not reflect deeply on their teaching practices. They did not seem to practice the four learning processes: assumption analysis, contextual awareness, imaginative speculation and reflective scepticism which were indicative of reflection. It would suggest that critical thinking is practised minimally among teachers. Further research need to be carried out on how to bring about reflective practices among teachers and how it would enhance the quality of lessons in terms of critical thinking.
Choy, S. Chee; Oo, Pou San
The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to…
Rosen, Yigal; Tager, Maryam
Major educational initiatives in the world place great emphasis on fostering rich computer-based environments of assessment that make student thinking and reasoning visible. Using thinking tools engages students in a variety of critical and complex thinking, such as evaluating, analyzing, and decision making. The aim of this study was to explore…
Aizikovitsh-Udi, Einav; Clarke, David; Kuntze, Sebastian
Even though statistical thinking and critical thinking appear to have strong links from a theoretical point of view, empirical research into the intersections and potential interrelatedness of these aspects of competence is scarce. Our research suggests that thinking skills in both areas may be interdependent. Given this interconnection, it should…
Berland, Matthew; Duncan, Sean
Surprisingly few empirical studies address how computational thinking works "in the wild" or how games and simulations can support developing computational thinking skills. In this article, the authors report results from a study of computational thinking (CT) as evinced through player discussions around the collaborative board game…
Coleman, B. Jay; Mason, Paul; Steagall, Jeffrey W.
We investigate whether a business curriculum develops critical thinking ability or at least serves as a filter for critical thinking (i.e., students who cannot think critically tend not to progress toward graduation). We measure critical thinking by performance on the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Short Form which was administered to a…
This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc
The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed
Darrell Norman Burrell
Full Text Available Evolving international management challenges like succession planning as members “baby boomer” generation retire, avoiding marketing myopia in the auto industry, managing employee generational conflict, valuing cultural diversity, and developing adaptive strategy have made decision making for international professionals more perplexing and almost overwhelming. Even with the best strategic planning there is likelihood to mishandle a crisis or leadership strategy decision. How does an international manager make the correct leaders decisions when the unexpected occurs, existing plans are insufficient, and important organizational core values and goals are threatened? The development of critical thinking skills in today’s professionals has never been more vital. The engagement in managerial critical thinking is about learning to apply both experience-based, team based, and formal problem solving methods to situations. It is essential to develop a keen ability to overcome and become self aware of biases, false assumptions, myths, and faulty paradigms that can hamper effective decision making.
Chang, Yulin; Li, Bei-Di; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chiu, Fa-Chung
The relationship lying between critical thinking and creative thinking is opposite or complementary, results of previous relevant researches have not yet concluded. However, most of researches put the effort to compare the respective effect of the thinking methods, either the teaching of creative thinking or that of critical thinking. Less of them…
Alfred, Richard L.
Strategic thinking is an organized, analytical process by which college leaders can assess: (1) existing and potential competitors; (2) sources of competitive advantage; and (3) college capabilities and competitive position. Three outcomes of strategic thinking are: (1) clear institutional strategy and direction; (2) improved institutional…
Gendrop, S C; Eisenhauer, L A
The quality of thinking has received much attention within the last decade. The scientific inquiry models introduced by Dewey, Dressel and Mayhew, and Watson-Glaser have been expanded to incorporate such aspects as reflection, development, attitude, skill, and knowledge domain. Dichotomies between critical and creative thinking have been eased. While this scholarship on thinking has been impressive, current pedagogy remains focused on scientific inquiry and on received knowledge. In nursing the learning paradigm has been similarly focused for the past 3 decades on a scientific inquiry model and received knowledge. The major cognitive approach to education and practice has been the nursing process, a linear problem-solving paradigm equivalent to the scientific method. This linear approach does not fully account for how nurses think and make judgments in clinical practice. The Transactional Model of Critical Thinking presented in this paper addresses the complexity of critical thinking in nursing. The model provides an educative and novel vision of thinking based on a transactional view of the individual, personal attributes, and the environment. Components and elements of the model are described and suggestions made for teaching-learning and for evaluation of critical thinking in nursing. PMID:9197159
Mokaram, Al-Ali Khaled; Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Fong, Fook Soon; Abdallah, Andaleeb Ahmad
During the shifting of teaching and learning methods using computer technologies, much emphasis was paid on the knowledge content more than the thinking skills. Thus, this study investigated the effects of a computer application, namely, designing electronic slides on the development of creative thinking skills of a sample of undergraduate…
Fahim, Mansoor; Eslamdoost, Samaneh
Developing critical thinking since the educational revolution gave rise to flourishing movements toward embedding critical thinking (CT henceforth) stimulating classroom activities in educational settings. Nevertheless the process faced with complications such as teachability potentiality, lack of practical frameworks concerning actualization of…
Hager, Paul; Sleet, Ray; Logan, Peter; Hooper, Mal
Explains the design and evaluation of a project aimed at fostering the critical thinking abilities and dispositions of first year students at an Australian university. Most of the tasks relate to applications of chemistry and physics in everyday life. Many students revealed that their thinking skills were enhanced by their experience in attempting…
Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry
Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…
Emerson, Marnice K.
In an age in which information is available almost instantly and in quantities unimagined just a few decades ago, most educators would agree that teaching adult learners to think critically about what they are reading, seeing, and hearing has never been more important. But just what is critical thinking? Do adult learners agree with educators that…
Basawapatna, Ashok Ram
Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction.…
Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa
This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…
Reid, Joanne R.; Anderson, Phyllis R.
A minicourse in critical thinking was implemented to improve student outcomes in two sessions of a senior-level business course at a Midwestern university. Statistical analyses of two quantitative assessments revealed significant improvements in critical thinking skills. Improvements in student outcomes in case studies and computerized business…
Critical thinking is often a desired outcome in an introductory astronomy course, but it is often poorly defined. The model developed by Linda Elder and Richard Paul provides an internally consistent framework for both defining and implementing critical thinking. This article provides suggestions for using it in a typical introductory astronomy course.
Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David
This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…
Sanford, John F.; Naidu, Jaideep T.
Early education has classically introduced reading, writing, and mathematics. Recent literature discusses the importance of adding "computational thinking" as a core ability that every child must learn. The goal is to develop students by making them equally comfortable with computational thinking as they are with other core areas of…
Zahra, S.A.; Nambisan, S.
Success in business ecosystems that include well-established companies and new ventures requires collaboration and competition, a task that demands strategic thinking to leverage a firm's resources and capabilities. Strategic thinking and the entrepreneurial activities in an ecosystem influence one
Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle
For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…