WorldWideScience

Sample records for applying multi-arm multi-stage

  1. Determining quantitative road safety targets by applying statistical prediction techniques and a multi-stage adjustment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, P; Sever, K; Knoth, S; Sahin, N; Bondarenko, J

    2013-01-01

    Due to substantial progress made in road safety in the last ten years, the European Union (EU) renewed the ambitious agreement of halving the number of persons killed on the roads within the next decade. In this paper we develop a method that aims at finding an optimal target for each nation, in terms of being as achievable as possible, and with the cumulative EU target being reached. Targets as an important component in road safety policy are given as reduction rate or as absolute number of road traffic deaths. Determination of these quantitative road safety targets (QRST) is done by a top-down approach, formalized in a multi-stage adjustment procedure. Different QRST are derived under consideration of recent research. The paper presents a method to break the national target further down to regional targets in case of the German Federal States. Generalized linear models are fitted to data in the period 1991-2010. Our model selection procedure chooses various models for the EU and solely log-linear models for the German Federal States. If the proposed targets for the EU Member States are attained, the sum of fatalities should not exceed the total value of 15,465 per year by 2020. Both, the mean level and the range of mortality rates within the EU could be lowered from 28-113 in 2010 to 17-41 per million inhabitants in 2020. This study provides an alternative to the determination of safety targets by political commitments only, taking the history of road fatalities trends and population into consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interconnected Levels of Multi-Stage Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. The results from the case study indicate that multi-stage marketing exists on different levels. Thus, managers...... must not only decide in general on the merits of multi-stage marketing for their firm, but must also decide on which level they will engage in multi-stage marketing. The triadic perspective enables a rich and multi-dimensional understanding of how different business relationships influence each other...... in a multi-stage marketing context. This understanding assists managers in assessing and balancing different aspects of multi- stage marketing. The triadic perspective also offers avenues for further research....

  3. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    OpenAIRE

    I. Brezina; Z. Čičková; J. Pekár; M. Reiff

    2010-01-01

    The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algor...

  4. Experiments for Multi-Stage Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Multi-stage processes are very common in both process and manufacturing industries. In this article we present a methodology for designing experiments for multi-stage processes. Typically in these situations the design is expected to involve many factors from different stages. To minimize...... the required number of experimental runs, we suggest using mirror image pairs of experiments at each stage following the first. As the design criterion, we consider their projectivity and mainly focus on projectivity 3 designs. We provide the methodology for generating these designs for processes with any...

  5. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Brezina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algorithms for transportation problem etc. and heuristics approaches (e.g. evolutionary techniques were developed. This article considers Multi-stage transportation problem with capacity limit that reflects limits of transported materials (commodity quantity. Discussed issues are: theoretical base, problem formulation as way as new proposed algorithm for that problem.

  6. Interconnected levels of multi-stage marketing: A triadic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. ...

  7. Multi-stage wake-field accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Wei.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multi-stage wake field acceleration scheme to overcome the low transformer ratio problem and still provide high accelerating gradients. The idea is very simple. We use a train of several electron bunches from a linear accelerator (main linac) with well defined separations between the bunches (tens of ns) to drive wake field devices. Here we have made the assumption that the wake field devices are available, whether plasma, iris-loaded metallic or dielectric wake field structures. 10 refs

  8. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P

    2015-05-13

    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems.

  9. A multi-stage stochastic transmission expansion planning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Tohid; Rahimikian, Ashkan; Kazemi, Ahad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We model a multi-stage stochastic transmission expansion planning problem. → We include available transfer capability (ATC) in our model. → Involving this criterion will increase the ATC between source and sink points. → Power system reliability will be increased and more money can be saved. - Abstract: This paper presents a multi-stage stochastic model for short-term transmission expansion planning considering the available transfer capability (ATC). The ATC can have a huge impact on the power market outcomes and the power system reliability. The transmission expansion planning (TEP) studies deal with many uncertainties, such as system load uncertainties that are considered in this paper. The Monte Carlo simulation method has been applied for generating different scenarios. A scenario reduction technique is used for reducing the number of scenarios. The objective is to minimize the sum of investment costs (IC) and the expected operation costs (OC). The solution technique is based on the benders decomposition algorithm. The N-1 contingency analysis is also done for the TEP problem. The proposed model is applied to the IEEE 24 bus reliability test system and the results are efficient and promising.

  10. Contextual Multi-armed Bandits under Feature Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Seyoung [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nam, Jun Hyun [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Sangwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-03

    We study contextual multi-armed bandit problems under linear realizability on rewards and uncertainty (or noise) on features. For the case of identical noise on features across actions, we propose an algorithm, coined NLinRel, having O(T⁷/₈(log(dT)+K√d)) regret bound for T rounds, K actions, and d-dimensional feature vectors. Next, for the case of non-identical noise, we observe that popular linear hypotheses including NLinRel are impossible to achieve such sub-linear regret. Instead, under assumption of Gaussian feature vectors, we prove that a greedy algorithm has O(T²/₃√log d)regret bound with respect to the optimal linear hypothesis. Utilizing our theoretical understanding on the Gaussian case, we also design a practical variant of NLinRel, coined Universal-NLinRel, for arbitrary feature distributions. It first runs NLinRel for finding the ‘true’ coefficient vector using feature uncertainties and then adjust it to minimize its regret using the statistical feature information. We justify the performance of Universal-NLinRel on both synthetic and real-world datasets.

  11. A Multi-Armed Bandit Approach to Following a Markov Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Introduction to online convex optimization ,” Foundations and Trends in Optimization , vol. 2, no. 3-4, pp. 157–325, 2016. [3] A. Mahajan and D. Teneketzis...stochastic optimization , machine learning, discrete time Markov chains, stochastic Multi-Armed Bandit, combinatorial Multi-Armed Bandit, online learning, and...fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN OPERATIONS RESEARCH from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2017 Approved by: Roberto

  12. Influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time for multi-stage production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, Alexander; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Altendorfer, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    In this paper the influence of different dispatching rules on the average production lead time is investigated. Two theorems based on covariance between processing time and production lead time are formulated and proved theoretically. Theorem 1 links the average production lead time to the "processing time weighted production lead time" for the multi-stage production systems analytically. The influence of different dispatching rules on average lead time, which is well known from simulation and empirical studies, can be proved theoretically in Theorem 2 for a single stage production system. A simulation study is conducted to gain more insight into the influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time in a multi-stage production system. We find that the "processing time weighted average production lead time" for a multi-stage production system is not invariant of the applied dispatching rule and can be used as a dispatching rule independent indicator for single-stage production systems.

  13. Mode Theory of Multi-Armed Spiral Antennas and Its Application to Electronic Warfare Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radway, Matthew J.

    Since their invention about 55 years ago, spiral antennas have earned a reputation for providing stable impedance and far-field patterns over multi-decade frequency ranges. For the first few decades these antennas were researched for electronic warfare receiving applications, primarily in the 2-18 GHz range. This research was often done under conditions of secrecy, and often by private contractors who did not readily share their research, and now have been defunct for decades. Even so, the body of literature on the two-armed variant of these antennas is rich, often leading non-specialists to the misconception that these antennas are completely understood. Furthermore, early work was highly experimental in nature, and was conducted before modern data collection and postprocessing capabilities were widespread, which limited the range of the studies. Recent research efforts have focused on extending the application of spirals into new areas, as well as applying exotic materials to `improve' their performance and reduce their size. While interesting results have been obtained, in most instances these were incomplete, often compromising the frequency independent nature of these antennas. This thesis expands the role of the multi-armed spiral outside of its traditional niche of receive-only monopulse direction finding. As a first step, careful study of the spiral-antenna mode theory is undertaken with particular attention paid to the concepts of mode filtering and modal decomposition. A technique for reducing the modal impedance of high arm-count spirals is introduced. The insights gained through this theoretical study are first used to improve the far-field performance of the coiled-arm spiral antenna. Specifically, expanding the number of arms on a coiled arm spiral from two to four while providing proper excitation enables dramatically improved broadside axial ratio and azimuthal pattern uniformity. The multiarming technique is then applied to the design of an antenna

  14. Multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Eugen; Raney, Michael Raymond

    2004-07-06

    A multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump for a vehicle includes a housing having an inlet and an outlet and a motor disposed in the housing. The multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump also includes a shaft extending axially and disposed in the housing. The multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump further includes a plurality of pumping modules disposed axially along the shaft. One of the pumping modules is a turbine pumping module and another of the pumping modules is a gerotor pumping module for rotation by the motor to pump fuel from the inlet to the outlet.

  15. Risk-aware multi-armed bandit problem with application to portfolio selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xiaoguang; Fu, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Sequential portfolio selection has attracted increasing interest in the machine learning and quantitative finance communities in recent years. As a mathematical framework for reinforcement learning policies, the stochastic multi-armed bandit problem addresses the primary difficulty in sequential decision-making under uncertainty, namely the exploration versus exploitation dilemma, and therefore provides a natural connection to portfolio selection. In this paper, we incorporate risk awareness into the classic multi-armed bandit setting and introduce an algorithm to construct portfolio. Through filtering assets based on the topological structure of the financial market and combining the optimal multi-armed bandit policy with the minimization of a coherent risk measure, we achieve a balance between risk and return.

  16. Multi-arm group sequential designs with a simultaneous stopping rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urach, S; Posch, M

    2016-12-30

    Multi-arm group sequential clinical trials are efficient designs to compare multiple treatments to a control. They allow one to test for treatment effects already in interim analyses and can have a lower average sample number than fixed sample designs. Their operating characteristics depend on the stopping rule: We consider simultaneous stopping, where the whole trial is stopped as soon as for any of the arms the null hypothesis of no treatment effect can be rejected, and separate stopping, where only recruitment to arms for which a significant treatment effect could be demonstrated is stopped, but the other arms are continued. For both stopping rules, the family-wise error rate can be controlled by the closed testing procedure applied to group sequential tests of intersection and elementary hypotheses. The group sequential boundaries for the separate stopping rule also control the family-wise error rate if the simultaneous stopping rule is applied. However, we show that for the simultaneous stopping rule, one can apply improved, less conservative stopping boundaries for local tests of elementary hypotheses. We derive corresponding improved Pocock and O'Brien type boundaries as well as optimized boundaries to maximize the power or average sample number and investigate the operating characteristics and small sample properties of the resulting designs. To control the power to reject at least one null hypothesis, the simultaneous stopping rule requires a lower average sample number than the separate stopping rule. This comes at the cost of a lower power to reject all null hypotheses. Some of this loss in power can be regained by applying the improved stopping boundaries for the simultaneous stopping rule. The procedures are illustrated with clinical trials in systemic sclerosis and narcolepsy. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals in spatial rock–paper–scissors games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Ni, Xuan

    2012-01-01

    We study the formation of multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals in spatial rock–paper–scissors games with mobile individuals. We discover a set of seed distributions of species, which is able to produce multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals with a finite number of arms and pairs based on stochastic processes. The joint spiral waves are also predicted by a theoretical model based on partial differential equations associated with specific initial conditions. The spatial entropy of patterns is introduced to differentiate the multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals. For the given mobility, the spatial entropy of multi-armed spirals is higher than that of single armed spirals. The stability of the waves is explored with respect to individual mobility. Particularly, we find that both two armed spirals and one pair antispirals transform to the single armed spirals. Furthermore, multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals are relatively stable for intermediate mobility. The joint spirals with lower numbers of arms and pairs are relatively more stable than those with higher numbers of arms and pairs. In addition, comparing to large amount of previous work, we employ the no flux boundary conditions which enables quantitative studies of pattern formation and stability in the system of stochastic interactions in the absence of excitable media. -- Highlights: ► Multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals are observed. ► Patterns are predicted by computer simulations and partial differential equations. ► The spatial entropy of patterns is introduced. ► Patterns are relatively stable for intermediate mobility. ► The joint spirals with lower numbers of arms and pairs are relatively more stable.

  18. Multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals in spatial rock–paper–scissors games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo, E-mail: jiangluoluo@gmail.com [College of Physics and Electronic Information Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wang, Wen-Xu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Lai, Ying-Cheng [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Ni, Xuan [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2012-07-09

    We study the formation of multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals in spatial rock–paper–scissors games with mobile individuals. We discover a set of seed distributions of species, which is able to produce multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals with a finite number of arms and pairs based on stochastic processes. The joint spiral waves are also predicted by a theoretical model based on partial differential equations associated with specific initial conditions. The spatial entropy of patterns is introduced to differentiate the multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals. For the given mobility, the spatial entropy of multi-armed spirals is higher than that of single armed spirals. The stability of the waves is explored with respect to individual mobility. Particularly, we find that both two armed spirals and one pair antispirals transform to the single armed spirals. Furthermore, multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals are relatively stable for intermediate mobility. The joint spirals with lower numbers of arms and pairs are relatively more stable than those with higher numbers of arms and pairs. In addition, comparing to large amount of previous work, we employ the no flux boundary conditions which enables quantitative studies of pattern formation and stability in the system of stochastic interactions in the absence of excitable media. -- Highlights: ► Multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals are observed. ► Patterns are predicted by computer simulations and partial differential equations. ► The spatial entropy of patterns is introduced. ► Patterns are relatively stable for intermediate mobility. ► The joint spirals with lower numbers of arms and pairs are relatively more stable.

  19. Mechanical and mathematical models of multi-stage horizontal fracturing strings and their application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanghua Lian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, open differential-pressure sliding sleeve, and open ball-injection sliding sleeve under a hold-down packer. Moreover, mathematical models were respectively built for the above three cases. According to the Lame formula and Von Mises stress calculation formula for the thick-walled cylinder in the theory of elastic mechanics, a mathematical model was also established to calculate the equivalent stress for tubing string safety evaluation when the fracturing string was under the combined action of inner pressure, external squeezing force and axial stress, and another mathematical model was built for the mechanical strength and safety evaluation of multi-stage fracturing strings. In addition, a practical software was developed for the mechanical safety evaluation of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing strings according to the mathematical model developed for the mechanical calculation of the multi-packer string in horizontal wells. The research results were applied and verified in a gas well of Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin with excellent effects, providing a theoretical basis and a simple and reliable technical means for optimal design and safety evaluation of safe operational parameters of multi-stage fracturing strings in horizontal wells.

  20. Fenomena Kerak Dalam Desalinasi Dengan Multi Stage Flash Distillation (Msf)

    OpenAIRE

    Alimah, Siti

    2006-01-01

    SCALING PHENOMENA IN DESALINATION WITH MULTI STAGE FLASH DISTILLATION (MSF). Assessment of scaling phenomena in MSF desalination has been carried out. Scale is one of predominantly problem in multi stage flash (MSF) desalination installation. The main types of scale in MSF are carbonat calcium (CaC03), hydroxide magnesium (Mg(OH)2) dan sulphate calcium (CaS04). CaC03 dan Mg(OH)2 scales result from the thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ion, however sulphate calcium scale result from reactio...

  1. Mortgage Loan Portfolio Optimization Using Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of the Danish mortgage loan system and propose several models to reflect the choices of a mortgagor as well as his attitude towards risk. The models are formulated as multi stage stochastic integer programs, which are difficult to solve for more than 10 stages. Scenario...

  2. Demand management in Multi-Stage Distribution Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, T.; Janssen, F.B.S.L.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss demand management problems in a multi-stage distribution chain.We focus on distribution chains where demand processes have high variability due to a few large customer orders.We give a possible explanation, and suggest two simple procedures that help to smooth demand.It is

  3. Information Overload in Multi-Stage Selection Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Ficco (Stefano); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies information processing imperfections in a fully rational decision-making network. It is shown that imperfect information transmission and imperfect information acquisition in a multi-stage selection game yield information overload. The paper analyses the mechanisms

  4. Analysis of multi-stage open shop processing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, C.E.J.; Schrijver, A.; Woeginger, G.J.; Schwentick, T.; Dürr, C.

    2011-01-01

    We study algorithmic problems in multi-stage open shop processing systems that are centered around reachability and deadlock detection questions. We characterize safe and unsafe system states. We show that it is easy to recognize system states that can be reached from the initial state (where the

  5. Aerodynamic Analysis and Three-Dimensional Redesign of a Multi-Stage Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ning

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the introduction of three-dimension (3-D blade designs into a 5-stage axial compressor with multi-stage computational fluid dynamic (CFD methods. Prior to a redesign, a validation study is conducted for the overall performance and flow details based on full-scale test data, proving that the multi-stage CFD applied is a relatively reliable tool for the analysis of the follow-up redesign. Furthermore, at the near stall point, the aerodynamic analysis demonstrates that significant separation exists in the last stator, leading to the aerodynamic redesign, which is the focus of the last stator. Multi-stage CFD methods are applied throughout the three-dimensional redesign process for the last stator to explore their aerodynamic improvement potential. An unconventional asymmetric bow configuration incorporated with leading edge re-camber and re-solidity is employed to reduce the high loss region dominated by the mainstream. The final redesigned version produces a 13% increase in the stall margin while maintaining the efficiency at the design point.

  6. Time stamp technique using a nuclear emulsion multi-stage shifter for gamma-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki; Rokujo, Hiroki; Hamada, Kaname; Komatsu, Masahiro; Morishima, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Niwa, Kimio; Sato, Osamu; Yoshioka, Teppei; Kodama, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion has a potential use as a gamma-ray telescope with high angular resolution. For this application it is necessary to know the time when each track was recorded in the emulsion. In previous experiments using nuclear emulsion, various efforts were used to associate time to nuclear emulsion tracks and to improve the time resolution. Using a high speed readout system for nuclear emulsion together with a clock-based multi-stage emulsion shifter, we invented a technique to give a time-stamp to emulsion tracks and greatly improve the time resolution. A test experiment with a 2-stage shifter was used to demonstrate the principle of multi-stage shifting, and we achieved a time resolution 1.5 s for 12.1 h (about 1 part in 29 000) with the time stamp reliability 97% and the time stamp efficiency 98%. This multi-stage shifter can achieve the time resolution required for a gamma-ray telescope and can also be applied to another cosmic ray observations and accelerator experiments using nuclear emulsion.

  7. Health condition identification of multi-stage planetary gearboxes using a mRVM-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yaguo; Liu, Zongyao; Wu, Xionghui; Li, Naipeng; Chen, Wu; Lin, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Multi-stage planetary gearboxes are widely applied in aerospace, automotive and heavy industries. Their key components, such as gears and bearings, can easily suffer from damage due to tough working environment. Health condition identification of planetary gearboxes aims to prevent accidents and save costs. This paper proposes a method based on multiclass relevance vector machine (mRVM) to identify health condition of multi-stage planetary gearboxes. In this method, a mRVM algorithm is adopted as a classifier, and two features, i.e. accumulative amplitudes of carrier orders (AACO) and energy ratio based on difference spectra (ERDS), are used as the input of the classifier to classify different health conditions of multi-stage planetary gearboxes. To test the proposed method, seven health conditions of a two-stage planetary gearbox are considered and vibration data is acquired from the planetary gearbox under different motor speeds and loading conditions. The results of three tests based on different data show that the proposed method obtains an improved identification performance and robustness compared with the existing method.

  8. Multi-stage decoding of multi-level modulation codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Various types of multi-stage decoding for multi-level modulation codes are investigated. It is shown that if the component codes of a multi-level modulation code and types of decoding at various stages are chosen properly, high spectral efficiency and large coding gain can be achieved with reduced decoding complexity. Particularly, it is shown that the difference in performance between the suboptimum multi-stage soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding of a modulation code and the single-stage optimum soft-decision decoding of the code is very small, only a fraction of dB loss in signal to noise ratio at a bit error rate (BER) of 10(exp -6).

  9. Performance prediction method for a multi-stage Knudsen pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugimoto, K.; Hirota, Y.; Kizaki, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Niimi, T.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the novel method to predict the performance of a multi-stage Knudsen pump is proposed. The performance prediction method is carried out in two steps numerically with the assistance of a simple experimental result. In the first step, the performance of a single-stage Knudsen pump was measured experimentally under various pressure conditions, and the relationship of the mass flow rate was obtained with respect to the average pressure between the inlet and outlet of the pump and the pressure difference between them. In the second step, the performance of a multi-stage pump was analyzed by a one-dimensional model derived from the mass conservation law. The performances predicted by the 1D-model of 1-stage, 2-stage, 3-stage, and 4-stage pumps were validated by the experimental results for the corresponding number of stages. It was concluded that the proposed prediction method works properly.

  10. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  11. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  12. Accuracy of transferring microparts in a multi stage former

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arentoft, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Many fasteners used in electromechanical systems are micro metal parts which should be manufactured with high accuracy and reliability and in large quantities. Micro forming is promising to fulfill these demands. This research focuses on investigating a gripping unit in a multi stage former......, as the positioning unit was discussed earlier. The parameters which play important roles in the gripping unit will be discussed and the precision and reproducibility evaluated to show the performance of the unit. This includes two different tests. The first test will show how accurately the unit can locate the parts...

  13. Broadband and stable acoustic vortex emitter with multi-arm coiling slits

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Xue

    2016-05-16

    We present the analytical design and experimental realization of a scheme based on multi-arm coiling slits to generate the stable acoustic vortices in a broadband. The proposed structure is able to spiral the acoustic wave spatially and generate the twisted acoustic vortices with invariant topological charge for a long propagation distance. Compared with conventional methods which require the electronic control of a bulky loudspeaker, this scheme provides an effective and compact solution to generate acoustic vortices with controllable topological charge in the broadband, which offers more initiatives in the demanding applications.

  14. Broadband and stable acoustic vortex emitter with multi-arm coiling slits

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jiajun; Liu, Shi-lei; Liang, Bin; Zou, Xin-ye; Yang, Jing; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2016-01-01

    We present the analytical design and experimental realization of a scheme based on multi-arm coiling slits to generate the stable acoustic vortices in a broadband. The proposed structure is able to spiral the acoustic wave spatially and generate the twisted acoustic vortices with invariant topological charge for a long propagation distance. Compared with conventional methods which require the electronic control of a bulky loudspeaker, this scheme provides an effective and compact solution to generate acoustic vortices with controllable topological charge in the broadband, which offers more initiatives in the demanding applications.

  15. Multi-stage fuzzy load frequency control using PSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Jalili, A.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based multi-stage fuzzy (PSOMSF) controller is proposed for solution of the load frequency control (LFC) problem in a restructured power system that operate under deregulation based on the bilateral policy scheme. In this strategy the control is tuned on line from the knowledge base and fuzzy inference, which request fewer sources and has two rule base sets. In the proposed method, for achieving the desired level of robust performance, exact tuning of membership functions is very important. Thus, to reduce the design effort and find a better fuzzy system control, membership functions are designed automatically by PSO algorithm, that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. The motivation for using the PSO technique is to reduce fuzzy system effort and take large parametric uncertainties into account. This newly developed control strategy combines the advantage of PSO and fuzzy system control techniques and leads to a flexible controller with simple stricture that is easy to implement. The proposed PSO based MSF (PSOMSF) controller is tested on a three-area restructured power system under different operating conditions and contract variations. The results of the proposed PSOMSF controller are compared with genetic algorithm based multi-stage fuzzy (GAMSF) control through some performance indices to illustrate its robust performance for a wide range of system parameters and load changes

  16. Multi-stage fuzzy load frequency control using PSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayeghi, H. [Technical Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran); Jalili, A. [Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch, Ardabil (Iran); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-10-15

    In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based multi-stage fuzzy (PSOMSF) controller is proposed for solution of the load frequency control (LFC) problem in a restructured power system that operate under deregulation based on the bilateral policy scheme. In this strategy the control is tuned on line from the knowledge base and fuzzy inference, which request fewer sources and has two rule base sets. In the proposed method, for achieving the desired level of robust performance, exact tuning of membership functions is very important. Thus, to reduce the design effort and find a better fuzzy system control, membership functions are designed automatically by PSO algorithm, that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. The motivation for using the PSO technique is to reduce fuzzy system effort and take large parametric uncertainties into account. This newly developed control strategy combines the advantage of PSO and fuzzy system control techniques and leads to a flexible controller with simple stricture that is easy to implement. The proposed PSO based MSF (PSOMSF) controller is tested on a three-area restructured power system under different operating conditions and contract variations. The results of the proposed PSOMSF controller are compared with genetic algorithm based multi-stage fuzzy (GAMSF) control through some performance indices to illustrate its robust performance for a wide range of system parameters and load changes. (author)

  17. Multi-stage circulating fluidized bed syngas cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Guan, Xiaofeng; Peng, WanWang

    2016-10-11

    A method and apparatus for cooling hot gas streams in the temperature range 800.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. using multi-stage circulating fluid bed (CFB) coolers is disclosed. The invention relates to cooling the hot syngas from coal gasifiers in which the hot syngas entrains substances that foul, erode and corrode heat transfer surfaces upon contact in conventional coolers. The hot syngas is cooled by extracting and indirectly transferring heat to heat transfer surfaces with circulating inert solid particles in CFB syngas coolers. The CFB syngas coolers are staged to facilitate generation of steam at multiple conditions and hot boiler feed water that are necessary for power generation in an IGCC process. The multi-stage syngas cooler can include internally circulating fluid bed coolers, externally circulating fluid bed coolers and hybrid coolers that incorporate features of both internally and externally circulating fluid bed coolers. Higher process efficiencies can be realized as the invention can handle hot syngas from various types of gasifiers without the need for a less efficient precooling step.

  18. Interconnected levels of Multi-Stage Marketing – A Triadic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    must not only decide in general on the merits of multi-stage marketing for their firm, but must also decide on which level they will engage in multi-stage marketing. The triadic perspective enables a rich and multi-dimensional understanding of how different business relationships influence each other......Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes...... different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. The results from the case study indicate that multi-stage marketing exists on different levels. Thus, managers...

  19. Benchmarking and performance enhancement framework for multi-staging object-oriented languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Yousef

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on verifying the readiness, feasibility, generality and usefulness of multi-staging programming in software applications. We present a benchmark designed to evaluate the performance gain of different multi-staging programming (MSP languages implementations of object oriented languages. The benchmarks in this suite cover different tests that range from classic simple examples (like matrix algebra to advanced examples (like encryption and image processing. The benchmark is applied to compare the performance gain of two different MSP implementations (Mint and Metaphor that are built on object oriented languages (Java and C# respectively. The results concerning the application of this benchmark on these languages are presented and analysed. The measurement technique used in benchmarking leads to the development of a language independent performance enhancement framework that allows the programmer to select which code segments need staging. The framework also enables the programmer to verify the effectiveness of staging on the application performance. The framework is applied to a real case study. The case study results showed the effectiveness of the framework to achieve significant performance enhancement.

  20. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an

  1. Desulfurization and denitrogenation of coal during multi-stage hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Li, W.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion

    2001-02-01

    The elemental composition of char of high sulfur Hongmiao coal in multi-stage hydropyrolysis (MHyPy) with different heating rates were analysed and compared with that from normal hydropyrolysis (HyPy). The results illustrated that the sulfur removal in MHyPy was greater than that in HyPy, and more sulfur was evolved as the easily recycled gas H{sub 2}S. Similar with the situation of sulfur, more nitrogen transferred to the gas phase easily to be dealt with and the clean char was obtained. During MHyPy the extent of desulfurization and denitrogenation was more remarkable at high rate than that at slow heating rate. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Thermogravimetric analysis of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of different coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion

    2001-09-01

    Based on the characteristic of hydropyrolysis (HyPy), a multi-stage MHyPy of different coals was investigated using thermogravimetry. The results show that keeping the near peak temperature for some time in HyPy process can obviously increase the conversion rate, which is believed due to the full match between formation rate of free radicals and supply of hydrogen. The fast heating in MHyPy process results in the same conversion rate as that of the slow heating in HyPy process, which leads to the less reaction time and high yield of oil. The effect of MHyPy depends on the coal structure itself and it is notable for the coal with high H/C ratio. This suggests that the external hydrogen promotes the reaction between intrinsic hydrogen and free radicals. The MHyPy improves the removal of sulfur and nitrogen. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Process analysis of catalytic multi-stage hydropyrolysis of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2002-08-01

    The process and the mechanism of multi-stage hydropyrolysis (MHyPy) of coal were investigated by analyzing the products of different MHyPy processes in detail. The results showed that the suitable holding temperature was near the peak temperature (350-500{degree}C) at which more free radicals were produced rapidly, thus more oil was formed and the hydrogen utilization efficiency was increased. The cleavage of organic functional groups in char from MHyPy was mostly affected by the pyrolysis temperature. The effect of retention was to change the product distribution through stabilization of the free radicals and hydrogenation of the heavier products. In the holding stage the specific surface area and average pore volume of the char were increased due to the escape of more hydrogenation products. 18 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Silicon nanowire networks for multi-stage thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Kate J.; Garrett, Matthew P.; Zhang, Junce; Coleman, Elane; Tompa, Gary S.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabricated flexible single, double, and quadruple stacked Si thermoelectric modules. • Measured an enhanced power production of 27%, showing vertical stacking is scalable. • Vertically scalable thermoelectric module design of semiconducting nanowires. • Design can utilize either p or n-type semiconductors, both types are not required. • ΔT increases with thickness therefore power/area can increase as modules are stacked. - Abstract: We present the fabrication and characterization of single, double, and quadruple stacked flexible silicon nanowire network based thermoelectric modules. From double to quadruple stacked modules, power production increased 27%, demonstrating that stacking multiple nanowire thermoelectric devices in series is a scalable method to generate power by supplying larger temperature gradient. We present a vertically scalable multi-stage thermoelectric module design using semiconducting nanowires, eliminating the need for both n-type and p-type semiconductors for modules

  5. Robust modified GA based multi-stage fuzzy LFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Jalili, A.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a robust genetic algorithm (GA) based multi-stage fuzzy (MSF) controller is proposed for solution of the load frequency control (LFC) problem in a restructured power system that operates under deregulation based on the bilateral policy scheme. In this strategy, the control signal is tuned online from the knowledge base and the fuzzy inference, which request fewer sources and has two rule base sets. In the proposed method, for achieving the desired level of robust performance, exact tuning of the membership functions is very important. Thus, to reduce the design effort and find a better fuzzy system control, membership functions are designed automatically by modified genetic algorithms. The classical genetic algorithms are powerful search techniques to find the global optimal area. However, the global optimum value is not guaranteed using this method, and the speed of the algorithm's convergence is extremely reduced too. To overcome this drawback, a modified genetic algorithm is being used to tune the membership functions of the proposed MSF controller. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a three area restructured power system with possible contracted scenarios under large load demand and area disturbances in comparison with the multi-stage fuzzy and classical fuzzy PID controllers through FD and ITAE performance indices. The results evaluation shows that the proposed control strategy achieves good robust performance for a wide range of system parameters and load changes in the presence of system nonlinearities and is superior to the other controllers. Moreover, this newly developed control strategy has a simple structure, does not require an accurate model of the plant and is fairly easy to implement, which can be useful for the real world complex power systems

  6. Robust modified GA based multi-stage fuzzy LFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayeghi, H. [Technical Engineering Department, The University of Mohaghegh Ardebili, Daneshkah St., Ardebil (Iran); Jalili, A. [Electrical Engineering Group, Islamic Azad University, Ardebil Branch, Ardebil (Iran); Shayanfar, H.A. [Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, a robust genetic algorithm (GA) based multi-stage fuzzy (MSF) controller is proposed for solution of the load frequency control (LFC) problem in a restructured power system that operates under deregulation based on the bilateral policy scheme. In this strategy, the control signal is tuned online from the knowledge base and the fuzzy inference, which request fewer sources and has two rule base sets. In the proposed method, for achieving the desired level of robust performance, exact tuning of the membership functions is very important. Thus, to reduce the design effort and find a better fuzzy system control, membership functions are designed automatically by modified genetic algorithms. The classical genetic algorithms are powerful search techniques to find the global optimal area. However, the global optimum value is not guaranteed using this method, and the speed of the algorithm's convergence is extremely reduced too. To overcome this drawback, a modified genetic algorithm is being used to tune the membership functions of the proposed MSF controller. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a three area restructured power system with possible contracted scenarios under large load demand and area disturbances in comparison with the multi-stage fuzzy and classical fuzzy PID controllers through FD and ITAE performance indices. The results evaluation shows that the proposed control strategy achieves good robust performance for a wide range of system parameters and load changes in the presence of system nonlinearities and is superior to the other controllers. Moreover, this newly developed control strategy has a simple structure, does not require an accurate model of the plant and is fairly easy to implement, which can be useful for the real world complex power systems. (author)

  7. Short-Term Wind Electric Power Forecasting Using a Novel Multi-Stage Intelligent Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the most efficient renewable energy source for generating electricity in a modern electricity network, wind power has the potential to realize sustainable energy supply. However, owing to its random and intermittent instincts, a high permeability of wind power into a power network demands accurate and effective wind energy prediction models. This study proposes a multi-stage intelligent algorithm for wind electric power prediction, which combines the Beveridge–Nelson (B-N decomposition approach, the Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM, and a newly proposed intelligent optimization approach called the Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm (GOA. For data preprocessing, the B-N decomposition approach was employed to disintegrate the hourly wind electric power data into a deterministic trend, a cyclic term, and a random component. Then, the LSSVM optimized by the GOA (denoted GOA-LSSVM was applied to forecast the future 168 h of the deterministic trend, the cyclic term, and the stochastic component, respectively. Finally, the future hourly wind electric power values can be obtained by multiplying the forecasted values of these three trends. Through comparing the forecasting performance of this proposed method with the LSSVM, the LSSVM optimized by the Fruit-fly Optimization Algorithm (FOA-LSSVM, and the LSSVM optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-LSSVM, it is verified that the established multi-stage approach is superior to other models and can increase the precision of wind electric power prediction effectively.

  8. Analysis of Multi-Arm Caliper Data for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) has an increasing reliance on mul t i - arm caliper surveys to assess the integrity of casing for cavern access wells and to determine priorities for casing remediation. Multi - arm caliper (MAC) surveys provide a view of well casing deformation by reporting radial measurements of the inner cas ing wall as the tool is drawn through the casing. Over the last several years the SPR has collected a large number of modern MAC surveys. In total, these surveys account for over 100 million individual measurements. The surveys were collected using diff ering survey vendors and survey hardware. This has resulted in a collection of disparate data sets which confound attempts to make well - to - well or time - dependent evaluations. In addition, the vendor supplied MAC interpretations often involve variables wh ich are not well defined or which may not be applicable to casings for cavern access wells. These factors reduce the usability of these detailed data sets. In order to address this issue and provide an independent analysis of multi - arm caliper survey data, Sandia National Labs has developed processing techniques and analysis variables which allow for the comparison of MAC survey data regardless of the source of the survey data. These techniques use the raw radial arm information and newly developed analysis variables to assess the casing status and provide a means for well - to - well and time - dependent analyses. Well - to - well and t ime - dependent investigation of the MAC survey data provide s information to prioritize well remediation activities and identify wells with integrity issues. This paper presents the challenges in using disparate MAC survey data, techniques developed to address these challenges and some o f the insights gained from these new techniques.

  9. Poly(glycolide multi-arm star polymers: Improved solubility via limited arm length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian K. Wolf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low solubility of poly(glycolic acid (PGA, its use is generally limited to the synthesis of random copolyesters with other hydroxy acids, such as lactic acid, or to applications that permit direct processing from the polymer melt. Insolubility is generally observed for PGA when the degree of polymerization exceeds 20. Here we present a strategy that allows the preparation of PGA-based multi-arm structures which significantly exceed the molecular weight of processable oligomeric linear PGA (<1000 g/mol. This was achieved by the use of a multifunctional hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG macroinitiator and the tin(II-2-ethylhexanoate catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of glycolide in the melt. With this strategy it is possible to combine high molecular weight with good molecular weight control (up to 16,000 g/mol, PDI = 1.4–1.7, resulting in PGA multi-arm star block copolymers containing more than 90 wt % GA. The successful linkage of PGA arms and PG core via this core first/grafting from strategy was confirmed by detailed NMR and SEC characterization. Various PG/glycolide ratios were employed to vary the length of the PGA arms. Besides fluorinated solvents, the materials were soluble in DMF and DMSO up to an average arm length of 12 glycolic acid units. Reduction in the Tg and the melting temperature compared to the homopolymer PGA should lead to simplified processing conditions. The findings contribute to broadening the range of biomedical applications of PGA.

  10. NDDP multi-stage flash desalination process simulator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, M.; Sashi Kumar, G.N.; Mahendra, A.K.; Sanyal, A.; Gouthaman, G.

    2006-05-01

    A majority of large-scale desalination plants all over the world employ multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation process. Many of these MSF desalination plants have been set up near to nuclear power plants (generally called as nuclear desalination plants) to effectively utilize the low-grade steam from the power plants as the source of energy. A computer program called MSFSIM has been developed to simulate the MSF desalination plant operation both for steady state and various transients including start up. This code predicts the effect of number of stages, flashing temperature, velocity of brine flowing through the tubes of brine heater and evaporators, temperature of the condensing thin film etc. on the plant performance ratio. Such a code can be used for the design of a new plant and to predict its operating and startup characteristics. The code has been extensively validated with available start up data from the pilot MSF desalination plant of 425-m3/day capacity at Trombay, Mumbai. A MSF desalination plant of 4500-m3/day capacity is under construction by BARC at Kalpakkam, which will utilize the steam from Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). In this present work extensive parametric study of the 4500-m3/day capacity desalination plant at Kalpakkam has been done using the code MSFSIM for optimizing the operating parameters in order to maximize the performance ratio for stable plant operation. The aim of the work is prediction of plant performance under different operating conditions. (author)

  11. Multi-stage low-pressure avalanche chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanevskij, Yu.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Smykov, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    A multi-stage avalanche-chamber filled with isobutane operating at the pressure of 6 torr is described. The chamber comprises an amplifying gap, drift gap and multiwire proportional chamber with interelectrode gaps equal to 4 mm. The anode plane of the proportional chamber is winded of wire 2 μm in diameter with 2 mm pitch. The cathode are winded orthogonally to anode wires of wire 50 μm in diameter with 1 mm pitch. Drift and preamplifier gaps are formed by grid electrodes made of wire 50 μm in diameter with dimension of the cell equal to 1x1 mm. Width of the drift gap is 5 mm, width of the preamplification gap is 3 or 9 mm. Coordinate data are removed from the cathodes of the proportional chamber by means of delay lines. Sensitive square of the chamber equals 240x180 mm. Gas gain coefficient is 3x10 6 at its square nonuniformity equal to approximately 3%. Spatial resolution by both coordinates equals 170 μm; spatial resolution for isotropic α-emitters located close to the preamplifier gap is equal to 500 μm

  12. Scaling Phenomena in Desalination With Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti-Alimah

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of scaling phenomena in MSF desalination has been carried out. Scale is one of predominantly problem in multi stage flash (MSF) desalination installation. The main types of scale in MSF are carbonate calcium (CaCO 3 ), hydroxide magnesium (Mg(OH) 2 ) and sulphate calcium (CaSO 4 ). CaCO 3 and Mg(OH) 2 scales result from the thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ion, however sulphate calcium scale result from reaction of calcium ion and sulfate ion present in seawater. The rate of formation scale in seawater depends on temperature, pH, concentration of ions, supersaturated solution, nucleation and diffusion. The scales in MSF installation can occur inside heat exchanger tube, brine heater tubes, water boxes, on the face of tube sheets and demister pads. Scaling reduces effectiveness (production and heat consumption) of the process. To avoid the reductions in performance caused by scale precipitation, desalination units employ scale control. To control this scaling problem, the following methods can be used; acid, additive (scale inhibitors) and mechanical cleaning. Stoichiometric amounts of acid must be added to seawater, because addition excess of acid will increase corrosion problems. Using of scale inhibitors as polyphosphates, phosphonates, polyacrylates and poly maleates have advantage and disadvantage. (author)

  13. Product analysis of catalytic multi-stage hydropyrolysis of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Li; Na Wang; Baoqing Li [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2003-03-01

    A lignite added with 0.2% MoS{sub 2} as catalyst was pyrolyzed under H{sub 2} using multi-stage heating method (MHyPy) which means holding a suitable time near the peak temperature. The product distribution and detailed analysis of products were performed. The results show that the tar yield increased to 63.9% during MHyPy compared with that of 51.8% in traditional hydropyrolysis (HyPy), while the gas yield decreased to a half. This suggests the effective utilization of hydrogen during MHyPy. The light aromatics in the tar from MHyPy increased remarkably 42, 37.8 and 115.4% for BTX, PCX and naphthalenes, respectively. Biphenyls were also observed in the tar from MHyPy, which indicated the effective hydrogenation occurs during catalytic MHyPy. The rich pore structure of the char from MHyPy hints its high reactivity in the subsequent conversion process such as gasification and combustion. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Product analysis of catalytic multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion

    2002-05-01

    Multi-stage hydropyrolysis (MHyPy) and hydropyrolysis (HyPy) of Xundian lignite, with MoS{sub 2} as the catalyst, were performed in a fixed bed reactor. The product distribution and property were investigated in detail. The results show that the tar yield increases to 63.9% during MHyPy compared with that of 51.8% in HyPy, while the gas yield decreases by 50%. The tar composition does not make big difference between MHyPy and HyPy. However, the light aromatics in the tar from MHyPy increase remarkably by 42%, 37.8% and 115.4% for BTX, PCX and naphthalene respectively. The specific surface area of char from MHyPy is larger than that from HyPy. The average pore diameter of char from MHyPy is smaller than that from HyPy, while the pore volume increases by 100% compared with that from HyPy. The catalytic MHyPy has an obvious advantage over HyPy. 10 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  16. Multi-stage mixing in subduction zone: Application to Merapi volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaille, V.; Doucelance, R.; Weis, D.; Schiano, P.

    2003-04-01

    Basalts sampling subduction zone volcanism (IAB) often show binary mixing relationship in classical Sr-Nd, Pb-Pb, Sr-Pb isotopic diagrams, generally interpreted as reflecting the involvement of two components in their source. However, several authors have highlighted the presence of minimum three components in such a geodynamical context: mantle wedge, subducted and altered oceanic crust and subducted sediments. The overlying continental crust can also contribute by contamination and assimilation in magma chambers and/or during magma ascent. Here we present a multi-stage model to obtain a two end-member mixing from three components (mantle wedge, altered oceanic crust and sediments). The first stage of the model considers the metasomatism of the mantle wedge by fluids and/or melts released by subducted materials (altered oceanic crust and associated sediments), considering mobility and partition coefficient of trace elements in hydrated fluids and silicate melts. This results in the generation of two distinct end-members, reducing the number of components (mantle wedge, oceanic crust, sediments) from three to two. The second stage of the model concerns the binary mixing of the two end-members thus defined: mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids and mantle wedge metasomatized by sediment-derived fluids. This model has been applied on a new isotopic data set (Sr, Nd and Pb, analyzed by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS) of Merapi volcano (Java island, Indonesia). Previous studies have suggested three distinct components in the source of indonesian lavas: mantle wedge, subducted sediments and altered oceanic crust. Moreover, it has been shown that crustal contamination does not significantly affect isotopic ratios of lavas. The multi-stage model proposed here is able to reproduce the binary mixing observed in lavas of Merapi, and a set of numerical values of bulk partition coefficient is given that accounts for the genesis of lavas.

  17. Optimum design of a multi-stage dye-laser amplifier pumped with Cu-vapor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuo; Uchiumi, Michihiro

    1990-01-01

    A numerical simulation code, based on the one-dimensional photon transport equation, was developed and analyzed to evaluate the performances of Rhodamine 6G dye laser amplifiers pumped with Cu-vapor lasers. The upper singlet-state absorption played an important role to determine the efficiency. The simulation code was applied to optimize a multi-stage amplifier system with a pulsed or a CW dye-laser oscillator. The analytical results gave a useful guideline to design a high-power pulsed dye-laser system for atomic uranium enrichment. (author)

  18. Strategies and limits in multi-stage single-point incremental forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, M.B.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2010-01-01

    paths. The results also reveal that the sequence of multi-stage forming has a large effect on the location of strain points in the principal strain space. Strain paths are linear in the first stage and highly non-linear in the subsequent forming stages. The overall results show that the experimentally......Multi-stage single-point incremental forming (SPIF) is a state-of-the-art manufacturing process that allows small-quantity production of complex sheet metal parts with vertical walls. This paper is focused on the application of multi-stage SPIF with the objective of producing cylindrical cups......-limit curves and fracture forming-limit curves (FFLCs), numerical simulation, and experimentation, namely the evaluation of strain paths and fracture strains in actual multi-stage parts. Assessment of numerical simulation with experimentation shows good agreement between computed and measured strain and strain...

  19. Practice makes better - Learning effects of driving with a multi-stage collision warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Susann; Kazazi, Juela; Vollrath, Mark

    2018-02-21

    Advanced driver assistance systems like (forward) collision warnings can increase traffic safety. As safety-critical situations (especially in urban traffic) can be diverse, integrated adaptive systems (such as multi-stage warnings) need to be developed and examined in a variety of use cases over time instead of the more common approach of testing only one-time effectiveness in the most relevant use case. Thus, this driving simulator experiment investigated a multi-stage collision warning in partially repetitive trials (T) of various safety-critical situations (scenarios confronting drivers with hazards in form of pedestrians, obstacles or preceding vehicles). Its output adapted according to the drivers' behavior in two warning stages (W1 - warning for moderate deceleration in less critical situations; W2 - urgent warning for strong, fast braking in more critical situations). To analyze how much drivers benefit from the assistance when allowed practice with it, the driving behavior and subjective ratings of 24 participants were measured over four trials. They comprised a baseline without assistance (T1) and three further trials with assistance - a learning phase repeating the scenarios from T1 twice (T2 + T3) and a concluding transfer drive with new scenarios (T4). As expected, the situation criticality in the urgent warning (W2) scenarios was rated higher than in the warning (W1) scenarios. While the brake reaction time differed more between the W1 scenarios, the applied brake force differed more between the W2 scenarios. However, the scenario factor often interacted with the trial factor. Since in later warning stages reaction time reductions become finite, the reaction strength gains importance. Overall the drivers benefited from the assistance. Both warning stages led to faster brake reactions (of similar strength) in all three assisted trials compared to the baseline, which additionally improved successively over time (T1-T3, T1 vs. T4, T2 vs. T4

  20. Multi-Stage Recognition of Speech Emotion Using Sequential Forward Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liogienė Tatjana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensive research of speech emotion recognition introduced a huge collection of speech emotion features. Large feature sets complicate the speech emotion recognition task. Among various feature selection and transformation techniques for one-stage classification, multiple classifier systems were proposed. The main idea of multiple classifiers is to arrange the emotion classification process in stages. Besides parallel and serial cases, the hierarchical arrangement of multi-stage classification is most widely used for speech emotion recognition. In this paper, we present a sequential-forward-feature-selection-based multi-stage classification scheme. The Sequential Forward Selection (SFS and Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS techniques were employed for every stage of the multi-stage classification scheme. Experimental testing of the proposed scheme was performed using the German and Lithuanian emotional speech datasets. Sequential-feature-selection-based multi-stage classification outperformed the single-stage scheme by 12–42 % for different emotion sets. The multi-stage scheme has shown higher robustness to the growth of emotion set. The decrease in recognition rate with the increase in emotion set for multi-stage scheme was lower by 10–20 % in comparison with the single-stage case. Differences in SFS and SFFS employment for feature selection were negligible.

  1. Thermodynamic performance of multi-stage gradational lead screw vacuum pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Shiwei; Sun, Kun; Zhang, Zhijun

    2018-02-01

    As a kind of dry mechanical vacuum pump, the twin-screw vacuum pump has an outstanding pumping performance during operation, widely used in the semiconductor industry. Compared with the constant lead screw (CLS) vacuum pump, the gradational lead screw (GLS) vacuum pump is more popularly applied in recent years. Nevertheless, not many comparative studies on the thermodynamic performance of GLS vacuum pump can be found in the literature. Our study focuses on one type of GLS vacuum pump, the multi-stage gradational lead screw (MGLS) vacuum pump, gives a detailed description of its construction and illustrates it with the drawing. Based on the structural analysis, the thermodynamic procedure is divided into four distinctive processes, including sucking process, transferring (compressing) process, backlashing process and exhausting process. The internal mechanism of each process is qualitatively illustrated and the mathematical expressions of seven thermodynamic parameters are given under the ideal situation. The performance curves of MGLS vacuum pump are plotted by MATLAB software and compared with those of the CLS vacuum pump in the same case. The results can well explain why the MGLS vacuum pump has more favorable pumping performance than the CLS vacuum pump in saving energy, reducing noise and heat dissipation.

  2. A Multi-Stage Reverse Logistics Network Problem by Using Hybrid Priority-Based Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Gen, Mitsuo; Rhee, Kyong-Gu

    Today remanufacturing problem is one of the most important problems regarding to the environmental aspects of the recovery of used products and materials. Therefore, the reverse logistics is gaining become power and great potential for winning consumers in a more competitive context in the future. This paper considers the multi-stage reverse Logistics Network Problem (m-rLNP) while minimizing the total cost, which involves reverse logistics shipping cost and fixed cost of opening the disassembly centers and processing centers. In this study, we first formulate the m-rLNP model as a three-stage logistics network model. Following for solving this problem, we propose a Genetic Algorithm pri (GA) with priority-based encoding method consisting of two stages, and introduce a new crossover operator called Weight Mapping Crossover (WMX). Additionally also a heuristic approach is applied in the 3rd stage to ship of materials from processing center to manufacturer. Finally numerical experiments with various scales of the m-rLNP models demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach by comparing with the recent researches.

  3. Multi-stage robust scheme for citrus identification from high resolution airborne images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós-López, Julia; Izquierdo Verdiguier, Emma; Gómez-Chova, Luis; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Zoilo Rodríguez-Barreiro, Jorge; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Calpe-Maravilla, Javier

    2008-10-01

    Identification of land cover types is one of the most critical activities in remote sensing. Nowadays, managing land resources by using remote sensing techniques is becoming a common procedure to speed up the process while reducing costs. However, data analysis procedures should satisfy the accuracy figures demanded by institutions and governments for further administrative actions. This paper presents a methodological scheme to update the citrus Geographical Information Systems (GIS) of the Comunidad Valenciana autonomous region, Spain). The proposed approach introduces a multi-stage automatic scheme to reduce visual photointerpretation and ground validation tasks. First, an object-oriented feature extraction process is carried out for each cadastral parcel from very high spatial resolution (VHR) images (0.5m) acquired in the visible and near infrared. Next, several automatic classifiers (decision trees, multilayer perceptron, and support vector machines) are trained and combined to improve the final accuracy of the results. The proposed strategy fulfills the high accuracy demanded by policy makers by means of combining automatic classification methods with visual photointerpretation available resources. A level of confidence based on the agreement between classifiers allows us an effective management by fixing the quantity of parcels to be reviewed. The proposed methodology can be applied to similar problems and applications.

  4. The application of the consecutive-Woehler-curve-concept in computation of the life values for multi-stage creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, G.

    1991-01-01

    It is known that at multi-stage creep load there cannot be calculated any reliable life values by means of linear damage accumulation hypotheses. A practicable non-linear statement was proposed by Pantelakis. Besides the one-stage creep life curve, results from two-stage tests are required for determining the damage exponent. With this exponent, which is a function of temperature and stress in the load stage applied first, the life values can be calculated only for two-stage sequences whose stress stages have to be identical to those of the two-stage tests. For the application of the consecutive Woehler curve concept described in the following there is required the knowledge of the one-stage creep life curve and of the creep function for increasing and decreasing stress sequences derived from two-stage tests. Then, the life values can be calculated for the most different multi-stage loads. The stress stages should lie within the stress range used in the two-stage tests. (orig.) [de

  5. Studies of the impact of prerotation problem of the secondary impeller on performance of multi-stage centrifugal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, L L; Wu, P; Jiang, Q L; Wang, L Q

    2012-01-01

    In engineering practice, part of the multi-stage centrifugal pumps is designed without space guide vanes due to the size restrictions and the volute is distorted much in shape. In these pumps, tangential velocity of the fluid at the outlet of the first-stage impeller is so great that it has caused a prerotation problem which will affect the inlet flow conditions of the secondary impeller leading to serious efficiency and head decline of the secondary impeller. The head problem of the second stage in multi-stage centrifugal pumps caused by prerotation at the entrance of the second stage was analyzed and the internal hydraulic performance was optimized by setting clapboards in the volute in this paper. CFD numerical simulation method combined with experiment was applied to predict the effect of internal clapboards on the performance of the centrifugal pump. The original prototype was transformed according to the simulation result and tested to verify the optimization work. The experiment result shows that hydraulic performance is remarkably improved compared with the original one and the prerotation problem is basically solved.

  6. [A Multi-arm Placebo-controlled Study with Glutamic Acid Conducted in Rostock in 1953/1954].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häßler, Frank; Weirich, Steffen

    2017-09-01

    A Multi-arm Placebo-controlled Study with Glutamic Acid Conducted in Rostock in 1953/1954 Glutamic acid was commonly used in the treatment of intellectually disabled children in the 50s. Koch reported first results of an observation of 140 children treated with glutamic acid in 1952. In this line is the multi-arm placebo-controlled study reported here. The original study protocols were available. 58 children with speech problems who attending a school of special needs received glutamic acid, or vitamin B, or St.-John's-wort. The effect of glutamic acid was in few cases an improvement of attention. On the other hand restlessness and stutter increased. The majority of all reported a weight loss. The treatment with vitamin B showed a positive effect concerning concentration. The treatment with St.-John's wort was stopped caused by headache and vomiting in eight of nine cases. The results of the study reported here are unpublished. The reason may be that until the 60s the effects of glutamic acid in the treatment of intellectually disabled children were in generally overestimated.

  7. Optimism in the face of uncertainty supported by a statistically-designed multi-armed bandit algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiura, Moto; Sano, Kohei

    2017-10-01

    The principle of optimism in the face of uncertainty is known as a heuristic in sequential decision-making problems. Overtaking method based on this principle is an effective algorithm to solve multi-armed bandit problems. It was defined by a set of some heuristic patterns of the formulation in the previous study. The objective of the present paper is to redefine the value functions of Overtaking method and to unify the formulation of them. The unified Overtaking method is associated with upper bounds of confidence intervals of expected rewards on statistics. The unification of the formulation enhances the universality of Overtaking method. Consequently we newly obtain Overtaking method for the exponentially distributed rewards, numerically analyze it, and show that it outperforms UCB algorithm on average. The present study suggests that the principle of optimism in the face of uncertainty should be regarded as the statistics-based consequence of the law of large numbers for the sample mean of rewards and estimation of upper bounds of expected rewards, rather than as a heuristic, in the context of multi-armed bandit problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Configuration of management accounting information system for multi-stage manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtychev, S. V.; Ochepovsky, A. V.; Enik, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents an approach to configuration of a management accounting information system (MAIS) that provides automated calculations and the registration of normative production losses in multi-stage manufacturing. The use of MAIS with the proposed configuration at the enterprises of textile and woodworking industries made it possible to increase the accuracy of calculations for normative production losses and to organize accounting thereof with the reference to individual stages of the technological process. Thus, high efficiency of multi-stage manufacturing control is achieved.

  9. Hydrogen enriched gas production in a multi-stage downdraft gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, A.; Jarungthammachote, S.

    2009-01-01

    To achieve hydrogen enriched and low-tar producer gas, multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification were studied in this research. Results showed that the tar content from multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification was lower compared to the average value of that from downdraft gasification. It was also seen that an air-steam gasification process could potentially increase the hydrogen concentration in the producer gas in the expense of carbon monoxide; however, the summation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the producer gas was increased. (author)

  10. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  11. Validity of 20-metre multi stage shuttle run test for estimation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validity of 20-metre multi stage shuttle run test for estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in indian male university students. P Chatterjee, AK Banerjee, P Debnath, P Bas, B Chatterjee. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and DanceVol. 12(4) 2006: pp. 461-467. Full Text:.

  12. Multi-stage decoding for multi-level block modulation codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate various types of multi-stage decoding for multi-level block modulation codes, in which the decoding of a component code at each stage can be either soft-decision or hard-decision, maximum likelihood or bounded-distance. Error performance of codes is analyzed for a memoryless additive channel based on various types of multi-stage decoding, and upper bounds on the probability of an incorrect decoding are derived. Based on our study and computation results, we find that, if component codes of a multi-level modulation code and types of decoding at various stages are chosen properly, high spectral efficiency and large coding gain can be achieved with reduced decoding complexity. In particular, we find that the difference in performance between the suboptimum multi-stage soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding of a modulation code and the single-stage optimum decoding of the overall code is very small: only a fraction of dB loss in SNR at the probability of an incorrect decoding for a block of 10(exp -6). Multi-stage decoding of multi-level modulation codes really offers a way to achieve the best of three worlds, bandwidth efficiency, coding gain, and decoding complexity.

  13. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in

  14. Research on EMI Reduction of Multi-stage Interleaved Bridgeless Power Factor Corrector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Working as an electronic pollution eliminator, the Power Factor Corrector's (PFC) own Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) problems have been blocking its performance improvement for long. In this paper, a systematic research on EMI generation of a multi-stage Two-Boost-Circuit Interleaved Bridgeless...

  15. Setting safety stocks in multi-stage inventory systems under rolling horizon mathematical programming models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulaksil, Y.; Fransoo, J.C.; van Halm, E.N.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of determining safety stocks in multi-item multi-stage inventory systems that face demand uncertainties. Safety stocks are necessary to make the supply chain, which is driven by forecasts of customer orders, responsive to (demand) uncertainties and to achieve

  16. A Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Ming; Stevens, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success, a theoretical stages-of-growth model, explains long-term success in IT outsourcing relationships. Research showed the IT outsourcing relationship life cycle consists of four distinct, sequential stages: contract, transition, support, and partnership. The model was…

  17. Multi-Stage Admission Control for Load Balancing in Next Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Anggorojati, Bayu; Luo, Jijun

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a load-dependent multi-stage admission control suitable for next generation systems. The concept uses decision polling in entities located at different levels of the architecture hierarchy and based on the load to activate a sequence of actions related to the admission...

  18. Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of st...

  19. Influence of perforation erosion on multiple growing hydraulic fractures in multi-stage fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, the limited-entry method is widely used to promote uniform growth of multiple fractures. However, this method's effectiveness may be lost because the perforations will be eroded gradually during the fracturing period. In order to study the influence of perforation erosion on multiple growing hydraulic fractures, we combined the solid–fluid coupled model of hydraulic fracture growth with an empirical model of perforation erosion to implement numerical simulation. The simulations show clearly that the erosion of perforation will significantly deteriorate the non-uniform growth of multiple fractures. Based on the numerical model, we also studied the influences of proppant concentration and injection rates on perforation erosion in multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. The results indicate that the initial erosion rates become higher with the rising proppant concentration, but the growth of multiple hydraulic fractures is not sensitive to the varied proppant concentration. In addition, higher injection rates are beneficial significantly to the limited-entry design, leading to more uniform growth of fractures. Thus, in multi-stage hydraulic fracturing enough high injection rates are proposed to keep uniform growths. Keywords: Unconventional oil and gas reservoir, Horizontal well, Perforation friction, Perforation erosion, Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, Numerical simulation, Mathematic model, Uniform growth of fractures

  20. Multi-Stage Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penetrante, B

    1997-01-01

    .... A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO2. This paper compares the multi-stage catalytic scheme with the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme for reduction of NOx in lean-burn engine exhausts. The advantages of plasma oxidation over catalytic oxidation are presented.

  1. Automated simultaneous assembly of multi-stage testing for the uniform CPA examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithaupt, Krista; Ariel, A.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2004-01-01

    Some solutions used in the assembly of the computerized Uniform Certified Public Accountancy (CPA) licensing examination are offered as practical alternatives for operational programs producing large numbers of forms. The Uniform CPA examination will be offered as an adaptive multi-stage test (MST)

  2. The multi-stage proportional chamber in the detection of Cherenkov rings for particle recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauli, F.

    1979-01-01

    The multi-stage proportional chamber enables very high gains of 10 6 or more to be reached in gaseous mixtures offering a very good quantum efficiency in the far ultra-violet range. This makes it an ideal instrument for detecting and locating the photons emitted by Cerenkov effect in appropriate radiators [fr

  3. Multi-stage Optimization of Matchings in Trees with Application to Kidney Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Mankowski, Michal; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for multi-stage optimization of matchings in trees relative to different weight functions that assign positive weights to the edges of the trees. This method can be useful in transplantology where nodes of the tree

  4. Finite Element Analysis and Optimization for the Multi-stage Deep Drawing of Molybdenum Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heung-Kyu; Hong, Seok Kwan; Kang, Jeong Jin; Heo, Young-moo; Lee, Jong-Kil; Jeon, Byung-Hee

    2005-01-01

    Molybdenum, a bcc refractory metal with a melting point of about 2600 deg. C, has a high heat and electrical conductivity. In addition, it remains strong mechanically at high temperatures as well as at low temperatures. Therefore it is a technologically very important material for the applications operating at high temperatures. However, a multi-stage process is required due to the low drawability for making a deep drawn part from the molybdenum sheet. In this study, a multi-stage deep drawing process for a molybdenum circular cup was designed by combining the drawing with the ironing, which was effective for the low drawability materials. A parametric study by FE analysis for the multi-stage deep drawing was conducted for evaluation of the design variables effect. Based on the FE analysis result, the multi-stage deep drawing process was parameterized by the design variables, and an optimum process design was obtained by the process optimization based on the FE simulation at each stage

  5. Strain Paths and Fractures in Rotational Symmetric Multi Stage Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, M.B.; Martins, P.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    A multi stage strategy, which allows forming of SPIF parts with vertical walls, is investigated with emphasis on strain paths and fracture strains. Whereas downwards movement of the tool pin results in deformation close to plane strain upwards moving tool results in biaxial strains. A good correl...

  6. Modular Adaptive System Based on a Multi-Stage Neural Structure for Recognition of 2D Objects of Discontinuous Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Topalova

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a new system for invariant recognition of 2D objects with overlapping classes, that can not be effectively recognized with the traditional methods. The translation, scale and partial rotation invariant contour object description is transformed in a DCT spectrum space. The obtained frequency spectrums are decomposed into frequency bands in order to feed different BPG neural nets (NNs. The NNs are structured in three stages - filtering and full rotation invariance; partial recognition; general classification. The designed multi-stage BPG Neural Structure shows very good accuracy and flexibility when tested with 2D objects used in the discontinuous production. The reached speed and the opportunuty for an easy restructuring and reprogramming of the system makes it suitable for application in different applied systems for real time work.

  7. Multi-stage optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2017-06-16

    We study problems of optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions. As cost functions, we consider depth, average depth, number of nodes, and number of terminal/nonterminal nodes in trees. Decision tables with many-valued decisions (multi-label decision tables) are often more accurate models for real-life data sets than usual decision tables with single-valued decisions. Inhibitory trees can sometimes capture more information from decision tables than decision trees. In this paper, we create dynamic programming algorithms for multi-stage optimization of trees relative to a sequence of cost functions. We apply these algorithms to prove the existence of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision and inhibitory trees for some modified decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  8. Modular Adaptive System Based on a Multi-Stage Neural Structure for Recognition of 2D Objects of Discontinuous Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Topalova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a new system for invariant recognition of 2D objects with overlapping classes, that can not be effectively recognized with the traditional methods. The translation, scale and partial rotation invariant contour object description is transformed in a DCT spectrum space. The obtained frequency spectrums are decomposed into frequency bands in order to feed different BPG neural nets (NNs. The NNs are structured in three stages - filtering and full rotation invariance; partial recognition; general classification. The designed multi-stage BPG Neural Structure shows very good accuracy and flexibility when tested with 2D objects used in the discontinuous production. The reached speed and the opportunuty for an easy restructuring and reprogramming of the system makes it suitable for application in different applied systems for real time work.

  9. Multi-stage optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    We study problems of optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions. As cost functions, we consider depth, average depth, number of nodes, and number of terminal/nonterminal nodes in trees. Decision tables with many-valued decisions (multi-label decision tables) are often more accurate models for real-life data sets than usual decision tables with single-valued decisions. Inhibitory trees can sometimes capture more information from decision tables than decision trees. In this paper, we create dynamic programming algorithms for multi-stage optimization of trees relative to a sequence of cost functions. We apply these algorithms to prove the existence of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision and inhibitory trees for some modified decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  10. Multi-stage 3D-2D registration for correction of anatomical deformation in image-guided spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcha, M. D.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Jacobson, M. W.; Goerres, J.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-06-01

    A multi-stage image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented that maps annotations in a 3D image (e.g. point labels annotating individual vertebrae in preoperative CT) to an intraoperative radiograph in which the patient has undergone non-rigid anatomical deformation due to changes in patient positioning or due to the intervention itself. The proposed method (termed msLevelCheck) extends a previous rigid registration solution (LevelCheck) to provide an accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of spinal deformation. The method employs a multi-stage series of rigid 3D-2D registrations performed on sets of automatically determined and increasingly localized sub-images, with the final stage achieving a rigid mapping for each label to yield a locally rigid yet globally deformable solution. The method was evaluated first in a phantom study in which a CT image of the spine was acquired followed by a series of 7 mobile radiographs with increasing degree of deformation applied. Second, the method was validated using a clinical data set of patients exhibiting strong spinal deformation during thoracolumbar spine surgery. Registration accuracy was assessed using projection distance error (PDE) and failure rate (PDE  >  20 mm—i.e. label registered outside vertebra). The msLevelCheck method was able to register all vertebrae accurately for all cases of deformation in the phantom study, improving the maximum PDE of the rigid method from 22.4 mm to 3.9 mm. The clinical study demonstrated the feasibility of the approach in real patient data by accurately registering all vertebral labels in each case, eliminating all instances of failure encountered in the conventional rigid method. The multi-stage approach demonstrated accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of strong spinal deformation. The msLevelCheck method maintains other advantageous aspects of the original LevelCheck method (e.g. compatibility with standard clinical workflow, large

  11. Simplified Multi-Stage and Per Capita Convergence: an analysis of two climate regimes for differentiation of commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen MGJ den; Berk MM; Lucas P; KMD

    2004-01-01

    This report describes and analyses in detail two climate regimes for differentiating commitments: the simplified Multi-Stage and Per Capita Convergence approaches. The Multi-Stage approach consists of a system to divide countries into groups with different types of commitments (stages). The Per

  12. A multi-stage noise adaptive switching filter for extremely corrupted images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Hai; Adhami, Reza; Wang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    A multi-stage noise adaptive switching filter (MSNASF) is proposed for the restoration of images extremely corrupted by impulse and impulse-like noise. The filter consists of two steps: noise detection and noise removal. The proposed extrema-based noise detection scheme utilizes the false contouring effect to get better over detection rate at low noise density. It is adaptive and will detect not only impulse but also impulse-like noise. In the noise removal step, a novel multi-stage filtering scheme is proposed. It replaces corrupted pixel with the nearest uncorrupted median to preserve details. When compared with other methods, MSNASF provides better peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and structure similarity index (SSIM). A subjective evaluation carried out online also demonstrates that MSNASF yields higher fidelity.

  13. Distributed activation energy model for kinetic analysis of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Based on the new analysis of distributed activation energy model, a bicentral distribution model was introduced to the analysis of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal. The hydropyrolysis for linear temperature programming with and without holding stage were mathematically described and the corresponding kinetic expressions were achieved. Based on the kinetics, the hydropyrolysis (HyPr) and multi-stage hydropyrolysis (MHyPr) of Xundian brown coal was simulated. The results shows that both Mo catalyst and 2-stage holding can lower the apparent activation energy of hydropyrolysis and make activation energy distribution become narrow. Besides, there exists an optimum Mo loading of 0.2% for HyPy of Xundian lignite. 10 refs.

  14. Multi-stage Optimization of Matchings in Trees with Application to Kidney Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Mankowski, Michal

    2017-07-22

    In this paper, we propose a method for multi-stage optimization of matchings in trees relative to different weight functions that assign positive weights to the edges of the trees. This method can be useful in transplantology where nodes of the tree correspond to pairs (donor, recipient) and two nodes (pairs) are connected by an edge if these pairs can exchange kidneys. Weight functions can characterize the number of exchanges, the importance of exchanges, or their compatibility.

  15. Multi-stage LLC resonant converters designed for wide output voltage ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, C.-W.; Bingham, C. M.; Foster, M. P.; Stone, D. A.; Leech, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel multi-stage LLC resonant converter topology for facilitating wide output voltage ranges. This is achieved by combining the gain range of a capacitor-diode clamped LLC resonant converter with that of a traditional LLC resonant converter. A prototype converter is designed and commissioned to illustrate the design procedure and demonstrate resulting operational characteristics. Experimental results are used to show operational characteristics of the proposed conver...

  16. Multi-stage phase retrieval algorithm based upon the gyrator transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, José A; Duadi, Hamootal; Alieva, Tatiana; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2010-01-18

    The gyrator transform is a useful tool for optical information processing applications. In this work we propose a multi-stage phase retrieval approach based on this operation as well as on the well-known Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. It results in an iterative algorithm able to retrieve the phase information using several measurements of the gyrator transform power spectrum. The viability and performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by means of several numerical simulations and experimental results.

  17. Multi-stage phase retrieval algorithm based upon the gyrator transform

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Martín-Romo, José Augusto; Duadi, Hamootal; Alieva, Tatiana Krasheninnikova; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    The gyrator transform is a useful tool for optical information processing applications. In this work we propose a multi-stage phase retrieval approach based on this operation as well as on the well-known Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. It results in an iterative algorithm able to retrieve the phase information using several measurements of the gyrator transform power spectrum. The viability and performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by means of several numerical simulations and exp...

  18. Multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duta, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Stan, G.E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Stroescu, H.; Gartner, M.; Anastasescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Fogarassy, Zs. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklos u. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Mihailescu, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Szekeres, A., E-mail: szekeres@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Bakalova, S. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Mihailescu, I.N., E-mail: ion.mihailescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride at different temperatures. • 800 °C seed film boosts the next growth of crystalline structures at lower temperature. • Two-stage deposited AlN samples exhibit randomly oriented wurtzite structures. • Band gap energy values increase with deposition temperature. • Correlation was observed between single- and multi-stage AlN films. - Abstract: We report on multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride (AlN) on Si (1 0 0) wafers, at different temperatures. The first stage of deposition was carried out at 800 °C, the optimum temperature for AlN crystallization. In the second stage, the deposition was conducted at lower temperatures (room temperature, 350 °C or 450 °C), in ambient Nitrogen, at 0.1 Pa. The synthesized structures were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). GIXRD measurements indicated that the two-stage deposited AlN samples exhibited a randomly oriented wurtzite structure with nanosized crystallites. The peaks were shifted to larger angles, indicative for smaller inter-planar distances. Remarkably, TEM images demonstrated that the high-temperature AlN “seed” layers (800 °C) promoted the growth of poly-crystalline AlN structures at lower deposition temperatures. When increasing the deposition temperature, the surface roughness of the samples exhibited values in the range of 0.4–2.3 nm. SE analyses showed structures which yield band gap values within the range of 4.0–5.7 eV. A correlation between the results of single- and multi-stage AlN depositions was observed.

  19. Il ritorno di Bertoldo. Il campionamento multi-stage a raggio d’azione

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    The article proposes a new multi-stage sampling procedure in face to face surveys at national and regional level. This proposal foresees to assign to each interviewer a range of action where to realise their interviews, thus widening their concerning area, which isn’t anymore identifiable with a sampling point (often corresponding to the interviewer’s residence municipality), but with a sampling area where n municipalities are located and may be reached by the interviewer. The idea is to pass...

  20. Study on multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal in fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Li, W.; Li, B.-Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion

    1999-07-01

    The composition and quantity of the oil in hydropyrolysis (HyPy) and multi-stage HyPy with high and slow heating rate were compared and the effect of multistage HyPy process on desulfurization was investigated. Multistage HyPy of lignite and high sulphur coal were investigated and the effects of residence time, heating rate and pressure on product yields were studied. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Multi-stage selective catalytic reduction of NOx in lean burn engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Many studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. Some effort has been devoted to separating the oxidative and reductive functions of the catalyst in a multi-stage system. This method works fine for systems that require hydrocarbon addition. The hydrocarbon has to be injected between the NO oxidation catalyst and the NO{sub 2} reduction catalyst; otherwise, the first-stage oxidation catalyst will also oxidize the hydrocarbon and decrease its effectiveness as a reductant. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is appropriate for diesel engine exhausts since they contain insufficient hydrocarbons for SCR, and the hydrocarbons can be added at the desired location. For lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts, the hydrocarbons already present in the exhausts will make it necessary to find an oxidation catalyst that can oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} but not oxidize the hydrocarbon. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. Plasma oxidation has several advantages over catalytic oxidation. Plasma-assisted catalysis can work well for both diesel engine and lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts. This is because the plasma can oxidize NO in the presence of hydrocarbons without degrading the effectiveness of the hydrocarbon as a reductant for SCR. In the plasma, the hydrocarbon enhances the oxidation of NO, minimizes the electrical energy requirement, and prevents the oxidation of SO{sub 2}. This paper discusses the use of multi-stage systems for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is compared to the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme.

  2. A development of time-resolved emulsion detector by multi-stage shifter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a powerful tracking device that can record the three-dimensional trajectory of charged particles within 1 μm spatial resolution. We are promoting GRAINE project which is 10 MeV-100 GeV cosmic γ-ray observations with a precise (0.08deg at 1-2 GeV) and polarization-sensitive large-aperture-area (∼10 m 2 ) emulsion telescope by repeating long duration balloon flights. We are developing multi-stage shifter which allows us to give a timing information to emulsion tracks with ∼seconds or below. The multi-stage shifter opened feasibilities of precise cosmic γ-ray observations, GRAINE, as well as precise measurements of ν-N interactions, J-PARC T60. ∼Millisecond time resolution in a balloon-borne experiment, ∼second time resolution for 126.7 days in an accelerator ν experiment and ∼10 6 time-resolved numbers are being achieved. New model of multi-stage shifter is also being developed for future experiments. (author)

  3. Controlled synthesis of multi-arm star polyether-polycarbonate polyols based on propylene oxide and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilf, Jeannette; Schulze, Patricia; Seiwert, Jan; Frey, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Multi-arm star copolymers based on a hyperbranched poly(propylene oxide) polyether-polyol (hbPPO) as a core and poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) arms are synthesized in two steps from propylene oxide (PO), a small amount of glycidol and CO2 . The PPC arms are prepared via carbon dioxide (CO2 )/PO copolymerization, using hbPPO as a multifunctional macroinitiator and the (R,R)-(salcy)CoOBzF5 catalyst. Star copolymers with 14 and 28 PPC arms, respectively, and controlled molecular weights in the range of 2700-8800 g mol(-1) are prepared (Mw /Mn = 1.23-1.61). Thermal analysis reveals lowered glass transition temperatures in the range of -8 to 10 °C for the PPC star polymers compared with linear PPC, which is due to the influence of the flexible polyether core. Successful conversion of the terminal hydroxyl groups with phenylisocyanate demonstrates the potential of the polycarbonate polyols for polyurethane synthesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Rational geometrical engineering of palladium sulfide multi-arm nanostructures as a superior bi-functional electrocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, R; Nanda, K K

    2017-08-31

    Geometrical tunability offers sharp edges and an open-armed structure accompanied with a high electrochemical active surface area to ensure the efficient and effective utilization of materials by exposing the electrochemical active sites for facile accessibility of reactant species. Herein, we report a one-step, single-pot, surfactant-free, electroless, and economic route to synthesize palladium sulfide nanostructures with different geometries at mild temperatures and their catalytic properties towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol electro-oxidation (MOR). For ORR, the positive on-set, half wave potentials, smaller Tafel slope, high electrochemical active surface area, large roughness factor, and better cyclic stability of the proposed nanostructures as compared to those of the commercial state-of-the-art Pt-C/PdS catalysts suggest their superiority in an alkaline medium. In addition, high mass activity (J f ∼ 715 mA mg -1 ), in comparison with that of the commercial state-of-the-art Pt-C/PdS catalysts (J f ∼ 138/41 mA mg -1 , respectively), and high J f /J b (1.52) along with the superior operational stability of the multi-arm palladium sulfide nanostructures towards MOR advocates the bi-functional behavior of the catalyst and its potential as a promising Pt-free anode/cathode electrocatalyst in fuel cells.

  5. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid

  6. Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Multi-Stage Autoignition Relevant to Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jacqueline

    2017-11-01

    Due to the unrivaled energy density of liquid hydrocarbon fuels combustion will continue to provide over 80% of the world's energy for at least the next fifty years. Hence, combustion needs to be understood and controlled to optimize combustion systems for efficiency to prevent further climate change, to reduce emissions and to ensure U.S. energy security. In this talk I will discuss recent progress in direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion focused on providing fundamental insights into key `turbulence-chemistry' interactions that underpin the development of next generation fuel efficient, fuel flexible engines for transportation and power generation. Petascale direct numerical simulation (DNS) of multi-stage mixed-mode turbulent combustion in canonical configurations have elucidated key physics that govern autoignition and flame stabilization in engines and provide benchmark data for combustion model development under the conditions of advanced engines which operate near combustion limits to maximize efficiency and minimize emissions. Mixed-mode combustion refers to premixed or partially-premixed flames propagating into stratified autoignitive mixtures. Multi-stage ignition refers to hydrocarbon fuels with negative temperature coefficient behavior that undergo sequential low- and high-temperature autoignition. Key issues that will be discussed include: 1) the role of mixing in shear driven turbulence on the dynamics of multi-stage autoignition and cool flame propagation in diesel environments, 2) the role of thermal and composition stratification on the evolution of the balance of mixed combustion modes - flame propagation versus spontaneous ignition - which determines the overall combustion rate in autoignition processes, and 3) the role of cool flames on lifted flame stabilization. Finally prospects for DNS of turbulent combustion at the exascale will be discussed in the context of anticipated heterogeneous machine architectures. sponsored by DOE

  7. Multi-stage crypto ransomware attacks: A new emerging cyber threat to critical infrastructure and industrial control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron Zimba; Zhaoshun Wang; Hongsong Chen

    2018-01-01

    The inevitable integration of critical infrastructure to public networks has exposed the underlying industrial control systems to various attack vectors. In this paper, we model multi-stage crypto ransomware attacks, which are today an emerging cyber threat to critical infrastructure. We evaluate our modeling approach using multi-stage attacks by the infamous WannaCry ransomware. The static malware analysis results uncover the techniques employed by the ransomware to discover vulnerable nodes...

  8. A theoretical analysis of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an analytical exploration of the problem of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems. The paper describes in some detail an analytical model of energy demand in such systems. Under a clearly stated set of assumptions, the model makes it possible to explore both the impacts of the number of sub-systems, and of varying sub-system elasticities on overall system elasticity. The analysis suggests that overall price elasticity of energy demand for such systems will tend asymptotically to unity as the number of sub-systems increases

  9. Multi-Stage Adaptive Noise Cancellation Technique for Synthetic Hard-α Inclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Joon

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive noise cancellation techniques are ideally suitable for reducing spatially varying noise due to the grain structure of material in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation. Grain noises have an un-correlation property, while flaw echoes are correlated. Thus, adaptive filtering algorithms use the correlation properties of signals to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the output signal. In this paper, a multi-stage adaptive noise cancellation (MANC) method using adaptive least mean square error (LMSE) filter for enhancing flaw detection in ultrasonic signals is proposed

  10. Multi Stage Strategies for Single Point Incremental Forming of a Cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Bay, Niels; Endelt, Benny

    2008-01-01

    A five stage forming strategy for forming of a circular cylindrical cup with a height/radius ratio of one is presented. Geometrical relations are discussed and theoretical strains are calculated. The influence of forming direction (upwards or downwards) is investigated for the second stage...... comparing explicit FE analysis with experiments. Good agreement is found between calculated and measured thickness distribution, overall geometry and strains. Using the proposed multi stage strategy it is shown possible to produce a cup with a height close to the radius and side parallel to the symmetry...

  11. Electrochemical synthesis of multi-armed CuO nanoparticles and their remarkable bactericidal potential against waterborne bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Pratibha, E-mail: rkpratibha@yahoo.com; Merwyn, S.; Agarwal, G. S.; Tripathi, B. K.; Pant, S. C. [Defence Research and Development Establishment (India)

    2012-01-15

    Copper (II) oxide multi-armed nanoparticles composed of 500-1000 nm long radiating nanospicules with 100-200 nm width near the base and 50-100 nm width at the tapered ends and {approx}25 nm thickness were synthesized by electrochemical deposition in the presence of an oxidant followed by calcination at 150 Degree-Sign C. The nanoparticles were characterized using SEM/EDX for morphology and composition, Raman spectroscopy for compound identification, and broth culture method for antibacterial efficacy. The CuO nanoparticles have shown remarkable bactericidal efficacy against Gram-positive and -negative waterborne disease causing bacteria like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. E. coli has been chosen as representative species for waterborne disease causing bacteria. In antibacterial tests 500 {mu}g/mL nano CuO killed 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} CFU/mL E. coli bacteria within 4 h of exposure. Moreover, 8.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} CFU/mL E. coli were killed by 100 and 10 {mu}g/mL nano CuO within 15 min and 4 h of exposure, respectively. Antibacterial activity of nano CuO has been found many-fold compared with commercial bulk CuO. The fate of nanoparticles after antibacterial test has also been studied. The synthesized CuO nanoparticles are expected to have potential antibacterial applications in water purification and in paints and coatings used on frequently touched surfaces and fabrics in hospital settings.

  12. Inspection logistics planning for multi-stage production systems with applications to semiconductor fabrication lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kyle Dakai

    Since the market for semiconductor products has become more lucrative and competitive, research into improving yields for semiconductor fabrication lines has lately received a tremendous amount of attention. One of the most critical tasks in achieving such yield improvements is to plan the in-line inspection sampling efficiently so that any potential yield problems can be detected early and eliminated quickly. We formulate a multi-stage inspection planning model based on configurations in actual semiconductor fabrication lines, specifically taking into account both the capacity constraint and the congestion effects at the inspection station. We propose a new mixed First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS) and Last-Come-First-Serve (LCFS) discipline for serving the inspection samples to expedite the detection of potential yield problems. Employing this mixed FCFS and LCFS discipline, we derive approximate expressions for the queueing delays in yield problem detection time and develop near-optimal algorithms to obtain the inspection logistics planning policies. We also investigate the queueing performance with this mixed type of service discipline under different assumptions and configurations. In addition, we conduct numerical tests and generate managerial insights based on input data from actual semiconductor fabrication lines. To the best of our knowledge, this research is novel in developing, for the first time in the literature, near-optimal results for inspection logistics planning in multi-stage production systems with congestion effects explicitly considered.

  13. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2016-10-24

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m2 at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg.

  14. Modelling and Control of the Multi-Stage Cable Pulley-Driven Flexible-Joint Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsaen Pitakwatchara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the task space impedance control of a robot driven through a multi-stage nonlinear flexible transmission system. Specifically, a two degrees-of-freedom cable pulley-driven flexible-joint robot is considered. Realistic modelling of the system is developed within the bond graph modelling framework. The model captures the nonlinear compliance behaviour of the multi-stage cable pulley transmission system, the spring effect of the augmented counterbalancing mechanism, the major loss throughout the system elements, and the typical inertial dynamics of the robot. Next, a task space impedance controller based on limited information about the angle and the current of the motors is designed. The motor current is used to infer the transmitted torque, by which the motor inertia may be modulated. The motor angle is employed to estimate the stationary distal robot link angle and the robot joint velocity. They are used in the controller to generate the desired damping force and to shape the potential energy of the flexible joint robot system to the desired configuration. Simulation and experimental results of the controlled system signify the competency of the proposed control law.

  15. Multi-stage fuzzy PID power system automatic generation controller in deregulated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Shayanfar, H.A.; Jalili, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-stage fuzzy proportional integral derivative (PID) type controller is proposed to solve the automatic generation control (AGC) problem in a deregulated power system that operates under deregulation based on the bilateral policy scheme. In each control area, the effects of the possible contracts are treated as a set of new input signals in a modified traditional dynamical model. The multi-stage controller uses the fuzzy switch to blend a proportional derivative (PD) fuzzy logic controller with an integral fuzzy logic input. The proposed controller operates on fuzzy values passing the consequence of a prior stage on to the next stage as fact. The salient advantage of this strategy is its high insensitivity to large load changes and disturbances in the presence of plant parameter variations and system nonlinearities. This newly developed strategy leads to a flexible controller with simple structure that is easy to implement, and therefore, it can be useful for the real world power systems. The proposed method is tested on a three area power system with different contracted scenarios under various operating conditions. The results of the proposed controller are compared with those of the classical fuzzy PID type controller and classical PID controller through some performance indices to illustrate its robust performance

  16. Simulation and analysis of multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine enantiomers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wen; Kewen Tang; Jicheng Zhou; Panliang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the interfacial ligand exchange model and the law of conservation of mass, the multi-stage enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction model has been established to analyze and discuss on multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine (PGL) enantiomers. The influence of phase ratio, extractant concentra-tion, and PF6−concentration on the concentrations of enantiomers in the extract and raffinate was investigated by experiment and simulation. A good agreement between model and experiment was obtained. On this basis, the influence of many parameters such as location of stage, concentration levels, extractant excess, and number of stages on the symmetric separation performance was simulated. The optimal location of feed stage is the middle of fractional extraction equipment. The feed flow must satisfy a restricted relationship on flow ratios and the liquid throughout of centrifugal device. For desired purity specification, the required flow ratios decrease with extractant concentration and increase with PF6−concentration. When the number of stages is 18 stages at extractant excess of 1.0 or 14 stages at extractant excess of 2.0, the eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach to 99%.

  17. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2016-12-15

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m 2  at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical simulation and performance prediction in multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W J; Li, G D; Wang, Y; Cui, Y R; Yin, G; Peng, S

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the inner flow field of multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump, the model named QD3-60/4-1.1 was selected. Steady turbulence characteristics of impellers, diffusers and return channel were calculated by Fluent software, the SIMPLEC algorithm and RNG κ-ε turbulence model with sliding mesh technology. Then, the distributions of pressure, velocity and Turbulence kinetic energy was obtained and the distributions of velocity field of a channel were analysed. The results show that the static pressure in impeller is increasing with the increasing of radius. The circumferential component of relative velocity is in the opposite direction of impeller rotating. At the same radius, the component value of pressure surface is larger than suction surface. With the increasing of flow rate, absolute velocity and relative velocity flow angle are becoming small, in opposite of the relative velocity and absolute velocity flow angle. The high turbulent zone of impeller is located in the gap of impellers and diffusers. Flow similarity and structure similarity of the multi-stage submersible pump are confirmed

  19. Multi-staged robotic stereotactic radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Chuxiong; Solberg, Timothy D.; Hrycushko, Brian; Medin, Paul; Whitworth, Louis; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a multi-staged robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivery technique for the treatment of large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The treatment planning process and strategies to optimize both individual and composite dosimetry are discussed. Methods: Eleven patients with large (30.7 ± 19.2 cm 3 ) AVMs were selected for this study. A fiducial system was designed for fusion of targets between planar angiograms and simulation CT scans. AVMs were contoured based on single contrast CT, MRI and orthogonal angiogram images. AVMs were divided into 3–8 sub-target volumes (3–7 cm 3 ) for sequential treatment at 1–4 week intervals to a prescription dose of 16–20 Gy. Forward and inversely developed treatment plans were optimized for 95% coverage of the total AVM volume by dose summation from each sub-volume, while minimizing dose to surrounding tissues. Dose-volume analysis was used to evaluate the PTV coverage, dose conformality (CI), and R 50 and V 12Gy parameters. Results: The treatment workflow was commissioned and able to localize within 1 mm. Inverse optimization outperformed forward planning for most patients for each index considered. Dose conformality was shown comparable to staged Gamma Knife treatments. Conclusion: The CyberKnife system is shown to be a practical delivery platform for multi-staged treatments of large AVMs using forward or inverse planning techniques

  20. Multi-stage volcanic island flank collapses with coeval explosive caldera-forming eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James E; Cassidy, Michael; Talling, Peter J

    2018-01-18

    Volcanic flank collapses and explosive eruptions are among the largest and most destructive processes on Earth. Events at Mount St. Helens in May 1980 demonstrated how a relatively small (300 km 3 ), but can also occur in complex multiple stages. Here, we show that multistage retrogressive landslides on Tenerife triggered explosive caldera-forming eruptions, including the Diego Hernandez, Guajara and Ucanca caldera eruptions. Geochemical analyses were performed on volcanic glasses recovered from marine sedimentary deposits, called turbidites, associated with each individual stage of each multistage landslide. These analyses indicate only the lattermost stages of subaerial flank failure contain materials originating from respective coeval explosive eruption, suggesting that initial more voluminous submarine stages of multi-stage flank collapse induce these aforementioned explosive eruption. Furthermore, there are extended time lags identified between the individual stages of multi-stage collapse, and thus an extended time lag between the initial submarine stages of failure and the onset of subsequent explosive eruption. This time lag succeeding landslide-generated static decompression has implications for the response of magmatic systems to un-roofing and poses a significant implication for ocean island volcanism and civil emergency planning.

  1. Minimizing coupling loss by selection of twist pitch lengths in multi-stage cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolando, G; Nijhuis, A; Devred, A

    2014-01-01

    The numerical code JackPot-ACDC (van Lanen et al 2010 Cryogenics 50 139–48, van Lanen et al 2011 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21 1926–9, van Lanen et al 2012 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 025012) allows fast parametric studies of the electro-magnetic performance of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs). In this paper the code is applied to the analysis of the relation between twist pitch length sequence and coupling loss in multi-stage ITER-type CICCs. The code shows that in the analysed conductors the coupling loss is at its minimum when the twist pitches of the successive cabling stages have a length ratio close to one. It is also predicted that by careful selection of the stage-to-stage twist pitch ratio, CICCs cabled according to long twist schemes in the initial stages can achieve lower coupling loss than conductors with shorter pitches. The result is validated by AC loss measurements performed on prototype conductors for the ITER Central Solenoid featuring different twist pitch sequences. (paper)

  2. Free-face-Assisted Rock Breaking Method Based on the Multi-stage Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Cutterhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qi; Wei, Zhengying; Meng, Hao; Macias, Francisco Javier; Bruland, Amund

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve the rock breaking efficiency of hard rock tunnel boring, many innovative rock breaking methods have been proposed (e.g., the water jet cutting, the high-power laser cutting, the impact-rotary drilling, and the undercutting method). However, most of the methods are not applicable to TBMs due to some structural reasons. Aiming on this problem, a free-face-assisted rock breaking method based on the multi-stage TBM cutterhead has been proposed. Series of proof-of-concept tests includes (1) the static compression test with vertical free face and (2) the rotary cutting tests in different free surface conditions were designed and carried out. The results show that the rock breaking force and efficiency can be significantly reduced and improved, respectively, with the assistance of the free face, due to the failure of the rock close to the free face is tensile-dominated failure. The influencing distance of the free face in the radial direction is at least 330 mm which covers about 5 disk cutters. Finally, the general structure of a small two-stage cutterhead (4 m in diameter) was tentatively designed in order to provide a possible approach to apply the free-face effect to TBMs.

  3. Stall/surge dynamics of a multi-stage air compressor in response to a load transient of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Ali; Brouwer, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    A better understanding of turbulent unsteady flows in gas turbine systems is necessary to design and control compressors for hybrid fuel cell-gas turbine systems. Compressor stall/surge analysis for a 4 MW hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system for locomotive applications is performed based upon a 1.7 MW multi-stage air compressor. Control strategies are applied to prevent operation of the hybrid SOFC-GT beyond the stall/surge lines of the compressor. Computational fluid dynamics tools are used to simulate the flow distribution and instabilities near the stall/surge line. The results show that a 1.7 MW system compressor like that of a Kawasaki gas turbine is an appropriate choice among the industrial compressors to be used in a 4 MW locomotive SOFC-GT with topping cycle design. The multi-stage radial design of the compressor enhances the ability of the compressor to maintain air flow rate during transient step-load changes. These transient step-load changes are exhibited in many potential applications for SOFC/GT systems. The compressor provides sustained air flow rate during the mild stall/surge event that occurs due to the transient step-load change that is applied, indicating that this type of compressor is well-suited for this hybrid application.

  4. Biodegradable and adjustable sol-gel glass based hybrid scaffolds from multi-armed oligomeric building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascholke, Christian; Hendrikx, Stephan; Flath, Tobias; Kuzmenka, Dzmitry; Dörfler, Hans-Martin; Schumann, Dirk; Gressenbuch, Mathias; Schulze, F Peter; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-11-01

    Biodegradability is a crucial characteristic to improve the clinical potential of sol-gel-derived glass materials. To this end, a set of degradable organic/inorganic class II hybrids from a tetraethoxysilane(TEOS)-derived silica sol and oligovalent cross-linker oligomers containing oligo(d,l-lactide) domains was developed and characterized. A series of 18 oligomers (Mn: 1100-3200Da) with different degrees of ethoxylation and varying length of oligoester units was established and chemical composition was determined. Applicability of an established indirect rapid prototyping method enabled fabrication of a total of 85 different hybrid scaffold formulations from 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane-functionalized macromers. In vitro degradation was analyzed over 12months and a continuous linear weight loss (0.2-0.5wt%/d) combined with only moderate material swelling was detected which was controlled by oligo(lactide) content and matrix hydrophilicity. Compressive strength (2-30MPa) and compressive modulus (44-716MPa) were determined and total content, oligo(ethylene oxide) content, oligo(lactide) content and molecular weight of the oligomeric cross-linkers as well as material porosity were identified as the main factors determining hybrid mechanics. Cytocompatibility was assessed by cell culture experiments with human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASC). Cell migration into the entire scaffold pore network was indicated and continuous proliferation over 14days was found. ALP activity linearly increased over 2weeks indicating osteogenic differentiation. The presented glass-based hybrid concept with precisely adjustable material properties holds promise for regenerative purposes. Adaption of degradation kinetics toward physiological relevance is still an unmet challenge of (bio-)glass engineering. We therefore present a glass-derived hybrid material with adjustable degradation. A flexible design concept based on degradable multi-armed oligomers was combined with an

  5. Parallel, multi-stage processing of colors, faces and shapes in macaque inferior temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Visual-object processing culminates in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. To assess the organization of IT, we measured fMRI responses in alert monkey to achromatic images (faces, fruit, bodies, places) and colored gratings. IT contained multiple color-biased regions, which were typically ventral to face patches and, remarkably, yoked to them, spaced regularly at four locations predicted by known anatomy. Color and face selectivity increased for more anterior regions, indicative of a broad hierarchical arrangement. Responses to non-face shapes were found across IT, but were stronger outside color-biased regions and face patches, consistent with multiple parallel streams. IT also contained multiple coarse eccentricity maps: face patches overlapped central representations; color-biased regions spanned mid-peripheral representations; and place-biased regions overlapped peripheral representations. These results suggest that IT comprises parallel, multi-stage processing networks subject to one organizing principle. PMID:24141314

  6. Simulated dynamic response of a multi-stage compressor with variable molecular weight flow medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Dale A.

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical model of a multi-stage compressor with variable molecular weight flow medium is derived. The modeled system consists of a five stage, six cylinder, double acting, piston type compressor. Each stage is followed by a water cooled heat exchanger which serves to transfer the heat of compression from the gas. A high molecular weight gas (CFC-12) mixed with air in varying proportions is introduced to the suction of the compressor. Condensation of the heavy gas may occur in the upper stage heat exchangers. The state equations for the system are integrated using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) for determining the system's dynamic and steady state characteristics under varying operating conditions.

  7. Multi-stage full waveform inversion strategy for 2D elastic VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2015-08-19

    One of the most important issues in the multi-parametric full waveform inversion (FWI) is to find an optimal parameterization, which helps us recover the subsurface anisotropic parameters as well as seismic velocities, with minimal tradeoff. As a result, we analyze three different parameterizations for elastic VTI media in terms of the influence of the S-waves on the gradient direction for c13, the spatial coverage of gradient direction and the degree of trade-offs between the parameters. Based on the dependency results, we design a multi-stage elastic VTI FWI strategy to enhance both the spatial coverage of the FWI and the robustness to the trade-offs among the parameters as well as FWI for the c13 structure.

  8. Analysis of fatigue reliability for high temperature and high pressure multi-stage decompression control valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long; Xu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Lifang; Xu, Xiaogang

    2018-03-01

    Based on stress-strength interference theory to establish the reliability mathematical model for high temperature and high pressure multi-stage decompression control valve (HMDCV), and introduced to the temperature correction coefficient for revising material fatigue limit at high temperature. Reliability of key dangerous components and fatigue sensitivity curve of each component are calculated and analyzed by the means, which are analyzed the fatigue life of control valve and combined with reliability theory of control valve model. The impact proportion of each component on the control valve system fatigue failure was obtained. The results is shown that temperature correction factor makes the theoretical calculations of reliability more accurate, prediction life expectancy of main pressure parts accords with the technical requirements, and valve body and the sleeve have obvious influence on control system reliability, the stress concentration in key part of control valve can be reduced in the design process by improving structure.

  9. Decomposition and (importance) sampling techniques for multi-stage stochastic linear programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infanger, G.

    1993-11-01

    The difficulty of solving large-scale multi-stage stochastic linear programs arises from the sheer number of scenarios associated with numerous stochastic parameters. The number of scenarios grows exponentially with the number of stages and problems get easily out of hand even for very moderate numbers of stochastic parameters per stage. Our method combines dual (Benders) decomposition with Monte Carlo sampling techniques. We employ importance sampling to efficiently obtain accurate estimates of both expected future costs and gradients and right-hand sides of cuts. The method enables us to solve practical large-scale problems with many stages and numerous stochastic parameters per stage. We discuss the theory of sharing and adjusting cuts between different scenarios in a stage. We derive probabilistic lower and upper bounds, where we use importance path sampling for the upper bound estimation. Initial numerical results turned out to be promising.

  10. Simulation studies of a possible multi-stage XFEL at ELETTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawley, William M.; Barletta, William A.; Bocchetta, Carlo J.; Bonifacio, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Presently there is strong interest in developing a 4th generation light source at VUV and soft x-ray wavelengths at the ELETTRA facility at Trieste. One proposal centers around using the existing linac at 1.0 GeV energy with a new photocathode and bunch compression to achieve an output beam at 600 Amp current, 2-4 mm-mrad normalized emittance, and 0.05 percent instantaneous energy spread. To achieve output radiation in the 10- to 40-nm wavelength region, we consider a multi-stage device which is initiated by a coherent seed laser operating at 200 nm. We present numerical simulations of various undulator/optical-klystron configurations, seeking to optimize the overall output power level while minimizing the total length of undulator sections needed. Our results suggest multi-MW instantaneous powers are possible at 10-nm wavelengths

  11. An integrated multi-stage supply chain inventory model with imperfect production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumita Kundu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an integrated multi-stage supply chain inventory model with the objective of cost minimization by synchronizing the replenishment decisions for procurement, production and delivery activities. The supply chain structure examined here consists of a single manufacturer with multi-buyer where manufacturer orders a fixed quantity of raw material from outside suppliers, processes the materials and delivers the finished products in unequal shipments to each customer. In this paper, we consider an imperfect production system, which produces defective items randomly and assumes that all defective items could be reworked. A simple algorithm is developed to obtain an optimal production policy, which minimizes the expected average total cost of the integrated production-inventory system.

  12. Hydrodynamic and mechanical tests of a newly improved counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gheorghe; Mirica, Dumitru; Croitoru, Cornelia; Stefanescu, Ioan; Retegan, Teodora

    2003-01-01

    Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separation and the selective partitioning of actinide from high level waste (HLW) are nowadays of major interest. Actinide partitioning with a view to safe disposing of HLW or utilization in many other applications of recovered elements involves an extraction process usually carried out by means of a mixer-settler, pulse column or centrifugal contactor. This last, presents some doubtless advantages and responds to the above mentioned goals. A new type of counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor has been designed and built. Similar apparatus was not found in the literature published to-date. The counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor is a stainless steel cylinder with an effective length of 346 mm, the effective diameter of 100 mm and a volume of 1.5 liters, working in horizontal position. The new internal structure and geometry of the new advanced centrifugal extractor consisting of nine cells (units), five rotation units, two mixing units, two propelling units and two final plates, ensures the counter-current running of the two phases.The central shaft having the rotation cells fixed on it is coupled by an intermediary connection to a electric motor of high rotation speed. Conceptual layout of the advanced counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor is presented. The newly designed extractor has been tested at 1000-3000 rot/min for a ratio of the aqueous/organic phase =1 to examine the mechanical behavior and the hydrodynamics of the two phases in countercurrent. The results showed that the performances have been generally good and the design requirements were fulfilled. The newly designed counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor appears to be a promising way to increase extraction rate of radionuclides and metals from liquid effluents. (authors)

  13. An examination of adaptive cellular protective mechanisms using a multi-stage carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schollnberger, H.; Stewart, R. D.; Mitchel, R. E. J.; Hofmann, W.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-stage cancer model that describes the putative rate-limiting steps in carcinogenesis was developed and used to investigate the potential impact on lung cancer incidence of the hormesis mechanisms suggested by Feinendegen and Pollycove. In this deterministic cancer model, radiation and endogenous processes damage the DNA of target cells in the lung. Some fraction of the misrepaired our unrepaired DNA damage induces genomic instability and, ultimately, leads to the accumulation of malignant cells. The model accounts for cell birth and death processes. Ita also includes a rate of malignant transformation and a lag period for tumour formation. Cellular defence mechanisms are incorporated into the model by postulating dose and dose rate dependent radical scavenging. The accuracy of DNA damage repair also depends on dose and dose rate. Sensitivity studies were conducted to identify critical model inputs and to help define the shapes of the cumulative lung cancer incidence curves that may arise when dose and dose rate dependent cellular defence mechanisms are incorporated into a multi-stage cancer model. For lung cancer, both linear no-threshold (LNT) and non-LNT shaped responses can be obtained. The reported studied clearly show that it is critical to know whether or not and to what extent multiply damaged DNA sites are formed by endogenous processes. Model inputs that give rise to U-shaped responses are consistent with an effective cumulative lung cancer incidence threshold that may be as high as 300 mGy (4 mGy per year for 75 years). (Author) 11 refs

  14. New improved counter - current multi-stage centrifugal extractor for solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, Ionita; Mirica, Dumitru; Croitoru, Cornelia; Stefanescu, Ioan; Retegan, Teodora; Kitamoto, Asashi

    2003-01-01

    Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separation and selective partitioning of actinide from high level waste (HLW) are nowadays of a major interest. Actinide partitioning with a view to safe disposing of HLW or utilization in many other applications of recovered elements involves an extraction process usually by means of mixer-settler, pulse column or centrifugal contactor. The latter, presents some doubtless advantages and responds to the above mentioned goals. A new type of counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor has been designed and performed. A similar apparatus was not found from in other published papers as yet. The counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor was a cylinder made of stainless steel with an effective length of 346 mm, the effective diameter of 100 mm and a volume of 1.5 liters, working in a horizontal position. The new internal structure and geometry of the new advanced centrifugal extractor consisting of nine cells (units), five rotation units, two mixing units, two propelling units and two final plates, ensures the counter-current running of the two phases.The central shaft having the rotation cells fixed on it is coupled by an intermediary connection to a electric motor of high rotation speed. The conceptual layout of the advanced counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor is presented. The newly designed extractor has been tested at 500-2800 rot/min for a ratio of the aqueous/organic phase =1 to examine the mechanical behavior and the hydrodynamics of the two phases in countercurrent. The results showed that the performances have been generally good and the design requirements were fulfilled. The newly designed counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor appears to be a promising way to increase extraction rate of radionuclides and metals from liquid effluents. (authors)

  15. Kinetics of the pyrolysis of arundo, sawdust, corn stover and switch grass biomass by thermogravimetric analysis using a multi-stage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biney, Paul O; Gyamerah, Michael; Shen, Jiacheng; Menezes, Bruna

    2015-03-01

    A new multi-stage kinetic model has been developed for TGA pyrolysis of arundo, corn stover, sawdust and switch grass that accounts for the initial biomass weight (W0). The biomass were decomposed in a nitrogen atmosphere from 23°C to 900°C in a TGA at a single 20°C/min ramp rate in contrast with the isoconversion technique. The decomposition was divided into multiple stages based on the absolute local minimum values of conversion derivative, (dx/dT), obtained from DTG curves. This resulted in three decomposition stages for arundo, corn stover and sawdust and four stages for switch grass. A linearized multi-stage model was applied to the TGA data for each stage to determine the pre-exponential factor, activation energy, and reaction order. The activation energies ranged from 54.7 to 60.9 kJ/mol, 62.9 to 108.7 kJ/mol, and 18.4 to 257.9 kJ/mol for the first, second and the third decomposition stages respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....

  17. Simplified Multi-Stage and Per Capita Convergence: an analysis of two climate regimes for differentiation of commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen MGJ den; Berk MM; Lucas P; KMD

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft een analyse van twee post-Kyoto regimes voor lastenverdeling in het internationale klimaatbeleid: 1. de Multi-stage benadering, waarbij landen op grond van hoofdelijk inkomen en emissies worden ingedeeld in groepen met verschillende typen van doelstellingen (stadia). 2. de

  18. Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (vagmed) module, multi-stage vagmed systems, and vagmed processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Francis, Lijo

    2016-01-01

    Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (VAGMED) modules, and multi-stage VAGMED systems and processes using the modules are provided. In an embodiment, the membrane distillation modules (10) can comprise: a) a condenser (12) including a condensation surface (15); b) a first passageway (13) having an inlet for receiving a first feed stream (14) and an outlet through which the first stream can pass out of the first passageway, the first passageway configured to bring the first feed stream into thermal communication with the condensation surface; c) an evaporator (17) including a permeable evaporation surface allowing condensable gas to pass there through; d) a second passageway (18) having an inlet for receiving a second feed stream (19) and an outlet through which the second feed stream can pass out of the second passageway, the second passageway configured to bring the second feed stream into communication with the permeable evaporation surface; and e) an enclosure (24) providing a vacuum compartment within which the condenser, the evaporator and the first and second passageways of the module are contained.

  19. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  20. Lymphoma diagnosis in histopathology using a multi-stage visual learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Noel; Moradi, Mehdi; Matasar, Matt; Sveda-Mahmood, Tanveer; Smith, John R.

    2016-03-01

    This work evaluates the performance of a multi-stage image enhancement, segmentation, and classification approach for lymphoma recognition in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histopathology slides of excised human lymph node tissue. In the first stage, the original histology slide undergoes various image enhancement and segmentation operations, creating an additional 5 images for every slide. These new images emphasize unique aspects of the original slide, including dominant staining, staining segmentations, non-cellular groupings, and cellular groupings. For the resulting 6 total images, a collection of visual features are extracted from 3 different spatial configurations. Visual features include the first fully connected layer (4096 dimensions) of the Caffe convolutional neural network trained from ImageNet data. In total, over 200 resultant visual descriptors are extracted for each slide. Non-linear SVMs are trained over each of the over 200 descriptors, which are then input to a forward stepwise ensemble selection that optimizes a late fusion sum of logistically normalized model outputs using local hill climbing. The approach is evaluated on a public NIH dataset containing 374 images representing 3 lymphoma conditions: chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Results demonstrate a 38.4% reduction in residual error over the current state-of-art on this dataset.

  1. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-15

    Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (vagmed) module, multi-stage vagmed systems, and vagmed processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-06-30

    Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (VAGMED) modules, and multi-stage VAGMED systems and processes using the modules are provided. In an embodiment, the membrane distillation modules (10) can comprise: a) a condenser (12) including a condensation surface (15); b) a first passageway (13) having an inlet for receiving a first feed stream (14) and an outlet through which the first stream can pass out of the first passageway, the first passageway configured to bring the first feed stream into thermal communication with the condensation surface; c) an evaporator (17) including a permeable evaporation surface allowing condensable gas to pass there through; d) a second passageway (18) having an inlet for receiving a second feed stream (19) and an outlet through which the second feed stream can pass out of the second passageway, the second passageway configured to bring the second feed stream into communication with the permeable evaporation surface; and e) an enclosure (24) providing a vacuum compartment within which the condenser, the evaporator and the first and second passageways of the module are contained.

  3. INFLUENCE OF NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENT ON SCALE DEPOSITION IN MULTI-STAGE FLASH THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman E Al-Rawajfeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation represents a major operational problem encountered in thermal desalination plants. In current installed plants, and to allow for a reasonable safety margin, sulfate scale deposition limits the top brine temperature (TBT in multi-stage flash (MSF distillers up to 110-112oC. This has significant effect on the unit capital, operational and water production cost. In this work, the influence of nanofiltration (NF pretreatment on the scale deposition potential and increasing TBT in MSF thermal desalination plants is modeled on the basis of mass transfer with chemical reaction of solutes in the brine. Full and partial NF-pretreatment of the feed water were investigated. TBT can be increased in MSF by increasing the percentage of NF-treated feed. Full NF pretreatment of the make-up allows TBT in the MSF plant to be raised up to 175oC in the case of di hybrid NF-MSF and up to 165oC in the case of tri hybrid NF-RO-MSF. The significant scale reduction is associated with increasing flashing range, unit recovery, unit performance, and will lead to reduction in heat transfer surface area, pumping power and therefore, water production cost.

  4. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of annular seals and rotor systems in multi-stage pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qinglei; Zhai, Lulu; Wang, Leqin; Wu, Dazhuan

    2013-01-01

    Annular seals play an important role in determining the vibrational behavior of rotors in multi-stage pumps. To determine the critical speeds and unbalanced responses of rotor systems which consider annular seals, a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method was developed, and the numerical method was verified by experiments conducted on a model rotor. In a typical FSI process, rotor systems are modeled based on a node-element method, and the motion equations are expressed in a type of matrix. To consider the influence of annular seals, dynamic coefficients of annular seals were introduced into the motion equations through matrix transformation. The test results of the model rotor showed good agreement with the calculated results. Based on the FSI method proposed here, the governing equations of annular seals were solved in two different ways. The results showed that the Childs method is more accurate in predicting a rotor's critical speed. The critical speeds of the model rotor were calculated at different clearance sizes and length/diameter ratios. Tilting coefficients of long seals were added to the dynamic coefficients to consider the influence of tilting. The critical speeds reached their maximum value when the L/D ratio was around 1.25, and tilting enhanced the rotor's stability when long annular seals were located in either end of the shaft.

  5. An Optimization Model for Kardeh Reservoir Operation Using Interval-Parameter, Multi-stage, Stochastic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rastegaripour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates water allocation of Kardeh Reservoir to domestic and agricultural users using an Interval Parameter, Multi-stage, Stochastic Programming (IMSLP under uncertainty. The advantages of the method include its dynamics nature, use of a pre-defined policy in its optimization process, and the use of interval parameter and probability under uncertainty conditions. Additionally, it offers different decision-making alternatives for different scenarios of water shortage. The required data were collected from Khorasan Razavi Regional Water Organization and from the Water and Wastewater Co. for the period 1988-2007. Results showed that, under the worst conditions, the water deficits expected to occur for each of the next 3 years will be 1.9, 2.55, and 3.11 million cubic meters for the domestic use and 0.22, 0.32, 0.75 million cubic meters for irrigation. Approximate reductions of 0.5, 0.7, and 1 million cubic meters in the monthly consumption of the urban community and enhanced irrigation efficiencies of about 6, 11, and 20% in the agricultural sector are recommended as approaches for combating the water shortage over the next 3 years.

  6. Dynamic multi-stage dispatch of isolated wind–diesel power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yu; Morales, Juan M.; Pineda, Salvador; Sánchez, María Jesús; Solana, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal decision-making model for isolated hybrid wind–diesel power system is proposed. • Wind power uncertainty and conditional operating cost are considered. • Battery wear cost of the energy storage system is included in the model. • The results are compared with deterministic dispatch strategies. - Abstract: An optimal dispatch strategy is crucial for an isolated wind–diesel power system to save diesel fuel and maintain the system stability. The uncertainty associated with the stochastic character of the wind is, though, a challenging problem for this optimization. In this paper, a dynamic multi-stage decision-making model is proposed to determine the diesel power output that minimizes the cost of running and maintaining the wind–diesel power system. Optimized operational decisions for each time period are generated dynamically considering the path-dependent nature of the optimal dispatch policy, given the plausible future realizations of the wind power production. A numerical case study is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the proposed stochastic dynamic optimization model significantly outperforms the traditional deterministic dispatch strategies

  7. Process analysis and mechanism of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B.Q. [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2002-07-01

    The mechanism of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal was probed through detailed analysis of products of hydropyrolysis with different holding methods. The results showed that the holding method significantly affects the product distributions, thus making an apparent difference in hydrogen utilization efficiency. The holding temperature should be about 350-500{degree}C during which more free radicals are produced rapidly. Pore-riched structures are formed at the holding stage at 350{degree}C due to the evolution of large amount of volatiles, which is favorable to the subsequent hydrogenation reaction. The holding at a low temperature favors the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen-containing groups, leading to the formation of phenol and avoiding the formation of water at a high temperature. The cleavage of chemical bonds in the char is mainly dependent-on the pyrolysis temperature. The effect of holding stage is to change the distribution and components of products via stabilizing the free radicals and hydrogenating the heavier products.

  8. Multi-stage identification scheme for detecting damage in structures under ambient excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Chunxiao; Li, Zhong-Xian; Hao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Structural damage identification methods are critical to the successful application of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to civil engineering structures. The dynamic response of civil engineering structures is usually characterized by high nonlinearity and non-stationarity. Accordingly, an improved Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) method which is adaptive, output-only and applicable to system identification of in-service structures under ambient excitations is developed in this study. Based on this method, a multi-stage damage detection scheme including the detection of damage occurrence, damage existence, damage location and the estimation of damage severity is developed. In this scheme, the improved HHT method is used to analyse the structural acceleration response, the obtained instantaneous frequency detects the instant of damage occurrence, the instantaneous phase is sensitive to minor damage and provides reliable damage indication, and the damage indicator developed based on statistical analysis of the Hilbert marginal spectrum detects damage locations. Finally, the response sampled at the detected damage location is continuously analysed to estimate the damage severity. Numerical and experimental studies of frame structures under ambient excitations are performed. The results demonstrate that this scheme accomplishes the above damage detection functions within one flow. It is robust, time efficient, simply implemented and applicable to the real-time SHM of in-service structures. (paper)

  9. Lower-Order Compensation Chain Threshold-Reduction Technique for Multi-Stage Voltage Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dell’ Anna

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel threshold-compensation technique for multi-stage voltage multipliers employed in low power applications such as passive and autonomous wireless sensing nodes (WSNs powered by energy harvesters. The proposed threshold-reduction technique enables a topological design methodology which, through an optimum control of the trade-off among transistor conductivity and leakage losses, is aimed at maximizing the voltage conversion efficiency (VCE for a given ac input signal and physical chip area occupation. The conducted simulations positively assert the validity of the proposed design methodology, emphasizing the exploitable design space yielded by the transistor connection scheme in the voltage multiplier chain. An experimental validation and comparison of threshold-compensation techniques was performed, adopting 2N5247 N-channel junction field effect transistors (JFETs for the realization of the voltage multiplier prototypes. The attained measurements clearly support the effectiveness of the proposed threshold-reduction approach, which can significantly reduce the chip area occupation for a given target output performance and ac input signal.

  10. Design considerations for a pressure-driven multi-stage rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Steven Craig

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using propellant tank pressurization to eliminate the use of high-pressure turbopumps in multi-stage liquid-fueled satellite launchers. Several new technologies were examined to reduce the mass of such a rocket. Composite materials have a greater strength-to-weight ratio than metals and can be used to reduce the weight of rocket propellant tanks and structure. Catalytically combined hydrogen and oxygen can be used to heat pressurization gas, greatly reducing the amount of gas required. Ablatively cooled rocket engines can reduce the complexity and cost of the rocket. Methods were derived to estimate the mass of the various rocket components. These included a method to calculate the amount of gas needed to pressurize a propellant tank by modeling the behavior of the pressurization gas as the liquid propellant flows out of the tank. A way to estimate the mass and size of a ablatively cooled composite cased rocket engine. And a method to model the flight of such a rocket through the atmosphere in conjunction with optimization of the rockets trajectory. The results show that while a liquid propellant rocket using tank pressurization are larger than solid propellant rockets and turbopump driven liquid propellant rockets, they are not impractically large.

  11. Lower-Order Compensation Chain Threshold-Reduction Technique for Multi-Stage Voltage Multipliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell' Anna, Francesco; Dong, Tao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Azadmehr, Mehdi; Casu, Mario; Berg, Yngvar

    2018-04-17

    This paper presents a novel threshold-compensation technique for multi-stage voltage multipliers employed in low power applications such as passive and autonomous wireless sensing nodes (WSNs) powered by energy harvesters. The proposed threshold-reduction technique enables a topological design methodology which, through an optimum control of the trade-off among transistor conductivity and leakage losses, is aimed at maximizing the voltage conversion efficiency (VCE) for a given ac input signal and physical chip area occupation. The conducted simulations positively assert the validity of the proposed design methodology, emphasizing the exploitable design space yielded by the transistor connection scheme in the voltage multiplier chain. An experimental validation and comparison of threshold-compensation techniques was performed, adopting 2N5247 N-channel junction field effect transistors (JFETs) for the realization of the voltage multiplier prototypes. The attained measurements clearly support the effectiveness of the proposed threshold-reduction approach, which can significantly reduce the chip area occupation for a given target output performance and ac input signal.

  12. A Multi-stage Method to Extract Road from High Resolution Satellite Image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhijian, Huang; Zhang, Jinfang; Xu, Fanjiang

    2014-01-01

    Extracting road information from high-resolution satellite images is complex and hardly achieves by exploiting only one or two modules. This paper presents a multi-stage method, consisting of automatic information extraction and semi-automatic post-processing. The Multi-scale Enhancement algorithm enlarges the contrast of human-made structures with the background. The Statistical Region Merging segments images into regions, whose skeletons are extracted and pruned according to geometry shape information. Setting the start and the end skeleton points, the shortest skeleton path is constructed as a road centre line. The Bidirectional Adaptive Smoothing technique smoothens the road centre line and adjusts it to right position. With the smoothed line and its average width, a Buffer algorithm reconstructs the road region easily. Seen from the last results, the proposed method eliminates redundant non-road regions, repairs incomplete occlusions, jumps over complete occlusions, and reserves accurate road centre lines and neat road regions. During the whole process, only a few interactions are needed

  13. Energy management in multi stage evaporator through a steady and dynamic state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Om Prakash; Manik, Gaurav; Mohammed, Toufiq Haji [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2017-10-15

    Increasing energy demand, high cost of energy and global warming issues across the globe require energy intensive industries, such as paper mills to improve energy efficiency. Multi-stage evaporators used to concentrate the black liquor in such mills form its most energy consuming unit and require a strong understanding of steady and unsteady state behavior to ensure energy savings. The modeling of nonlinear heptads’ effect system yielded a set of complex nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that are analyzed using Interior-point method and state space representation. Dynamic response of product concentration and system vapor temperatures along with system stability and controllability have been explored by disturbing the flow rate, concentration and temperature of feed, and fresh steam flow rate. Simulations predict that steam flow rate, feed flow rate and its concentration invariably are major controlling factors (in decreasing order) of vapor temperature and product concentration. The interactive behavior between different effects translates into slower responses of the effects with increasing separation from disturbance source. This steady state and transient study opens many new explanations to this relatively less explored area and helps to propose and implement industrial PID controllers to reduce steam consumption and control product quality.

  14. Computational analyses of spectral trees from electrospray multi-stage mass spectrometry to aid metabolite identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingshu; Fraser, Karl; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2013-10-31

    Mass spectrometry coupled with chromatography has become the major technical platform in metabolomics. Aided by peak detection algorithms, the detected signals are characterized by mass-over-charge ratio (m/z) and retention time. Chemical identities often remain elusive for the majority of the signals. Multi-stage mass spectrometry based on electrospray ionization (ESI) allows collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation of selected precursor ions. These fragment ions can assist in structural inference for metabolites of low molecular weight. Computational investigations of fragmentation spectra have increasingly received attention in metabolomics and various public databases house such data. We have developed an R package "iontree" that can capture, store and analyze MS2 and MS3 mass spectral data from high throughput metabolomics experiments. The package includes functions for ion tree construction, an algorithm (distMS2) for MS2 spectral comparison, and tools for building platform-independent ion tree (MS2/MS3) libraries. We have demonstrated the utilization of the package for the systematic analysis and annotation of fragmentation spectra collected in various metabolomics platforms, including direct infusion mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography coupled with either low resolution or high resolution mass spectrometry. Assisted by the developed computational tools, we have demonstrated that spectral trees can provide informative evidence complementary to retention time and accurate mass to aid with annotating unknown peaks. These experimental spectral trees once subjected to a quality control process, can be used for querying public MS2 databases or de novo interpretation. The putatively annotated spectral trees can be readily incorporated into reference libraries for routine identification of metabolites.

  15. Determination of Process Parameters in Multi-Stage Hydro-Mechanical Deep Drawing by FE Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D. Ravi; Manohar, M.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, analysis has been carried to simulate manufacturing of a near hemispherical bottom part with large depth by hydro-mechanical deep drawing with an aim to reduce the number of forming steps and to reduce the extent of thinning in the dome region. Inconel 718 has been considered as the material due to its importance in aerospace industry. It is a Ni-based super alloy and it is one of the most widely used of all super alloys primarily due to large-scale applications in aircraft engines. Using Finite Element Method (FEM), numerical simulations have been carried out for multi-stage hydro-mechanical deep drawing by using the same draw ratios and design parameters as in the case of conventional deep drawing in four stages. The results showed that the minimum thickness in the final part can be increased significantly when compared to conventional deep drawing. It has been found that the part could be deep drawn to the desired height (after trimming at the final stage) without any severe wrinkling. Blank holding force (BHF) and peak counter pressure have been found to have a strong influence on thinning in the component. Decreasing the coefficient of friction has marginally increased the minimum thickness in the final component. By increasing the draw ratio and optimizing BHF, counter pressure and die corner radius in the simulations, it has been found that it is possible to draw the final part in three stages. It has been found that thinning can be further reduced by decreasing the initial blank size without any reduction in the final height. This reduced the draw ratio at every stage and optimum combination of BHF and counter pressure have been found for the 3-stage process also.

  16. Advanced counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor for solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gheorghe; Mirica, Dumitru; Croitoru, Cornelia; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Mihaila, V.; Peteu, Gh.

    2002-01-01

    Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separation and the selective partitioning of actinide from high level waste (HLW) are nowadays of a major interest. Actinide partitioning with a view to safe disposing of HLW or utilization in many other applications of recovered elements involve an extraction process usually by means of mixer-settler, pulse column or centrifugal contactor. The latter, presents some doubtless advantages and responds to the above mentioned goals. A new type of counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor has been designed and built. The counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor is a stainless steel cylinder with an effective length of 346 mm, the effective diameter of 100 mm and a volume of 1.5 liters, having horizontal position as working position. The new internal structure and geometry of the new advanced centrifugal extractor is shown. It consists of nine cells (units): five rotation units, two mixing units, two propelling units and two final plates which ensures the counter-current running of the two phases. The central shaft having the rotation cells fixed on it is connected to an electric motor of high rotation speed. The extractor has been tested at 1000-3000 rot/min for a ratio of the aqueous/organic phase = 1. The mechanical and hydrodynamic behavior of the two phases in counter-current are described. The results showed that the performances have been generally good. The new facility appears to be a promising idea to increase extraction rate of radionuclides and metals from liquid effluents. (authors)

  17. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crean, Daniel E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R.; Sajih, Mustafa [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  18. Multi-stage high cell continuous fermentation for high productivity and titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Nag-Jong; Kang, Jongwon; Jeong, Chang Moon; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Fei, Qiang; Kim, Byoung Jin; Kwon, Sunhoon; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-05-01

    We carried out the first simulation on multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) to show that the MSC-HCDC can achieve batch/fed-batch product titer with much higher productivity to the fed-batch productivity using published fermentation kinetics of lactic acid, penicillin and ethanol. The system under consideration consists of n-serially connected continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) with either hollow fiber cell recycling or cell immobilization for high cell-density culture. In each CSTR substrate supply and product removal are possible. Penicillin production is severely limited by glucose metabolite repression that requires multi-CSTR glucose feeding. An 8-stage C-HCDC lactic acid fermentation resulted in 212.9 g/L of titer and 10.6 g/L/h of productivity, corresponding to 101 and 429% of the comparable lactic acid fed-batch, respectively. The penicillin production model predicted 149% (0.085 g/L/h) of productivity in 8-stage C-HCDC with 40 g/L of cell density and 289% of productivity (0.165 g/L/h) in 7-stage C-HCDC with 60 g/L of cell density compared with referring batch cultivations. A 2-stage C-HCDC ethanol experimental run showed 107% titer and 257% productivity of the batch system having 88.8 g/L of titer and 3.7 g/L/h of productivity. MSC-HCDC can give much higher productivity than batch/fed-batch system, and yield a several percentage higher titer as well. The productivity ratio of MSC-HCDC over batch/fed-batch system is given as a multiplication of system dilution rate of MSC-HCDC and cycle time of batch/fed-batch system. We suggest MSC-HCDC as a new production platform for various fermentation products including monoclonal antibody.

  19. Nitrogen and phosphorus removed from a subsurface flow multi-stage filtration system purifying agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqi; Huang, Lei; Chen, Yucheng

    2018-07-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The main causes were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides. A multi-stage filtration system was built to test the purification efficiencies and removal characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus when treating agricultural runoff. Simulated runoff pollution was prepared by using river water as source water based on the monitoring of local agricultural runoff. Experimental study had been performed from September to November 2013, adopting 12 h for flooding and 12 h for drying. The results showed that the system was made adaptive to variation of inflow quality and quantity, and had good removal for dissolved total nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and total phosphorus, and the average removal rate was 27%, 36%, 32%, and 48%, respectively. Except nitrate ([Formula: see text]), other forms of nitrogen and phosphorus all decreased with the increase of stages. Nitrogen was removed mainly in particle form the first stage, and mostly removed in dissolved form the second and third stage. Phosphorus was removed mainly in particulate during the first two stages, but the removal of particulate phosphorus and DTP were almost the same in the last stage. An approximate logarithmic relationship between removal loading and influent loading to nitrogen and phosphorus was noted in the experimental system, and the correlation coefficient was 0.78-0.94. [Formula: see text]: ammonium; [Formula: see text]: nitrite; [Formula: see text]: nitrate; DTN: dissolved total nitrogen; TN: total nitrogen; DTP: dissolved total phosphorus; TP: total phosphorus; PN: particulate nitrogen; PP: particulate phosphorus.

  20. Design of an electron injector for multi-stages laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audet, T.

    2016-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) is a particle acceleration process relying on the interaction between high intensity laser pulses, of the order of 10 18 W/cm 2 and a plasma. The plasma wave generated in the laser wake sustain high amplitude electric fields (1- 100 GV/m). Those electric fields are 3 orders of magnitude higher than maximum electric fields in radio frequency cavities and represent the main benefit of LWFA, allowing more compact acceleration. However improvements of the LWFA-produced electron bunches properties, stability and repetition rate are mandatory for LWFA to be usable for applications. A scheme to improve electron bunches properties and to potentially increase the repetition rate is multi-stage LWFA. The laser plasma electron source, called the injector, has to produce relatively low energy (50 - 100 MeV), but high charge, small size and low divergence electron bunches. Produced electron bunches then have to be transported and injected into a second stage to increase electron kinetic energy. The subject of this thesis is to study and design a laser wakefield electron injector for multistage LWFA. In the frame of CILEX and the two-stages LWFA program, a prototype of the injector was built : ELISA consisting in a variable length gas cell. The plasma electronic density, which is a critical parameter for the control of the electron bunches properties, was characterized both experimentally and numerically. ELISA was used at 2 different laser facilities and physical mechanisms linked to electron bunches properties were studied in function of experimental parameters. A range of experimental parameters suitable for a laser wakefield injector was determined. A magnetic transport and diagnostic line was also built, implemented and tested at the UHI100 laser facility of the CEA Saclay. It allowed a more precise characterization of electron bunches generated with ELISA as well as an estimation of the quality of transported electron bunches for their

  1. Multi-stage crypto ransomware attacks: A new emerging cyber threat to critical infrastructure and industrial control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Zimba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The inevitable integration of critical infrastructure to public networks has exposed the underlying industrial control systems to various attack vectors. In this paper, we model multi-stage crypto ransomware attacks, which are today an emerging cyber threat to critical infrastructure. We evaluate our modeling approach using multi-stage attacks by the infamous WannaCry ransomware. The static malware analysis results uncover the techniques employed by the ransomware to discover vulnerable nodes in different SCADA and production subnets, and for the subsequent network propagation. Based on the uncovered artifacts, we recommend a cascaded network segmentation approach, which prioritizes the security of production network devices. Keywords: Critical infrastructure, Cyber-attack, Industrial control system, Crypto ransomware, Vulnerability

  2. Influence of spatial beam inhomogeneities on the parameters of a petawatt laser system based on multi-stage parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, S A; Trunov, V I; Pestryakov, Efim V; Leshchenko, V E

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a technique for investigating the evolution of spatial inhomogeneities in high-power laser systems based on multi-stage parametric amplification. A linearised model of the inhomogeneity development is first devised for parametric amplification with the small-scale self-focusing taken into account. It is shown that the application of this model gives the results consistent (with high accuracy and in a wide range of inhomogeneity parameters) with the calculation without approximations. Using the linearised model, we have analysed the development of spatial inhomogeneities in a petawatt laser system based on multi-stage parametric amplification, developed at the Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ILP SB RAS). (control of laser radiation parameters)

  3. Multi-Stage Flotation for the Removal of Ash from Fine Graphite Using Mechanical and Centrifugal Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangning Bu; Tuantuan Zhang; Yaoli Peng; Guangyuan Xie; Erdong Wu

    2018-01-01

    Graphite ore collected from Hunan province, south China was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Rougher and multi-stage flotation tests using a mechanical flotation cell and a flotation column containing an additional centrifugal force field were carried out to promote its grade and economic value. In rougher flotation, both the mechanical flotation cell and flotation column reduced the ash content of the graphite ore from 15.43% to 10.8%, while the ...

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of single-stage and multi-stage adsorption refrigeration cycles with activated carbon–ammonia working pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.Z.; Wang, L.W.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigerator was analyzed. • COP, exergetic efficiency and entropy production of cycles were calculated. • Single-stage cycle usually has the advantages of simple structure and high COP. • Multi-stage cycles adapt to critical conditions better than single-stage cycle. • Boundary conditions for choosing optimal cycle were summarized as tables. - Abstract: Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigeration cycle was analyzed in this article, which realized deep-freezing for evaporating temperature under −18 °C with heating source temperature much lower than 100 °C. Cycle mathematical models for single, two and three-stage cycles were established on the basis of thorough thermodynamic analysis. According to simulation results of thermodynamic evaluation indicators such as COP (coefficient of performance), exergetic efficiency and cycle entropy production, multi-stage cycle adapts to high condensing temperature, low evaporating temperature and low heating source temperature well. Proposed cycle with selected working pair can theoretically work under very severe conditions, such as −25 °C evaporating temperature, 40 °C condensing temperature, and 70 °C heating source temperature, but under these working conditions it has the drawback of low cycle adsorption quantity. It was found that both COP and exergetic efficiency are of great reference value in the choice of cycle, whereas entropy production is not so useful for cycle stage selection. Finally, the application boundary conditions of single-stage, two-stage, and three-stage cycles were summarized as tables according to the simulation results, which provides reference for choosing optimal cycle under different conditions.

  5. Multi-Stage Flotation for the Removal of Ash from Fine Graphite Using Mechanical and Centrifugal Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangning Bu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite ore collected from Hunan province, south China was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Rougher and multi-stage flotation tests using a mechanical flotation cell and a flotation column containing an additional centrifugal force field were carried out to promote its grade and economic value. In rougher flotation, both the mechanical flotation cell and flotation column reduced the ash content of the graphite ore from 15.43% to 10.8%, while the yield of the flotation column (91.41% was much higher than that of the mechanical flotation cell (50%. In the presence of hydrophobic graphite, the seriously entrained gangue restricted further improvement in the quality and economic value of the graphite ore. Therefore, multi-stage flotation circuits were employed to diminish this entrainment. Multi-stage flotation circuits using the two flotation devices further decreased the ash content of the graphite ore to ~8%, while the yield when using the flotation column was much higher than that obtained from the mechanical flotation cell employed. On the other hand, the ash removal efficiency of the flotation column was 3.82-fold higher than that observed for the mechanical flotation cell. The Cleaner 3 flotation circuit using the flotation column decreased the ash content in graphite from 15.43% to 7.97% with a yield of 77.53%.

  6. Improved productivity of the MSF (multi-stage flashing) desalination plant by increasing the TBT (top brine temperature)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanshik, Chung; Jeong, Hyomin; Jeong, Kwang-Woon; Choi, Soon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The evaporating process is very important in the system concerned with liquid foods, seawater distillation and wastewater treatment, which is to concentrate the aqueous solution by evaporating the pure water usually at a vacuum state. In general, the liquid concentration is performed through the membrane, electro-dialysis, and evaporation; the former are separation process and the latter is the phase change process. In this study, only the thermal process was treated for evaluating the specific energy consumption by changing the operating conditions of an existing MSF (multi-stage flashing) desalination plant, which is still dominant for a large scale distillation plant. This study shows the quantitative energy saving strategy in sweater distillation process and, additionally, indicates that the performance of the multi-stage evaporating system can be increased with the elevation of a TBT (top brine temperature). The calculated results were based on the operating data of the currently installed plants and suggests the alternative to improve the performance of the MSF desalination plant, which means that the energy saving can be achieved only by changing the operating conditions of the existing MSF plants. - Highlights: • Detailed operating principles of an multi-stage flashing (MSF) desalting process. • Improved freshwater productivity by increasing the top brine temperature (TBT). • Increased energy efficiency of an existing MSF plants by the TBT increase.

  7. Effect of proton-conduction in electrolyte on electric efficiency of multi-stage solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshio; Tachikawa, Yuya; Somekawa, Takaaki; Hatae, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical devices that enable the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies under high operating temperatures. The concept of multi-stage electrochemical oxidation using SOFCs has been proposed and studied over the past several decades for further improving the electrical efficiency. However, the improvement is limited by fuel dilution downstream of the fuel flow. Therefore, evolved technologies are required to achieve considerably higher electrical efficiencies. Here we present an innovative concept for a critically-high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of up to 85% based on the lower heating value (LHV), in which a high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation is combined with a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. Switching a solid electrolyte material from a conventional oxide-ion conducting material to a proton-conducting material under the high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation mechanism has proven to be highly advantageous for the electrical efficiency. The DC efficiency of 85% (LHV) corresponds to a net AC efficiency of approximately 76% (LHV), where the net AC efficiency refers to the transmission-end AC efficiency. This evolved concept will yield a considerably higher efficiency with a much smaller generation capacity than the state-of-the-art several tens-of-MW-class most advanced combined cycle (MACC).

  8. NDDP multi-stage flash desalination process simulator design process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashi Kumar, G.N.; Mahendra, A.K.; Sanyal, A.; Gouthaman, G.

    2009-03-01

    The improvement of NDDP-MSF plant's performance ratio (PR) from design value of 9.0 to 13.1 was achieved by optimizing the plant's operating parameters within the feasible zone of operation. This plant has 20% excess heat transfer area over the design condition which helped us to get a PR of 15.1 after optimization. Thus we have obtained, (1) A 45% increase in the output over design value by the optimization carried out with design heat transfer area. (2) A 68% increase in the output over design value by the optimization carried out with increased heat transfer area. This report discusses the approach, methodology and results of the optimization study carried out. A simulator, MSFSIM which predicts the performance of a multi-stage flash (MSF) desalination plant has been coupled with Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimizer. Exhaustive optimization case studies have been conducted on this plant with an objective to increase the performance ratio (PR). The steady state optimization performed was based on obtaining the best stage wise pressure profile to enhance thermal efficiency which in-turn improves the performance ratio. Apart from this, the recirculating brine flow rate was also optimized. This optimization study enabled us to increase the PR of NDDP-MSF plant from design value of 9.0 to an optimized value 13.1. The actual plant is provided with 20% additional heat transfer area over and above the design heat transfer area. Optimization with this additional heat transfer area has taken the PR to 15.1. A desire to maintain equal flashing rates in all of the stages (a feature required for long life of the plant and to avoid cascading effect of non-flashing triggered by any stage) of the MSF plant has also been achieved. The deviation in the flashing rates within stages has been reduced. The startup characteristic of the plant (i.e the variation of stage pressure and the variation of recirculation flow rate with time), have been optimized with a target to minimize the

  9. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  10. Multi-stage IT project evaluation: The flexibility value obtained by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik (2004) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Fathi; Guermazi, Dorra

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a multi-stage information technology investment project, by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik's (2004) model, which takes into account specific features of IT projects and considers the real option to suspend investment at each stage. We present a particular case of the model where the project value is the solution of an optimal control problem with a single state variable. In this case, the model is more intuitive and tractable. The case study confirms the practical potential of the model and highlights the importance of the real-option approach compared to classical discounted cash flow techniques in the valuation of IT projects.

  11. A multi-stage stochastic program for supply chain network redesign problem with price-dependent uncertain demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattahi, Mohammad; Govindan, Kannan; Keyvanshokooh, Esmaeil

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we address a multi-period supply chain network redesign problem in which customer zones have price-dependent stochastic demand for multiple products. A novel multi-stage stochastic program is proposed to simultaneously make tactical decisions including products' prices and strategic...... redesign decisions. Existing uncertainty in potential demands of customer zones is modeled through a finite set of scenarios, described in the form of a scenario tree. The scenarios are generated using a Latin Hypercube Sampling method and then a forward scenario construction technique is employed...

  12. Large-scale multi-stage constructed wetlands for secondary effluents treatment in northern China: Carbon dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Fan, Jinlin; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2018-02-01

    Multi-stage constructed wetlands (CWs) have been proved to be a cost-effective alternative in the treatment of various wastewaters for improving the treatment performance as compared with the conventional single-stage CWs. However, few long-term full-scale multi-stage CWs have been performed and evaluated for polishing effluents from domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of carbon and the effects of the key factors (input loading and temperature) in the large-scale seven-stage Wu River CW polishing domestic WWTP effluents in northern China. The results indicated a significant improvement in water quality. Significant seasonal and spatial variations of organics removal were observed in the Wu River CW with a higher COD removal efficiency of 64-66% in summer and fall. Obvious seasonal and spatial variations of CH 4 and CO 2 emissions were also found with the average CH 4 and CO 2 emission rates of 3.78-35.54 mg m -2 d -1 and 610.78-8992.71 mg m -2 d -1 , respectively, while the higher CH 4 and CO 2 emission flux was obtained in spring and summer. Seasonal air temperatures and inflow COD loading rates significantly affected organics removal and CH 4 emission, but they appeared to have a weak influence on CO 2 emission. Overall, this study suggested that large-scale Wu River CW might be a potential source of GHG, but considering the sustainability of the multi-stage CW, the inflow COD loading rate of 1.8-2.0 g m -2 d -1 and temperature of 15-20 °C may be the suitable condition for achieving the higher organics removal efficiency and lower greenhouse gases (GHG) emission in polishing the domestic WWTP effluent. The obtained knowledge of the carbon dynamics in large-scale Wu River CW will be helpful for understanding the carbon cycles, but also can provide useful field experience for the design, operation and management of multi-stage CW treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. A MULTI-STAGE COLOR MODEL REVISITED: IMPLICATIONS FOR A GENE THERAPY CURE FOR RED-GREEN COLORBLINDNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Katherine; Mauck, Matthew C.; Kuchenbecker, James A.; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2010-01-01

    In 1993, DeValois and DeValois proposed a “multi-stage color model” to explain how the cortex is ultimately able to deconfound the responses of neurons receiving input from three cone types in order to produce separate red-green and blue-yellow systems, as well as segregate luminance percepts (black-white) from color. This model extended the biological implementation of Hurvich and Jameson’s Opponent-Process Theory of color vision, a two-stage model encompassing the three cone types combined ...

  14. Small-angle X-ray Solution Scattering Study of the Multi-aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complex Reveals an Elongated and Multi-armed particle*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, José; Renault, Louis; Pérez, Javier; Mirande, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In animal cells, nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are associated with the three auxiliary proteins p18, p38, and p43 to form a stable and conserved large multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MARS), whose molecular mass has been proposed to be between 1.0 and 1.5 MDa. The complex acts as a molecular hub for coordinating protein synthesis and diverse regulatory signal pathways. Electron microscopy studies defined its low resolution molecular envelope as an overall rather compact, asymmetric triangular shape. Here, we have analyzed the composition and homogeneity of the native mammalian MARS isolated from rabbit liver and characterized its overall internal structure, size, and shape at low resolution by hydrodynamic methods and small-angle x-ray scattering in solution. Our data reveal that the MARS exhibits a much more elongated and multi-armed shape than expected from previous reports. The hydrodynamic and structural features of the MARS are large compared with other supramolecular assemblies involved in translation, including ribosome. The large dimensions and non-compact structural organization of MARS favor a large protein surface accessibility for all its components. This may be essential to allow structural rearrangements between the catalytic and cis-acting tRNA binding domains of the synthetases required for binding the bulky tRNA substrates. This non-compact architecture may also contribute to the spatiotemporal controlled release of some of its components, which participate in non-canonical functions after dissociation from the complex. PMID:23836901

  15. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Removal of hazardous gaseous pollutants from industrial flue gases by a novel multi-stage fluidized bed desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, C R; Adapala, Sivaji; Meikap, B C

    2009-06-15

    Sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds are generated as primary pollutants from the major industries such as sulfuric acid plants, cupper smelters, catalytic cracking units, etc. and cause acid rain. To remove the SO(2) from waste flue gas a three-stage counter-current multi-stage fluidized bed adsorber was developed as desulfurization equipment and operated in continuous bubbling fluidization regime for the two-phase system. This paper represents the desulfurization of gas mixtures by chemical sorption of sulfur dioxide on porous granular calcium oxide particles in the reactor at ambient temperature. The advantages of the multi-stage fluidized bed reactor are of high mass transfer and high gas-solid residence time that can enhance the removal of acid gas at low temperature by dry method. Experiments were carried out in the bubbling fluidization regime supported by visual observation. The effects of the operating parameters such as sorbent (lime) flow rate, superficial gas velocity, and the weir height on SO(2) removal efficiency in the multistage fluidized bed are reported. The results have indicated that the removal efficiency of the sulfur dioxide was found to be 65% at high solid flow rate (2.0 kg/h) corresponding to lower gas velocity (0.265 m/s), wier height of 70 mm and SO(2) concentration of 500 ppm at room temperature.

  17. Application of multi-stage, multi-disk type downhole seismic source; Tadanshiki taso enbangata koseinai shingen no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, N [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoji, Y [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A multi-stage, multi-disk type seismic source was developed as a downhole seismic source. The seismic source is an improved version of the downhole seismic source of a system in which an elastic wave is generated by a weight accelerated by restitutive force of a spring striking the upper part of a laminated structure consisted of metal disks and elastic bodies installed in water in a well. Enhancing the vibration exciting efficiency requires impedance radiated from the disks to be increased. The multi-disk structure was adopted because of restrictions on the disk area under the limiting condition of being inside the well. Further limitation has still existed, which led to finally structuring the multi-disk type to a multi-stage construction to increase the radiated impedance. In order to increase average velocity on the radiation surface, mass relationship between the hammer and the anvil was sought so that the maximum velocity is achieved at the process of converting motion energies among the hammer, anvil and disks. The anvil mass may sufficiently be 50% to 100% of the hammer mass. The equipment was installed in an actual oil well for testing. This seismic source was verified to have sufficient applicability in the cross hole measurement. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Numerical simulations of single and multi-staged injection of H2 in a supersonic scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abu-Farah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a single staged injection of H2 through a central wedge shaped strut and a multi-staged injection through wall injectors are carried out by using Ansys CFX-12 code. Unstructured tetrahedral grids for narrow channel and quarter geometries of the combustor are generated by using ICEM CFD. Steady three-dimensional (3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes (RANS simulations are carried out in the case of no H2 injection and compared with the simulations of single staged pilot and/or main H2 injections and multistage injection. Shear stress transport (SST based on k-ω turbulent model is adopted. Flow field visualization (complex shock waves interactions and static pressure distribution along the wall of the combustor are predicted and compared with the experimental schlieren images and measured wall static pressures for validation. A good agreement is found between the CFD predicted results and the measured data. The narrow and quarter geometries of the combustor give similar results with very small differences. Multi-staged injections of H2 enhance the turbulent H2/air mixing by forming vortices and additional shock waves (bow shocks.

  19. A multi-stage color model revisited: implications for a gene therapy cure for red-green colorblindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Katherine; Mauck, Matthew C; Kuchenbecker, James A; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2010-01-01

    In 1993, DeValois and DeValois proposed a 'multi-stage color model' to explain how the cortex is ultimately able to deconfound the responses of neurons receiving input from three cone types in order to produce separate red-green and blue-yellow systems, as well as segregate luminance percepts (black-white) from color. This model extended the biological implementation of Hurvich and Jameson's Opponent-Process Theory of color vision, a two-stage model encompassing the three cone types combined in a later opponent organization, which has been the accepted dogma in color vision. DeValois' model attempts to satisfy the long-remaining question of how the visual system separates luminance information from color, but what are the cellular mechanisms that establish the complicated neural wiring and higher-order operations required by the Multi-stage Model? During the last decade and a half, results from molecular biology have shed new light on the evolution of primate color vision, thus constraining the possibilities for the visual circuits. The evolutionary constraints allow for an extension of DeValois' model that is more explicit about the biology of color vision circuitry, and it predicts that human red-green colorblindness can be cured using a retinal gene therapy approach to add the missing photopigment, without any additional changes to the post-synaptic circuitry.

  20. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Sonderman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses. One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density 920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23, 6.49, as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11. This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  1. A new method in predicting productivity of multi-stage fractured horizontal well in tight gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The generally accomplished technique for horizontal wells in tight gas reservoirs is by multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, not to mention, the flow characteristics of a horizontal well with multiple transverse fractures are very intricate. Conventional methods, well as an evaluation unit, are difficult to accurately predict production capacity of each fracture and productivity differences between wells with a different number of fractures. Thus, a single fracture sets the minimum evaluation unit, matrix, fractures, and lateral wellbore model that are then combined integrally to approximate horizontal well with multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in tight gas reservoirs. This paper presents a new semi-analytical methodology for predicting the production capacity of a horizontal well with multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in tight gas reservoirs. Firstly, a mathematical flow model used as a medium, which is disturbed by finite conductivity vertical fractures and rectangular shaped boundaries, is established and explained by the Fourier integral transform. Then the idea of a single stage fracture analysis is incorporated to establish linear flow model within a single fracture with a variable rate. The Fredholm integral numerical solution is applicable for the fracture conductivity function. Finally, the pipe flow model along the lateral wellbore is adapted to couple multi-stages fracture mathematical models, and the equation group of predicting productivity of a multi-stage fractured horizontal well. The whole flow process from the matrix to bottom-hole and production interference between adjacent fractures is also established. Meanwhile, the corresponding iterative algorithm of the equations is given. In this case analysis, the productions of each well and fracture are calculated under the different bottom-hole flowing pressure, and this method also contributes to obtaining the distribution of pressure drop and production for every

  2. Study of gas production from shale reservoirs with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing horizontal well considering multiple transport mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Development of unconventional shale gas reservoirs (SGRs) has been boosted by the advancements in two key technologies: horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. A large number of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells (MsFHW) have been drilled to enhance reservoir production performance. Gas flow in SGRs is a multi-mechanism process, including: desorption, diffusion, and non-Darcy flow. The productivity of the SGRs with MsFHW is influenced by both reservoir conditions and hydraulic fracture properties. However, rare simulation work has been conducted for multi-stage hydraulic fractured SGRs. Most of them use well testing methods, which have too many unrealistic simplifications and assumptions. Also, no systematical work has been conducted considering all reasonable transport mechanisms. And there are very few works on sensitivity studies of uncertain parameters using real parameter ranges. Hence, a detailed and systematic study of reservoir simulation with MsFHW is still necessary. In this paper, a dual porosity model was constructed to estimate the effect of parameters on shale gas production with MsFHW. The simulation model was verified with the available field data from the Barnett Shale. The following mechanisms have been considered in this model: viscous flow, slip flow, Knudsen diffusion, and gas desorption. Langmuir isotherm was used to simulate the gas desorption process. Sensitivity analysis on SGRs’ production performance with MsFHW has been conducted. Parameters influencing shale gas production were classified into two categories: reservoir parameters including matrix permeability, matrix porosity; and hydraulic fracture parameters including hydraulic fracture spacing, and fracture half-length. Typical ranges of matrix parameters have been reviewed. Sensitivity analysis have been conducted to analyze the effect of the above factors on the production performance of SGRs. Through comparison, it can be found that hydraulic fracture

  3. A multi-stage oil-water-separating process design for the sea oil spill recovery robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-ge; Wu, Jian-guo; Lin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiao-ming

    2018-03-01

    Oil spill have the most common pollution to the marine ecological environment. In the late stage of physical method recovery, because of the thin oil and the strong sea breeze, the recovery vessels has low efficiency and high energy consumption. This paper develops a multi-stage oil-water-separating process carried by the sea oil spill recovery robot in severe conditions. This design consists of three separation process, among which both the first and third process adopt corrugated sheets horizontal oil-water separator, while the second is hydraulic rotary breaker. This design also equiptment with rectifier and cyclone separator and other important components. This process has high flexibility and high recovery efficiency. The implement effect is significant.

  4. Flexible Design and Operation of Multi-Stage Flash (MSF Desalination Process Subject to Variable Fouling and Variable Freshwater Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Alforjani Said

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes how the design and operation parameters of the Multi-Stage Flash (MSF desalination process are optimised when the process is subject to variation in seawater temperature, fouling and freshwater demand throughout the day. A simple polynomial based dynamic seawater temperature and variable freshwater demand correlations are developed based on actual data which are incorporated in the MSF mathematical model using gPROMS models builder 3.0.3. In addition, a fouling model based on stage temperature is considered. The fouling and the effect of noncondensable gases are incorporated into the calculation of overall heat transfer co-efficient for condensers. Finally, an optimisation problem is developed where the total daily operating cost of the MSF process is minimised by optimising the design (no of stages and the operating (seawater rejected flowrate and brine recycle flowrate parameters.

  5. Erratum to: A multi-stage genome-wide association study of uterine fibroids in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Jeff, Janina M; Wise, Lauren A; Gallagher, C Scott; Wellons, Melissa; Hartmann, Katherine E; Jones, Sarah F; Torstenson, Eric S; Dickinson, Scott; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Rohland, Nadin; Allen, Alexander; Reich, David; Tandon, Arti; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Mancuso, Nicholas; Im, Hae Kyung; Hinds, David A; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Denny, Joshua C; Roden, Dan M; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Morton, Cynthia C; Kenny, Eimear E; Edwards, Todd L; Velez Edwards, Digna R

    2017-11-01

    The article "A multi-stage genome-wide association study of uterine fibroids in African Americans", written by Jacklyn N. Hellwege, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 136, issue 10, page 1363-1373 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to © The Author(s) 2017 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

  6. PATIENT-CENTRED SCREENING FOR PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY, A MULTI-STAGE DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOL DESIGNED FOR NONIMMUNOLOGISTS: 2011 UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Vries

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Members of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID and other colleagues have updated themulti-stage expert-opinion-based diagnostic protocol for non-immunologists incorporating newly defined primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs. The protocol presented here aims to increase the awareness of PIDs among doctors working in different fields. Prompt identification of PID is important for prognosis, but this may not be an easy task. The protocol therefore starts from the clinical presentation of the patient. Because PIDs may present at all ages, this protocol is aimed at both adult and paediatric physicians. The multi-stage design allows cost-effective screening for PID of the large number of potential cases in the early phases, with more expensive tests reserved for definitive classification in collaboration with a specialist in the field of immunodeficiency at a later stage.

  7. Total water production capacity inversion phenomenon in multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation: A theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-09-09

    The low thermal efficiency and low water production are among the major challenges that prevent membrane distillation (MD) process from being commercialized. In an effort to design an efficient multi-stage direct contact MD (DCMD) unit through mathematical simulation, a new phenomenon that we refer to as total water production capacity inversion (WPI) has been detected. It is represented by a decrease in the total water production beyond a number of stages or a certain module length. WPI phenomenon, which was confirmed by using two different mathematical models validated experimentally, was found to take place due to the decrease in water vapor flux across the membrane as well as the increase in heat loss by conduction as the membrane length increases. Therefore, WPI should be considered as a critical MD design-criterion, especially for large scale units. Investigations conducted for a simulated multi-stage DCMD process showed that inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, feed and permeate flow rates, and feed salinity have different effects on WPI. The number of stages (or module length at constant width) that leads to a maximum water production has been determined for different operating parameters. Decreasing inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, or inlet feed and permeate flow rates and increasing inlet feed temperature at constant temperature difference or inlet feed salinity cause the WPI to take place at lower number of stages. Even though the feed salinity affects negligibly the mean permeate flux, it was clearly shown that it can affect WPI. The results presented herein unveil a hidden phenomenon that is likely to occur during process scale-up procedures and should be considered by process engineers for a proper choice of system design and operating conditions.

  8. Analysis of a Multi-component Multi-stage Malaria Vaccine Candidate--Tackling the Cocktail Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Boes

    Full Text Available Combining key antigens from the different stages of the P. falciparum life cycle in the context of a multi-stage-specific cocktail offers a promising approach towards the development of a malaria vaccine ideally capable of preventing initial infection, the clinical manifestation as well as the transmission of the disease. To investigate the potential of such an approach we combined proteins and domains (11 in total from the pre-erythrocytic, blood and sexual stages of P. falciparum into a cocktail of four different components recombinantly produced in plants. After immunization of rabbits we determined the domain-specific antibody titers as well as component-specific antibody concentrations and correlated them with stage specific in vitro efficacy. Using purified rabbit immune IgG we observed strong inhibition in functional in vitro assays addressing the pre-erythrocytic (up to 80%, blood (up to 90% and sexual parasite stages (100%. Based on the component-specific antibody concentrations we calculated the IC50 values for the pre-erythrocytic stage (17-25 μg/ml, the blood stage (40-60 μg/ml and the sexual stage (1.75 μg/ml. While the results underline the feasibility of a multi-stage vaccine cocktail, the analysis of component-specific efficacy indicates significant differences in IC50 requirements for stage-specific antibody concentrations providing valuable insights into this complex scenario and will thereby improve future approaches towards malaria vaccine cocktail development regarding the selection of suitable antigens and the ratios of components, to fine tune overall and stage-specific efficacy.

  9. Screening wells by multi-scale grids for multi-stage Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Hani; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2018-01-01

    /production wells, aiming at accurate breakthrough capturing as well as above mentioned efficiency goals. However this short time simulation needs fine-scale structure of the geological model around wells and running a fine-scale model is not as cheap as necessary for screening steps. On the other hand applying...... it on a coarse-scale model declines important data around wells and causes inaccurate results, particularly accurate breakthrough capturing which is important for prediction applications. Therefore we propose a multi-scale grid which preserves the fine-scale model around wells (as well as high permeable regions...... and fractures) and coarsens rest of the field and keeps efficiency and accuracy for the screening well stage and coarse-scale simulation, as well. A discrete wavelet transform is used as a powerful tool to generate the desired unstructured multi-scale grid efficiently. Finally an accepted proposal on coarse...

  10. Large-scale and Long-duration Simulation of a Multi-stage Eruptive Solar Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, chaowei; Hu, Qiang; Wu, S. T.

    2015-04-01

    We employ a data-driven 3D MHD active region evolution model by using the Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) numerical method. This newly developed model retains the full MHD effects, allowing time-dependent boundary conditions and time evolution studies. The time-dependent simulation is driven by measured vector magnetograms and the method of MHD characteristics on the bottom boundary. We have applied the model to investigate the coronal magnetic field evolution of AR11283 which was characterized by a pre-existing sigmoid structure in the core region and multiple eruptions, both in relatively small and large scales. We have succeeded in producing the core magnetic field structure and the subsequent eruptions of flux-rope structures (see https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/96898685/large.mp4 for an animation) as the measured vector magnetograms on the bottom boundary evolve in time with constant flux emergence. The whole process, lasting for about an hour in real time, compares well with the corresponding SDO/AIA and coronagraph imaging observations. From these results, we show the capability of the model, largely data-driven, that is able to simulate complex, topological, and highly dynamic active region evolutions. (We acknowledge partial support of NSF grants AGS 1153323 and AGS 1062050, and data support from SDO/HMI and AIA teams).

  11. Multi-Stage Hybrid Rocket Conceptual Design for Micro-Satellites Launch using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yosuke; Kitagawa, Koki; Nakamiya, Masaki; Kanazaki, Masahiro; Shimada, Toru

    The multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is applied to the multi-disciplinary conceptual design problem for a three-stage launch vehicle (LV) with a hybrid rocket engine (HRE). MOGA is an optimization tool used for multi-objective problems. The parallel coordinate plot (PCP), which is a data mining method, is employed in the post-process in MOGA for design knowledge discovery. A rocket that can deliver observing micro-satellites to the sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) is designed. It consists of an oxidizer tank containing liquid oxidizer, a combustion chamber containing solid fuel, a pressurizing tank and a nozzle. The objective functions considered in this study are to minimize the total mass of the rocket and to maximize the ratio of the payload mass to the total mass. To calculate the thrust and the engine size, the regression rate is estimated based on an empirical model for a paraffin (FT-0070) propellant. Several non-dominated solutions are obtained using MOGA, and design knowledge is discovered for the present hybrid rocket design problem using a PCP analysis. As a result, substantial knowledge on the design of an LV with an HRE is obtained for use in space transportation.

  12. Optimization of multi-stage dynamic treatment regimes utilizing accumulated data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelin; Choi, Sangbum; Wang, Lu; Thall, Peter F

    2015-11-20

    In medical therapies involving multiple stages, a physician's choice of a subject's treatment at each stage depends on the subject's history of previous treatments and outcomes. The sequence of decisions is known as a dynamic treatment regime or treatment policy. We consider dynamic treatment regimes in settings where each subject's final outcome can be defined as the sum of longitudinally observed values, each corresponding to a stage of the regime. Q-learning, which is a backward induction method, is used to first optimize the last stage treatment then sequentially optimize each previous stage treatment until the first stage treatment is optimized. During this process, model-based expectations of outcomes of late stages are used in the optimization of earlier stages. When the outcome models are misspecified, bias can accumulate from stage to stage and become severe, especially when the number of treatment stages is large. We demonstrate that a modification of standard Q-learning can help reduce the accumulated bias. We provide a computational algorithm, estimators, and closed-form variance formulas. Simulation studies show that the modified Q-learning method has a higher probability of identifying the optimal treatment regime even in settings with misspecified models for outcomes. It is applied to identify optimal treatment regimes in a study for advanced prostate cancer and to estimate and compare the final mean rewards of all the possible discrete two-stage treatment sequences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A Multi-stage Representation of Cell Proliferation as a Markov Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christian A; Ford, Matthew J; Mort, Richard L

    2017-12-01

    The stochastic simulation algorithm commonly known as Gillespie's algorithm (originally derived for modelling well-mixed systems of chemical reactions) is now used ubiquitously in the modelling of biological processes in which stochastic effects play an important role. In well-mixed scenarios at the sub-cellular level it is often reasonable to assume that times between successive reaction/interaction events are exponentially distributed and can be appropriately modelled as a Markov process and hence simulated by the Gillespie algorithm. However, Gillespie's algorithm is routinely applied to model biological systems for which it was never intended. In particular, processes in which cell proliferation is important (e.g. embryonic development, cancer formation) should not be simulated naively using the Gillespie algorithm since the history-dependent nature of the cell cycle breaks the Markov process. The variance in experimentally measured cell cycle times is far less than in an exponential cell cycle time distribution with the same mean.Here we suggest a method of modelling the cell cycle that restores the memoryless property to the system and is therefore consistent with simulation via the Gillespie algorithm. By breaking the cell cycle into a number of independent exponentially distributed stages, we can restore the Markov property at the same time as more accurately approximating the appropriate cell cycle time distributions. The consequences of our revised mathematical model are explored analytically as far as possible. We demonstrate the importance of employing the correct cell cycle time distribution by recapitulating the results from two models incorporating cellular proliferation (one spatial and one non-spatial) and demonstrating that changing the cell cycle time distribution makes quantitative and qualitative differences to the outcome of the models. Our adaptation will allow modellers and experimentalists alike to appropriately represent cellular

  14. Wood harvesting as chunkwood chips and multi-stage chipping; Puun korjuu palahakkeena ja monivaiheinen lastuaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.

    1996-12-31

    The task for the year 1995 was to define the preliminary results of the previous years, to measure the productivity of a harvester, designed for production of chunkwood, and the properties of the chunks. The costs of the PALAPUU method from the felling site to pulpwood chips were to be examined on this basis. Because the prototype of the harvester was not yet available for field tests, the costs were partially calculated on the basis of previous measurements, completed by productivity data obtained from the time-consumption measurements of a multi-tree harvester, applied with minor alteration for this purpose. According to the calculations the PALAPUU method cannot compete with partial-tree or shortwood methods. The profitability of the method could be improved by adding the transportation density and the productivity of the harvester. It is also possible to procure timber to the mill as partial-trees and to chunk it while feeding it into the drum. Chipping tests were made using the steel-frame-chipper owned by VTT Construction Technology. The blade construction of the chipper was changed so, that it was possible to adjust the cutting thickness of the chips to 4 mm, while in the previous mill-tests it had been 6 mm. The chips were used for cooking tests in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The results showed that the thinner chips were cooked further under the same cooking conditions. By using the chunkwood method it is possible to harvest 10-70 more biomass for the mills, than it is possible in the pulpwood harvesting

  15. Wood harvesting as chunkwood chips and multi-stage chipping; Puun korjuu palahakkeena ja monivaiheinen lastuaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H; Seppaenen, V

    1997-12-31

    The task for the year 1995 was to define the preliminary results of the previous years, to measure the productivity of a harvester, designed for production of chunkwood, and the properties of the chunks. The costs of the PALAPUU method from the felling site to pulpwood chips were to be examined on this basis. Because the prototype of the harvester was not yet available for field tests, the costs were partially calculated on the basis of previous measurements, completed by productivity data obtained from the time-consumption measurements of a multi-tree harvester, applied with minor alteration for this purpose. According to the calculations the PALAPUU method cannot compete with partial-tree or shortwood methods. The profitability of the method could be improved by adding the transportation density and the productivity of the harvester. It is also possible to procure timber to the mill as partial-trees and to chunk it while feeding it into the drum. Chipping tests were made using the steel-frame-chipper owned by VTT Construction Technology. The blade construction of the chipper was changed so, that it was possible to adjust the cutting thickness of the chips to 4 mm, while in the previous mill-tests it had been 6 mm. The chips were used for cooking tests in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The results showed that the thinner chips were cooked further under the same cooking conditions. By using the chunkwood method it is possible to harvest 10-70 more biomass for the mills, than it is possible in the pulpwood harvesting

  16. A probabilistic approach to the management of multi-stage multicriteria process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Bugaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, any production process is viewed as the primary means of profit and competitiveness, in other words, becomes the dominant process approach. In this approach, the final product production appears network of interconnected processing steps during which the conversion of inputs into outputs, with a stable, accurate executable, high process most efficiently and cost-effectively provides a planned quality. An example is the organization of bread production. For the modern period is characterized by the classical recovery technology that allows to improve the palatability of bread, enhance its flavor, longer-lasting freshness. Baking is a process to be controlled in order to obtain the required quality parameters of the final product. One of the new and promising methods of quality management processes is a probabilistic method to determine the increase in the probability of release of quality products within the resources allocated for measures to improve the quality level. The paper was applied a quality management concept is based on a probabilistic approach for the multi-step process, which consists in the fact that as one of the main criteria adopted by the probability of release of high-quality products. However, it is obvious that the implementation of certain measures for its improvement requires the connection of certain resources that, first of all, is inevitably associated with certain cash costs. Thus, we arrive at an optimal control problem, which has at least two criteria - probability qualitative completion of the process, which should be maximized and the total costs of the corrective measures that need to be minimized. The authors of the idealized model of optimal control has been developed for the case when a single event affects only a single step. a special case of vector Uorshall-Floyd algorithm was used to optimize the structure of a multi-step process. The use of vector optimization on graphs allowed the authors to

  17. Performance of an effectively integrated biomass multi-stage gasification system and a steel industry heat treatment furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarathne, Duleeka Sandamali; Mellin, Pelle; Yang, Weihong; Pettersson, Magnus; Ljunggren, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-stage biomass gasification is integrated with steel heat treatment furnace. • Fossil fuel derived CO_2 emission is eliminated by replacing natural gas with syngas. • The integrated system uses waste heat from the furnace for biomass gasification. • Up to 13% increment of the gasifier system energy efficiency is observed. • Fuel switching results in 10% lower flue gas loss and improved furnace efficiency. - Abstract: The challenges of replacing fossil fuel with renewable energy in steel industry furnaces include not only reducing CO_2 emissions but also increasing the system energy efficiency. In this work, a multi-stage gasification system is chosen for the integration with a heat treatment furnace in the steel powder industry to recover different rank/temperature waste heat back to the biomass gasification system, resulting higher system energy efficiency. A system model based on Aspen Plus was developed for the proposed integrated system considering all steps, including biomass drying, pyrolysis, gasification and the combustion of syngas in the furnace. Both low temperature (up to 400 °C) and high temperature (up to 700 °C) heat recovery possibilities were analysed in terms of energy efficiency by optimizing the biomass pretreatment temperature. The required process conditions of the furnace can be achieved by using syngas. No major changes to the furnace, combustion technology or flue gas handling system are necessary for this fuel switching. Only a slight revamp of the burner system and a new waste heat recovery system from the flue gases are required. Both the furnace efficiency and gasifier system efficiency are improved by integration with the waste heat recovery. The heat recovery from the hot furnace flue gas for biomass drying and steam superheating is the most promising option from an energy efficiency point of view. This option recovers two thirds of the available waste heat, according to the pinch analysis performed

  18. Multi-stage Continuous Culture Fermentation of Glucose-Xylose Mixtures to Fuel Ethanol using Genetically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-stage continuous (chemostat) culture fermentation (MCCF) with variable fermentor volumes was carried out to study utilizing glucose and xylose for ethanol production by means of mixed sugar fermentation (MSF). Variable fermentor volumes were used to enable enhanced sugar u...

  19. Synthetic TLR4 agonists enhance functional antibodies and CD4+ T-cell responses against the Plasmodium falciparum GMZ2.6C multi-stage vaccine antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldwin, S.L.; Roeffen, W.; Singh, S.K; Tiendrebeogo, R.W.; Christiansen, M.; Beebe, E.; Carter, D.; Fox, C.B.; Howard, R.F.; Reed, S.G.; Sauerwein, R.; Theisen, M.

    2016-01-01

    A subunit vaccine targeting both transmission and pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, i.e., a multi-stage vaccine, could be a powerful tool to combat malaria. Here, we report production and characterization of the recombinant protein GMZ2.6C, which contains a fragment of the

  20. Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer...

  1. Multi-stage En/decoders integrated in low loss Si3N4-SiO2 for incoherent spectral amplitude OCDMA on PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiszoon, B.; Leinse, Arne; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Augustin, L.M.; Klein, E.J.; de Waardt, H.; Khoe, G.D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Emplit, Ph.; Delqué, M.; Gorza, S.-P.; Kockaert, P.; Leijtens, X

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we show and analyze, for the first time, the static performance of integrated multi-stage cascade and tree spectral amplitude OCDMA en/decoders (E/Ds) which are fabricated in the low loss Si3N4–SiO2 material system. Combined with incoherent broad spectral sources these E/Ds enable

  2. Utilization of desulfurization gypsum to producing SO{sub 2} and CaO in multi-stage fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zhu; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hairui; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Zuyi [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    With emission control becomes more and more stringent, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) is commonly employed for desulfurization. However, the product of FGD, gypsum, causes the unexpected environmental problems. How to utilize the byproduct of FGD effectively and economically is a challenging task. This paper proposed the new technical process to produce SO{sub 2} and CaO by reducing the gypsum in multi-stage fluidized bed reactor with different atmosphere. In addition, some preliminary experiments were carried out in PTGA. The results show that CO concentration has little effect on the initial decomposing temperature, but affect the decomposing rate of phosphogypsum obviously. The decomposing product composed of CaS and CaO simultaneously. The ratio of the two products was determined by CO concentration. Lower CO content benefits to produce more CO product and more SO{sub 2}. The decomposition reaction of phosphogypsum in reducing atmosphere is parallel competition reaction. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate the effect of CaS and other byproduct efficiently by the new technology, which utilize multi-atmosphere in multistage fluidized bed reactors.

  3. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-05

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic and thermal feasibility of multi stage flash desalination plant with brine–feed mixing and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazmy, Majed M.

    2014-01-01

    Improving the performance of MSF (multi stage flash) desalination plants is a major challenge for desalination industry. High feed temperature in summer shortens the evaporation range of MSF plants and limits their yield. Installing a cooler at the feed intake expands the evaporation range of MSF plants and increases their yield. Adding a cooler and a mixing chamber increases the capital and operational costs of MSF plants. This paper presents thermal and economic analysis of installing a feed cooler at the plant intake. The profit of selling the additionally produced water must cover the cost of the cooling system. The selling prices for a reasonable breakeven depend on the selected cooling temperature. The cost of installing coolers capable of maintaining feed–brine mixture temperatures of 18–20 °C shows breakeven selling prices of 0.5–0.9 $/m 3 . These prices fall within the current range of potable water selling prices. - Highlights: • Thermo-economic analysis for MSF plant with brine mixing and cooling is presented. • Analysis is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics. • The profit gained from producing additional water covers the cooling cost. • The suggested modification is a promising technique for plants in hot climates

  5. Optimization of material flow in the nuclear fuel cycle using a cyclic multi-stage production-to-inventory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePorter, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is modelled as a cyclic, multi-stage production-to-inventory system. The objective is to meet a known deterministic demand for energy while minimizing acquisition, production, and inventory holding costs for all stages of the fuel cycle. The model allows for cyclic flow (feedback) of materials, material flow conversion factors at each stage, production lag times at each stage, and for escalating costs of uranium ore. It does not allow shortages to occur in inventories. The model is optimized by the application of the calculus of variations and specifically through recently developed theorems on the solution of functionals constrained by inequalities. The solution is a set of optimal cumulative production trajectories which define the stagewise production rates. Analysis of these production rates reveals the optimal nuclear fuel cycle costs and that inventories (stockpiles) occur in uranium fields, enriched uranium hexafluoride, and fabricated fuel assemblies. An analysis of the sensitivity of the model to variation in three important parameters is performed

  6. Multi-Stage Feature Selection by Using Genetic Algorithms for Fault Diagnosis in Gearboxes Based on Vibration Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Cerrada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are growing demands for condition-based monitoring of gearboxes, and techniques to improve the reliability, effectiveness and accuracy for fault diagnosis are considered valuable contributions. Feature selection is still an important aspect in machine learning-based diagnosis in order to reach good performance in the diagnosis system. The main aim of this research is to propose a multi-stage feature selection mechanism for selecting the best set of condition parameters on the time, frequency and time-frequency domains, which are extracted from vibration signals for fault diagnosis purposes in gearboxes. The selection is based on genetic algorithms, proposing in each stage a new subset of the best features regarding the classifier performance in a supervised environment. The selected features are augmented at each stage and used as input for a neural network classifier in the next step, while a new subset of feature candidates is treated by the selection process. As a result, the inherent exploration and exploitation of the genetic algorithms for finding the best solutions of the selection problem are locally focused. The Sensors 2015, 15 23904 approach is tested on a dataset from a real test bed with several fault classes under different running conditions of load and velocity. The model performance for diagnosis is over 98%.

  7. A Risk-Constrained Multi-Stage Decision Making Approach to the Architectural Analysis of Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Pavone, Marco; Balaram, J. (Bob)

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel risk-constrained multi-stage decision making approach to the architectural analysis of planetary rover missions. In particular, focusing on a 2018 Mars rover concept, which was considered as part of a potential Mars Sample Return campaign, we model the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) phase and the rover traverse phase as four sequential decision-making stages. The problem is to find a sequence of divert and driving maneuvers so that the rover drive is minimized and the probability of a mission failure (e.g., due to a failed landing) is below a user specified bound. By solving this problem for several different values of the model parameters (e.g., divert authority), this approach enables rigorous, accurate and systematic trade-offs for the EDL system vs. the mobility system, and, more in general, cross-domain trade-offs for the different phases of a space mission. The overall optimization problem can be seen as a chance-constrained dynamic programming problem, with the additional complexity that 1) in some stages the disturbances do not have any probabilistic characterization, and 2) the state space is extremely large (i.e, hundreds of millions of states for trade-offs with high-resolution Martian maps). To this purpose, we solve the problem by performing an unconventional combination of average and minimax cost analysis and by leveraging high efficient computation tools from the image processing community. Preliminary trade-off results are presented.

  8. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-04-26

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid-latitude meteorological data from Busan, Korea is employed, featuring large climate variation over the course of one year. The number of module stages used by the dynamic operating scheme changes dynamically based on the inlet feed temperature of the successive modules, which results in an improvement of the water production and thermal efficiency. The simulations of the SMDCMD system are carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the feed and permeate temperatures and permeate flux. The monthly average daily water production increases from 0.37m3/day to 0.4m3/day and thermal efficiency increases from 31% to 45% when comparing systems both without and with dynamic operation in December. The water production with respect to collector area ranged from 350m2 to 550m2 and the seawater storage tank volume ranged from 16m3 to 28.8m3, and the solar fraction at various desired feed temperatures from 50°C to 80°C have been investigated in October and December.

  9. A multi-stage traveling-wave thermoacoustically-driven refrigeration system operating at liquefied natural gas temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, K.; Sun, D. M.; Zhang, J.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, N.

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a multi-stage travelling-wave thermoacoustically refrigeration system (TAD-RS) operating at liquefied natural gas temperature, which consists of two thermoacoustic engines (TAE) and one thermoacoustic refrigerator (TAR) in a closed-loop configuration. Three thermoacoustic units connect each other through a resonance tube of small cross-sectional area, achieving “self-matching” for efficient thermoacoustic conversion. Based on the linear thermoacoustic theory, a model of the proposed system has been built by using DeltaEC program to show the acoustic field characteristics and performance. It is shown that with pressurized 5 MPa helium as working gas, the TAEs are able to build a stable and strong acoustic field with a frequency of about 85 Hz. When hot end temperature reaches 923 K, this system can provide about 1410 W cooling power at 110 K with an overall exergy efficiency of 15.5%. This study indicates a great application prospect of TAD-RS in the field of natural gas liquefaction with a large cooling capacity and simple structure.

  10. Multi-arm Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA comparing different durations of adjuvant trastuzumab in early breast cancer, from the English NHS payer perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Clarke

    Full Text Available Trastuzumab improves survival in HER2+ breast cancer patients, with some evidence of adverse cardiac side effects. Current recommendations are to give adjuvant trastuzumab for one year or until recurrence, although trastuzumab treatment for only 9 or 10 weeks has shown similar survival rates to 12-month treatment. We present here a multi-arm joint analysis examining the relative cost-effectiveness of different durations of adjuvant trastuzumab.Network meta-analysis (NMA was used to examine which trials' data to include in the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA. A network using FinHer (9 weeks vs. zero and BCIRG006 (12 months vs. zero trials offered the only jointly randomisable network so these trials were used in the CEA. The 3-arm CEA compared costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs associated with zero, 9-week and 12-month adjuvant trastuzumab durations in early breast cancer, using a decision tree followed by a Markov model that extrapolated the results to a lifetime time horizon. Pairwise incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were also calculated for each pair of regimens and used in budget impact analysis, and the Bucher method was used to check face validity of the findings. Addition of the PHARE trial (6 months vs. 12 months to the network, in order to create a 4-arm CEA including the 6-month regimen, was not possible as late randomisation in this trial resulted in recruitment of a different patient population as evidenced by the NMA findings. The CEA results suggest that 9 weeks' trastuzumab is cost-saving and leads to more QALYs than 12 months', i.e. the former dominates the latter. The cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier (CEAF favours zero trastuzumab at willingness-to-pay levels below £2,500/QALY and treatment for 9 weeks above this threshold. The combination of the NMA and Bucher investigations suggests that the 9-week duration is as efficacious as the 12-month duration for distant-disease-free survival and overall

  11. Experimental Results of the First Two Stages of an Advanced Transonic Core Compressor Under Isolated and Multi-Stage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahst, Patricia S.; Kulkarni, Sameer; Sohn, Ki H.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program calls for investigation of the technology barriers associated with improved fuel efficiency of large gas turbine engines. Under ERA the task for a High Pressure Ratio Core Technology program calls for a higher overall pressure ratio of 60 to 70. This mean that the HPC would have to almost double in pressure ratio and keep its high level of efficiency. The challenge is how to match the corrected mass flow rate of the front two supersonic high reaction and high corrected tip speed stages with a total pressure ratio of 3.5. NASA and GE teamed to address this challenge by using the initial geometry of an advanced GE compressor design to meet the requirements of the first 2 stages of the very high pressure ratio core compressor. The rig was configured to run as a 2 stage machine, with Strut and IGV, Rotor 1 and Stator 1 run as independent tests which were then followed by adding the second stage. The goal is to fully understand the stage performances under isolated and multi-stage conditions and fully understand any differences and provide a detailed aerodynamic data set for CFD validation. Full use was made of steady and unsteady measurement methods to isolate fluid dynamics loss source mechanisms due to interaction and endwalls. The paper will present the description of the compressor test article, its predicted performance and operability, and the experimental results for both the single stage and two stage configurations. We focus the detailed measurements on 97 and 100 of design speed at 3 vane setting angles.

  12. Performance evaluation of a once-through multi-stage flash distillation system: Impact of brine heater fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Hasan; Antar, Mohamed A.; Zubair, Syed M.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) system modeling involves a number of process variables. An estimation of all these process variables requires both analytical solutions and experimental/field analysis. However, the accurate estimate of variables related to the brine heater operation in a MSF system is very important for a reliable operation of the system. For example, steam operating conditions as well as the brine properties including fouling of the brine heater tubes have a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics of the brine heater, which in turn influence the distillate output from the system. In this study, the effect of various design as well as operating conditions on the performance ratio (PR), brine temperature and salinity as it leaves the last flash stage are investigated in a once-through system. Increasing the number of stages from 24 to 32 has a significant effect on the PR, it ranges between 79% (for ΔT = 1.5) and 327% (for ΔT = 2.3) for a top-brine temperature of 106 o C. This value increase as the top-brine temperature increases. Increasing the stage-to-stage temperature difference increases the water salinity as it leaves the final stage and reduces its temperature that would imply better energy utilization within the plant. Results show that brine side heat exchanger fouling has a significant effect in decreasing the overall heat transfer coefficient, which reduces the production rate as the fouling increases with time. A sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters, which can have a significant influence on the desalination plant performance, is carried out in an attempt to contribute a better understanding and operation of MSF desalination processes.

  13. Performance assessment and transient optimization of air precooling in multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, Mohamed; Saghafifar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying three two-stage solid desiccant cooling systems using Maisotsenko cooler. • Proposing precooling to improve two-stage desiccant systems’ COP for humid climates. • Performing transient analysis for a two-stage solid desiccant cooler in UAE. • Optimizing daily performance of a two-stage solid desiccant cooler for UAE. - Abstract: Renewable energy is one of the most promising solutions to both energy and global warming crisis. Energy consumption can be minimized considerably by utilizing solar energy in air conditioning systems operation. One of the popular solar air conditioning technologies is desiccant air conditioning. Nonetheless, conventional desiccant air conditioning systems have a relatively low coefficient of performance (COP). In consequence, two-stage desiccant air-conditioning systems are proposed to improve desiccant air conditioning systems’ COP. Moreover, a recently commercialized cooling method named Maisotsenko cooling cycle which is capable of cooling air near to its dew point temperature is considered to be integrated within the proposed multi-stage desiccant cooling systems. In this paper, three new two-stage desiccant air conditioning systems incorporating Maisotsenko cooling cycle are proposed and investigated in details for hot and humid climates such as UAE. Furthermore, air precooling is considered to improve two stage desiccant air conditioning systems’ COP. Moreover, full transient analysis and optimization are carried out in UAE within June–October. The proposed system can minimize the required solar heating during noon time as the ambient air dry bulb temperature rises. Average COP of the system during electricity load peak hours (10:00–14:00) for all five considered and combined months is 1.77. Average rate of heat input required to operate the system and average building cooling load are determined to be 100.3 kW and 46.2 kW, respectively. Therefore, system average COP is computed to be 0.46.

  14. Investigation of multi-stage cold forward extrusion process using coupled thermo-mechanical finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtan, Mehmet Okan

    2018-05-01

    Cold extrusion processes are distinguished by their low material usage as well as great efficiency in the production of mid-range and large component series. Although majority of the cold extruded parts are produced using die systems containing multiple forming stages, this subject has rarely been investigated so far. Therefore, the characteristics of multi-stage cold forward rod extrusion is studied in the current work using thermo-mechanically coupled finite element (FE) analysis. A case hardening steel, 16MnCr5 (1.7131) was used as experimental material. Its strain, strain rate and temperature dependent mechanical characteristics were determined using compression testing and modeled in FE simulations via a Johnson-Cook material model. Friction coefficients for the same material while in contact with a tool steel (1.2379) were determined dependent on temperature and contact pressure using sliding compression test (SCT) and modeled by an adaptive friction model developed by the author. In the first set of simulations, rod material with a diameter of 14.9 mm was extruded down to a diameter of 9.6 mm in a single step using three different die opening angles (2α); 20°, 40° and 60°. In the second set of investigations, the same rod was reduced first to 12 mm and then to 9.6 mm in two steps within the same forming die. Press forces, contact normal stresses between extruded material and forming die, material temperature and axial stresses are compared in these two set of simulations and the differences are discussed.

  15. [Determination of metformin hydrochloride, melamine and dicyandiamide in metformin hydrochloride preparations by tandem dual solid phase extraction cartridges-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanfen; Wang, Fanghuan; Wang, Zelan; Zhan, Haijuan; Liu, Wanyi; Meng, Zhe

    2018-02-08

    A method for the confirmation and quantification of metformin hydrochloride and its relative substances melamine and dicyandiamide using tandem dual solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS n ) was developed. The samples were extracted with anhydrous ethanol containing 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid under ultrasound-assisted conditions. The extracts were concentrated and purified using Cleanert PCX and C18 tandem dual solid phase extraction cartridges, and eluted with 5% (v/v) ammonia methanol solution. The separation was performed on a Kromasil-C18 column (100 mm×4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) with gradient elution. The detection was performed in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry. The external standard method was used for quantification. The extraction solvents, types of SPE cartridges and eluents were optimized by comparing the recoveries under different conditions. The results showed that the detector response of each target compound was linear in corresponding mass concentration ranges with the correlation coefficients ( r 2 ) ≥ 0.9992. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the three analytes were 1.48-13.61 μg/kg and 5.96-45.67 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of the three analytes were 65.02%-118.33% spiked at low, medium and high levels. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were no more than 13.41%. The method is reliable, easy, and has a better purification effect. The method can be applied to the routine analysis of metformin hydrochloride and its relative substances melamine and dicyandiamide in different preparations of metformin hydrochloride.

  16. Performance of a modified multi-stage bubble column reactor for lead(II) and biological oxygen demand removal from wastewater using activated rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, J.N.; Agarwal, S.; Meikap, B.C.; Biswas, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    The excessive release of wastewater into the environment is a major concern worldwide. Adsorption is the one of the most effective technique for treatment of wastewater. In this work activated carbon prepared from rice husk has been used as an adsorbent. In the present investigation a three phase modified multi-stage bubble column reactor (MMBCR) has been designed to remove lead and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from wastewater by means of its adsorption onto the surface of activated rice husk. The multi-staging has been achieved by hydrodynamically induced continuous bubble generation, breakup and regeneration. Under optimum conditions, maximum lead and BOD reduction achieved using activated rice husk was 77.15% and 19.05%, respectively. Results showed MMBCR offered appreciated potential benefits for lead removal from wastewater and BOD removal, even this extent of removal is encouraging and the MMBCR can be used a pretreatment unit before subjecting the wastewater to biological treatment

  17. Performance of a modified multi-stage bubble column reactor for lead(II) and biological oxygen demand removal from wastewater using activated rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, J N; Agarwal, S; Meikap, B C; Biswas, M N

    2009-01-15

    The excessive release of wastewater into the environment is a major concern worldwide. Adsorption is the one of the most effective technique for treatment of wastewater. In this work activated carbon prepared from rice husk has been used as an adsorbent. In the present investigation a three phase modified multi-stage bubble column reactor (MMBCR) has been designed to remove lead and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from wastewater by means of its adsorption onto the surface of activated rice husk. The multi-staging has been achieved by hydrodynamically induced continuous bubble generation, breakup and regeneration. Under optimum conditions, maximum lead and BOD reduction achieved using activated rice husk was 77.15% and 19.05%, respectively. Results showed MMBCR offered appreciated potential benefits for lead removal from wastewater and BOD removal, even this extent of removal is encouraging and the MMBCR can be used a pretreatment unit before subjecting the wastewater to biological treatment.

  18. Multi-stage classification method oriented to aerial image based on low-rank recovery and multi-feature fusion sparse representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Cheng, Yongmei; Hao, Shuai

    2016-12-10

    Automatic classification of terrain surfaces from an aerial image is essential for an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing at an unprepared site by using vision. Diverse terrain surfaces may show similar spectral properties due to the illumination and noise that easily cause poor classification performance. To address this issue, a multi-stage classification algorithm based on low-rank recovery and multi-feature fusion sparse representation is proposed. First, color moments and Gabor texture feature are extracted from training data and stacked as column vectors of a dictionary. Then we perform low-rank matrix recovery for the dictionary by using augmented Lagrange multipliers and construct a multi-stage terrain classifier. Experimental results on an aerial map database that we prepared verify the classification accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

  19. Multi-stage open peer review: scientific evaluation integrating the strengths of traditional peer review with the virtues of transparency and self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich ePöschl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to the demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public.The advantages of open access, public peer review and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmo¬sphe¬ric Chemistry and Physics (ACP and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU and the open access publisher Copernicus.The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including the life sciences and economics. Multi-stage open peer review can be flexibly adjusted to the needs and peculiarities of different scientific communities. Due to the flexibility and compatibility with traditional structures of scientific publishing and peer review, the multi-stage open peer review concept enables efficient evolution in scientific communication and quality assurance. It has the potential for swift replacement of hidden peer review as the standard of scientific quality assurance, and it provides a basis for open evaluation in

  20. Comparing a single-stage geocoding method to a multi-stage geocoding method: how much and where do they disagree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Kenneth

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geocoding methods vary among spatial epidemiology studies. Errors in the geocoding process and differential match rates may reduce study validity. We compared two geocoding methods using 8,157 Washington State addresses. The multi-stage geocoding method implemented by the state health department used a sequence of local and national reference files. The single-stage method used a single national reference file. For each address geocoded by both methods, we measured the distance between the locations assigned by each method. Area-level characteristics were collected from census data, and modeled as predictors of the discordance between geocoded address coordinates. Results The multi-stage method had a higher match rate than the single-stage method: 99% versus 95%. Of 7,686 addresses were geocoded by both methods, 96% were geocoded to the same census tract by both methods and 98% were geocoded to locations within 1 km of each other by the two methods. The distance between geocoded coordinates for the same address was higher in sparsely populated and low poverty areas, and counties with local reference files. Conclusion The multi-stage geocoding method had a higher match rate than the single-stage method. An examination of differences in the location assigned to the same address suggested that study results may be most sensitive to the choice of geocoding method in sparsely populated or low-poverty areas.

  1. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm for matching problem in the modified miniload automated storage and retrieval system of e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Wu, Yaohua; Wu, Yingying

    2016-05-01

    E-commerce, as an emerging marketing mode, has attracted more and more attention and gradually changed the way of our life. However, the existing layout of distribution centers can't fulfill the storage and picking demands of e-commerce sufficiently. In this paper, a modified miniload automated storage/retrieval system is designed to fit these new characteristics of e-commerce in logistics. Meanwhile, a matching problem, concerning with the improvement of picking efficiency in new system, is studied in this paper. The problem is how to reduce the travelling distance of totes between aisles and picking stations. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed based on statement and model of this problem. The main idea of this algorithm is, with some heuristic strategies based on similarity coefficients, minimizing the transportations of items which can not arrive in the destination picking stations just through direct conveyors. The experimental results based on the cases generated by computers show that the average reduced rate of indirect transport times can reach 14.36% with the application of multi-stage heuristic algorithm. For the cases from a real e-commerce distribution center, the order processing time can be reduced from 11.20 h to 10.06 h with the help of the modified system and the proposed algorithm. In summary, this research proposed a modified system and a multi-stage heuristic algorithm that can reduce the travelling distance of totes effectively and improve the whole performance of e-commerce distribution center.

  2. Novel product ions of 2-aminoanilide and benzimidazole Ag(I) complexes using electrospray ionization with multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Byron S; Burinsky, David J; Burova, Svetlana A; Davis, Roman; Fitzgerald, Russ N; Matsuoka, Richard T

    2012-05-15

    The 2-aminoaniline scaffold is of significant value to the pharmaceutical industry and is embedded in a number of pharmacophores including 2-aminoanilides and benzimidazoles. A novel application of coordination ion spray mass spectrometry (CIS-MS) for interrogating the silver ion (Ag(+)) complexes of a homologous series of these compounds using multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry is described. Unlike the ubiquitous alkali metal ion complexes, Ag(+) complexes of 2-aminoanilides and benzimidazoles were found to yield [M - H](+) ions in significant abundance via gas-phase elimination of the metal hydride (AgH) resulting in unique product ion cascades. Sample introduction was by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis performed on a hybrid linear ion trap/orbitrap instrument capable of high-resolution measurements. Rigorous structural characterization by multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry using [M +  H](+), [M - H](-) and [M - H](+) precursor ions derived from ESI and CIS experiments was performed for the homologous series of 2-aminoanilide and benzimidazole compounds. A full tabular comparison of structural information resulting from these product ion cascades was produced. Multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry of [M - H](+) ions resulting from Ag(+) complexes of 2-aminoanilides and benzimidazoles in CIS-MS experiments produced unique product ion cascades that exhibited complementary structural information to that obtained from tandem mass spectrometry of [M  +  H](+) and [M - H](-) ions by electrospray ionization (ESI). These observations may be broadly applicable to other compounds that are observed to form Ag(+) complexes and eliminate AgH. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Multi-Stage Open Peer Review: Scientific Evaluation Integrating the Strengths of Traditional Peer Review with the Virtues of Transparency and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to all demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public. The advantages of open access, public peer review, and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP, www.atmos-chem-phys.net) and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU, www.egu.eu) and the open access publisher Copernicus (www.copernicus.org). The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. Key features and achievements of this approach are: top quality and impact, efficient self-regulation and low rejection rates, high attractivity and rapid growth, low costs, and financial sustainability. In fact, ACP and the EGU interactive open access sister journals are by most if not all standards more successful than comparable scientific journals with traditional or alternative forms of peer review (editorial statistics, publication statistics, citation statistics, economic costs, and sustainability). The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including

  4. Two technicians apply insulation to S-II second stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    Two technicians apply insulation to the outer surface of the S-II second stage booster for the Saturn V moon rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  5. Optimizing Water Allocation under Uncertain System Conditions for Water and Agriculture Future Scenarios in Alfeios River Basin (Greece—Part B: Fuzzy-Boundary Intervals Combined with Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Bekri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimal water allocation within a river basin still remains a great modeling challenge for engineers due to various hydrosystem complexities, parameter uncertainties and their interactions. Conventional deterministic optimization approaches have given their place to stochastic, fuzzy and interval-parameter programming approaches and their hybrid combinations for overcoming these difficulties. In many countries, including Mediterranean countries, water resources management is characterized by uncertain, imprecise and limited data because of the absence of permanent measuring systems, inefficient river monitoring and fragmentation of authority responsibilities. A fuzzy-boundary-interval linear programming methodology developed by Li et al. (2010 is selected and applied in the Alfeios river basin (Greece for optimal water allocation under uncertain system conditions. This methodology combines an ordinary multi-stage stochastic programming with uncertainties expressed as fuzzy-boundary intervals. Upper- and lower-bound solution intervals for optimized water allocation targets and probabilistic water allocations and shortages are estimated under a baseline scenario and four water and agricultural policy future scenarios for an optimistic and a pessimistic attitude of the decision makers. In this work, the uncertainty of the random water inflows is incorporated through the simultaneous generation of stochastic equal-probability hydrologic scenarios at various inflow positions instead of using a scenario-tree approach in the original methodology.

  6. Effectiveness of a Multi-Stage Networked Organisation for Early Integration of Multiple Perspectives on Emerging and Future Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, M.J.C. van den; Pieneman, R.B.J.; Kuijt, J. van de; Berg, P. van den

    2014-01-01

    In the early phase of the crisis spectrum it is particularly challenging to apply a comprehensive approach. Complexities involve how to reach a shared context and conflict analysis, involve the local perspective, have an explicit Theory of Change and how to deal with political sensitivity. Military

  7. Comparisons of angularly and spectrally resolved Bremsstrahlung measurements to two-dimensional multi-stage simulations of short-pulse laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. D.; Kemp, A. J.; Pérez, F.; Link, A.; Key, M. H.; McLean, H.; Ping, Y.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Beg, F. N.; Chawla, S.; Sorokovikova, A.; Westover, B. [University of California, San Diego (United States); Morace, A. [University of Milan (Italy); Stephens, R. B. [General Atomics (United States); Streeter, M. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    A 2-D multi-stage simulation model incorporating realistic laser conditions and a fully resolved electron distribution handoff has been developed and compared to angularly and spectrally resolved Bremsstrahlung measurements from high-Z planar targets. For near-normal incidence and 0.5-1 × 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} intensity, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict the existence of a high energy electron component consistently directed away from the laser axis, in contrast with previous expectations for oblique irradiation. Measurements of the angular distribution are consistent with a high energy component when directed along the PIC predicted direction, as opposed to between the target normal and laser axis as previously measured.

  8. Factors Affecting Choice in A Multi-Stage Model: The Influence of Saliency and Similarity on Retrieval Set and the Implication of Context Effect on Consideration Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Santosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While it is considered a new paradigm in consumer research, the multi-stage model of consumer decision-making remains unclear as to whether brands are easily retrieved. Likewise, the process of consideration, after particular brands are successfully retrieved, is still in question. This study purports to investigate the effects of saliency and similarity on the ease of retrieval. In addition, referring to some studies of context effect, the effects of attraction, compromise, and assimilation are examined to observe whether they contribute to consideration. A within-subject design is employed in this study. Previously, three preliminary studies are arranged to determine the dominants, new entrants, attributes, and other criteria nominated in the experimental study. The results turn out to be supporting the hypotheses.

  9. Validity and reliability of an application review process using dedicated reviewers in one stage of a multi-stage admissions model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Jacqueline M; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C

    2017-11-01

    With increased emphasis placed on non-academic skills in the workplace, a need exists to identify an admissions process that evaluates these skills. This study assessed the validity and reliability of an application review process involving three dedicated application reviewers in a multi-stage admissions model. A multi-stage admissions model was utilized during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle. After advancing through the academic review, each application was independently reviewed by two dedicated application reviewers utilizing a six-construct rubric (written communication, extracurricular and community service activities, leadership experience, pharmacy career appreciation, research experience, and resiliency). Rubric scores were extrapolated to a three-tier ranking to select candidates for on-site interviews. Kappa statistics were used to assess interrater reliability. A three-facet Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) determined reviewer severity, candidate suitability, and rubric construct difficulty. The kappa statistic for candidates' tier rank score (n = 388 candidates) was 0.692 with a perfect agreement frequency of 84.3%. There was substantial interrater reliability between reviewers for the tier ranking (kappa: 0.654-0.710). Highest construct agreement occurred in written communication (kappa: 0.924-0.984). A three-facet MFRM analysis explained 36.9% of variance in the ratings, with 0.06% reflecting application reviewer scoring patterns (i.e., severity or leniency), 22.8% reflecting candidate suitability, and 14.1% reflecting construct difficulty. Utilization of dedicated application reviewers and a defined tiered rubric provided a valid and reliable method to effectively evaluate candidates during the application review process. These analyses provide insight into opportunities for improving the application review process among schools and colleges of pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy landscape reveals that the budding yeast cell cycle is a robust and adaptive multi-stage process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lv

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively understanding the robustness, adaptivity and efficiency of cell cycle dynamics under the influence of noise is a fundamental but difficult question to answer for most eukaryotic organisms. Using a simplified budding yeast cell cycle model perturbed by intrinsic noise, we systematically explore these issues from an energy landscape point of view by constructing an energy landscape for the considered system based on large deviation theory. Analysis shows that the cell cycle trajectory is sharply confined by the ambient energy barrier, and the landscape along this trajectory exhibits a generally flat shape. We explain the evolution of the system on this flat path by incorporating its non-gradient nature. Furthermore, we illustrate how this global landscape changes in response to external signals, observing a nice transformation of the landscapes as the excitable system approaches a limit cycle system when nutrients are sufficient, as well as the formation of additional energy wells when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated. By taking into account the finite volume effect, we find additional pits along the flat cycle path in the landscape associated with the checkpoint mechanism of the cell cycle. The difference between the landscapes induced by intrinsic and extrinsic noise is also discussed. In our opinion, this meticulous structure of the energy landscape for our simplified model is of general interest to other cell cycle dynamics, and the proposed methods can be applied to study similar biological systems.

  11. Improved multi-stage neonatal seizure detection using a heuristic classifier and a data-driven post-processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A H; Cherian, P J; Dereymaeker, A; Matic, V; Jansen, K; De Wispelaere, L; Dielman, C; Vervisch, J; Swarte, R M; Govaert, P; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S

    2016-09-01

    After identifying the most seizure-relevant characteristics by a previously developed heuristic classifier, a data-driven post-processor using a novel set of features is applied to improve the performance. The main characteristics of the outputs of the heuristic algorithm are extracted by five sets of features including synchronization, evolution, retention, segment, and signal features. Then, a support vector machine and a decision making layer remove the falsely detected segments. Four datasets including 71 neonates (1023h, 3493 seizures) recorded in two different university hospitals, are used to train and test the algorithm without removing the dubious seizures. The heuristic method resulted in a false alarm rate of 3.81 per hour and good detection rate of 88% on the entire test databases. The post-processor, effectively reduces the false alarm rate by 34% while the good detection rate decreases by 2%. This post-processing technique improves the performance of the heuristic algorithm. The structure of this post-processor is generic, improves our understanding of the core visually determined EEG features of neonatal seizures and is applicable for other neonatal seizure detectors. The post-processor significantly decreases the false alarm rate at the expense of a small reduction of the good detection rate. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Loss of p19(Arf facilitates the angiogenic switch and tumor initiation in a multi-stage cancer model via p53-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle B Ulanet

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Arf tumor suppressor acts as a sensor of oncogenic signals, countering aberrant proliferation in large part via activation of the p53 transcriptional program, though a number of p53-independent functions have been described. Mounting evidence suggests that, in addition to promoting tumorigenesis via disruptions in the homeostatic balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis of overt cancer cells, genetic alterations leading to tumor suppressor loss of function or oncogene gain of function can also incite tumor development via effects on the tumor microenvironment. In a transgenic mouse model of multi-stage pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinogenesis (PNET driven by inhibition of the canonical p53 and Rb tumor suppressors with SV40 large T-antigen (Tag, stochastic progression to tumors is limited in part by a requirement for initiation of an angiogenic switch. Despite inhibition of p53 by Tag in this mouse PNET model, concomitant disruption of Arf via genetic knockout resulted in a significantly accelerated pathway to tumor formation that was surprisingly not driven by alterations in tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis, but rather via earlier activation of the angiogenic switch. In the setting of a constitutional p53 gene knockout, loss of Arf also accelerated tumor development, albeit to a lesser degree. These findings demonstrate that Arf loss of function can promote tumorigenesis via facilitating angiogenesis, at least in part, through p53-independent mechanisms.

  13. Machine Learning Multi-Stage Classification and Regression in the Search for Vector-like Quarks and the Neyman Construction in Signal Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Leone, Robert Matthew

    A search for vector-like quarks (VLQs) decaying to a Z boson using multi-stage machine learning was compared to a search using a standard square cuts search strategy. VLQs are predicted by several new theories beyond the Standard Model. The searches used 20.3 inverse femtobarns of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector in 2012 at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. CLs upper limits on production cross sections of vector-like top and bottom quarks were computed for VLQs produced singly or in pairs, Tsingle, Bsingle, Tpair, and Bpair. The two stage machine learning classification search strategy did not provide any improvement over the standard square cuts strategy, but for Tpair, Bpair, and Tsingle, a third stage of machine learning regression was able to lower the upper limits of high signal masses by as much as 50%. Additionally, new test statistics were developed for use in the Neyman construction of confidence regions in order to address deficiencies in c...

  14. Cu deficiency in multi-stage co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} for solar cells applications: Microstructure and Ga in-depth alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, R., E-mail: raquel.caballero@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Izquierdo-Roca, V. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fontane, X. [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, C.A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Alvarez-Garcia, J. [Centre de Recerca i Investigacio de Catalunya (CRIC), Trav. de Gracia 108, 08012 Barcelona (Spain); Eicke, A. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Calvo-Barrio, L. [Lab. Analisis de Superficies, SCT, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rodriguez, A. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Schock, H.W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Morante, J.R. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The objective of this work is to study the influence of the maximum Cu content during the deposition of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) by multi-stage co-evaporation on the phases present in the final film, the film structure and the electrical properties of resulting solar cell devices. The variation of the composition is controlled by the Cu content in stage 2 of the deposition process. The different phases are identified by Raman spectroscopy. The in-depth Ga gradient distribution is investigated by in-depth resolved Raman scattering and secondary neutral mass spectroscopy. The morphology of the devices is studied by scanning electron microscopy. Efficiencies of 9.2% are obtained for ordered-vacancy-compound-based cells with a Cu/(In + Ga) ratio = 0.35, showing the system's flexibility. This work supports the current growth model: a small amount of Cu excess during the absorber process is required to obtain a quality microstructure and high performance devices.

  15. Modeling of Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on a Multi-Stage Gasifier and Internal Combustion Engines of Various Power Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is concerned with an integrated system of internal combustion engine and mini combined heat and power plant (ICE-CHP). The system is based on multi-stage wood biomass gasification. The use of producer gas in the system affects negatively the internal combustion engine performance and, therefore, reduces the efficiency of the ICE-CHP plant. A mathematical model of an internal combustion engine running on low-calorie producer gas was developed using an overview of Russian and foreign manufacturers of reciprocating units, that was made in the research. A thermal calculation was done for four-stroke gas engines of different rated power outputs (30, 100 and 250 kW), running on producer gas (CO2 - 10.2, CO - 45.8, N2 - 38.8%). Thermal calculation demonstrates that the engine exhaust gas temperature reaches 500 - 600°C at the rated power level and with the lower engine power, the temperature gets higher. For example, for an internal combustion engine power of 1000 kW the temperature of exhaust gases equals 400°C. A comparison of the efficiency of engine operation on natural gas and producer gas shows that with the use of producer gas the power output declines from 300 to 250 kWe. The reduction in the effective efficiency in this case makes up 2%. The measures are proposed to upgrade the internal combustion engine to enable it to run on low-calorie producer gas.

  16. Synthetic TLR4 agonists enhance functional antibodies and CD4+ T-cell responses against the Plasmodium falciparum GMZ2.6C multi-stage vaccine antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Roeffen, Will; Singh, Susheel K

    2016-01-01

    A subunit vaccine targeting both transmission and pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, i.e., a multi-stage vaccine, could be a powerful tool to combat malaria. Here, we report production and characterization of the recombinant protein GMZ2.6C, which contains a fragment of the......-γ and TNF in response to GMZ2.6C. Both of these agonists have good safety records in humans....... of the sexual-stage protein Pfs48/45-6C genetically fused to GMZ2, an asexual vaccine antigen in advanced clinical development. To select the most suitable vaccine formulation for downstream clinical studies, GMZ2.6C was tested with various immune modulators in different adjuvant formulations (stable emulsions......, liposomes, and alum) in C57BL/6 mice. Some, but not all, formulations containing either the synthetic TLR4 agonist GLA or SLA elicited the highest parasite-specific antibody titers, the greatest IFN-γ responses in CD4+ TH1 cells, and the highest percentage of multifunctional CD4+ T cells expressing IFN...

  17. Multi-stage thermal-economical optimization of compact heat exchangers: A new evolutionary-based design approach for real-world problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Moslem; Darus, Amer Nordin; Yousefi, Milad; Hooshyar, Danial

    2015-01-01

    The complicated task of design optimization of compact heat exchangers (CHEs) have been effectively performed by using evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in the recent years. However, mainly due to difficulties of handling extra variables, the design approach has been based on constant rates of heat duty in the available literature. In this paper, a new design strategy is presented where variable operating conditions, which better represent real-world problems, are considered. The proposed strategy is illustrated using a case study for design of a plate-fin heat exchanger though it can be employed for all types of heat exchangers without much change. Learning automata based particle swarm optimization (LAPSO), is employed for handling nine design variables while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. For handling the constraints, a novel feasibility based ranking strategy (FBRS) is introduced. The numerical results indicate that the design based on variable heat duties yields in more cost savings and superior thermodynamics efficiency comparing to a conventional design approach. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has shown a superior performance in finding the near-optimum solution for this task when it is compared to the most popular evolutionary algorithms in engineering applications, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). - Highlights: • Multi-stage design of heat exchangers is presented. • Feasibility based ranking strategy is employed for constraint handling. • Learning abilities added to particle swarm optimization

  18. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  19. Preventing recurrence of endometriosis by means of long-acting progestogen therapy (PRE-EMPT): report of an internal pilot, multi-arm, randomised controlled trial incorporating flexible entry design and adaption of design based on feasibility of recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Lee J; Daniels, Jane P; Weckesser, Annalise; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2017-03-11

    Endometriosis is associated with the growth of endometrium in ectopic sites mainly within the pelvis. This results in inflammation and scarring, causing pain and impaired quality of life. Endometriotic lesions can be excised or ablated surgically, but the risk of recurrence is high. A Heath Technology Assessment commissioning call in 2011 sought applications for trials aimed at evaluating long-term effectiveness of postoperative, long-acting, reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in preventing recurrence of endometriosis. A survey of gynaecologists indicated that there was no consensus about which LARC (Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA)) or comparator (combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) or no treatment) should be evaluated. Hence, we designed a 'flexible-entry' internal pilot to assess whether a four-arm trial was feasible including a possible design adaption based on pilot findings. In this pilot, women could be randomised to two, three or four treatment options provided that one was a LARC and one was a non-LARC. An assessment of feasibility based on recruitment to these options and a revised substantive trial design was considered by an independent oversight committee. The study ran for 1 year from April 2014 and 77 women were randomised. Only 5 (6%) women accepted randomisation to all groups, with 63 (82%) having a LARC preference and 55 (71%) a non-LARC preference. Four-way and three-way designs were ruled out with a two-way LARC versus COCP design, stratified by prerandomisation choice of LARC and optional subrandomisation to LNG-IUS versus DMPA considered a feasible substantive study. Multi-arm studies are potentially efficient as they can answer multiple questions simultaneously but are difficult to recruit to if there are strong patient or clinician preferences. A flexible approach to randomisation in a pilot phase can be used to assess feasibility of such studies and modify a trial design

  20. Global Business Literacy in the Classroom: Developing and Applying an Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Jorge A.; McCrea, Elizabeth; Yin, Jason Z.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and applies a framework to evaluate undergraduate Global Business Literacy (GBL) learning outcomes, which is defined here as the ability to adapt and function in the global business context and to be knowledgeable about its core issues and trends. As a first step in a multi-stage research process, we used extant expatriate and…

  1. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  2. Comprehensive multi-stage linkage analyses identify a locus for adult height on chromosome 3p in a healthy Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Duncan, Anna E; Lamantia, Angela; Byrnes, Graham B; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-04-01

    There have been a number of genome-wide linkage studies for adult height in recent years. These studies have yielded few well-replicated loci, and none have been further confirmed by the identification of associated gene variants. The inconsistent results may be attributable to the fact that few studies have combined accurate phenotype measures with informative statistical modelling in healthy populations. We have performed a multi-stage genome-wide linkage analysis for height in 275 adult sibling pairs drawn randomly from the Victorian Family Heart Study (VFHS), a healthy population-based Caucasian cohort. Height was carefully measured in a standardised fashion on regularly calibrated equipment. Following genome-wide identification of a peak Z-score of 3.14 on chromosome 3 at 69 cM, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of this region in an extended sample of 392 two-generation families. We used a number of variance components models that incorporated assortative mating and shared environment effects, and we observed a peak LOD score of approximately 3.5 at 78 cM in four of the five models tested. We also demonstrated that the most prevalent model in the literature gave the worst fit, and the lowest LOD score (2.9) demonstrating the importance of appropriate modelling. The region identified in this study replicates the results of other genome-wide scans of height and bone-related phenotypes, strongly suggesting the presence of a gene important in bone growth on chromosome 3p. Association analyses of relevant candidate genes should identify the genetic variants responsible for the chromosome 3p linkage signal in our population.

  3. A multi-stage process including transient polyploidization and EMT precedes the emergence of chemoresistent ovarian carcinoma cells with a dedifferentiated and pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohnalter, Verena; Roth, Katrin; Finkernagel, Florian; Adhikary, Till; Obert, Julia; Dorzweiler, Kristina; Bensberg, Maike; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-11-24

    DNA-damaging drugs induce a plethora of molecular and cellular alterations in tumor cells, but their interrelationship is largely obscure. Here, we show that carboplatin treatment of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells triggers an ordered sequence of events, which precedes the emergence of mitotic chemoresistant cells. The initial phase of cell death after initiation of carboplatin treatment is followed around day 14 by the emergence of a mixed cell population consisting of cycling, cell cycle-arrested and senescent cells. At this stage, giant cells make up >80% of the cell population, p21 (CDKN1A) in strongly induced, and cell numbers remain nearly static. Subsequently, cell death decreases, p21 expression drops to a low level and cell divisions increase, including regular mitoses of giant cells and depolyploidization by multi-daughter divisions. These events are accompanied by the upregulation of stemness markers and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, peaking after approximately 14 days of treatment. At the same time the cells initiate epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which over the subsequent weeks continuously increases, concomitantly with the emergence of highly proliferative, migratory, dedifferentiated, pro-inflammatory and chemoresistant cells (SKOV3-R). These cells are anchorage-independent and grow in a 3D collagen matrix, while cells on day 14 do not survive under these conditions, indicating that SKOV3-R cells were generated thereafter by the multi-stage process described above. This process was essentially recapitulated with the ovarian carcinoma cell line IGROV-1. Our observations suggest that transitory cells characterized by polyploidy, features of stemness and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype contribute to the acquisition of chemoresistance.

  4. Multi-Stage Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Sugar-Conjugated β-Turn Structures to be Used as Probes in Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, Chiara; Auberger, Nicolas; Rentier, Cédric; Papini, Anna Maria; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Lavielle, Solange; Vinh, Joëlle

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic sugar-modified peptides were identified as antigenic probes in the context of autoimmune diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a mechanistic study on the fragmentation of different glycosylated analogs of a synthetic antigenic probe able to detect antibodies in a subpopulation of multiple sclerosis patients. In particular the N-glucosylated type I' β-turn peptide structure called CSF114(Glc) was used as a model to find signature fragmentations exploring the potential of multi-stage mass spectrometry by MALDI-LTQ Orbitrap. Here we compare the fragmentation of the glucosylated form of the synthetic peptide CSF114(Glc), bearing a glucose moiety on an asparagine residue, with less or non- immunoreactive forms, bearing different sugar-modifications, such as CSF114(GlcNAc), modified with a residue of N-acetylglucosamine, and CSF114[Lys(7)(1-deoxyfructopyranosyl)], this last one modified with a 1-deoxyfructopyranosyl moiety on a lysine at position 7. The analysis was set up using a synthetic compound specifically deuterated on the C-1 to compare its fragmentation with the fragmentation of the undeuterated form, and thus ascertain with confidence the presence on an Asn(Glc) within a peptide sequence. At the end of the study, our analysis led to the identification of signature neutral losses inside the sugar moieties to characterize the different types of glycosylation/glycation. The interest of this study lies in the possibility of applyimg this approach to the discovery of biomarkers and in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Graphical Abstract GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT TEXT HERE] -->.

  5. Experimental investigation of a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Zheng, Hongfei; Ma, Xinglong; Kutlu, Cagri; Su, Yuehong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar desalination system heated directly by curved Fresnel lens concentrator. • Desalination system is based on the humidification-dehumidification process. • Four-stage multi-effect desalination system is proposed. • Condensation latent heat and residual heat in the brine are recycled and reutilized. • The maximum yield and GOR of the unit can reach 3.4 kg/h and 2.1, respectively. - Abstract: This study demonstrates a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification (HDH) solar desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator. In this novel system, the solar radiation is sent directly into desalination unit. That is to say, the solar receiver and the evaporator of the system are a whole in which the black fillers in seawater directly absorb the concentrated solar lights to heat the seawater film to produce the evaporation. The configuration and working processes of the proposed design are described in detail. In order to analyze its performance, a small solar desalination prototype unit incorporated with a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator was designed and built in our laboratory. Using three-stage isothermal tandem heating mode, the variation of the fresh water yield rate and the absorber temperature with time were measured experimentally and were compared with theoretical calculations. The experimental results show that the maximum yield of the unit is about 3.4 kg/h, the maximum gained output ratio (GOR) is about 2.1, when the average intensity of solar radiation is about 867 W/m"2. This study indicates that the proposed system has the characteristics of compact structure and GOR high. It still can be improved when the design and operation are optimized further.

  6. Hydraulic Fracture Induced Seismicity During A Multi-Stage Pad Completion in Western Canada: Evidence of Activation of Multiple, Parallel Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, S.; Garrett, D.; Huang, J.; Usher, P.; Mamer, P.

    2017-12-01

    Following reports of injection induced seismicity in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, regulators have imposed seismic monitoring and traffic light protocols for fracturing operations in specific areas. Here we describe a case study in one of these reservoirs, the Montney Shale in NE British Columbia, where induced seismicity was monitored with a local array during multi-stage hydraulic fracture stimulations on several wells from a single drilling pad. Seismicity primarily occurred during the injection time periods, and correlated with periods of high injection rates and wellhead pressures above fracturing pressures. Sequential hydraulic fracture stages were found to progressively activate several parallel, critically-stressed faults, as illuminated by multiple linear hypocenter patterns in the range between Mw 1 and 3. Moment tensor inversion of larger events indicated a double-couple mechanism consistent with the regional strike-slip stress state and the hypocenter lineations. The critically-stressed faults obliquely cross the well paths which were purposely drilled parallel to the minimum principal stress direction. Seismicity on specific faults started and stopped when fracture initiation points of individual injection stages were proximal to the intersection of the fault and well. The distance ranges when the seismicity occurs is consistent with expected hydraulic fracture dimensions, suggesting that the induced fault slip only occurs when a hydraulic fracture grows directly into the fault and the faults are temporarily exposed to significantly elevated fracture pressures during the injection. Some faults crossed multiple wells and the seismicity was found to restart during injection of proximal stages on adjacent wells, progressively expanding the seismogenic zone of the fault. Progressive fault slip is therefore inferred from the seismicity migrating further along the faults during successive injection stages. An accelerometer was also deployed close

  7. Multi-contaminant analysis of organophosphate and halogenated flame retardants in food matrices using ultrasonication and vacuum assisted extraction, multi-stage cleanup and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuchao; García-Bermejo, Ángel; Malarvannan, Govindan; Gómara, Belén; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-03

    A multi-residue analytical method was developed for the determination of a range of flame retardants (FRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging halogenated FRs (EFRs) and organophosphate FRs (PFRs), in food matrices. An ultrasonication and vacuum assisted extraction (UVAE), followed by a multi-stage clean-up procedure, enabled the removal of up to 1g of lipid from 2.5 g of freeze-dried food samples and significantly reduce matrix effects. UVAE achieves a waste factor (WF) of about 10%, while the WFs of classical QuEChERS methods range usually between 50 and 90%. The low WF of UVAE leads to a dramatic improvement in the sensitivity along with saving up to 90% of spiking (internal) standards. Moreover, a two-stage clean-up on Florisil and aminopropyl silica was introduced after UVAE, for an efficient removal of pigments and residual lipids, which led to cleaner extracts than normally achieved by dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE). In this way, the extracts could be concentrated to low volumes, e.g. analysis of PFRs was performed on GC-EI-MS, while PBDEs and EFRs were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. Validation tests were performed with three food matrices (lean beef, whole chicken egg and salmon filet), obtaining acceptable recoveries (66-135%) with good repeatability (RSD 1-24%, mean 7%). Method LOQs ranged between 0.008 and 0.04 ng/g dw for PBDEs, between 0.08 and 0.20 ng/g dw for EFRs, and between 1.4 and 3.6 ng/g dw for PFRs. The method was further applied to eight types of food samples (including meat, eggs, fish, and seafood) with lipid contents ranging from 0.1 to 22%. Various FRs were detected above MLOQ levels, demonstrating the wide-range applicability of our method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method reported for simultaneous analysis of brominated and organophosphate FRs in food matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Capturing multi-stage fuzzy uncertainties in hybrid system dynamics and agent-based models for enhancing policy implementation in health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyong; Triantis, Konstantinos P; Zhao, Li; Wang, Youfa

    2018-01-01

    In practical research, it was found that most people made health-related decisions not based on numerical data but on perceptions. Examples include the perceptions and their corresponding linguistic values of health risks such as, smoking, syringe sharing, eating energy-dense food, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages etc. For the sake of understanding the mechanisms that affect the implementations of health-related interventions, we employ fuzzy variables to quantify linguistic variable in healthcare modeling where we employ an integrated system dynamics and agent-based model. In a nonlinear causal-driven simulation environment driven by feedback loops, we mathematically demonstrate how interventions at an aggregate level affect the dynamics of linguistic variables that are captured by fuzzy agents and how interactions among fuzzy agents, at the same time, affect the formation of different clusters(groups) that are targeted by specific interventions. In this paper, we provide an innovative framework to capture multi-stage fuzzy uncertainties manifested among interacting heterogeneous agents (individuals) and intervention decisions that affect homogeneous agents (groups of individuals) in a hybrid model that combines an agent-based simulation model (ABM) and a system dynamics models (SDM). Having built the platform to incorporate high-dimension data in a hybrid ABM/SDM model, this paper demonstrates how one can obtain the state variable behaviors in the SDM and the corresponding values of linguistic variables in the ABM. This research provides a way to incorporate high-dimension data in a hybrid ABM/SDM model. This research not only enriches the application of fuzzy set theory by capturing the dynamics of variables associated with interacting fuzzy agents that lead to aggregate behaviors but also informs implementation research by enabling the incorporation of linguistic variables at both individual and institutional levels, which makes unstructured linguistic data

  9. Bioreactors for high cell density and continuous multi-stage cultivations: options for process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Felipe; Vázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2016-03-01

    With an increasing demand for efficacious, safe, and affordable vaccines for human and animal use, process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production demands advanced process strategies to overcome the limitations of conventional batch cultivations. However, the use of fed-batch, perfusion, or continuous modes to drive processes at high cell density (HCD) and overextended operating times has so far been little explored in large-scale viral vaccine manufacturing. Also, possible reductions in cell-specific virus yields for HCD cultivations have been reported frequently. Taking into account that vaccine production is one of the most heavily regulated industries in the pharmaceutical sector with tough margins to meet, it is understandable that process intensification is being considered by both academia and industry as a next step toward more efficient viral vaccine production processes only recently. Compared to conventional batch processes, fed-batch and perfusion strategies could result in ten to a hundred times higher product yields. Both cultivation strategies can be implemented to achieve cell concentrations exceeding 10(7) cells/mL or even 10(8) cells/mL, while keeping low levels of metabolites that potentially inhibit cell growth and virus replication. The trend towards HCD processes is supported by development of GMP-compliant cultivation platforms, i.e., acoustic settlers, hollow fiber bioreactors, and hollow fiber-based perfusion systems including tangential flow filtration (TFF) or alternating tangential flow (ATF) technologies. In this review, these process modes are discussed in detail and compared with conventional batch processes based on productivity indicators such as space-time yield, cell concentration, and product titers. In addition, options for the production of viral vaccines in continuous multi-stage bioreactors such as two- and three-stage systems are addressed. While such systems have shown similar virus titers compared to

  10. Multi-stage gene normalization for full-text articles with context-based species filtering for dynamic dictionary entry selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Lai, Po-Ting

    2011-10-03

    Gene normalization (GN) is the task of identifying the unique database IDs of genes and proteins in literature. The best-known public competition of GN systems is the GN task of the BioCreative challenge, which has been held four times since 2003. The last two BioCreatives, II.5 & III, had two significant differences from earlier tasks: firstly, they provided full-length articles in addition to abstracts; and secondly, they included multiple species without providing species ID information. Full papers introduce more complex targets for GN processing, while the inclusion of multiple species vastly increases the potential size of dictionaries needed for GN. BioCreative III GN uses Threshold Average Precision at a median of k errors per query (TAP-k), a new measure closely related to the well-known average precision, but also reflecting the reliability of the score provided by each GN system. To use full-paper text, we employed a multi-stage GN algorithm and a ranking method which exploit information in different sections and parts of a paper. To handle the inclusion of multiple unknown species, we developed two context-based dynamic strategies to select dictionary entries related to the species that appear in the paper-section-wide and article-wide context. Our originally submitted BioCreative III system uses a static dictionary containing only the most common species entries. It already exceeds the BioCreative III average team performance by at least 24% in every evaluation. However, using our proposed dynamic dictionary strategies, we were able to further improve TAP-5, TAP-10, and TAP-20 by 16.47%, 13.57% and 6.01%, respectively in the Gold 50 test set. Our best dynamic strategy outperforms the best BioCreative III systems in TAP-10 on the Silver 50 test set and in TAP-5 on the Silver 507 set. Our experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed dynamic dictionary selection strategies over our original static strategy and most BioCreative III

  11. Triassic to Cenozoic multi-stage intra-plate deformation focused near the Bogd Fault system, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Gobi Altai region of southern Mongolia has been in the Eurasian plate interior since the mid-Mesozoic, yet has experienced episodic phases of deformation since that time. In this paper, we document field evidence to characterize and date the intra-plate tectonic history of the Gobi Altai region from the Triassic to the present. To this end, we provide detailed mapping of the structure and stratigraphy of the eastern flanks of Mt. Ih Bogd that contains the widest variety of rock-time units in the area. We carry out geochronological analysis of basaltic lavas and basement granite in the area. We demonstrate that a crystalline basement with a 502 ± 8 Ma granitoid (U/Pb underwent two phases of basin formation in the Mesozoic, which we date with new 40Ar/39Ar lava ages of 218.5 ± 1.5, 123.2 ± 0.7 and 124.8 ± 1.2 Ma, respectively. Both phases are linked to deposition of fluvio-lacustrine sediments and trap-like basaltic volcanics, with cumulative thicknesses of 1000–1500 m. Both basins were likely north-facing half-grabens that developed under ∼N–S extension, but were subsequently overthrusted by Paleozoic and older crystalline basement during a less well constrained, but likely mid-Cretaceous phase of N–S shortening and basin inversion. Our results are consistent with recent seismic imaging of rift basins ∼100 km to the NE of the study area where a similar history was reconstructed. The multiple phases of intra-plate deformation appear to have parallel structural trends, most likely due to reactivated Paleozoic basement structures created during the original terrane amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt continental crust. This strong basement heterogeneity may predispose it to reactivation, and make it sensitive to changes in the overall stress field of the Eurasian plate driven by forces at its margins and base. Detailed study of Mongolia's multi-stage tectonic history may thus provide a key proxy for the long

  12. Multi-level, Multi-stage and Stochastic Optimization Models for Energy Conservation in Buildings for Federal, State and Local Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Billy Ray

    projects (Chapter 3). Returns from implemented ECM projects are used to fund additional ECM projects. In these cases, fluctuations in energy costs and uncertainty in the estimated savings severely influence ECM project selection and the amount of the appropriation requested. A risk aversion method proposed imposes a minimum on the number of "of projects completed in each stage. A comparative method using Conditional Value at Risk is analyzed. Time consistency was addressed in this chapter. This work demonstrates how a risk-based, stochastic, multi-stage model with binary decision variables at each stage provides a much more accurate estimate for planning than the agency's traditional approach and deterministic models. Finally, in Chapter 4, a rolling-horizon model allows for subadditivity and superadditivity of the energy savings to simulate interactive effects between ECM projects. The approach makes use of inequalities (McCormick, 1976) to re-express constraints that involve the product of binary variables with an exact linearization (related to the convex hull of those constraints). This model additionally shows the benefits of learning between stages while remaining consistent with the single congressional appropriations framework.

  13. Busulfan and melphalan versus carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan as high-dose chemotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL1/SIOPEN): an international, randomised, multi-arm, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenstein, Ruth; Pötschger, Ulrike; Pearson, Andrew D J; Brock, Penelope; Luksch, Roberto; Castel, Victoria; Yaniv, Isaac; Papadakis, Vassilios; Laureys, Geneviève; Malis, Josef; Balwierz, Walentyna; Ruud, Ellen; Kogner, Per; Schroeder, Henrik; de Lacerda, Ana Forjaz; Beck-Popovic, Maja; Bician, Pavel; Garami, Miklós; Trahair, Toby; Canete, Adela; Ambros, Peter F; Holmes, Keith; Gaze, Mark; Schreier, Günter; Garaventa, Alberto; Vassal, Gilles; Michon, Jean; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique

    2017-04-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with haemopoietic stem-cell rescue improves event-free survival in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma; however, which regimen has the greatest patient benefit has not been established. We aimed to assess event-free survival after high-dose chemotherapy with busulfan and melphalan compared with carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan. We did an international, randomised, multi-arm, open-label, phase 3 cooperative group clinical trial of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma at 128 institutions in 18 countries that included an open-label randomised arm in which high-dose chemotherapy regimens were compared. Patients (age 1-20 years) with neuroblastoma were eligible to be randomly assigned if they had completed a multidrug induction regimen (cisplatin, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and etoposide with or without topotecan, vincristine, and doxorubicin) and achieved an adequate disease response. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to busulfan and melphalan or to carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan by minimisation, balancing age at diagnosis, stage, MYCN amplification, and national cooperative clinical group between groups. The busulfan and melphalan regimen comprised oral busulfan (150 mg/m 2 given on 4 days consecutively in four equal doses); after Nov 8, 2007, intravenous busulfan was given (0·8-1·2 mg/kg per dose for 16 doses according to patient weight). After 24 h, an intravenous melphalan dose (140 mg/m 2 ) was given. Doses of busulfan and melphalan were modified according to bodyweight. The carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan regimen consisted of carboplatin continuous infusion of area under the plasma concentration-time curve 4·1 mg/mL per min per day for 4 days, etoposide continuous infusion of 338 mg/m 2 per day for 4 days, and melphalan 70 mg/m 2 per day for 3 days, with doses for all three drugs modified according to bodyweight and glomerular filtration rate. Stem-cell rescue was given after the last dose of

  14. SU-E-T-480: Radiobiological Dose Comparison of Single Fraction SRS, Multi-Fraction SRT and Multi-Stage SRS of Large Target Volumes Using the Linear-Quadratic Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, C; Hrycushko, B; Jiang, S; Meyer, J; Timmerman, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiobiological effect on large tumors and surrounding normal tissues from single fraction SRS, multi-fractionated SRT, and multi-staged SRS treatment. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with a centrally located large volume target (18.2 cm 3 ) was scanned using a 16 slice large bore CT simulator. Scans were imported to the Multiplan treatment planning system where a total prescription dose of 20Gy was used for a single, three staged and three fractionated treatment. Cyber Knife treatment plans were inversely optimized for the target volume to achieve at least 95% coverage of the prescription dose. For the multistage plan, the target was segmented into three subtargets having similar volume and shape. Staged plans for individual subtargets were generated based on a planning technique where the beam MUs of the original plan on the total target volume are changed by weighting the MUs based on projected beam lengths within each subtarget. Dose matrices for each plan were export in DICOM format and used to calculate equivalent dose distributions in 2Gy fractions using an alpha beta ratio of 10 for the target and 3 for normal tissue. Results: Singe fraction SRS, multi-stage plan and multi-fractionated SRT plans had an average 2Gy dose equivalent to the target of 62.89Gy, 37.91Gy and 33.68Gy, respectively. The normal tissue within 12Gy physical dose region had an average 2Gy dose equivalent of 29.55Gy, 16.08Gy and 13.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The single fraction SRS plan had the largest predicted biological effect for the target and the surrounding normal tissue. The multi-stage treatment provided for a more potent biologically effect on target compared to the multi-fraction SRT treatments with less biological normal tissue than single-fraction SRS treatment

  15. Multi-stage versus single-stage inflation and deflation cycle for alternating low pressure air mattresses to prevent pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients: a randomised-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, L; Beeckman, D; Vanderwee, K; Defloor, T; Grypdonck, M; Verhaeghe, S

    2012-04-01

    The duration and the amount of pressure and shear must be reduced in order to minimize the risk of pressure ulcer development. Alternating low pressure air mattresses with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells have been developed to relieve pressure by sequentially inflating and deflating the air cells. Evidence about the effectiveness of this type of mattress in clinical practice is lacking. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of an alternating low pressure air mattress that has a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells with an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. A randomised controlled trial was performed in a convenience sample of 25 wards in five hospitals in Belgium. In total, 610 patients were included and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=298) or the control group (n=312). In the experimental group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. In the control group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. The outcome was defined as cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV). An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. There was no significant difference in cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV) between both groups (Exp.=5.7%, Contr.=5.8%, p=0.97). When patients developed a pressure ulcer, the median time was 5.0 days in the experimental group (IQR=3.0-8.5) and 8.0 days in the control group (IQR=3.0-8.5) (Mann-Whitney U-test=113, p=0.182). The probability to remain pressure ulcer free during the observation period in this trial did not differ significantly between the experimental group and the control group (log-rank χ(2)=0.013, df=1, p=0.911). An alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation

  16. Performance Evaluation of the Multi-stage Tower-type Vertical-axis Wind Turbine%多层塔式H型立轴风机的性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振勋; 蒋崇文; 唐金龙; 王德宝

    2011-01-01

    The main ideal of the multi-stage tower type vertical-axis wind turbine is to utilize the superposition of multi group H-type vertical-axis wind turbines to generate power, and fully use the wind energy in different altitude, which is beneficial for the large-scale development of modern wind turbine. The performance compari sons between the multi-stage tower-type vertical-axis wind turbine and traditional wind turbine were performed on many aspects. It was pointed out that the multi-stage tower-type vertical-axis wind turbine can have many advantages, such as easy-machining blades, high power efficiency, avoidance of the yawing system, reasonable structure loading, and low manufacture/maintenance cost. However, some disadvantages exist, such as the aerodynamic drag brought in by the blade supporting structure, complicated tower construction, and incremental requirement for gearbox and shaft joint. Overall considering, the multi stage tower-type vertical-axis wind turbine has extensive prospect of market applications.%多层塔式立轴风机的核心思想是将多组H型立轴风机分层叠加组合发电,结构简单性能优异,非常适合大容量的风电机组,符合现代风机向大型化发展的方向。对多层塔式立轴风机与传统风机的多方面性能进行了对比,指出多层塔式立轴风机具有风能利用率高、叶片制造简单、无需偏航系统、结构载荷合理、制造维护成本低等诸多优点,但也存在一些缺点,如叶片支撑结构会引入气动阻力、塔架设计较复杂、需要多组齿轮箱及联轴器等。总体分析表明,多层塔式立轴风机的方案在技术上和经济上是可行的。

  17. The significance of Sampling Design on Inference: An Analysis of Binary Outcome Model of Children’s Schooling Using Indonesian Large Multi-stage Sampling Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ekki Syamsulhakim

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to exercise a rather recent trend in applied microeconometrics, namely the effect of sampling design on statistical inference, especially on binary outcome model. Many theoretical research in econometrics have shown the inappropriateness of applying i.i.dassumed statistical analysis on non-i.i.d data. These research have provided proofs showing that applying the iid-assumed analysis on a non-iid observations would result in an inflated standard errors which could make the esti...

  18. Biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient processing in a novel multi-stage raw municipal wastewater and acid mine drainage passive co-treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, W H; Winfrey, B K; Nairn, R W

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, four-stage continuous flow reactor system was constructed to test the viability of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) passive co-treatment. The synthetic AMD had pH 2.60 and 1860 mg/L acidity as CaCO(3) equivalent with 46, 0.25, 2, 290, 55, 1.2 and 390 mg/L of Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, respectively. The AMD was introduced to the system at a 1:2 ratio with raw MWW from the City of Norman, Oklahoma USA containing 265 ± 94 mg/L BOD(5), 11.5 ± 5.3 mg/L PO(4)(-3), and 20.8 ± 1.8 mg/L NH(4)(+)-N. During the 135 d experiment, PO(4)(-3) and NH(4)(+)-N were decreased to treatment is a viable ecological engineering approach for the developed and developing world that can be optimized and applied to improve water quality with minimal use of fossil fuels and refined materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A multi-stage intelligent approach based on an ensemble of two-way interaction model for forecasting the global horizontal radiation of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, He; Dong, Yao; Xiao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ensemble learning system is proposed to forecast the global solar radiation. • LASSO is utilized as feature selection method for subset model. • GSO is used to select the weight vector aggregating the response of subset model. • A simple and efficient algorithm is designed based on thresholding function. • Theoretical analysis focusing on error rate is provided. - Abstract: Forecasting of effective solar irradiation has developed a huge interest in recent decades, mainly due to its various applications in grid connect photovoltaic installations. This paper develops and investigates an ensemble learning based multistage intelligent approach to forecast 5 days global horizontal radiation at four given locations of India. The two-way interaction model is considered with purpose of detecting the associated correlation between the features. The main structure of the novel method is the ensemble learning, which is based on Divide and Conquer principle, is applied to enhance the forecasting accuracy and model stability. An efficient feature selection method LASSO is performed in the input space with the regularization parameter selected by Cross-Validation. A weight vector which best represents the importance of each individual model in ensemble system is provided by glowworm swarm optimization. The combination of feature selection and parameter selection are helpful in creating the diversity of the ensemble learning. In order to illustrate the validity of the proposed method, the datasets at four different locations of the India are split into training and test datasets. The results of the real data experiments demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the proposed method comparing with other competitors.

  20. Sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol wastewater treatment by two-phase multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) combination with up-flow UASB and down-flow hanging sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choeisai, P; Jitkam, N; Silapanoraset, K; Yubolsai, C; Yoochatchaval, W; Yamaguchi, T; Onodera, T; Syutsubo, K

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate a treatment system for high strength wastewater (vinasse) from a sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol plant in Thailand. A laboratory-scale two-phase treatment system composed of a sulfate reducing (SR) tank and multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (MS-UASB) reactor was used as the pre-treatment unit. Conventional UASB and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors were used as the post-treatment unit. The treatment system was operated for 300 days under ambient temperature conditions (24.6-29.6 °C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) in each unit was kept at 25 h for the two-phase system and 23 h for the UASB&DHS. The influent concentration was allowed to reach up to 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. COD removal efficiency (based on influent COD) of the two-phase MS-UASB and the UASB&DHS was 54.9 and 18.7%, respectively. Due to the effective removal of sulfide in the SR tank, the MS-UASB achieved a high methane conversion ratio of up to 97%. In DHS, nitrification occurred at the outside portion of the sponge media while denitrification occurred at the inside. Consequently, 27% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed. An amount of 32% of residual nitrogen (28 mgN/L) was in the form of nitrate, a better nitrogen state for fertilizer.

  1. Improvement of a multi-stage model for the modeling of a functionalized nursing bed as support for the sensor-assisted function-alization of furniture in the hospital and care sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitzig Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of preparation-free functionalized furniture based patient monitoring systems for use in the area of home- or stationary- care is often empirically driven. In particular, functionalization of furniture by means of different sensors is strongly affected by this development methodology. As a result, the systems are often not extensive-ly extendable or cannot be optimized because basic mechanisms are not comprehensible. In order to support development or optimization, a modelling approach is often useful. Thus, using a more comprehensive approach the required sensitivity of the sensors as well as their position in the system can be derived from a simulation model. In order to solve this problem, a multi-stage model was introduced at the BMT conference in 2014 by the authors, which allows the designer to model the entire system. The model has been extended and improved in the meantime and the achieved progress is presented in this work. The presented modelling approach can be divided into three main components. These are the person under supervision, the furniture (in our case a nursing bed and the sensors (force measuring cells which are modelled separately. In this work the main focus will be on improving the modelling of the human movement process and its implementation. Furthermore, the modelling of the sensor behavior in the nursing bed is described in detail with regard to their oscillation behavior and the influence on the model.

  2. Rapid Identification of unstable acyl glucoside flavonoids of Oxytropis racemosa Turcz by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation/multi-stage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Zheng, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Wei-Dong; Du, Rui-Fang; Feng, Zi-Ming; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Bi, Li-Fu

    2013-02-01

    Oxytropis racemosa Turcz is an important minority medicine that is used mainly to improve children's indigestion, especially in inner Mongolia and Tibet. Previous studies indicated that the characteristic constituents of this plant are acylated flavonoids. Rapidly identify the characteristic chemical constituents of O. racemosa by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation/multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) ) and suggest a useful method to control the quality of this medicinal plant. In the HPLC fingerprint, 32 flavonoids were tentatively identified by a detailed analysis of their mass spectra, UV spectra and retention times. Furthermore, 13 flavonoids were confirmed by comparison with previously isolated compounds obtained from O. racemosa. In total, 32 flavonoids, including 13 flavonoids with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMG) moieties and four flavonoids with 3-malonyl moieties, were identified in the extract of O. racemosa. Among the compounds identified, 10 were characterised as new compounds for their particular acylated sugar moieties. The method described is effective for obtaining a comprehensive phytochemical profile of plants containing unstable acylated flavonoids. The method is also useful for constructing the chromatographic fingerprint of the minority medicine -O. racemosa Turcz for quality control. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Reported herein are the details and the results of laboratory and bench scale experiments that were conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92147 during the period of October 1, 1992, to December 31, 1995. The program results described herein build on the previous technology base and investigating additional methods to improve the economics of producing transportation fuels from coal. This included purely physical parameters, coal treatment and variation in solvent to coal ratio, the use of syngas to replace part of the hydrogen as the reducing gas, the use of dispersed catalyst in addition to and replacing the supported catalyst, and the co-processing of coal with plastic waste material. The overall objective of this program is to produce liquid fuels from direct coal liquefaction at a cost that is competitive with conventional fuels. The report includes the results of an economic assessment of the various process strategies that were evaluated during this program. A summary of the technical/economic evaluations is given in Volume I, Section II of this report. The experimental details of the eleven run of the program are given in Volume I, Section III and Volume II of this report. The details of the technical evaluations are given in the Volume III of the report.

  4. Applied physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Physics Division research program that is dedicated primarily to applied research goals involves the interaction of energetic particles with solids. This applied research is carried out in conjunction with the basic research studies from which it evolved

  5. Investigation of different ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid-enhanced washing configurations for remediation of a Cu-contaminated soil: process kinetics and efficiency comparison between single-stage and multi-stage configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Alberto; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    A comparison of Cu extraction yields for three different ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS)-enhanced washing configurations was performed on a Cu-contaminated soil. Batch experiments were used to simulate a single-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a multi-stage (side feeding and counter-current) reactor. Single-stage CSTR conditions were simulated for various EDDS:(Cu + Cd + Pb + Co + Ni + Zn) molar ratio (EDDS:M ratio) (from 1 to 30) and liquid to soil (L/S) ratio (from 15 to 45). The highest Cu extraction yield (≃56%) was achieved with EDDS:M = 30. In contrast, a Cu extraction yield decrease was observed with increasing L/S ratio with highest extracted Cu achievement (≃48%) for L/S = 15. Side feeding configuration was tested in four experimental conditions through different fractionation mode of EDDS dose and treatment time at each washing step. Results from the four tests showed all enhanced Cu extraction (maximum values from ≃43 to ≃51%) achieved at lower treatment time and lower EDDS:M molar ratio compared to CSTR configuration with L/S = 25 and EDDS:M = 10. The counter-current washing was carried out through two washing flows achieving a process performance enhancement with 27% increase of extracted Cu compared to single-stage CSTR configuration. Higher Cu extraction percentage (36.8%) was observed in the first washing phase than in the second one (24.7%).

  6. Identification of complex, naturally occurring flavonoid glycosides in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Zietz, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2010-07-30

    Kale is a member of the Brassicaceae family and has a complex profile of flavonoid glycosides. Therefore, kale is a suitable matrix to discuss in a comprehensive study the different fragmentation patterns of flavonoid glycosides. The wide variety of glycosylation and acylation patterns determines the health-promoting effects of these glycosides. The aim of this study is to investigate the naturally occurring flavonoids in kale. A total of 71 flavonoid glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were identified using a high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n)) method. Of these 71 flavonol glycosides, 27 were non-acylated, 30 were monoacylated and 14 were diacylated. Non-acylated flavonol glycosides were present as mono-, di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. This is the first time that the occurrence of four different fragmentation patterns of non-acylated flavonol triglycosides has been reported in one matrix simultaneously. In addition, 44 flavonol glycosides were acylated with p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, hydroxyferulic or sinapic acid. While monoacylated glycosides existed as di-, tri- and tetraglycosides, diacylated glycosides occurred as tetra- and pentaglycosides. To the best of our knowledge, 28 compounds in kale are reported here for the first time. These include three acylated isorhamnetin glycosides (isorhamnetin-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-D-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-feruloyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-disinapoyl-triglucoside-7-O-diglucoside) and seven non-acylated isorhamnetin glycosides. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A multi-armed bandit approach to superquantile selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    regular [2], and convex [3] measure that seeks to model the distributional behaviour of risk , quantifying expected losses that may be seen within the...properties—see [2], [3], and [4]—that seeks to model the behaviour of risk by quantifying losses that may be seen for extreme cases [5]. In practice...In- telligence. Source: [1]. Figure 1.2. The Cycle of Intelligence Production. Source: [1]. 3 1.4 Quantifying Risk 1.4.1 Quantile and Superquantile

  8. Driving pockels cells in multi-arm lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carder, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the method used to drive Pockels cells on the 20-arm Shiva laser for inertial confinement fusion research at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Shiva became operational last fall, and has just completed a series of 20-arm target shots. It uses two pockels cell gates in each laser arm for suppression of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) that can damage or destroy the target before the main pulse arrives. Two additional Pockels cells are used in the preamplification stages, so that a total of 42 cells must be driven by the pulser system

  9. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  10. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  11. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Ricardo JS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p  Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.

  12. Uv-bright Nearby Early-type Galaxies Observed in the Mid-infrared: Eidence for a Multi-stage Formation History by Way of WISE and GALEX Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Neill, J. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Blain, A. W.; Farrah, D. G.; Rich, R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Benford, D. J.; Bridge, C. R.; Lake, S. E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by approx.1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 +/- 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 +/- 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed approx. 1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the approx. 0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  13. UV-BRIGHT NEARBY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OBSERVED IN THE MID-INFRARED: EVIDENCE FOR A MULTI-STAGE FORMATION HISTORY BY WAY OF WISE AND GALEX IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, S. M.; Farrah, D. G.; Neill, J. D.; Bridge, C. R.; Jarrett, T. H.; Tsai, C.-W.; Blain, A. W.; Rich, R. M.; Lake, S. E.; Wright, E. L.; Benford, D. J.; Masci, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by ∼1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 ± 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 ± 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed ∼1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the ∼0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early epochs (>4 Gyr ago

  14. UV-BRIGHT NEARBY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OBSERVED IN THE MID-INFRARED: EVIDENCE FOR A MULTI-STAGE FORMATION HISTORY BY WAY OF WISE AND GALEX IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S. M.; Farrah, D. G. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Neill, J. D.; Bridge, C. R. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jarrett, T. H.; Tsai, C.-W. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Rich, R. M.; Lake, S. E.; Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Benford, D. J. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Masci, F. J. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by {approx}1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 {+-} 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 {+-} 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed {approx}1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the {approx}0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  15. Development and implementation of an on-line monitoring system for the detection of the surge limit of multi stage axial compressors. Final report; Ueberwachungssystem zur Pumpgrenzdetektion in vielstufigen Axialverdichtern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenen, H.; Niehuis, R.

    2003-07-01

    A monitoring system for the prediction of the stability limit of a multi-stage axial compressor has been developed. Based on the pressure fluctuations in the casing above a first compressor rotor the approach to the search limit can be detected. By means of a computer system equipped with a digital signal processor board the dynamic pressure signals are picked up and analyzed. Based on FFT-Spectra suitable parameters for the estimation of the stability limit can be calculated. Measurement data from various test runs at different gas turbine compressors demonstrated the reliability of the system. Mean issue of the system is the a ability of real time detection which allows an application in industrial environment. In order to guarantee the long term stability and security the soft ware has been programmed so that a permanent self control as well as a control by a connected host computer is possible. By means of these control mechanism the proper function of the measurement transducers the data acquisition and the communication with the host computer is assured. This guarantees a high operational reliability which also allows a safe integration in a gas turbine control system. The soft ware is based on the programming environment DASYLAB in order to provide a maximum of user friendliness The up to date test with the system on the gas turbine tests field of Siemens have been performed successfully. A long term test in a power plant has not jet been carried out. (orig.) [German] Es wurde ein Ueberwachungssystem entwickelt, das die Voraussage der Stabilitaetsgrenze eines mehrstufigen Axialverdichters ermoeglicht. Basierend auf den Druckfluktuationen ueber dem ersten Verdichterlaufrad koennen Aussagen ueber die Annaeherung an die Pumpgrenze getroffen werden. Mit Hilfe eines Rechnersystems mit integrierter Signalprozessorkarte werden die dynamischen Drucksignale aufgenommen und verarbeitet. Basierend auf einer FFT-Analyse werden geeignete Parameter bestimmt, die die

  16. Environmental conditions in broiler multi-stage setter: a case study Condições ambientais em incubadora de múltiplo estágio: um estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Gigli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of one day-old chick production is one of the most important segments in the poultry production business. Broiler chicken incubation environment needs to be homogeneous and adequate so hatchability and final product quality are not affected. This research aimed at evaluating environmental conditions inside a multi-stage setter in a commercial hatchery house. The incubator was split into six areas and data loggers placed in the geometric center to register temperature and relative humidity data; carbon dioxide concentration and number of colony forming units (CFU of fungi were also sampled and analyzed; Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test was used for statistical analysis; significant differences in temperature and relative humidity distribution inside the incubator (p 0.05. Fungi incidence varied from average to good. Critical points were detected in all areas inside the setter.A produção de pintinhos de um dia é um dos segmentos mais importantes da cadeia avícola. O ambiente de incubação de frangos de corte precisa ser homogêneo e adequado de modo a não afetar a eclodibilidade e a qualidade do produto final. Avaliaram-se as condições de ambiência no interior de incubadora de estágio múltiplo durante um lote de produção em incubatório comercial. A incubadora foi dividida em seis quadrantes em cujo centro geométrico foram colocados registradores de valores de temperatura e umidade relativa. A concentração de dióxido de carbono, bem como o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (CFU de fungos também foram amostradas nos mesmos locais; o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis foi utilizado para análise estatística. Foram detectadas diferenças na distribuição de temperatura e umidade relativa no interior da incubadora (p 0,05. A incidência de fungos variou de média a boa. Pontos críticos foram detectados em todas as áreas dentro da incubadora.

  17. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  18. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  19. Applied Enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  20. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  1. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  2. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  3. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  4. Experiments on multi-stage light intensification by electro-luminescence; Experiences sur l'intensification de la lumiere en cascade par electroluminescence; Opyty po mnogokaskadnomu svetousileniyu (fotoumnozheniyu) posredstvom ehlektrosvecheniya; Experimentos sobre intensificacion en cascada de la luminosidad por electroluminiscencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owaki, K; Nakamura, T [Kobe Kogyo Corporation, Okubo, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan)

    1962-04-15

    In recent years, several papers on the solid-state image-intensifier by the use of electro-luminescent phosphor and photo-conductive materials have appeared as one of the important applications of solid-state electronics. It is convenient and important to use the solid-state intensifier for light amplification. The purpose of this experimental work is to achieve more amplification by cascading the intensifier in multi-stage. This paper first deals with the electrical and optical characteristics of a single-element lightintensifier, then points out briefly the advantage of employing parallel resistance with an electroluminescent- panel to improve its characteristics. Two types of photo-conductive cell were used, one was a sintered CdS cell and the other a CdS photo-sensitive powder, moulded with plastic binder. According to the results obtained on a single-element light-intensifier, two-stage and threestage light intensifiers were made and their characteristics were tested for various parallel resistances. In the three-stage light intensifier, the amplification of about 400 was obtained at 0.3 rlx in-put radiation, and these results suggest the possibility of obtaining more amplification at lower input radiation. The experimental results are believed to be applicable to a solid-state image-intensifier by devising a suitable construction. (author) [French] Au cours des dernieres annees, on a publie plusieurs communications sur le renforcateur d'images a cristal utilisant le phosphore electroluminescent et des matieres photoconductrices; c'est la une des principales applications de l'electronique de l'etat solide. Il est a la fois pratique et avantageux d'utiliser le renforcateur d'images a cristal pour l'amplification de la lumiere. Ces experiences visent a accroitre l'amplification en faisant cascader le renforcateur en plusieurs phases. Apres avoir presente les caracteristiques electriques et optiques d'un photomultiplicateur a un seul element, les auteurs exposent

  5. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.; Uecker, R.L.; Muckerheide, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  6. Significant enhancement of 11-Hydroxy-THC detection by formation of picolinic acid esters and application of liquid chromatography/multi stage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ): Application to hair and oral fluid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Detlef; Sachs, Ulf; Sachs, Hans; Moore, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Formation of picolinic acid esters of hydroxylated drugs or their biotransformation products is a promising tool to improve their mass spectrometric ionization efficiency, alter their fragmentation behaviour and enhance sensitivity and specificity of their detection. The procedure was optimized and tested for the detection of cannabinoids, which proved to be most challenging when dealing with alternative specimens, for example hair and oral fluid. In particular, the detection of the THC metabolites hydroxyl-THC and carboxy-THC requires ultimate sensitivity because of their poor incorporation into hair or saliva. Both biotransformation products are widely accepted as incorporation markers to distinguish drug consumption from passive contamination. The derivatization procedure was carried out by adding a mixture of picolinic acid, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine and 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride in tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine to the dry extraction residues. Resulting derivatives were found to be very stable and could be reconstituted in aqueous or organic buffers and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Owing to the complex consecutive fragmentation patterns, the application of multistage MS3 proved to be extremely useful for a sensitive identification of doubly picolinated hydroxy-THC in complex matrices. The detection limits - estimated by comparison of corresponding signal-to-noise ratios - increased by a factor of 100 following picolination. All other species examined, like cannabinol, THC, cannabidiol, and carboxy-THC, could also be derivatized exhibiting only moderate sensitivity improvements. The assay was systematically tested using hair samples and exemplarily applied to oral fluid. Concentrations of OH-THC identified in THC-positive hair samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.29pg/mg. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MULTI STAGE CUTTING OIL FILTER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    ABHIJIT S. GETME , ADITENDRA JAISWAL

    2018-01-01

    Multistage oil filtration system is a system used to filter out all the metallic, non metallic particles from the cutting fluid, which is used during the machining processes. Basic procedures we are using in it are: centrifugal process, magnetic filtration, paper filtration.

  8. Multi-stage type replacing method of iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masao; Kamiya, Kunio.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To effectively replace a filter into a removing device of radioactive impurities used in ventilation and air conditioning system or the like in an atomic power plant. Structure: A plurality of elements of a filter are arranged in series relative to fluid. In the first replacement, an ante-filter-element on inlet side of fluid is removed, and a post-filter-element is repositioned to that position of the ante-element. Then, a fresh element is newly mounted on that position of the post-element. Replacement after the second time may be effected by repeating the operation noted above. With this arrangement, the minimal value of collection efficiency at replacement of filter may be increased. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. Performance of an innovative multi-stage anaerobic reactor during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Start-up of an anaerobic reactor is a relatively delicate process and depends on various factors such as wastewater composition, available inoculum, operating conditions and reactor configuration. Accordingly, systematized operational procedures are important, mainly during the start-up of an anaerobic reactor.

  10. Unsteady Aerodynamics & Aeromechanics of Multi-Stage Turbomachinery Blading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleeter, Sanford

    2002-01-01

    .... A benchmark-standard multistage transonic research compressor was developed by modifying the Purdue High-Speed Axial Compressor to feature new IGV and stator rows representative of modern high pressure compressors...

  11. Multi-stage continuous alcohol fermentation with cane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C J; Chiou, C J; Ng, A K; Lin, T C; Hwang, E C; Rao, C H

    1970-01-01

    It was reported that 6 to 7% ethanol was produced by single-stage continuous 12-hour cycle fermentation of molasses containing 12% sugar using a new strain, Saccharomyces formensensis, isolated from a stock culture. A higher yield of ethanol was obtained from 2-stage and 3-stage continuous fermentation of molasses containing more sugar at 24- and 36-hour cycles, respectively. In the 2-stage 24-hour cycle continuous fermentation of molasses containing 15% sugar with an agitation speed 300 rpm, 9.2% ethanol resulted. Only 3% sugar remained unconsumed. In the 3-stage 36-hour cycle continuous fermentation of molasses containing 15% sugar with 300 rpm agitation, 12.5% ethanol resulted.

  12. METAHEURISTICS FOR OPTIMIZING SAFETY STOCK IN MULTI STAGE INVENTORY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Badurina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing the right level of inventory is critical in order to achieve the targeted level of customer service, but it also carries significant cost in supply chain. In majority of cases companies define safety stock on the most downstream level, i.e. the finished product level, using different analytical methods. Safety stock on upstream level, however, usually covers only those problems which companies face on that particular level (uncertainty of delivery, issues in production, etc.. This paper looks into optimizing safety stock in a pharmaceutical supply considering the three stages inventory system. The problem is defined as a single criterion mixed integer programming problem. The objective is to minimize the inventory cost while the service level is predetermined. In order to coordinate inventories at all echelons, the variable representing the so-called service time is introduced. Because of the problem dimensions, metaheuristics based on genetic algorithm and simulated annealing are constructed and compared, using real data from a Croatian pharmaceutical company. The computational results are presented evidencing improvements in minimizing inventory costs.

  13. Multi-stage catalyst systems and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S [Worthington, OH; Holmgreen, Erik M [Columbus, OH; Yung, Matthew M [Columbus, OH

    2009-02-10

    Catalyst systems and methods provide benefits in reducing the content of nitrogen oxides in a gaseous stream containing nitric oxide (NO), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen (O.sub.2). The catalyst system comprises an oxidation catalyst comprising a first metal supported on a first inorganic oxide for catalyzing the oxidation of NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2), and a reduction catalyst comprising a second metal supported on a second inorganic oxide for catalyzing the reduction of NO.sub.2 to nitrogen (N.sub.2).

  14. Fuel system for diesel engine with multi-stage heated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Yu N.; Kuznetsov, Yu A.; Kolomeichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Solovyev, R. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes a fuel system of a diesel engine with a construction tractor multistage heating, allowing the use of pure rapeseed oil as a diesel engine fuel. The paper identified the kinematic viscosity depending on the temperature and composition of the mixed fuel, supplemented by the existing recommendations on the use of mixed fuels based on vegetable oils and developed the device allowing use as fuel for diesel engines of biofuels based on vegetable oils.

  15. Audiovisual integration in speech perception: a multi-stage process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    investigate whether the integration of auditory and visual speech observed in these two audiovisual integration effects are specific traits of speech perception. We further ask whether audiovisual integration is undertaken in a single processing stage or multiple processing stages....

  16. Multi-stage autoacceleration of an intense relativistic electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, K; Hasegawa, D; Igarashi, H; Kusunoki, T; Lee, C Y; Koguchi, H; Ando, R; Masuzaki, M [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Department of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Two-stage autoacceleration was accomplished by using different length cavities. Two cavities were located with the distance longer than the beam duration. The electron kinetic energy increased from 500 to 700 keV at the first stage and from 700 to 900 keV at the second, while the beam duration decreased 10 to 5 ns at the first stage and 5 to 2.5 ns at the second. (author). 7 figs., 7 refs.

  17. Exposure Control Using Adaptive Multi-Stage Item Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecht, Richard M.

    This paper presents a multistage adaptive testing test development paradigm that promises to handle content balancing and other test development needs, psychometric reliability concerns, and item exposure. The bundled multistage adaptive testing (BMAT) framework is a modification of the computer-adaptive sequential testing framework introduced by…

  18. Multi stage electrodialysis for separation of two metal ion species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Sakurai, H.; Nii, S.; Sugiura, K. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    In this article, separation of two metal ions by electrodialysis with a cation exchange membrane has been investigated. In other words, separation of potassium ion and sodium ion has been investigated by using batch dialysis with and without an electric field and continuous electrodialysis with a four-stage dialyzer. As a result, the difference in the permselectivity between the dialysis with and without an electric field has not been appreciable for the system of potassium and sodium ions with the cation exchange membrane. Concerning the continuous electrodialysis, the concentration ratio between potassium and sodium ions in the outlet solution from the recovery side of the dialyzer has increased with the reflux flow rate and the number of stages. In case when the reflux flow rate has been zero, the concentration ratio with the four-stage dialyzer has become 1.5 which is almost the same as with that with a two-stage dialyzer consisting of a simple membrane. When the reflux flow ratio has been 0.7, the concentration ratio has reached 3.6. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  19. A Multi-Stage Integer Programming Approach to Fantasy Team ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Team selection is a controversial topic, even more so when a team performs poorly. Many sport fans believe they can perform the selection process better than those tasked with the responsibility. With the developments of fantasy sport games, fans now have a platform to test their claims, albeit in a purely recreational ...

  20. Journal of applied mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    "[The] Journal of Applied Mathematics is a refereed journal devoted to the publication of original research papers and review articles in all areas of applied, computational, and industrial mathematics...

  1. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation Experts Can Answer Your Questions! The Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation's team of experts is available to answer ... a law firm. Read more about the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation . TO GET HELP CALL: (877) End-Meso ...

  2. Applied Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Programs Applied Energy Programs Civilian Nuclear Energy Programs Laboratory Directed Research » Applied Energy Program Applied Energy Program Los Alamos is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance national energy security by developing energy sources with limited environmental impact

  3. Advances in Applied Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  4. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  5. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  6. What Is Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Ostensive and expository definitions of applied linguistics are assessed. It is suggested that the key to a meaningful definition lies in the dual articulation of applied linguistics: it is an interface between linguistics and practicality. Its role as an "expert system" is suggested. (45 references) (Author/LB)

  7. Applied social geography

    OpenAIRE

    Hilpert, Markus

    2002-01-01

    Applied social geography : management of spatial planning in reflective discourse ; research perspectives towards a ‚Theory of Practice‘. - In: Geografija in njene aplikativne moˆznosti = Prospects of applied geography. - Ljubljana : Oddelek za Geografijo, Filozofska Fakulteta, 2002. S. 29-39. - (Dela / Oddelek za geografijo Filozofske fakultete v Ljubljani ; 18)

  8. What are applied ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  9. Design of a multi-arm randomized clinical trial with no control arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaret, Amalia; Angus, Derek C; Adhikari, Neill K J; Banura, Patrick; Kissoon, Niranjan; Lawler, James V; Jacob, Shevin T

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trial designs that include multiple treatments are currently limited to those that perform pairwise comparisons of each investigational treatment to a single control. However, there are settings, such as the recent Ebola outbreak, in which no treatment has been demonstrated to be effective; and therefore, no standard of care exists which would serve as an appropriate control. For illustrative purposes, we focused on the care of patients presenting in austere settings with critically ill 'sepsis-like' syndromes. Our approach involves a novel algorithm for comparing mortality among arms without requiring a single fixed control. The algorithm allows poorly-performing arms to be dropped during interim analyses. Consequently, the study may be completed earlier than planned. We used simulation to determine operating characteristics for the trial and to estimate the required sample size. We present a potential study design targeting a minimal effect size of a 23% relative reduction in mortality between any pair of arms. Using estimated power and spurious significance rates from the simulated scenarios, we show that such a trial would require 2550 participants. Over a range of scenarios, our study has 80 to 99% power to select the optimal treatment. Using a fixed control design, if the control arm is least efficacious, 640 subjects would be enrolled into the least efficacious arm, while our algorithm would enroll between 170 and 430. This simulation method can be easily extended to other settings or other binary outcomes. Early dropping of arms is efficient and ethical when conducting clinical trials with multiple arms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing Evolutionary Optimization in Uncertain Environments by Allocating Evaluations via Multi-armed Bandit Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Xin; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2018-01-01

    Optimization problems with uncertain fitness functions are common in the real world, and present unique challenges for evolutionary optimization approaches. Existing issues include excessively expensive evaluation, lack of solution reliability, and incapability in maintaining high overall fitness during optimization. Using conversion rate optimization as an example, this paper proposes a series of new techniques for addressing these issues. The main innovation is to augment evolutionary algor...

  11. Development of a Multi-Arm Mobile Robot for Nuclear Decommissioning Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed J. Bakari

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the design of a two-arm mobile delivery platform for application within nuclear decommissioning tasks. The adoption of the human arm as a model of manoeuvrability, scale and dexterity is the starting point for operation of two seven-function arms within the context of nuclear decommissioning tasks, the selection of hardware and its integration, and the development of suitable control methods. The forward and inverse kinematics for the manipulators are derived and the proposed software architecture identified to control the movements of the arm joints and the performance of selected decommissioning tasks. We discuss the adoption of a BROKK demolition machine as a mobile platform and the integration with its hydraulic system to operate the two seven-function manipulators separately. The paper examines the modelling and development of a real-time control method using Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID and Proportional-Integral-Plus (PIP control algorithms in the host computer with National Instruments functions and tools to control the manipulators and obtain feedback through wireless communication. Finally we consider the application of a third party device, such as a personal mobile phone, and its interface with LabVIEW software in order to operate the robot arms remotely.

  12. Study of Multi-Armed Bandits for Energy Conservation in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have led to the emergence of wireless sensor nodes in wireless networks. Sensor nodes are usually battery powered and hence have strict energy constraints. As a result, energy conservation is very important in the wireless sensor network protocol design and the limited power resources are the biggest challenge in wireless network channels. Link adaptation techniques improve the link quality by adjusting medium access control (MAC parameters such as frame size, data rate, and sleep time, thereby improving energy efficiency. In this paper we present an adaptive packet size strategy for energy efficient wireless sensor networks. The main goal is to reduce power consumption and extend the whole network life. In order to achieve this goal, the paper introduces the concept of a bounded MAB to find the optimal packet size to transfer by formulating different packet sizes for different arms under the channel condition. At the same time, in achieve fast convergence, we consider the bandwidth evaluation according to ACK. The experiment shows that the packet size is adaptive when the channel quality changes and our algorithm can obtain the optimal packet size. We observe that the MAB packet size adaptation scheme achieves the best energy efficiency across the whole simulation duration in comparison with the fixed frame size scheme, the random packet size and the extended Kalman filter (EKF.

  13. Applied Mathematics Seminar 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report contains the abstracts of the lectures delivered at 1982 Applied Mathematics Seminar of the DPD/LCC/CNPq and Colloquy on Applied Mathematics of LCC/CNPq. The Seminar comprised 36 conferences. Among these, 30 were presented by researchers associated to brazilian institutions, 9 of them to the LCC/CNPq, and the other 6 were given by visiting lecturers according to the following distribution: 4 from the USA, 1 from England and 1 from Venezuela. The 1981 Applied Mathematics Seminar was organized by Leon R. Sinay and Nelson do Valle Silva. The Colloquy on Applied Mathematics was held from october 1982 on, being organized by Ricardo S. Kubrusly and Leon R. Sinay. (Author) [pt

  14. Handbook of Applied Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.

  15. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  16. Problems of applied geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, L N

    1983-01-01

    The concept of applied geochemistry was introduced for the first time by A. Ye. Fersman. He linked the branched and complicated questions of geochemistry with specific problems of developing the mineral and raw material base of our country. Geochemical prospecting and geochemistry of mineral raw materials are the most important sections of applied geochemistry. This now allows us the right to view applied geochemistry as a sector of science which applies geochemical methodology, set of geochemical methods of analysis, synthesis, geological interpretation of data based on laws governing theoretical geochemistry to the solution of different tasks of geology, petrology, tectonics, stratigraphy, science of minerals and other geological sciences, and also the technology of mineral raw materials, interrelationships of man and nature (ecogeochemistry, technogeochemistry, agrogeochemistry). The main problem of applied geochemistry, geochemistry of ore fields is the prehistory of ore formation. This is especially important for metallogenic and forecasting constructions, for an understanding of the reasons for the development of fields and the detection of laws governing their distribution, their genetic links with the general geological processes and the products of these processes.

  17. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  18. PSYCHOANALYSIS AS APPLIED AESTHETICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  19. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  20. Applying the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-12-15

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology.

  1. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  2. Applying the accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-01-01

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology

  3. On applying cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Advances in applied mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Theodore Y; Wu, Theodore Y

    2000-01-01

    This highly acclaimed series provides survey articles on the present state and future direction of research in important branches of applied solid and fluid mechanics. Mechanics is defined as a branch of physics that focuses on motion and on the reaction of physical systems to internal and external forces.

  5. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Mantilla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of this dissertation studies a different question within the field of Applied Microeconomics. The first chapter examines the mid- and long-term effects of the 1998 Asian Crisis on the educational attainment of Indonesian children ages 6 to 18, at the time of the crisis. The effects are identified as deviations from a linear trend for…

  6. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  7. Journal of Applied Biosciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Applied Biosciences provides a forum for scholars and practitioners in all spheres of biological sciences to publish their research findings or theoretical concepts and ideas of a scientific nature. Other websites related to this journal: http://m.elewa.org/Journals/about-jab/ ...

  8. Thermodynamics applied. Where? Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirs, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, thermodynamics has been applied in a number of new fields leading to a greater societal impact. This paper gives a survey of these new fields and the reasons why these applications are important. In addition, it is shown that the number of fields could be even greater in the future

  9. Thermodynamics, applied. : Where? why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirs, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    In recent years thermodynamics has been applied in a number of new fields leading to a greater societal impact. The paper gives a survey of these new fields and the reasons why these applications are important. In addition it is shown that the number of fields could be even greater in the future and

  10. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  11. Applied research on glucansucrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although glycansucrases have been known for over 70 years, they remain relatively unknown except to a small group of researchers. Practical, applied research on glycansucrases has been focused on certain key areas. The earliest of these was the development of blood plasma extenders from dextran, d...

  12. Essays in applied microeconometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Duration analysis has been widely used in the applied economic research since the late 1970s. The framework allows to examine the duration of time intervals and the rate of transition across a set of states over time. Many economic behaviors follow a similar pattern, such as transition from the

  13. Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  14. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of

  15. Applied Anthropology in Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Three different applied media anthropology projects are described. These projects stem from the broadcasters' legal need to know about the community (community ascertainment), the broadcasters' need to know about the station audience (audience profile), and the broadcasters' desire to change a community (action projects). (Author)

  16. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  17. APPLIED ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievskiy Leonid Vladimirovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applied disciplines in the sphere of construction which are engaged in the solution of vital macroeconomical problems (the general trend of development of these disciplines is the expansion of problematics and mutual integration are considered. Construction organization characteristic at the present stage as a systems engineering discipline covering the investment process of creation of real estate items, is given. The main source of current research trends for applied sciences (socio-economic development forecasts, regional and local programs is determined. Interpenetration and integration of various fields of knowledge exemplified by the current interindustry problem of blocks renovation organization of existing development, is demonstrated. Mathematical model of wave construction (for the period of deployment is proposed. Nature of dependence of the total duration of renovation on the limit of annual input and coefficient of renovation, is established. Overall structure of the Moscow region housing market is presented, and approaches to definition of effective demand are proposed.

  18. Applied evaluative informetrics

    CERN Document Server

    Moed, Henk F

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on applied evaluative informetric artifacts or topics. It explains the base notions and assumptions of evaluative informetrics by discussing a series of important applications. The structure of the book is therefore not organized by methodological characteristics, but is centered around popular, often discussed or used informetric artifacts - indicators, methodologies, products, databases - or so called hot topics in which informetric indicators play an important role. Most of the artifacts and topics emerged during the past decade. The principal aim of the book is to present a state of the art in applied evaluative informetrics, and to inform the readers about the pros and cons, potentialities and limitations of the use of informetric/bibliometric indicators in research assessment. The book is a continuation of the book Citation Analysis in Research Evaluation (Springer, 2005). It is of interest to non-specialists, especially research students at advanced master level and higher, all thos...

  19. Applied statistics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

  20. Methods of applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Francis B

    1992-01-01

    This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.

  1. Applied mediation analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Theis; Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sørensen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, mediation analysis has emerged as a powerful tool to disentangle causal pathways from an exposure/treatment to clinically relevant outcomes. Mediation analysis has been applied in scientific fields as diverse as labour market relations and randomized clinical trials of heart...... disease treatments. In parallel to these applications, the underlying mathematical theory and computer tools have been refined. This combined review and tutorial will introduce the reader to modern mediation analysis including: the mathematical framework; required assumptions; and software implementation...

  2. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  3. Applied clinical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book demonstrates how clinical engineering has applied engineering principles to the development and use of complex medical devices for the diagnosis and treatment of the sick and injured. It discusses the proper utilization of medical devices and equipment in the health-care industry and provides understanding of complex engineering systems, and their uses in the modern hospital or other health-care facility

  4. APPLYING PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED PROBLEMS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN TEACHING STUDENTS OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ya Yur’evna Gorbunova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We described several aspects of organizing student research work, as well as solving a number of mathematical modeling problems: professionally-oriented, multi-stage, etc. We underlined the importance of their economic content. Samples of using such problems in teaching Mathematics at agricultural university were given. Several questions connected with information material selection and peculiarities of research problems application were described. Purpose. The author aims to show the possibility and necessity of using professionally-oriented problems of mathematical modeling in teaching Mathematics at agricultural university. The subject of analysis is including such problems into educational process. Methodology. The main research method is dialectical method of obtaining knowledge of finding approaches to selection, writing and using mathematical modeling and professionally-oriented problems in educational process; the methodology is study of these methods of obtaining knowledge. Results. As a result of analysis of literature, students opinions, observation of students work, and taking into account personal teaching experience, it is possible to make conclusion about importance of using mathematical modeling problems, as it helps to systemize theoretical knowledge, apply it to practice, raise students study motivation in engineering sphere. Practical implications. Results of the research can be of interest for teachers of Mathematics in preparing Bachelor and Master students of engineering departments of agricultural university both for theoretical research and for modernization of study courses.

  5. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  6. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  7. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  8. SIFT applied to CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA, J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is a challenging task. Common approaches use only low-level features. Notwithstanding, such CBIR solutions fail on capturing some local features representing the details and nuances of scenes. Many techniques in image processing and computer vision can capture these scene semantics. Among them, the Scale Invariant Features Transform~(SIFT has been widely used in a lot of applications. This approach relies on the choice of several parameters which directly impact its effectiveness when applied to retrieve images. In this paper, we discuss the results obtained in several experiments proposed to evaluate the application of the SIFT in CBIR tasks.

  9. Applied impulsive mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Stamova, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Using the theory of impulsive differential equations, this book focuses on mathematical models which reflect current research in biology, population dynamics, neural networks and economics. The authors provide the basic background from the fundamental theory and give a systematic exposition of recent results related to the qualitative analysis of impulsive mathematical models. Consisting of six chapters, the book presents many applicable techniques, making them available in a single source easily accessible to researchers interested in mathematical models and their applications. Serving as a valuable reference, this text is addressed to a wide audience of professionals, including mathematicians, applied researchers and practitioners.

  10. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  11. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  12. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  13. Applied logistic regression

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, David W; Sturdivant, Rodney X

    2013-01-01

     A new edition of the definitive guide to logistic regression modeling for health science and other applications This thoroughly expanded Third Edition provides an easily accessible introduction to the logistic regression (LR) model and highlights the power of this model by examining the relationship between a dichotomous outcome and a set of covariables. Applied Logistic Regression, Third Edition emphasizes applications in the health sciences and handpicks topics that best suit the use of modern statistical software. The book provides readers with state-of-

  14. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; Mastro, N.L. del E-mail: nelida@usp.br

    2002-03-01

    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600 deg. C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  15. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  16. Applied antineutrino physics workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, James C.

    2008-01-01

    This workshop is the fourth one of a series that includes the Neutrino Geophysics Conference at Honolulu, Hawaii, which I attended in 2005. This workshop was organized by the Astro-Particle and Cosmology laboratory in the recently opened Condoret building of the University of Paris. More information, including copies of the presentations, on the workshop is available on the website: www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/AAP2007/. The workshop aims at opening neutrino physics to various fields such that it can be applied in geosciences, nuclear industry (reactor and spent fuel monitoring) and non-proliferation. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from Europe, USA, Asia and Brazil. The meeting was also attended by representatives of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The workshop also included a workshop dinner on board of a river boat sailing the Seine river

  17. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

  18. Applied computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Boudreau, Joseph F; Bianchi, Riccardo Maria

    2018-01-01

    Applied Computational Physics is a graduate-level text stressing three essential elements: advanced programming techniques, numerical analysis, and physics. The goal of the text is to provide students with essential computational skills that they will need in their careers, and to increase the confidence with which they write computer programs designed for their problem domain. The physics problems give them an opportunity to reinforce their programming skills, while the acquired programming skills augment their ability to solve physics problems. The C++ language is used throughout the text. Physics problems include Hamiltonian systems, chaotic systems, percolation, critical phenomena, few-body and multi-body quantum systems, quantum field theory, simulation of radiation transport, and data modeling. The book, the fruit of a collaboration between a theoretical physicist and an experimental physicist, covers a broad range of topics from both viewpoints. Examples, program libraries, and additional documentatio...

  19. Applied statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The book guides the reader from the foundations of statisti- cal thermodynamics including the theory of intermolecular forces to modern computer-aided applications in chemical en- gineering and physical chemistry. The approach is new. The foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics are presen- ted in a simple way and their applications to the prediction of fluid phase behavior of real systems are demonstrated. A particular effort is made to introduce the reader to expli- cit formulations of intermolecular interaction models and to show how these models influence the properties of fluid sy- stems. The established methods of statistical mechanics - computer simulation, perturbation theory, and numerical in- tegration - are discussed in a style appropriate for newcom- ers and are extensively applied. Numerous worked examples illustrate how practical calculations should be carried out.

  20. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  1. Applied linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Olver, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook develops the essential tools of linear algebra, with the goal of imparting technique alongside contextual understanding. Applications go hand-in-hand with theory, each reinforcing and explaining the other. This approach encourages students to develop not only the technical proficiency needed to go on to further study, but an appreciation for when, why, and how the tools of linear algebra can be used across modern applied mathematics. Providing an extensive treatment of essential topics such as Gaussian elimination, inner products and norms, and eigenvalues and singular values, this text can be used for an in-depth first course, or an application-driven second course in linear algebra. In this second edition, applications have been updated and expanded to include numerical methods, dynamical systems, data analysis, and signal processing, while the pedagogical flow of the core material has been improved. Throughout, the text emphasizes the conceptual connections between each application and the un...

  2. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  3. Applied systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of systems and processes of ‘Applied Systems Theory’ makes it suitable for managers, engineers, students, researchers, academics and professionals from a wide range of disciplines; they can use this ‘toolbox’ for describing, analysing and designing biological, engineering and organisational systems as well as getting a better understanding of societal problems. This revised, updated and expanded second edition includes coverage of a...

  4. Applied multivariate statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners.  It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added.  All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior.  All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...

  5. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  6. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  7. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  9. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  10. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  11. THE IDEA IS TO USEMODIS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CURRENT LIMITED LANDSAT CAPABILITY, COMMERCIAL SATELLITES, ANDUNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV), IN A MULTI-STAGE APPROACH TO MEET EPA INFORMATION NEEDS.REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW: EPA CAPABILITIES, PRIORITY AGENCY APPLICATIONS, SENSOR/AIRCRAFT CAPABILITIES, COST CONSIDERATIONS, SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTIONS, AND TEMPORAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA remote sensing capabilities include applied research for priority applications and technology support for operational assistance to clients across the Agency. The idea is to use MODIS in conjunction with the current limited Landsat capability, commercial satellites, and Unma...

  12. Essays in applied microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting

    In this dissertation I use Microeconomic theory to study firms' behavior. Chapter One introduces the motivations and main findings of this dissertation. Chapter Two studies the issue of information provision through advertisement when markets are segmented and consumers' price information is incomplete. Firms compete in prices and advertising strategies for consumers with transportation costs. High advertising costs contribute to market segmentation. Low advertising costs promote price competition among firms and improves consumer welfare. Chapter Three also investigates market power as a result of consumers' switching costs. A potential entrant can offer a new product bundled with an existing product to compensate consumers for their switching cost. If the primary market is competitive, bundling simply plays the role of price discrimination, and it does not dominate unbundled sales in the process of entry. If the entrant has market power in the primary market, then bundling also plays the role of leveraging market power and it dominates unbundled sales. The market for electric power generation has been opened to competition in recent years. Chapter Four looks at issues involved in the deregulated electricity market. By comparing the performance of the competitive market with the social optimum, we identify the conditions under which market equilibrium generates socially efficient levels of electric power. Chapter Two to Four investigate the strategic behavior among firms. Chapter Five studies the interaction between firms and unemployed workers in a frictional labor market. We set up an asymmetric job auction model, where two types of workers apply for two types of job openings by bidding in auctions and firms hire the applicant offering them the most profits. The job auction model internalizes the determination of the share of surplus from a match, therefore endogenously generates incentives for an efficient division of the matching surplus. Microeconomic

  13. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are: 1 to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2 to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD through a cortical (visual mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

  14. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qi

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained applied microeconomics essays on topics related to behavioral economics and industrial organization. Chapter 1 studies how sentiment as a result of sports event outcomes affects consumers' tipping behavior in the presence of social norms. I formulate a model of tipping behavior that captures consumer sentiment following a reference-dependent preference framework and empirically test its relevance using the game outcomes of the NBA and the trip and tipping data on New York City taxicabs. While I find that consumers' tipping behavior responds to unexpected wins and losses of their home team, particularly in close game outcomes, I do not find evidence for loss aversion. Coupled with the findings on default tipping, my empirical results on the asymmetric tipping responses suggest that while social norms may dominate loss aversion, affect and surprises can result in freedom on the upside of tipping. Chapter 2 utilizes a novel data source of airline entry and exit announcements and examines how the incumbent airlines adjust quality provisions as a response to their competitors' announcements and the role of timing in such responses. I find no evidence that the incumbents engage in preemptive actions when facing probable entry and exit threats as signaled by the competitors' announcements in either short term or long term. There is, however, evidence supporting their responses to the competitors' realized entry or exit. My empirical findings underscore the role of timing in determining preemptive actions and suggest that previous studies may have overestimated how the incumbent airlines respond to entry threats. Chapter 3, which is collaborated with Benjamin Ho, investigates the habit formation of consumers' thermostat setting behavior, an often implicitly made decision and yet a key determinant of home energy consumption and expenditures. We utilize a high frequency dataset on household thermostat usage and find that

  15. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  16. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  17. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Vajjala, Sowmya

    2018-01-01

    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  18. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  19. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  20. The Rise of Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpponneau, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of the use of the science of geography for practical purposes. Topics discussed include British schools of geography during the 19th century, contributions of many of the founders of applied geography, forms in which geographical work can be used for practical purposes, and the status of applied geography in various…

  1. [Applied ecology: retrospect and prospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Zeng, Dehui

    2004-10-01

    Applied ecology is evolved into a principal part of modern ecology that rapidly develops. The major stimulus for the development of applied ecology roots in seeking the solutions for the problems of human populations, resources and environments. Through four decades, the science of applied ecology has been becoming a huge group of disciplines. The future for the applied ecology should concern more with human-influenced and managed ecosystems, and acknowledge humans as the components of ecosystems. Nowadays and in future, the top-priorities in applied ecology should include following fields: sustainable ecosystems and biosphere, ecosystem services and ecological design, ecological assessment of genetically modified organisms, ecology of biological invasions, epidemical ecology, ecological forecasting, ecological process and its control. The authors believe that the comprehensive and active research hotspots coupled some new traits would occur around these fields in foreseeable future.

  2. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  3. Applied probability and stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Sumita, Ushio

    1999-01-01

    Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes is an edited work written in honor of Julien Keilson. This volume has attracted a host of scholars in applied probability, who have made major contributions to the field, and have written survey and state-of-the-art papers on a variety of applied probability topics, including, but not limited to: perturbation method, time reversible Markov chains, Poisson processes, Brownian techniques, Bayesian probability, optimal quality control, Markov decision processes, random matrices, queueing theory and a variety of applications of stochastic processes. The book has a mixture of theoretical, algorithmic, and application chapters providing examples of the cutting-edge work that Professor Keilson has done or influenced over the course of his highly-productive and energetic career in applied probability and stochastic processes. The book will be of interest to academic researchers, students, and industrial practitioners who seek to use the mathematics of applied probability i...

  4. System design and optimization study of axial flow turbine applied in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    between parameters of the turbine and flows, three different types of turbines with ... and the water are run through a multi-stage hydro-turbine for producing electricity. ... to optimize the runner blade shape of a tubular turbine. ..... Ranade V V, Perrard M, Le Sauze N, Xuereb C and Bertrand J 2001 Trailing vortices of Rushton ...

  5. Methodology applied to develop the DHIE: applied methodology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, Marlien

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This section will address the methodology that was applied to develop the South African Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem (DHIE). Each chapter under Section B represents a specific phase in the methodology....

  6. Applied environmetrics. Simulation applied to the physical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, T

    1988-02-01

    Environmetrics is the application of quantitative methods to all aspects of the social and natural environment. This includes forecasting, mathematical modelling, data analysis, and statistics. Applied Environmetrics as a discipline involves the analysis of environmental data through the use of packaged, or specially designed computer software. Two case studies of recent implementations of applied environmetrics within the Australian mining industry are dealt with. 3 figs., 5 refs.

  7. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a...

  8. How to Apply | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting started— You can begin byviewing current job openings. From this link you can also create a profile, apply online, and register for job alerts. Confirmation email — We will send you an automated confirmation email to let you k

  9. Some Thoughts on Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzner, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    The geography student should be offered the option of applied geography courses as well as the more conservative humanistic approach, in order to respond to the challenges presented by existing societal needs and vocational opportunities. (Author/CK)

  10. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  11. Comparison of escalating, constant, and reduction energy output in ESWL for renal stones: multi-arm prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Danny M; Mabrouki, Mohamed S; Farhat, Karim H; Seida, Mohamed A; Arafa, Mostafa A; Talic, Riyadh F

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to find out the optimized energy delivery strategy in Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL) that yield to the best stone-free rate (SFR). In this clinical trial, 150 consecutive patients were randomized into three groups: (a) Dose escalation, 1500 SW at 18 kV, followed by 1500 SW at 20 kV then 1500 SW at 22 kV. (b) Constant dose, 4500 SW at 20 kV. All patients undergo plain X-ray film of the urinary tract at day 1, 14, and 90 to assess stone-free rate (SFR) which was defined as no stones or painless fragments less than 4 mm. (c) Dose reduction, 1500 SW at 22 kV, followed by 1500 SW at 20 kV and then 1500 SW at 18 kV. The three treatment groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, stone size and distribution of the kidneys, and the need for Double J stent use. On day 90, the SFR achieved was 82, 90, and 84 % in the escalating, constant, and reduction energy groups, respectively. However, this rate was not statistically significant (x 2  = 1.38, p level = 0.28). At a slow rate of 60 shocks, there was no difference in stone-free rate between different voltages at 1, 14, and 90 days. Our randomized clinical trial showed no statistically significant difference in SFR between the three groups while using the slow SWL rate. Our trial is the first randomized trial comparing the three strategies. As such, a dose adjustment strategy while delivering SWL in slow rate was not recommended.

  12. Embracing uncertainty in applied ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Gulland, E J; Shea, K

    2017-12-01

    Applied ecologists often face uncertainty that hinders effective decision-making.Common traps that may catch the unwary are: ignoring uncertainty, acknowledging uncertainty but ploughing on, focussing on trivial uncertainties, believing your models, and unclear objectives.We integrate research insights and examples from a wide range of applied ecological fields to illustrate advances that are generally underused, but could facilitate ecologists' ability to plan and execute research to support management.Recommended approaches to avoid uncertainty traps are: embracing models, using decision theory, using models more effectively, thinking experimentally, and being realistic about uncertainty. Synthesis and applications . Applied ecologists can become more effective at informing management by using approaches that explicitly take account of uncertainty.

  13. From art to applied science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzberg, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Before "applied science" and "technology" became keywords, the concept of art was central to discourse about material culture and its connections to natural knowledge. By the late nineteenth century, a new discourse of applied science had replaced the older discourse of art. This older discourse of art, especially as presented in Enlightenment encyclopedias, addressed the relationship between art and science in depth. But during the nineteenth century the concept of fine art gradually displaced the broader meanings of "art," thus undermining the utility of the term for discourse on the relationship between knowledge and practice. This narrowed meaning of "art" obscured key aspects of the industrial world. In effect, middle-class agents of industrialism, including "men of science," used the rhetoric of "applied science" and, later, "technology" to cement the exclusion of artisanal knowledge from the discourse of industrial modernity.

  14. Applied Genomics of Foodborne Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and customized source of information designed for and accessible to microbiologists interested in applying cutting-edge genomics in food safety and public health research. This book fills this void with a well-selected collection of topics, case studies, and bioinformatics tools contributed by experts......This book provides a timely and thorough snapshot into the emerging and fast evolving area of applied genomics of foodborne pathogens. Driven by the drastic advance of whole genome shot gun sequencing (WGS) technologies, genomics applications are becoming increasingly valuable and even essential...... at the forefront of foodborne pathogen genomics research....

  15. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  16. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative…

  17. Virtual reality applied to teletesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Smeenk, R.J.M.; Mazy, A.; Jacques, P.; Argüello, L.; Mills, S.

    2003-01-01

    The activity "Virtual Reality applied to Teletesting" is related to a wider European Space Agency (ESA) initiative of cost reduction, in particular the reduction of test costs. Reduction of costs of space related projects have to be performed on test centre operating costs and customer company

  18. Conditional Independence in Applied Probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Paul E.

    This material assumes the user has the background provided by a good undergraduate course in applied probability. It is felt that introductory courses in calculus, linear algebra, and perhaps some differential equations should provide the requisite experience and proficiency with mathematical concepts, notation, and argument. The document is…

  19. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  20. Applying Ethnography in Educational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J.

    1985-01-01

    Explores reasons that anthropology has been applied only infrequently to the solution of education-related problems. Presents three case examples in which ethnographic research in the Hispanic community of Hartford, Connecticut, has been utilized to bring about changes in education-related services to Hispanics. (Author/GC)

  1. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  2. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  3. Educational Geographers and Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of applied geography programs and restructuring of curricula with an emphasis on new technique and methodology courses, though retaining the liberal arts role. Educational geographers can help the programs to succeed through curriculum analysis, auditing, advising students, and liaison with other geography sources. (CK)

  4. Applied Linguistics in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    This paper traces the three major developmental strands that converged to contribute to the definition of the applied linguistics field in the Philippines: the institution and capacity-building work supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations; the forging of a vibrant consortium among three Filipino institutions of higher education to offer…

  5. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  6. Applied multidimensional scaling and unfolding

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Ingwer; Mair, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces multidimensional scaling (MDS) and unfolding as data analysis techniques for applied researchers. MDS is used for the analysis of proximity data on a set of objects, representing the data as distances between points in a geometric space (usually of two dimensions). Unfolding is a related method that maps preference data (typically evaluative ratings of different persons on a set of objects) as distances between two sets of points (representing the persons and the objects, resp.). This second edition has been completely revised to reflect new developments and the coverage of unfolding has also been substantially expanded. Intended for applied researchers whose main interests are in using these methods as tools for building substantive theories, it discusses numerous applications (classical and recent), highlights practical issues (such as evaluating model fit), presents ways to enforce theoretical expectations for the scaling solutions, and addresses the typical mistakes that MDS/unfoldin...

  7. Modern applied U-statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    A timely and applied approach to the newly discovered methods and applications of U-statisticsBuilt on years of collaborative research and academic experience, Modern Applied U-Statistics successfully presents a thorough introduction to the theory of U-statistics using in-depth examples and applications that address contemporary areas of study including biomedical and psychosocial research. Utilizing a "learn by example" approach, this book provides an accessible, yet in-depth, treatment of U-statistics, as well as addresses key concepts in asymptotic theory by integrating translational and cross-disciplinary research.The authors begin with an introduction of the essential and theoretical foundations of U-statistics such as the notion of convergence in probability and distribution, basic convergence results, stochastic Os, inference theory, generalized estimating equations, as well as the definition and asymptotic properties of U-statistics. With an emphasis on nonparametric applications when and where applic...

  8. An Applied Physicist Does Econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, L. G.

    2010-02-01

    The biggest problem those attempting to understand econometric data, via modeling, have is that economics has no F = ma. Without a theoretical underpinning, econometricians have no way to build a good model to fit observations to. Physicists do, and when F = ma failed, we knew it. Still desiring to comprehend econometric data, applied economists turn to mis-applying probability theory---especially with regard to the assumptions concerning random errors---and choosing extremely simplistic analytical formulations of inter-relationships. This introduces model bias to an unknown degree. An applied physicist, used to having to match observations to a numerical or analytical model with a firm theoretical basis, modify the model, re-perform the analysis, and then know why, and when, to delete ``outliers'', is at a considerable advantage when quantitatively analyzing econometric data. I treat two cases. One is to determine the household density distribution of total assets, annual income, age, level of education, race, and marital status. Each of these ``independent'' variables is highly correlated with every other but only current annual income and level of education follow a linear relationship. The other is to discover the functional dependence of total assets on the distribution of assets: total assets has an amazingly tight power law dependence on a quadratic function of portfolio composition. Who knew? )

  9. Performance and Fouling Study of Asymmetric PVDF Membrane Applied in the Concentration of Organic Fertilizer by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using membrane distillation (MD as an alternative to the conventional multi-stage flushing (MSF process to concentrate a semi-product of organic fertilizer. By applying a unique asymmetric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane, which was specifically designed for MD applications using a nonsolvent thermally induced phase separation (NTIPS method, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD performance was investigated in terms of its sustainability in permeation flux, fouling resistance, and anti-wetting properties. It was found that the permeation flux increased with increasing flow rate, while the top-surface facing feed mode was the preferred orientation to achieve 25% higher flux than the bottom-surface facing feed mode. Compared to the commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane, the asymmetric PVDF membrane exhibited excellent anti-fouling and sustainable flux, with less than 8% flux decline in a 15 h continuous operation, i.e., flux decreased slightly and was maintained as high as 74 kg·m−2·h−1 at 70 °C. Meanwhile, the lost flux was easily recovered by clean water rinsing. Overall 2.6 times concentration factor was achieved in 15 h MD operation, with 63.4% water being removed from the fertilizer sample. Further concentration could be achieved to reach the desired industrial standard of 5x concentration factor.

  10. Multi-stage subunit vaccine development against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Johne’s disease in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers

    paratuberculosis provide only partial protection and interfere with diagnostic tests for JD and surveillance for bovine TB. In contrast, recombinant subunit vaccines can be designed to be used without compromising control of bTB and Map. Taking advantage of data from mouse TB studies, and early Map vaccination...... in macrophages. The disease progression is very slow with neonatal animals being the most susceptible to infection, but without development of detectable IFN-γ responses for months after infection and rarely with clinical disease before the second or third year of life. Available whole cell vaccines against......- and field-studies we developed a vaccine with a single recombinant fusion protein comprising four acute-stage antigens (Ags) and one latent-stage Ag formulated in adjuvant (FET-vaccine). In post-exposure vaccination of calves and goats with necropsy 8-12 months post inoculation, we determined...

  11. Thermal Efficiency of Cogeneration Units with Multi-Stage Reheating for Russian Municipal Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the layout of an optimum process for supplying heat to Russian municipal heating systems operating in a market environment. We analyze and compare the standard cogeneration unit design with two-stage reheating of service water coming from controlled extraction locations and layouts that employ three in-line reheaters with heat the supply controlled by a rotary diaphragm and qualitative/quantitative methods (so-called “uncontrolled extraction”. Cogeneration unit designs are benchmarked in terms of their thermal efficiency expressed as a fuel consumption rate. The specific fuel consumption rate on electricity production is viewed as a key parameter of thermal efficiency.

  12. System and method for multi-stage bypass, low operating temperature suppressor for automatic weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

    2015-06-09

    The present disclosure relates to a suppressor for use with a weapon. The suppressor may be formed to have a body portion having a bore extending concentric with a bore axis of the weapon barrel. An opening in the bore extends at least substantially circumferentially around the bore. A flow path communicates with the opening and defines a channel for redirecting gasses flowing in the bore out from the bore, through the opening, into a rearward direction in the flow path. The flow path raises a pressure at the opening to generate a Mach disk within the bore at a location approximately coincident with the opening. The Mach disk forms as a virtual baffle to divert at least a portion of the gasses into the opening and into the flow path.

  13. Fibre Bragg Grating as a Multi-Stage Structure Health Monitoring Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    . At the manufacturing stage, where the sensors can measure several parameters of infusion and curing, sensor feedback can help control the process, avoid residual strain, and contribute to the product certification; and then in operation where cracks can be detected and monitored. Experimental mechanical testing...

  14. Multi-stage and multi-response process optimization in Taguchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product quality is all about reducing variations of key performance indicators. However, product manufacturing often, requires multiple processes with multiple indicators, which make reducing variation a complex task. There are tools used to optimize a single stage process independently which ensure local optimization ...

  15. Multi-level trellis coded modulation and multi-stage decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Wu, Jiantian; Lin, Shu

    1990-01-01

    Several constructions for multi-level trellis codes are presented and many codes with better performance than previously known codes are found. These codes provide a flexible trade-off between coding gain, decoding complexity, and decoding delay. New multi-level trellis coded modulation schemes using generalized set partitioning methods are developed for Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) signal sets. New rotationally invariant multi-level trellis codes which can be combined with differential encoding to resolve phase ambiguity are presented.

  16. A motion study of a manipulator for transferring microparts in a multi stage former

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hansen, Casper

    2013-01-01

    camera in order to give sufficient information on critical movements where they may need sensors and enough time to ensure getting at the right position as programmed. In this research the production rate raised to 169 strokes per minute. The results show that the concept introduced for the manipulator...... works very well at a real process implementation. This significantly approves the techniques already were given to evaluate the precision in the positioning unit and the gripping unit. Copyright © 2013 by ASME....

  17. Adaptation Criteria for the Personalised Delivery of Learning Materials: A Multi-Stage Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Personalised e-Learning represents a major step-change from the one-size-fits-all approach of traditional learning platforms to a more customised and interactive provision of learning materials. Adaptive learning can support the learning process by tailoring learning materials to individual needs. However, this requires the initial preparation of…

  18. Brewhouse-resident microbiota are responsible for multi-stage fermentation of American coolship ale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Bokulich

    Full Text Available American coolship ale (ACA is a type of spontaneously fermented beer that employs production methods similar to traditional Belgian lambic. In spite of its growing popularity in the American craft-brewing sector, the fermentation microbiology of ACA has not been previously described, and thus the interface between production methodology and microbial community structure is unexplored. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP, barcoded amplicon sequencing (BAS, quantitative PCR (qPCR and culture-dependent analysis, ACA fermentations were shown to follow a consistent fermentation progression, initially dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and a range of oxidative yeasts in the first month, then ceding to Saccharomyces spp. and Lactobacillales for the following year. After one year of fermentation, Brettanomyces bruxellensis was the dominant yeast population (occasionally accompanied by minor populations of Candida spp., Pichia spp., and other yeasts and Lactobacillales remained dominant, though various aerobic bacteria became more prevalent. This work demonstrates that ACA exhibits a conserved core microbial succession in absence of inoculation, supporting the role of a resident brewhouse microbiota. These findings establish this core microbial profile of spontaneous beer fermentations as a target for production control points and quality standards for these beers.

  19. Using DEWIS and R for Multi-Staged Statistics e-Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynllyw, D. Rhys; Weir, Iain S.; Henderson, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the DEWIS e-Assessment system may use embedded R code to facilitate the assessment of students' ability to perform involved statistical analyses. The R code has been written to emulate SPSS output and thus the statistical results for each bespoke data set can be generated efficiently and accurately using standard R routines.…

  20. Small Launch Vehicle Design Approaches: Clustered Cores Compared with Multi-Stage Inline Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Beers, Benjamin; Esther, Elizabeth; Philips, Alan; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to better define small launch vehicle design options two approaches were investigated from the small launch vehicle trade space. The primary focus was to evaluate a clustered common core design against a purpose built inline vehicle. Both designs focused on liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant grade kerosene (RP-1) stages with the terminal stage later evaluated as a LOX/methane (CH4) stage. A series of performance optimization runs were done in order to minimize gross liftoff weight (GLOW) including alternative thrust levels, delivery altitude for payload, vehicle length to diameter ratio, alternative engine feed systems, re-evaluation of mass growth allowances, passive versus active guidance systems, and rail and tower launch methods. Additionally manufacturability, cost, and operations also play a large role in the benefits and detriments for each design. Presented here is the Advanced Concepts Office's Earth to Orbit Launch Team methodology and high level discussion of the performance trades and trends of both small launch vehicle solutions along with design philosophies that shaped both concepts. Without putting forth a decree stating one approach is better than the other; this discussion is meant to educate the community at large and let the reader determine which architecture is truly the most economical; since each path has such a unique set of limitations and potential payoffs.

  1. Make or buy decision model with multi-stage manufacturing process and supplier imperfect quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Mega Aria; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2017-11-01

    This research develops an make or buy decision model considering supplier imperfect quality. This model can be used to help companies make the right decision in case of make or buy component with the best quality and the least cost in multistage manufacturing process. The imperfect quality is one of the cost component that must be minimizing in this model. Component with imperfect quality, not necessarily defective. It still can be rework and used for assembly. This research also provide a numerical example and sensitivity analysis to show how the model work. We use simulation and help by crystal ball to solve the numerical problem. The sensitivity analysis result show that percentage of imperfect generally not affect to the model significantly, and the model is not sensitive to changes in these parameters. This is because the imperfect cost are smaller than overall total cost components.

  2. New design of process for cold forging to improve multi-stage gas fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a process that solves the problem of the formation of cracks inside forged gas fittings in the cold forging process that arises from poor forging process design. DEFORM-3D forming software was utilized, and macroscopic experiments with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to investigate the processed structures and the distribution therein of metal flow lines, and to find the internal micro-cracks to determine whether the cold forging process is reasonable. Analytical results herein demonstrate that the stress and strain inside the gas fitting can be elucidated using metal forming software. Together with experimental results, they demonstrate that a concentration of stress damages the workpiece in the forming process. Moreover, as metal flow lines become narrower, the workpiece becomes more easily damaged. Consequently, the improved cold forging process that is described in this work should be utilized to reduce the occurrence of fine cracks and defects. Planning for proper die design and production, increasing the quality of products, and reducing the number of defective products promote industrial competitiveness.

  3. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle

    2017-01-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland’s only operating metalliferous mine until i...

  4. One-stage or multi-stage creep fatigue behaviour of heat-resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, K.H.; Granacher, J.; Scholz, A.

    1994-01-01

    For one stage realistic long term alternating strain tests on two forged steels with the duration of tests up to an order of magnitude of 45,000 hours, the generalised damage accumulation rule, using an optimised evaluation process dealing with pre-stress effects leads to a relative creep fatigue service life of one. A replacement description by the modified service life share rule is indicated for the long term area. First results from realistic three step tests are classified in the scatter band of single stage stress, where there are only slight differences from different cycle counting processes. (orig.) [de

  5. Dynamic-Programming Approaches to Single- and Multi-Stage Stochastic Knapsack Problems for Portfolio Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khoo, Wai

    1999-01-01

    .... These problems model stochastic portfolio optimization problems (SPOPs) which assume deterministic unit weight, and normally distributed unit return with known mean and variance for each item type...

  6. Ramping up to the Biology Workbench: A Multi-Stage Approach to Bioinformatics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kathleen; Donovan, Sam

    2005-01-01

    In the process of designing and field-testing bioinformatics curriculum materials, we have adopted a three-stage, progressive model that emphasizes collaborative scientific inquiry. The elements of the model include: (1) context setting, (2) introduction to concepts, processes, and tools, and (3) development of competent use of technologically…

  7. Single Point Incremental Forming and Multi-Stage Incremental Forming on Aluminium Alloy 1050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyaprakan, Premika

    As piroxenas sao um vasto grupo de silicatos minerais encontrados em muitas rochas igneas e metamorficas. Na sua forma mais simples, estes silicatos sao constituidas por cadeias de SiO3 ligando grupos tetrahedricos de SiO4. A formula quimica geral das piroxenas e M2M1T2O6, onde M2 se refere a catioes geralmente em uma coordenacao octaedrica distorcida (Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Li+, Ca2+, Na+), M1 refere-se a catioes numa coordenacao octaedrica regular (Al3+, Fe3+, Ti4+, Cr3+, V3+, Ti3+, Zr4+, Sc3+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+), e T a catioes em coordenacao tetrahedrica (Si4+, Al3+, Fe3+). As piroxenas com estrutura monoclinica sao designadas de clinopiroxenes. A estabilidade das clinopyroxenes num espectro de composicoes quimicas amplo, em conjugacao com a possibilidade de ajustar as suas propriedades fisicas e quimicas e a durabilidade quimica, tem gerado um interesse mundial devido a suas aplicacoes em ciencia e tecnologia de materiais. Este trabalho trata do desenvolvimento de vidros e de vitro-cerâmicos baseadas de clinopiroxenas para aplicacoes funcionais. O estudo teve objectivos cientificos e tecnologicos; nomeadamente, adquirir conhecimentos fundamentais sobre a formacao de fases cristalinas e solucoes solidas em determinados sistemas vitro-cerâmicos, e avaliar a viabilidade de aplicacao dos novos materiais em diferentes areas tecnologicas, com especial enfase sobre a selagem em celulas de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC). Com este intuito, prepararam-se varios vidros e materiais vitro-cerâmicos ao longo das juntas Enstatite (MgSiO3) - diopsidio (CaMgSi2O6) e diopsidio (CaMgSi2O6) - Ca - Tschermak (CaAlSi2O6), os quais foram caracterizados atraves de um vasto leque de tecnicas. Todos os vidros foram preparados por fusao-arrefecimento enquanto os vitro-cerâmicos foram obtidos quer por sinterizacao e cristalizacao de fritas, quer por nucleacao e cristalizacao de vidros monoliticos. Estudaram-se ainda os efeitos de varias substituicoes ionicas em composicoes de diopsidio contendo Al na estrutura, sinterizacao e no comportamento durante a cristalizacao de vidros e nas propriedades dos materiais vitro-cerâmicos, com relevância para a sua aplicacao como selantes em SOFC. Verificou-se que Foi observado que os vidros/vitro-cerâmicos a base de enstatite nao apresentavam as caracteristicas necessarias para serem usados como materiais selantes em SOFC, enquanto as melhores propriedades apresentadas pelos vitro-cerâmicos a base de diopsidio qualificaram-nos para futuros estudos neste tipo de aplicacoes. Para alem de investigar a adequacao dos vitro-cerâmicos a base de clinopyroxene como selantes, esta tese tem tambem como objetivo estudar a influencia dos agentes de nucleacao na nucleacao em volume dos vitro-cerâmicos resultantes a base de diopsidio, de modo a qualifica-los como potenciais materiais hopedeiros de residuos nucleares radioactivos.

  8. Development of a Multi-Stage Vaccine against Paratuberculosis in Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh

    (MSV)-1 and 2. FET11 vaccine, a combination of a fusion protein of four early expressed MAP proteins and a latencyassociated MAP protein formulated in CAF01 adjuvant was tested by an experimental MAP challenge in calves. FET11 vaccination at 16 weeks of age induced significant immune response...... response as a marker of MAP experimental infection (Article 4). This challenge study also supports the possibility of establishing a uniform and repeatable bovine MAP infection model involving large number of animals procured at different times. The results also show the potential application...... and NK cells was observed in vaccinated calves. Although the levels were low compared to CD4+ T cells, IFN-γ production by these innate effector cells might compensate the immature immune system of young calves to counteract MAP infection. A number of immunological markers were discussed as potential...

  9. MINERALOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL EVIDENCE FOR MULTI-STAGE FORMATION OF THE CHERTOVO KORYTO DEPOSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Tarasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Lena gold province is one of the largest known gold resources in the world. The history of its exploration is long, but the genesis of gold mineralization hosted in black shales in the Bodaibo synclinorium still remains unclear. The studies face the challenge of discovering sources for the useful component and mechanisms of its redistribution and concentration. This study aims to clarify the time sequence of the ore mineralization in the Chertovo Koryto deposit on the basis of detailed mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the ore, wallrock metasomatites and the Early Proterozoic host black shales, and to assess the applicability of the Sukhoi Log model for clarifying the Chertovo Koryto origin.Geological setting. The Lena gold province is located in the junction area of the Siberian platform and the Baikal mountain region (Fig. 1. The main element of its geological structure is the Chuya-Tonoda-Nechera anticline. Its axial segment is marked by horsts composed of the Early Proterozoic rocks with abundant granitoid massifs. The Chertovo Koryto deposit is located within the Kevakta ore complex at the Tonoda uplift, the largest tectonically disturbed block between the Kevakta and Amandrak granitoids massifs. The 150 m thick and 1.5 km long ore zone of the Chertovo Koryto deposit is confined to the hanging wall of the fold-fault zone feathering the Amandrak deep fault (Fig. 2.Composition. In the ore zone, rocks of the Mikhailovsk Formation include carbonaceous shales of the feldspar-chlorite-sericite-quartz composition with nest-shaped ore accumulations of the pyrite-quartz composition and quartz veinlets. In our study, we distinguish five mineral associations resulting from heterochronous processes that sequentially replaced each other:- The earliest association related with the quartz-muscovite-sericite metasomatism and the removal of REE and other elements from the rocks and their partial redeposition;- Metamorphic sulphidization presented by scattered impregnations of pyrrhotite, as evidenced by small lenses of pyrrhotite, which are considerably elongated (axes up to 0.7 cm long along the foliation planes (Figs 3, a, b;- Ore mineralization represented by a superimposed hydrothermal gold association with arsenopyrite (Fig. 3, d;- Late chalcophilic mineralization formed at the final stage of hydrothermal-metasomatic process (Figs 3, e, f;- Post-ore silification.Geochemical characteristics. The geochemical study of rocks and ores from the Chertovo Koryto deposit show that the rocks of the Mikhailovsk Formation are characterized by higher contents of rock-forming elements, such as of Al2O3, Fe2O3total, MgO, K2O, and P2O5, in comparison to the PAAS standards [Condie, 1993] and the black shale standard composition (SChS-1 [Petrov et al., 2004]. A characteristic feature of the ore zone is that the contents of practically all the oxides, except SiO2, tend to decrease (Table 1. The distribution of rare elements repeats the pattern established for major elements. The least metamorphosed rocks of the Mikhailovsk Formation have higher contents (up to three times of Cu, Mo, Ba, W, As, Pb relative to the values in the PAAS and SChS-1 standards. In the ore zone, the contents of almost all rare elements are considerably reduced (Table 2. The contents of elements in the siderophile group (Co, Ni are clearly correlated with the ore processes and increased more than twice in the area of metamorphic changes. Samples with gold-ore grade contents show the highest concentrations of Co and Ni.Conclusion. In our opinion, the Chertovo Koryto deposit was formed in five stages, the first two of which were pre-ore, with ore preparation, and probably considerably distant in time from the main ore-generating event. The staged formation of the Chertovo Koryto deposit correlates with the basic stages in the tectono-metamorphic history of the study region and is consistent with the model showing the formation of Sukhoi Log-type deposits [Nemerov, 1989; Buryak, Khmelevskaya, 1997; Large et al., 2007]. 

  10. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Chengqi; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Peng; Li, Fusen; Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Al-Amer, Ali; Mei, Hailiang; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Hu, Songnian; Al-Johi, Hasan Awad; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  11. Continuous biodegradation of sulfanilic acid in a multi-stage packed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Huerta, A.; Velazquez-Garcia, A.; Cobos-Vasconcelos, D. de los.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N.; Galindez-Mayer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfanilic acid SA is an aromatic amine derived from the azo-bond cleavage of several textile dyes. Recalcitrance and toxicity of this amine is high, and with frequency it could be found as an aquatic contaminant; thus biodegradation process for its removal are justified. Although the SA molecule contains carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, its C:N:S proportion is unbalanced for microbial growth in a biodegradation process; thus nutrient complementation should be necessary for its complete removal. (Author)

  12. Numerical simulation of stage separation of a multi-stage flying object with brake jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, M.; Shadaram, A.; Nia, B.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, separation maneuver of a two-stage supersonic flying object is numerically simulated and the influences of supersonic brake jets on separation process are discussed. The finite volume approach is used for solution of unsteady three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equations on a moving boundary domain. In this simulation, air has considered as a calorically perfect gas and since the flow field is turbulent, two equations κ-ε model has been adopted for turbulence modeling. Shocks, expansions and their reflections have major role on flow pattern between two stages during the separation process and the maneuver is dominantly affected by the main flow and braking jets. The separation process has an unsteady nature and the separation of stages at high Mach numbers induces some aerodynamic problems that may lead to fail the next stage flight. The purpose of this research is to compute the aerodynamic loads on separated stage and, consequently, the relative distance of body components with a good accuracy. The simulation of moving boundary problem is based on moving grid strategy using remeshing method. To validate the simulation, some of the results are compared with experimental data. (author)

  13. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2016-01-01

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a

  14. Multi-stage full waveform inversion strategy for 2D elastic VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Min, Dong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the multi-parametric full waveform inversion (FWI) is to find an optimal parameterization, which helps us recover the subsurface anisotropic parameters as well as seismic velocities, with minimal tradeoff. As a

  15. Yield curve event tree construction for multi stage stochastic programming models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Poulsen, Rolf

    Dynamic stochastic programming (DSP) provides an intuitive framework for modelling of financial portfolio choice problems where market frictions are present and dynamic re--balancing has a significant effect on initial decisions. The application of these models in practice, however, is limited....... Indeed defining a universal and tractable framework for fully ``appropriate'' event trees is in our opinion an impossible task. A problem specific approach to designing such event trees is the way ahead. In this paper we propose a number of desirable properties which should be present in an event tree...

  16. Exit loss model for plain axial seals in multi-stage centrifugal pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruurs, K.A.J.; van Esch, B.P.M.; van der Schoot, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Plain axial seals are often used in centrifugal pumps as a means to achieve acceptable sealing against leakage flow without the much higher friction losses that are associated with mechanical seals. Examples of their application are the front seals in shrouded radial and mixed-flow pumps and the

  17. multi-stage and multi-response process optimization in taguchi method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shewit`

    product manufacturing often, requires multiple ... new model with its optimization procedure is proven to ensure ... related with inspection strategies. The third ... determine optimum levels of input parameters in ... under the least possible cost.

  18. Asset liability management modeling using multi-stage mixed-integer stochastic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijver, S.J.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    2000-01-01

    A pension fund has to match the portfolio of long-term liabilities with the portfolio of assets. Key instruments in strategic Asset Liability Management (ALM) are the adjustments of the contribution rate of the sponsor and the reallocation of the investments in several asset classes at various

  19. KEEL 3.0: An Open Source Software for Multi-Stage Analysis in Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Triguero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the 3rd major release of the KEEL Software. KEEL is an open source Java framework (GPLv3 license that provides a number of modules to perform a wide variety of data mining tasks. It includes tools to perform data management, design of multiple kind of experiments, statistical analyses, etc. This framework also contains KEEL-dataset, a data repository for multiple learning tasks featuring data partitions and algorithmsr results over these problems. In this work, we describe the most recent components added to KEEL 3.0, including new modules for semi-supervised learning, multi-instance learning, imbalanced classification and subgroup discovery. In addition, a new interface in R has been incorporated to execute algorithms included in KEEL. These new features greatly improve the versatility of KEEL to deal with more modern data mining problems.

  20. Probability Judgements in Multi-Stage Problems : Experimental Evidence of Systematic Biases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gneezy, U.

    1996-01-01

    We report empirical evidence that in problems of random walk with positive drift, bounded rationality leads individuals to under-estimate the probability of success in the long run.In particular, individuals who were given the stage by stage probability distribution failed to aggregate this

  1. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Chengqi

    2015-01-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  2. A Multi-Stage Method for Connecting Participatory Sensing and Noise Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyuan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment, and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1 spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2 multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3 dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for noise simulations on multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  3. Dehydration Behaviour of Borax Pentahydrate to Anhydrous Borax by Multi-Stage Heating in a Fluidized

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Ömer

    2002-01-01

    In order to optimize the anhydrous borax process in a fluidized bed calcinator, it is absolutely necessary to study the dehydration behaviour of borax pentahydrate. It was found that the basic feature of the dehydration of borax pentahydrate to anhydrous borax is concerned with the conditions employed. The bulk density and sodium borate content of the end product were determined to be a function of number of stages of temperature of the dehydration period in the fluidized bed. It...

  4. Arrayed architectures for multi-stage Si-micromachined high-flow Knudsen pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yutao; An, Seungdo; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an evaluation and a comparison of two architectures for implementing Si-micromachined high-flow Knudsen pumps. Knudsen pumps, which operate on the principle of thermal transpiration, have been shown to have great promise for micro-scale gas phase fluidic systems such as micro gas chromatographs. Simultaneously achieving both a high flow rate and adequate blocking pressure has been a persistent challenge, which is addressed in this work by combining multiple pumps in series and addressing the resulting challenges in thermal management. The basic building block is a Si-micromachined pump with  ≈100 000 parallel channels in a 4 mm  ×  6 mm footprint. In the primary approach, multiple pump stages are stacked vertically with interleaved Si-micromachined spacers. A stacked 4-stage Knudsen pump has a form factor of 10 mm  ×  8 mm  ×  6 mm. In an alternate approach, multiple stages are arranged in a planar array. The experimental results demonstrate multiplication of the output pressure head with the number of stages, while the flow rate is maintained. For example, a stacked 4-stage Knudsen pump with 8 W power operated at atmospheric pressure provided a blocking pressure of 0.255 kPa, which was 3.6  ×  of that provided by a single-stage pump with 2 W power; while both provided a  ≈  30 sccm maximum flow rate. The performance can be customized for practical applications such as micro gas chromatography. (paper)

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for multi-stage formation of the Chertovo Koryto deposit

    OpenAIRE

    TARASOVA YULIA I.; SOTSKAYA OLGA T.; SKUZOVATOV SERGEI YU.; VANIN VADIM A.; KULIKOVA ZOYA I.; BUDYAK ALEKSANDER E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The Lena gold province is one of the largest known gold resources in the world. The history of its exploration is long, but the genesis of gold mineralization hosted in black shales in the Bodaibo synclinorium still remains unclear. The studies face the challenge of discovering sources for the useful component and mechanisms of its redistribution and concentration. This study aims to clarify the time sequence of the ore mineralization in the Chertovo Koryto deposit on the basis ...

  6. A Predictive Model of Multi-Stage Production Planning for Fixed Time Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozłowski Edward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production planning model based upon a deterministic approach is well described in the literature. Due to the uncertain nature of manufacturing processes, such model can however incorrectly represent actual situations on the shop floor. This study develops a mathematical modeling framework for generating production plans in a multistage manufacturing process. The devised model takes into account the stochastic model for predicting the occurrence of faulty products. The aim of the control model is to determine the number of products which should be manufactured in each planning period to minimize both manufacturing costs and potential financial penalties for failing to fulfill the order completely.

  7. The novel Candida albicans transporter Dur31 Is a multi-stage pathogenicity factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François L Mayer

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most frequent cause of oral fungal infections. However, the exact pathogenicity mechanisms that this fungus employs are largely unknown and many of the genes expressed during oral infection are uncharacterized. In this study we sought to functionally characterize 12 previously unknown function genes associated with oral candidiasis. We generated homozygous knockout mutants for all 12 genes and analyzed their interaction with human oral epithelium in vitro. Eleven mutants caused significantly less epithelial damage and, of these, deletion of orf19.6656 (DUR31 elicited the strongest reduction in pathogenicity. Interestingly, DUR31 was not only involved in oral epithelial damage, but in multiple stages of candidiasis, including surviving attack by human neutrophils, endothelial damage and virulence in vivo. In silico analysis indicated that DUR31 encodes a sodium/substrate symporter with 13 transmembrane domains and no human homologue. We provide evidence that Dur31 transports histatin 5. This is one of the very first examples of microbial driven import of this highly cytotoxic antimicrobial peptide. Also, in contrast to wild type C. albicans, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to actively increase local environmental pH, suggesting that Dur31 lies in the extracellular alkalinization hyphal auto-induction pathway; and, indeed, DUR31 was required for morphogenesis. In agreement with this observation, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to assimilate the polyamine spermidine.

  8. The Novel Candida albicans Transporter Dur31 Is a Multi-Stage Pathogenicity Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, François L.; Wilson, Duncan; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Miramón, Pedro; Große, Katharina; Hube, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent cause of oral fungal infections. However, the exact pathogenicity mechanisms that this fungus employs are largely unknown and many of the genes expressed during oral infection are uncharacterized. In this study we sought to functionally characterize 12 previously unknown function genes associated with oral candidiasis. We generated homozygous knockout mutants for all 12 genes and analyzed their interaction with human oral epithelium in vitro. Eleven mutants caused significantly less epithelial damage and, of these, deletion of orf19.6656 (DUR31) elicited the strongest reduction in pathogenicity. Interestingly, DUR31 was not only involved in oral epithelial damage, but in multiple stages of candidiasis, including surviving attack by human neutrophils, endothelial damage and virulence in vivo. In silico analysis indicated that DUR31 encodes a sodium/substrate symporter with 13 transmembrane domains and no human homologue. We provide evidence that Dur31 transports histatin 5. This is one of the very first examples of microbial driven import of this highly cytotoxic antimicrobial peptide. Also, in contrast to wild type C. albicans, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to actively increase local environmental pH, suggesting that Dur31 lies in the extracellular alkalinization hyphal auto-induction pathway; and, indeed, DUR31 was required for morphogenesis. In agreement with this observation, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to assimilate the polyamine spermidine. PMID:22438810

  9. Dynamic multi-stage dispatch of isolated wind–diesel power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yu; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pineda, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    -stage decision-making model is proposed to determine the diesel power output that minimizes the cost of running and maintaining the wind–diesel power system. Optimized operational decisions for each time period are generated dynamically considering the path-dependent nature of the optimal dispatch policy, given......An optimal dispatch strategy is crucial for an isolated wind–diesel power system to save diesel fuel and maintain the system stability. The uncertainty associated with the stochastic character of the wind is, though, a challenging problem for this optimization. In this paper, a dynamic multi...

  10. Watchdog Sensor Network with Multi-Stage RF Signal Identification and Cooperative Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the Nash equilibrium of the network with several misbehaving nodes is Pareto optimal for each node as well. The underlying assumption is that all...Scatternet Formation” 1st Mobihoc, Aug. 2000 pp 147–48. [24] V.B, Kirubanand, S. Palaniammal, “Performance Modeling of Client -Server with Wibree

  11. Single-Staged Compared With Multi-Staged PCI in Multivessel NSTEMI Patients: The SMILE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Gennaro; Lucisano, Luigi; Garbo, Roberto; Pennacchi, Mauro; Cavallo, Erika; Stio, Rocco Edoardo; Calcagno, Simone; Ugo, Fabrizio; Boccuzzi, Giacomo; Fedele, Francesco; Mancone, Massimo

    2016-01-26

    A lack of clarity exists about the role of complete coronary revascularization in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The aim of our study was to compare long-term outcomes in terms of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events of 2 different complete coronary revascularization strategies in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary artery disease: 1-stage percutaneous coronary intervention (1S-PCI) during the index procedure versus multistage percutaneous coronary intervention (MS-PCI) complete coronary revascularization during the index hospitalization. In the SMILE (Impact of Different Treatment in Multivessel Non ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: One Stage Versus Multistaged Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial, 584 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to 1S-PCI or MS-PCI. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, which were defined as cardiac death, death, reinfarction, rehospitalization for unstable angina, repeat coronary revascularization (target vessel revascularization), and stroke at 1 year. The occurrence of the primary endpoint was significantly lower in the 1-stage group (1S-PCI: n = 36 [13.63%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 61 [23.19%]; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.549 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.363 to 0.828]; p = 0.004). The 1-year rate of target vessel revascularization was significantly higher in the MS-PCI group (1S-PCI: n = 22 [8.33%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 40 [15.20%]; HR: 0.522 [95% CI: 0.310 to 0.878]; p = 0.01; p log-rank = 0.013). When the analyses were limited to cardiac death (1S-PCI: n = 9 [3.41%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 14 [5.32%]; HR: 0.624 [95% CI: 0.270 to 1.441]; p = 0.27) and myocardial infarction (1S-PCI: n = 7 [2.65%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 10 [3.80%]; HR: 0.678 [95% CI: 0.156 to 2.657]; p = 0.46), no significant differences were observed between groups. In multivessel non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, complete 1-stage coronary revascularization is superior to multistage PCI in terms of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. (Impact of Different Treatment in Multivessel Non ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction [NSTEMI] One Stage Versus Multistaged Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI] [SMILE]: NCT01478984). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-Stage Optimization-Based Automatic Voltage Control Systems Considering Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic voltage control (AVC) system for power systems with limited continuous voltage control capability. The objective is to minimize the operational cost over a period, which consists of the power loss in the grid, the shunt switching cost, the transformer tap change...... electricity control center, where study cases based on the western Danish power system demonstrate the superiority of the proposed AVC system in term of the cost minimization. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to verify the proposed method on the robustness improvements....

  13. Multi-stage volcanic island flank collapses with coeval explosive caldera-forming eruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, James E.; Cassidy, Michael; Talling, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Volcanic flank collapses and explosive eruptions are among the largest and most destructive processes on Earth. Events at Mount St. Helens in May 1980 demonstrated how a relatively small (<5 km3) flank collapse on a terrestrial volcano could immediately precede a devastating eruption. The lateral collapse of volcanic island flanks, such as in the Canary Islands, can be far larger (>300 km3), but can also occur in complex multiple stages. Here, we show that multistage retrogressive lands...

  14. StreamExplorer: A Multi-Stage System for Visually Exploring Events in Social Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Chen, Zhutian; Sun, Guodao; Xie, Xiao; Cao, Nan; Liu, Shixia; Cui, Weiwei

    2017-10-18

    Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present StreamExplorer to facilitate the visual analysis, tracking, and comparison of a social stream at three levels. At a macroscopic level, StreamExplorer uses a new glyph-based timeline visualization, which presents a quick multi-faceted overview of the ebb and flow of a social stream. At a mesoscopic level, a map visualization is employed to visually summarize the social stream from either a topical or geographical aspect. At a microscopic level, users can employ interactive lenses to visually examine and explore the social stream from different perspectives. Two case studies and a task-based evaluation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of StreamExplorer.Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present StreamExplorer to facilitate the visual analysis, tracking, and comparison of a social stream at three levels. At a macroscopic level, StreamExplorer uses a new glyph-based timeline visualization, which presents a quick multi-faceted overview of the ebb and flow of a social stream. At a mesoscopic level, a map visualization is employed to visually summarize the social stream from either a topical or geographical aspect. At a microscopic level, users can employ interactive lenses to visually examine and explore the social stream from different perspectives. Two case studies and a task-based evaluation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of StreamExplorer.

  15. Epidemiology applied to health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The technical program of the mid-year meeting of the Health Physics Society, entitled Epidemiology Applied to Health physics, was developed to meet three objectives: (1) give health physicists a deeper understanding of the basics of epidemiological methods and their use in developing standards, regulations, and criteria and in risk assessment; (2) present current reports on recently completed or on-going epidemiology studies; and (3) encourage greater interaction between the health physics and epidemiology disciplines. Included are studies relating methods in epidemiology to radiation protection standards, risk assessment from exposure to bone-seekers, from occupational exposures in mines, mills and nuclear facilities, and from radioactivity in building materials

  16. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  17. Applied Mathematical Problems in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llopis-Albert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between engineering and mathematics, which has led to the development of new techniques in recent years. Likewise the developments in technology and computers have led to new ways of teaching mathematics for engineering students and the use of modern techniques and methods.  This research aims to provide insight on how to deal with mathematical problems for engineering students. This is performed by means of a fuzzy set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis applied to conflict resolution of Public Participation Projects in support to the EU Water Framework Directive.

  18. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed. (paper)

  19. Applied in vitro radio bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.C.G.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    1992-11-01

    The aim of this publication is to show the concepts and in vitro bioassay techniques as well as experimental procedures related with internal contamination evaluation. The main routes of intake, metabolic behavior, and the possible types of bioassay samples that can be collected for radionuclides analysis are described. Both biological processes and the chemical and physical behavior of the radioactive material of interest are considered and the capabilities of analytical techniques to detect and quantify the radionuclides are discussed. Next, the need of quality assurance throughout procedures are considered and finally a summary of the techniques applied to the internal routine monitoring of IPEN workers is given. (author)

  20. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  1. Plasma Physics Applied (New Book)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett

    2007-03-01

    0.5cm Plasma physics applications are one of the most rapidly growing fields in engineering & applied science today. The last decade alone has seen the rapid emergence of new applications such as dusty plasmas in the semiconductor and microchip industries, and plasma TVs. In addition, this last decade saw the achievement of the 50-year Lawson breakeven condition for fusion. With new discoveries in space plasma physics and applications to spacecraft for worldwide communication and space weather, as well as new applications being discovered, this diversity is always expanding. The new book Plasma Physics Applied reviews developments in several of these areas. Chapter 1 reviews the content and its authors, and is followed by a more comprehensive review of plasma physics applications in general in Chapter 2. Plasma applications in combustion and environmental uses are presented in Chapter 3. Lightning effects in planetary magnetospheres and potential application are described in Chapter 4. The area of dusty plasmas in both industrial and space plasmas and their applications are reviewed in Chapter 5. The particular area of Coulomb clusters in dusty plasmas is presented in Chapter 6. The variety of approaches to plasma confinement in magnetic devices for fusion are laid out in Chapter 7. Finally, an overview of plasma accelerator developments and their applications are presented in Chapter 8.

  2. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiri, T.; Andrieu, B.; Anjos, J.; Argyriades, J.; Barouch, G.; Bernstein, A.; Bersillon, O.; Besida, O.; Bowden, N.; Cabrera, A.; Calmet, D.; Collar, J.; Cribier, M.; Kerret, H. de; Meijer, R. de; Dudziak, F.; Enomoto, S.; Fallot, M.; Fioni, G.; Fiorentini, G.; Gale, Ph.; Georgadze, A.; Giot, L.; Gonin, M.; Guillon, B.; Henson, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kanamaru, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Kornoukhov, V.; Lasserre, Th.; Learned, J.G.; Lefebvre, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lhillier, D.; Lindner, M.; Lund, J.; Mantovani, F.; Mcdonough, B.; Mention, G.; Monteith, A.; Motta, D.; Mueller, Th.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Odrzywolek, A.; Petcov, S.; Porta, A.; Queval, R.; Reinhold, B.; Reyna, D.; Ridikas, D.; Sadler, L.; Schoenert, St.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Suekane, F.; Suvorov, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Tang, A.; Tolich, N.; Tolich, K.; Vanka, S.; Vignaud, D.; Volpe, Ch.; Wong, H

    2007-07-01

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  3. Applying quranic contemplation in counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daris Tamin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this research project was to explore the use of Quranic contemplation practices in counseling. In Islamic terminology that mean Quranic contemplation known as Tadabbur Al-Quran. Referring to this objective, this research is on the continuum between basic research and applied research. The research method that has been applied mix method beetwen quantitative and qualitative approaches. Integrating the two methods were considered appropriate for pragmatism paradigm adopted in this research. Based on the results of the research found that: Quranic Contemplation in Counseling that applicable on four general phases, namely: Exploration, Reading Scripture, Developing, and Supplication. In particular, at each session consists of seven steps, namely: (1 build engagement counselee to open his/her heart to accept the Quran as a heart medicine, the instructions for the peace of mind and happiness in life; (2 exposing the problems of the counselee; (3 identify the norms adopted counselee; (4 guiding the counselee for contemplations with Quran in the order: recited, guiding understand the meaning of the verse, raised the focus on words related to the problem, the main message conveyed paragraph, reflecting the message of verses in everyday life; and expand the discussion; (5 made a commitment to change the behavior of current and future; (6 invited to join in the spiritual community; and (7 guided prayer.

  4. Pure Science and Applied Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Aumann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Excerpt The name of my talk is Pure Science and Applied Science, and the idea I would like to sell to you today is that there is no such thing as “pure” or “applied” science. In other words, there is such a thing as science, but there is no difference between pure and applied science. Science is one entity and cannot be separated into different categories. In order to back that up, I would like to tell you a little story. As an undergraduate, I studied mathematics at City College in New York. At that time, what was called Pure Mathematics was in vogue, and the more prominent mathematicians were a little contemptuous of any kind of application. A very famous, prominent mathematician in the first half of the previous century by the name of G. H. Hardy, who was in a branch of mathematics called number theory, said that the only thing he regretted was that he unwittingly did some important work in mathematical genetics that eventually turned out to have some application. … Such was the atmosphere in the late ’40s of the previous century and, being a young man and impressionable, I was swept up in this atmosphere.

  5. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiri, T.; Andrieu, B.; Anjos, J.; Argyriades, J.; Barouch, G.; Bernstein, A.; Bersillon, O.; Besida, O.; Bowden, N.; Cabrera, A.; Calmet, D.; Collar, J.; Cribier, M.; Kerret, H. de; Meijer, R. de; Dudziak, F.; Enomoto, S.; Fallot, M.; Fioni, G.; Fiorentini, G.; Gale, Ph.; Georgadze, A.; Giot, L.; Gonin, M.; Guillon, B.; Henson, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kanamaru, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Kornoukhov, V.; Lasserre, Th.; Learned, J.G.; Lefebvre, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lhillier, D.; Lindner, M.; Lund, J.; Mantovani, F.; Mcdonough, B.; Mention, G.; Monteith, A.; Motta, D.; Mueller, Th.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Odrzywolek, A.; Petcov, S.; Porta, A.; Queval, R.; Reinhold, B.; Reyna, D.; Ridikas, D.; Sadler, L.; Schoenert, St.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Suekane, F.; Suvorov, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Tang, A.; Tolich, N.; Tolich, K.; Vanka, S.; Vignaud, D.; Volpe, Ch.; Wong, H.

    2007-01-01

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  6. Modern problems in applied analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rogosin, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    This book features a collection of recent findings in Applied Real and Complex Analysis that were presented at the 3rd International Conference “Boundary Value Problems, Functional Equations and Applications” (BAF-3), held in Rzeszow, Poland on 20-23 April 2016. The contributions presented here develop a technique related to the scope of the workshop and touching on the fields of differential and functional equations, complex and real analysis, with a special emphasis on topics related to boundary value problems. Further, the papers discuss various applications of the technique, mainly in solid mechanics (crack propagation, conductivity of composite materials), biomechanics (viscoelastic behavior of the periodontal ligament, modeling of swarms) and fluid dynamics (Stokes and Brinkman type flows, Hele-Shaw type flows). The book is addressed to all readers who are interested in the development and application of innovative research results that can help solve theoretical and real-world problems.

  7. Implementing an Applied Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Doug; Presson, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The work implied in the NASA Applied Science Program requires a delicate balancing act for the those doing it. At the implementation level there are multiple tensions intrinsic to the program. For example each application of an existing product to a decision support process requires deep knowledge about the data and deep knowledge about the decision making process. It is highly probable no one person has this range of knowledge. Otherwise the decision making process would already be using the data. Therefore, a team is required. But building a team usually requires time, especially across agencies. Yet the program mandates efforts of relatively short duration. Further, those who know the data are scientists, which makes them essential to the program. But scientists are evaluated on their publication record. Anything which diverts a scientist from the research for his next publication is an anathema to him and potential death to their career. Trying to get another agency to use NASA data does not strike most scientists as material inherently suitable for publication. Also, NASA wishes to rapidly implement often substantial changes to another agency's process. For many reasons, such as budget and program constraints, speed is important. But the owner of a decision making process is tightly constrained, usually by law, regulation, organization and custom. Changes when made are slow, cautious, even hesitant, and always done according a process specific to the situation. To manage this work MSFC must balance these and other tensions. Some things we have relatively little control over, such as budget. These we try to handle by structural techniques. For example by insisting all of our people work on multiple projects simultaneously we inherently have diversification of funding for all of our people. In many cases we explicitly use some elements of tension to be productive. For example the need for the scientists to constantly publish is motivation to keep tasks short and

  8. Applied geometry and discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm; Gritzmann, Peter; Sturmfels, Bernd

    1991-01-01

    This volume, published jointly with the Association for Computing Machinery, comprises a collection of research articles celebrating the occasion of Victor Klee's sixty-fifth birthday in September 1990. During his long career, Klee has made contributions to a wide variety of areas, such as discrete and computational geometry, convexity, combinatorics, graph theory, functional analysis, mathematical programming and optimization, and theoretical computer science. In addition, Klee made important contributions to mathematics education, mathematical methods in economics and the decision sciences, applications of discrete mathematics in the biological and social sciences, and the transfer of knowledge from applied mathematics to industry. In honor of Klee's achievements, this volume presents more than forty papers on topics related to Klee's research. While the majority of the papers are research articles, a number of survey articles are also included. Mirroring the breadth of Klee's mathematical contributions, th...

  9. Numerical simulation in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Juan Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the theory of waves propagation in a fluid-saturated porous medium (a Biot medium) and its application in Applied Geophysics. In particular, a derivation of absorbing boundary conditions in viscoelastic and poroelastic media is presented, which later is employed in the applications. The partial differential equations describing the propagation of waves in Biot media are solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Waves propagating in a Biot medium suffer attenuation and dispersion effects. In particular the fast compressional and shear waves are converted to slow diffusion-type waves at mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities (on the order of centimeters), effect usually occurring in the seismic range of frequencies. In some cases, a Biot medium presents a dense set of fractures oriented in preference directions. When the average distance between fractures is much smaller than the wavelengths of the travelling fast compressional and shear waves, the medium behaves as an effective viscoelastic an...

  10. Special issue - Applying the accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    T'he CERN Courier is the international journal of high energy physics, covering current developments in and around this branch of basic science. A recurrent theme is applying the technology developed for particle accelerators, the machines which produce beams of high energy particles for physics experiments. Twentieth-century science is full of similar examples of applications derived from pure research. This special issue of the CERN Courier is given over to one theme - the applications of accelerators. Accelerator systems and facilities are normally associated with highenergy particle physics research, the search for fundamental particles and the quest to understand the physics of the Big Bang. To the layman, accelerator technology has become synonymous with large and expensive machines, exploiting the most modern technology for basic research. In reality, the range of accelerators and their applications is much broader. A vast number of accelerators, usually much smaller and operating for specific applications, create wealth and directly benefit the population, particularly in the important areas of healthcare, energy and the environment. There are well established applications in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine for research and routine clinical treatments. Accelerators and associated technologies are widely employed by industry for manufacturing and process control. In fundamental and applied research, accelerator systems are frequently used as tools. The biennial conference on the Applications of Accelerators in Industry and Research at Denton, Texas, attracts a thousand participants. This special issue of the CERN Courier includes articles on major applications, reflecting the diversity and value of accelerator technology. Under Guest Editor Dewi Lewis of Amersham International, contributions from leading international specialists with experience of the application end of the accelerator chain describe their fields of direct interest. The

  11. Special issue - Applying the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-07-15

    T'he CERN Courier is the international journal of high energy physics, covering current developments in and around this branch of basic science. A recurrent theme is applying the technology developed for particle accelerators, the machines which produce beams of high energy particles for physics experiments. Twentieth-century science is full of similar examples of applications derived from pure research. This special issue of the CERN Courier is given over to one theme - the applications of accelerators. Accelerator systems and facilities are normally associated with highenergy particle physics research, the search for fundamental particles and the quest to understand the physics of the Big Bang. To the layman, accelerator technology has become synonymous with large and expensive machines, exploiting the most modern technology for basic research. In reality, the range of accelerators and their applications is much broader. A vast number of accelerators, usually much smaller and operating for specific applications, create wealth and directly benefit the population, particularly in the important areas of healthcare, energy and the environment. There are well established applications in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine for research and routine clinical treatments. Accelerators and associated technologies are widely employed by industry for manufacturing and process control. In fundamental and applied research, accelerator systems are frequently used as tools. The biennial conference on the Applications of Accelerators in Industry and Research at Denton, Texas, attracts a thousand participants. This special issue of the CERN Courier includes articles on major applications, reflecting the diversity and value of accelerator technology. Under Guest Editor Dewi Lewis of Amersham International, contributions from leading international specialists with experience of the application end of the accelerator chain describe their fields of direct interest. The contributions

  12. Committed, engaged e applied anthropology - Committed, engaged and applied anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luigi Palmisano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology has become very popular over the past decades. We have witnessed a proliferation of anthropologists and anthropologies but the theoretical debate and the epistemological reflection of the discipline have come to a full stop. It seems that anthropology has reduced itself to a tekhne among many others, characterizing itself – according to the author – as «Atlantic anthropology», a protocolar anthropology in thrall to the dominating ideologies of the financial markets. The renewed discussion on the concepts of development and cooperation – concepts which have deeply marked the past three decades of social sciences and the current crystallization of anthropology – that is of contemporary economy, represents an opportunity to revivify and deepen the impact of anthropological theory. It is an epistemological and political impact with remarkable social and scientific consequences which is mostly detectable in one of the declinations of anthropology, i.e. applied anthropology, when and if intended as committed anthropology that founds its methodology and its way of being on fieldwork: a continuous dialogue with “alterity” in which the only thinkable “alienity” is represented by the tekhne and by the financial markets which support and promulgate it as omnipresent and almighty verbum.

  13. Research | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering & Applied Science. Please explore this webpage to learn about research activities and Associate Dean for Research College of Engineering and Applied Sciences Director, Center for Sustainable magazine. College ofEngineering & Applied Science Academics About People Students Research Business

  14. Computer simulations applied in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This workshop takes stock of the simulation methods applied to nuclear materials and discusses the conditions in which these methods can predict physical results when no experimental data are available. The main topic concerns the radiation effects in oxides and includes also the behaviour of fission products in ceramics, the diffusion and segregation phenomena and the thermodynamical properties under irradiation. This document brings together a report of the previous 2002 workshop and the transparencies of 12 presentations among the 15 given at the workshop: accommodation of uranium and plutonium in pyrochlores; radiation effects in La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlores; first principle calculations of defects formation energies in the Y{sub 2}(Ti,Sn,Zr){sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlore system; an approximate approach to predicting radiation tolerant materials; molecular dynamics study of the structural effects of displacement cascades in UO{sub 2}; composition defect maps for A{sup 3+}B{sup 3+}O{sub 3} perovskites; NMR characterization of radiation damaged materials: using simulation to interpret the data; local structure in damaged zircon: a first principle study; simulation studies on SiC; insertion and diffusion of He in 3C-SiC; a review of helium in silica; self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide: their short-range structure revealed from electron spin resonance and optical measurements and opportunities for inferring intermediate range structure by theoretical modelling. (J.S.)

  15. Applied discrete-time queues

    CERN Document Server

    Alfa, Attahiru S

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical fundamentals for modeling queues in discrete-time, and the basic procedures for developing queuing models in discrete-time. There is a focus on applications in modern telecommunication systems. It presents how most queueing models in discrete-time can be set up as discrete-time Markov chains. Techniques such as matrix-analytic methods (MAM) that can used to analyze the resulting Markov chains are included. This book covers single node systems, tandem system and queueing networks. It shows how queues with time-varying parameters can be analyzed, and illustrates numerical issues associated with computations for the discrete-time queueing systems. Optimal control of queues is also covered. Applied Discrete-Time Queues targets researchers, advanced-level students and analysts in the field of telecommunication networks. It is suitable as a reference book and can also be used as a secondary text book in computer engineering and computer science. Examples and exercises are includ...

  16. Applying lean thinking in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the construction industry worldwide has been declining over the past 40 years. One approach for improving the situation is using lean construction. Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction. Essential features of lean construction include a clear set of objectives for the delivery process, aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level, concurrent design, construction, and the application of project control throughout the life cycle of the project from design to delivery. An increasing number of construction academics and professionals have been storming the ramparts of conventional construction management in an effort to deliver better value to owners while making real profits. As a result, lean-based tools have emerged and have been successfully applied to simple and complex construction projects. In general, lean construction projects are easier to manage, safer, completed sooner, and cost less and are of better quality. Significant research remains to complete the translation to construction of lean thinking in Egypt. This research will discuss principles, methods, and implementation phases of lean construction showing the waste in construction and how it could be minimized. The Last Planner System technique, which is an important application of the lean construction concepts and methodologies and is more prevalent, proved that it could enhance the construction management practices in various aspects. Also, it is intended to develop methodology for process evaluation and define areas for improvement based on lean approach principles.

  17. Virtual reality applied to teletesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Thomas J.; Smeenk, Roland J. M.; Mazy, Alain; Jacques, Patrick; Arguello, Luis; Mills, Simon

    2003-05-01

    The activity "Virtual Reality applied to Teletesting" is related to a wider European Space Agency (ESA) initiative of cost reduction, in particular the reduction of test costs. Reduction of costs of space related projects have to be performed on test centre operating costs and customer company costs. This can accomplished by increasing the automation and remote testing ("teletesting") capabilities of the test centre. Main problems related to teletesting are a lack of situational awareness and the separation of control over the test environment. The objective of the activity is to evaluate the use of distributed computing and Virtual Reality technology to support the teletesting of a payload under vacuum conditions, and to provide a unified man-machine interface for the monitoring and control of payload, vacuum chamber and robotics equipment. The activity includes the development and testing of a "Virtual Reality Teletesting System" (VRTS). The VRTS is deployed at one of the ESA certified test centres to perform an evaluation and test campaign using a real payload. The VRTS is entirely written in the Java programming language, using the J2EE application model. The Graphical User Interface runs as an applet in a Web browser, enabling easy access from virtually any place.

  18. Deconvolution algorithms applied in ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, P.

    1993-12-01

    In a complete system of acquisition and processing of ultrasonic signals, it is often necessary at one stage to use some processing tools to get rid of the influence of the different elements of that system. By that means, the final quality of the signals in terms of resolution is improved. There are two main characteristics of ultrasonic signals which make this task difficult. Firstly, the signals generated by transducers are very often non-minimum phase. The classical deconvolution algorithms are unable to deal with such characteristics. Secondly, depending on the medium, the shape of the propagating pulse is evolving. The spatial invariance assumption often used in classical deconvolution algorithms is rarely valid. Many classical algorithms, parametric and non-parametric, have been investigated: the Wiener-type, the adaptive predictive techniques, the Oldenburg technique in the frequency domain, the minimum variance deconvolution. All the algorithms have been firstly tested on simulated data. One specific experimental set-up has also been analysed. Simulated and real data has been produced. This set-up demonstrated the interest in applying deconvolution, in terms of the achieved resolution. (author). 32 figs., 29 refs

  19. Computer simulations applied in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This workshop takes stock of the simulation methods applied to nuclear materials and discusses the conditions in which these methods can predict physical results when no experimental data are available. The main topic concerns the radiation effects in oxides and includes also the behaviour of fission products in ceramics, the diffusion and segregation phenomena and the thermodynamical properties under irradiation. This document brings together a report of the previous 2002 workshop and the transparencies of 12 presentations among the 15 given at the workshop: accommodation of uranium and plutonium in pyrochlores; radiation effects in La 2 Zr 2 O 7 pyrochlores; first principle calculations of defects formation energies in the Y 2 (Ti,Sn,Zr) 2 O 7 pyrochlore system; an approximate approach to predicting radiation tolerant materials; molecular dynamics study of the structural effects of displacement cascades in UO 2 ; composition defect maps for A 3+ B 3+ O 3 perovskites; NMR characterization of radiation damaged materials: using simulation to interpret the data; local structure in damaged zircon: a first principle study; simulation studies on SiC; insertion and diffusion of He in 3C-SiC; a review of helium in silica; self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide: their short-range structure revealed from electron spin resonance and optical measurements and opportunities for inferring intermediate range structure by theoretical modelling. (J.S.)

  20. Applied computation and security systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Khalid; Choudhury, Sankhayan; Chaki, Nabendu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the extended version of the works that have been presented and discussed in the First International Doctoral Symposium on Applied Computation and Security Systems (ACSS 2014) held during April 18-20, 2014 in Kolkata, India. The symposium has been jointly organized by the AGH University of Science & Technology, Cracow, Poland and University of Calcutta, India. The Volume I of this double-volume book contains fourteen high quality book chapters in three different parts. Part 1 is on Pattern Recognition and it presents four chapters. Part 2 is on Imaging and Healthcare Applications contains four more book chapters. The Part 3 of this volume is on Wireless Sensor Networking and it includes as many as six chapters. Volume II of the book has three Parts presenting a total of eleven chapters in it. Part 4 consists of five excellent chapters on Software Engineering ranging from cloud service design to transactional memory. Part 5 in Volume II is on Cryptography with two book...

  1. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars; Faelth, Billy; Jacobsson, Lars; Harrstroem, Johan; Berglund, Johan

    2010-04-01

    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  2. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jacobsson, Lars (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)); Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  3. Morphometrics applied to medical entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Morphometrics underwent a revolution more than one decade ago. In the modern morphometrics, the estimate of size is now contained in a single variable reflecting variation in many directions, as many as there are landmarks under study, and shape is defined as their relative positions after correcting for size, position and orientation. With these informative data, and the corresponding software freely available to conduct complex analyses, significant biological and epidemiological features can be quantified more accurately. We discuss the evolutionary significance of the environmental impact on metric variability, mentioning the importance of concepts like genetic assimilation, genetic accommodation, and epigenetics. We provide examples of measuring the effect of selection on metric variation by comparing (unpublished) Qst values with corresponding (published) Fst. The primary needs of medical entomologists are to distinguish species, especially cryptic species, and to detect them where they are not expected. We explain how geometric morphometrics could apply to these questions, and where there are deficiencies preventing the approach from being utilized at its maximum potential. Medical entomologists in connection with control programs aim to identify isolated populations where the risk of reinfestation after treatment would be low ("biogeographical islands"). Identifying them can be obtained from estimating the number of migrants per generation. Direct assessment of movement remains the most valid approach, but it scores active movement only. Genetic methods estimating gene flow levels among interbreeding populations are commonly used, but gene flow does not necessarily mean the current flow of migrants. Methods using the morphometric variation are neither suited to evaluate gene flow, nor are they adapted to estimate the flow of migrants. They may provide, however, the information needed to create a preliminary map pointing to relevant areas where one could

  4. Data Assimilation for Applied Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Although atmospheric models provide a best estimate of the future state of the atmosphere, due to sensitivity to initial condition, it is difficult to predict the precise future state. For applied problems, however, users often depend on having accurate knowledge of that future state. To improve prediction of a particular realization of an evolving flow field requires knowledge of the current state of that field and assimilation of local observations into the model. This talk will consider how dynamic assimilation can help address the concerns of users of atmospheric forecasts. First, we will look at the value of assimilation for the renewable energy industry. If the industry decision makers can have confidence in the wind and solar power forecasts, they can build their power allocations around the expected renewable resource, saving money for the ratepayers as well as reducing carbon emissions. We will assess the value to that industry of assimilating local real-time observations into the model forecasts and the value that is provided. The value of the forecasts with assimilation is important on both short (several hour) to medium range (within two days). A second application will be atmospheric transport and dispersion problems. In particular, we will look at assimilation of concentration data into a prediction model. An interesting aspect of this problem is that the dynamics are a one-way coupled system, with the fluid dynamic equations affecting the concentration equation, but not vice versa. So when the observations are of the concentration, one must infer the fluid dynamics. This one-way coupled system presents a challenge: one must first infer the changes in the flow field from observations of the contaminant, then assimilate that to recover both the advecting flow and information on the subgrid processes that provide the mixing. To accomplish such assimilation requires a robust method to match the observed contaminant field to that modeled. One approach is

  5. Journal of Applied Science and Technology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST) seeks to promote and ... knowledge of various research topics in the applied sciences which address issues of ... Numerical value must be separated from the Physical Unit by 1 spacing.

  6. Applied Parallel Computing Industrial Computation and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; NA NA NA Olesen, Dorte

    Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)......Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)...

  7. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal of fundamental and applied sciences receives and publishes ... and applied science which the results of studies may interest all researchers. ... the references are sorted in ascending order, according to the examples below.

  8. Applied Materials taas investorite huviorbiidis / Erlend Zirk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirk, Erlend

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 29. nov. lk. 33. Protsessorite tootmisseadmete tootja Applied Materials on pärast 2000. aasta börsikrahhi taas investorite huviorbiiti jõudmas. Diagramm: Applied Materialsi aktsia

  9. Development and characteristics of applied ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Sooth, Farina

    2014-01-01

    Master i anvendt økologi. Evenstad 2014 The science of applied ecology is lacking a general theory and a commonly acknowledged definition. Additionally, information about the development of applied ecology over the past years, the relation to other disciplines and the importance of applied ecology in different continents are scarce. This is problematic because applied ecology is confronted with growing problems and the society demands more and more that it fulfils its promise of solving pr...

  10. 32 CFR 37.1220 - Applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applied research. 37.1220 Section 37.1220... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1220 Applied research..., Development, Test and Evaluation programs within Budget Activity 2, Applied Research (also known informally as...

  11. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  12. Radiation chemistry in Taiwan, fundamental and applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, U.P.

    1980-01-01

    Both fundamental and applied research works on radiation chemistry in Taiwan have been described from the view point of economic development of new radiation chemical industry by applying unique chemical reactions on radiation processing. Seven items on the basic and applied research works and the status of recent industrial development of radiation chemistry have been consequently selected to be delineated as the major contents along this line in this paper. (author)

  13. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... The journal is designed for academics, scholars, advanced students and reflective practitioners.

  14. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  15. Applied Mathematics Should Be Taught Mixed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gary I.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the differences between applied and pure mathematics and provides extensive history of mixed mathematics. Argues that applied mathematics should be taught allowing for speculative mathematics, which involves breaking down a given problem into simpler parts until one arrives at first principles. (ASK)

  16. Applied Epistemology and Understanding in Information Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorichanaz, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Applied epistemology allows information studies to benefit from developments in philosophy. In information studies, epistemic concepts are rarely considered in detail. This paper offers a review of several epistemic concepts, focusing on understanding, as a call for further work in applied epistemology in information studies. Method:…

  17. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  18. West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions To Authors Papers for submission to the West African Journal of Applied Ecology should be written in English and should not exceed 8,000 words in total ... Authors publish in the Journal with the understanding that they assign their copyright to the West Africa Journal of Applied Ecology.

  19. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology covers research activities and development in the field of Applied Sciences and Technology as it relates to Agricultural Engineering, Biotechnology, Computer Science and Engineering Computations, Civil Engineering, Food Science and Technology, Electrical ...

  20. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics publishes papers of the highest quality and significance in specific areas of physics, pure and applied, as listed below. The journal content reflects core physics disciplines, but is also open to a broad range of topics whose central theme falls within the bounds of physics.