WorldWideScience

Sample records for applying energy system

  1. Applying Systems Engineering on Energy Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safi, J.; Muller, G.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Systems engineering is a discipline with methods and techniques to address complex problems. We want to study how Systems Engineering methods can help to address today's grand challenges, such as the energy problem. The first step is problem definition which aims at articulating the problem in its

  2. A Vision for Systems Engineering Applied to Wind Energy (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, F.; Dykes, K.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop on January 14, 2015. Topics covered include the importance of systems engineering, a vision for systems engineering as applied to wind energy, and application of systems engineering approaches to wind energy research and development.

  3. Matrix converter applied to energy saving for street lighting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Román Lumbreras, Manuel; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Conesa Roca, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a three-phase AC-AC converter, with independent phase control, based on matrix-converter structure. This converter is applied to electrical energy saving on the public lighting systems by means of regulation and control of the voltage applied to the lamps. The developed converter represents a technological improvement with respect to the traditional systems based on an autotransformer: it reduces system cost and volume, and increases lamps lifetime.

  4. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  5. Innovative wave energy device applied to coastal observatory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Scanu, Sergio; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Martellucci, Riccardo; Maximo, Peviani

    2017-04-01

    Marine environment is one of the most promising sources of renewable energy, whose exploitation could have an effect on several application fields. This work presents the design of an innovative device based on the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), that allows to convert wave energy into electricity, suitable for the typical Mediterranean wave climate. The flexibility of the device permits its installation either in deep or shallow waters, with reduced costs of deployment, maintenance and connection to the grid. Furthermore, the replicability of the design allows the device to be installed in array of several number of similar units. The technical concept is to convey the sea water within a vertical pipe, in which the water movements activate a rotor connected to a generator that transforms the energy of the water motion into electricity. The hydrodynamic design of the pipe is built to minimize the losses due to friction and turbulence and to exploit the maximum possible energy from wave motion. The wave energy is directly absorbed by the rotational movement of the turbine blades located in the water itself allowing a further reduction of the energy losses associated with the transformation of the linear water motion into electrical generation in the air phase (typical configuration of the OWC devices). In this work the device components are described considering two possible configurations that use a Wells turbine or a Bulb type turbine. The system can be realized at a low cost, because of the modularity of the device project, which allows large freedom of sizes and placements, being able to be installed both individually and in arrays. The modularity, associated with the fact that the main elements of the system are available on the market, makes the device particularly attractive from the economic point of view. Finally, it is realized with a high constructive flexibility: the proposed system can be transported floating and moored to existing coastal structures or

  6. Applied Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Programs Applied Energy Programs Civilian Nuclear Energy Programs Laboratory Directed Research » Applied Energy Program Applied Energy Program Los Alamos is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance national energy security by developing energy sources with limited environmental impact

  7. Stochastic control applied to the ISWEC Wave Energy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Giovanni; Casassa, Maria; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Passione, Biagio; Raffero, Mattia; Vissio, Giacomo; Martini, Michele

    2015-01-01

    ISWEC (Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter) is a floating marine device able to harvest sea waves energy by the interaction between the pitching motion of a floater and a spinning flywheel which can drive an electric PTO. In the ISWEC the hull dynamics is governed and controlled by the gyroscopic torque. The optimal control logic results in tuning the floater dynamics to the incoming waves in order to maximize the power transfer from the waves to the floater. In this paper the control problems of the ISWEC are stated and a control scheme based on the sub-optimal stochastic control logic is presented. The control scheme here presented has been tested using real wave records acquired at the deployment location in Pantelleria Island, which is one of the most energetic sites of the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Computing and Systems Applied in Support of Coordinated Energy, Environmental, and Climate Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk focuses on how Dr. Loughlin is applying Computing and Systems models, tools and methods to more fully understand the linkages among energy systems, environmental quality, and climate change. Dr. Loughlin will highlight recent and ongoing research activities, including: ...

  9. Comparing Waste-to-Energy technologies by applying energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Lund, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This article asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is carried out by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power as well as wind power. The study shows...... potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are hence interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research...

  10. Sizing through simulation of systems for photovoltaic solar energy applied to rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez‐Borges, Ciaddy Gina; Sarmiento‐Sera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The present work is based on the sizing method by means of simulation of the photovoltaic systems energy behavior, applied to rural electrification in regions far from the electric net. The denomination of infra/over sized systems is made and a requested analysis of one particular case is exposed, where it is considered two energy options of different qualities of electric service and the economic valuation of each option is requested, with its corresponding argument. The quality level is established with the fault index in the electricity service for energy lack in the batteries, besides the quantity of energy autonomy days of the system. As conclusions, in infra-sizing conditions systems, and with established quality level of service, multiple sizing solutions exist, and under certain conditions, not always the systems with more quality level, are those of more cost, as well as the presence of a minimum cost in the sizing can be obtained by simulation methods. (author)

  11. Student ability to apply the concepts of work and energy to extended systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Beth A.; Heron, Paula R. L.; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2009-11-01

    We report results from an investigation of student ability to apply the concepts of work and energy to situations in which the internal structure of a system cannot be ignored, that is, the system cannot be treated as a particle. Students in introductory calculus-based physics courses were asked written and online questions after relevant instruction by lectures, textbook, and laboratory. Several difficulties were identified. Some related to student ability to calculate the work done on a system. Failure to associate work with the change in energy of a system was also widespread. The results have implications for instruction that aims for a rigorous treatment of energy concepts that is consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. The findings are guiding the development of two tutorials to supplement instruction.

  12. Designing Sustainable Energy for All : Sustainable Product-Service System Design Applied to Distributed Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzoli, C; Ceschin, F; Osanjo, L; M'Rithaa, MK; Moalosi, R; Nakazibwe, V.; Diehl, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    This open access book addresses the issue of diffusing sustainable energy access in low- and middle-income contexts.

    Access to energy is one of the greatest challenges for many people living in low-
    income and developing contexts, as around 1.4 billion people lack access to electricity.

  13. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  14. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio T. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  15. Econometrics analysis of consumer behaviour: a linear expenditure system applied to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giansante, C.; Ferrari, V.

    1996-12-01

    In economics literature the expenditure system specification is a well known subject. The problem is to define a coherent representation of consumer behaviour through functional forms easy to calculate. In this work it is used the Stone-Geary Linear Expenditure System and its multi-level decision process version. The Linear Expenditure system is characterized by an easy calculating estimation procedure, and its multi-level specification allows substitution and complementary relations between goods. Moreover, the utility function separability condition on which the Utility Tree Approach is based, justifies to use an estimation procedure in two or more steps. This allows to use an high degree of expenditure categories disaggregation, impossible to reach the Linear Expediture System. The analysis is applied to energy sectors

  16. Dual technology energy storage system applied to two complementary electricity markets using a weekly differentiated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, H.L.; Staňková, K.; Peças Lopes, J.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with integration of energy storage systems into electricity markets. We explain why the energy storage systems increase flexibility of both power systems and energy markets and why such flexibility is desirable, particularly when variable renewable energy sources are being used in

  17. Applied & Computational MathematicsChallenges for the Design and Control of Dynamic Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L; Burns, J A; Collis, S; Grosh, J; Jacobson, C A; Johansen, H; Mezic, I; Narayanan, S; Wetter, M

    2011-03-10

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was passed with the goal 'to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security.' Energy security and independence cannot be achieved unless the United States addresses the issue of energy consumption in the building sector and significantly reduces energy consumption in buildings. Commercial and residential buildings account for approximately 40% of the U.S. energy consumption and emit 50% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the U.S. which is more than twice the total energy consumption of the entire U.S. automobile and light truck fleet. A 50%-80% improvement in building energy efficiency in both new construction and in retrofitting existing buildings could significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption and mitigate climate change. Reaching these aggressive building efficiency goals will not happen without significant Federal investments in areas of computational and mathematical sciences. Applied and computational mathematics are required to enable the development of algorithms and tools to design, control and optimize energy efficient buildings. The challenge has been issued by the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Dr. Steven Chu (emphasis added): 'We need to do more transformational research at DOE including computer design tools for commercial and residential buildings that enable reductions in energy consumption of up to 80 percent with investments that will pay for themselves in less than 10 years.' On July 8-9, 2010 a team of technical experts from industry, government and academia were assembled in Arlington, Virginia to identify the challenges associated with developing and deploying newcomputational methodologies and tools thatwill address building energy efficiency. These experts concluded that investments in fundamental applied and computational mathematics will be required to build enabling technology that can be used to realize the target of 80% reductions in energy

  18. Stochastic Methods Applied to Power System Operations with Renewable Energy: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Austin, TX (United States); Botterud, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Renewable energy resources have been rapidly integrated into power systems in many parts of the world, contributing to a cleaner and more sustainable supply of electricity. Wind and solar resources also introduce new challenges for system operations and planning in terms of economics and reliability because of their variability and uncertainty. Operational strategies based on stochastic optimization have been developed recently to address these challenges. In general terms, these stochastic strategies either embed uncertainties into the scheduling formulations (e.g., the unit commitment [UC] problem) in probabilistic forms or develop more appropriate operating reserve strategies to take advantage of advanced forecasting techniques. Other approaches to address uncertainty are also proposed, where operational feasibility is ensured within an uncertainty set of forecasting intervals. In this report, a comprehensive review is conducted to present the state of the art through Spring 2015 in the area of stochastic methods applied to power system operations with high penetration of renewable energy. Chapters 1 and 2 give a brief introduction and overview of power system and electricity market operations, as well as the impact of renewable energy and how this impact is typically considered in modeling tools. Chapter 3 reviews relevant literature on operating reserves and specifically probabilistic methods to estimate the need for system reserve requirements. Chapter 4 looks at stochastic programming formulations of the UC and economic dispatch (ED) problems, highlighting benefits reported in the literature as well as recent industry developments. Chapter 5 briefly introduces alternative formulations of UC under uncertainty, such as robust, chance-constrained, and interval programming. Finally, in Chapter 6, we conclude with the main observations from our review and important directions for future work.

  19. An approach for evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakae, Nobuo; Ozawa, Takayuki; Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    One of the important issues in the study of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems is evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems. An approach for evaluating the integrity of the fuel is discussed here based on the procedure currently used in the integrity evaluation of fast reactor fuel. The fuel failure modes determining fuel life time were reviewed and fuel integrity was analyzed and compared with the failure criteria. Metal and nitride fuels with austenitic and ferritic stainless steel (SS) cladding tubes were examined in this study. For the purpose of representative irradiation behavior analyses of the fuel for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems, the correlations of the cladding characteristics were modeled based on well-known characteristics of austenitic modified 316 SS (PNC316), ferritic–martensitic steel (PNC–FMS) and oxide dispersion strengthened steel (PNC–ODS). The analysis showed that the fuel lifetime is limited by channel fracture which is a nonductile type (brittle) failure associated with a high level of irradiation-induced swelling in the case of austenitic steel cladding. In case of ferritic steel, on the other hand, the fuel lifetime is controlled by cladding creep rupture. The lifetime evaluated here is limited to 200 GW d/t, which is lower than the target burnup value of 500 GW d/t. One of the possible measures to extend the lifetime may be reducing the fuel smeared density and ventilating fission gas in the plenum for metal fuel and by reducing the maximum cladding temperature from 650 to 600 °C for both metal and nitride fuel

  20. An approach for evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, Nobuo, E-mail: nakae-nobuo@jnes.go.jp [Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy System, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-19, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ozawa, Takayuki [Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1194 (Japan); Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1, Iwado Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy System, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-19, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    One of the important issues in the study of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems is evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems. An approach for evaluating the integrity of the fuel is discussed here based on the procedure currently used in the integrity evaluation of fast reactor fuel. The fuel failure modes determining fuel life time were reviewed and fuel integrity was analyzed and compared with the failure criteria. Metal and nitride fuels with austenitic and ferritic stainless steel (SS) cladding tubes were examined in this study. For the purpose of representative irradiation behavior analyses of the fuel for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems, the correlations of the cladding characteristics were modeled based on well-known characteristics of austenitic modified 316 SS (PNC316), ferritic–martensitic steel (PNC–FMS) and oxide dispersion strengthened steel (PNC–ODS). The analysis showed that the fuel lifetime is limited by channel fracture which is a nonductile type (brittle) failure associated with a high level of irradiation-induced swelling in the case of austenitic steel cladding. In case of ferritic steel, on the other hand, the fuel lifetime is controlled by cladding creep rupture. The lifetime evaluated here is limited to 200 GW d/t, which is lower than the target burnup value of 500 GW d/t. One of the possible measures to extend the lifetime may be reducing the fuel smeared density and ventilating fission gas in the plenum for metal fuel and by reducing the maximum cladding temperature from 650 to 600 °C for both metal and nitride fuel.

  1. Basic and applied research related to the technology of space energy conversion systems, 1982 - 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    Topics on solar energy conversion concepts and applications are discussed. An overview of the current status and future utilization of radiation receivers for electrical energy generation, liquid droplet radiation systems, and liquid droplet heat exchangers is presented.

  2. Development of energy storage system for DC electric rolling stock applying electric double layer capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekijima, Y.; Kudo, Y.; Inui, M. [Central Japan Railway Co., Aichi (Japan); Monden, Y.; Toda, S.; Aoyama, I. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details of an energy storage system designed for use with DC electric rolling stock through the application of an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was selected due to its long life-span and its low operational costs. Testing was conducted to assess the system's basic control function, acceleration using stored energy, and behaviour during regenerative brake failure. A control circuit chip was used in the DC electric rolling stock on an inverter of the energy storage system. Tests confirmed that the control method was effective for actual rolling stocks. A full-scale energy storage system for installation on series 313 locomotives was then constructed. Braking energy was generated only from a regenerative brake. In case of brake failure, braking energy was generated from an air brake was well as an electric brake. Data from a field test conducted at the Tokaido and Chuo railway lines showed a capacity of 0.6 kWh. The EDLC was used to reduce peak air brake energy. It was concluded that storing 0.28 kW of brake energy in the EDLC can reduce peaks of air brake energy in high speed ranges. Experimental equipment was used to confirm use of the system with 0.56 kWh of EDLC, the average energy of air brake used in regenerative energy failure. 1 tab., 10 figs.

  3. Model-based predictive control applied to multi-carrier energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Andersson, G.; De Schutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    The optimal operation of an integrated electricity and natural gas infrastructure is investigated. The couplings between the electricity system and the gas system are modeled by so-called energy hubs, which represent the interface between the loads on the one hand and the transmission

  4. Multi-attribute criteria applied to electric generation energy system analysis LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Drennen, Thomas E.; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Paananen, Orman Henrie; Jones, Scott A.; Ortner, Juergen G. (DLR, German Aerospace, Cologne); Brewer, Jeffrey D.; Valdez, Maximo M.

    2005-10-01

    This report began with a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve Sandia National Laboratories multidisciplinary capabilities in energy systems analysis. The aim is to understand how various electricity generating options can best serve needs in the United States. The initial product is documented in a series of white papers that span a broad range of topics, including the successes and failures of past modeling studies, sustainability, oil dependence, energy security, and nuclear power. Summaries of these projects are included here. These projects have provided a background and discussion framework for the Energy Systems Analysis LDRD team to carry out an inter-comparison of many of the commonly available electric power sources in present use, comparisons of those options, and efforts needed to realize progress towards those options. A computer aid has been developed to compare various options based on cost and other attributes such as technological, social, and policy constraints. The Energy Systems Analysis team has developed a multi-criteria framework that will allow comparison of energy options with a set of metrics that can be used across all technologies. This report discusses several evaluation techniques and introduces the set of criteria developed for this LDRD.

  5. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  6. Preventing Control Constraint Violations by Use of Energy Balances for a Class of Coupled Systems: Applied to a Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    recomputes the reference values to the system such that control signal constraint violations are avoided. The new reference values are found using an energy balance of the system. The scheme is intended to handle rarely occurring constraint violations, so the only concern is that the system should be stable...... and not to optimize performance during all conditions. The scheme is applied to an example with a coal mill pulverizing coal for a power plant.  ...

  7. Wavelet based artificial neural network applied for energy efficiency enhancement of decoupled HVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahedi, G.; Ardehali, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In HVAC systems, temperature and relative humidity are coupled and dynamic mathematical models are non-linear. ► A wavelet-based ANN is used in series with an infinite impulse response filter for self tuning of PD controller. ► Energy consumption is evaluated for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow. ► Substantial enhancement in energy efficiency is realized, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned adaptively. - Abstract: Control methodologies could lower energy demand and consumption of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and, simultaneously, achieve better comfort conditions. However, the application of classical controllers is unsatisfactory as HVAC systems are non-linear and the control variables such as temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside the thermal zone are coupled. The objective of this study is to develop and simulate a wavelet-based artificial neural network (WNN) for self tuning of a proportional-derivative (PD) controller for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow responsible for controlling temperature and RH of a thermal zone, where thermal comfort and energy consumption of the system are evaluated. To achieve the objective, a WNN is used in series with an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter for faster and more accurate identification of system dynamics, as needed for on-line use and off-line batch mode training. The WNN-IIR algorithm is used for self-tuning of two PD controllers for temperature and RH. The simulation results show that the WNN-IIR controller performance is superior, as compared with classical PD controller. The enhancement in efficiency of the HVAC system is accomplished due to substantially lower consumption of energy during the transient operation, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned in an adaptive manner, as the steady state setpoints for temperature and

  8. Potential nuclear material safeguards applied to the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danker, W.J.; Floyd, W.

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the U.S. Department of Energy is charged with the responsibility of safe and efficient disposal of this Nation's civilian high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. Part of this responsibility includes providing for the application of both domestic and international safeguards on nuclear material at facilities of the Civilian Waste Management System. While detailed safeguards requirements for these disposal facilities have yet to be established, once established, they could impact facility design. Accordingly, OCRWM has participated in efforts to develop safeguards approaches for geologic repositories and will continue to participate actively with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) Offices in efforts to resolve safeguards issues related to spent fuel disposal, to minimize any potential design impacts and to support effective nuclear material safeguards. The following paper discusses current plants and issues related to the application of safeguards to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS)

  9. Systems Engineering Applied to the Development of a Wave Energy Farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Malins, Robert Joseph; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    A motivation for undertaking this stakeholder requirements analysis and Systems Engineering exercise is to document the requirements for successful wave energy farms to facilitate better design and better design assessments. A difficulty in wave energy technology development is the absence to date of a verifiable minimum viable product against which the merits of new products might be measured. A consequence of this absence is that technology development progress, technology value, and technology funding have largely been measured, associated with, and driven by technology readiness, measured in technology readiness levels (TRLs). Originating primarily from the space and defense industries, TRLs focus on procedural implementation of technology developments of large and complex engineering projects, where cost is neither mission critical nor a key design driver. The key deficiency with the TRL approach in the context of wave energy conversion is that WEC technology development has been too focused on commercial readiness and not enough on the stakeholder requirements and particularly economic viability required for market entry.

  10. Metering systems and demand-side management models applied to hybrid renewable energy systems in micro-grid configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasques, L.C.M.; Pinho, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a demand-side management model integrated to a metering system for hybrid renewable energy systems in micro-grid configuration. The proposal is based on the management problems verified in most of this kind of renewable hybrid systems installed in Brazil. The main idea is the implementation of a pre-paid metering system with some control functions that directly act on the consumer demand, restricting the consumption proportionally to the monthly availability of renewable energy. The result is a better distribution of the electricity consumption by month and by consumer, preventing that only one user, with larger purchasing power, consumes all the renewable energy available at some time period. The proportionality between the consumption and the renewable energy's availability has the objective to prevent a lack of energy stored and a high use of the diesel generator-set on months of low renewable potential. This paper also aims to contribute to the Brazilian regulation of renewable energy systems supplying micro-grids. - Highlights: ► Review of the Brazilian electricity regulation for small-scale isolated systems. ► Renewable systems are the most feasible option in several isolated communities. ► One proposal is to guarantee government subsidies for renewable energy systems. ► Smart electronic meters to create electricity restrictions for the consumers.

  11. Water-food-energy nexus index: analysis of water-energy-food nexus of crop's production system applying the indicators approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Inas

    2017-10-01

    Analysis the water-food-energy nexus is the first step to assess the decision maker in developing and evaluating national strategies that take into account the nexus. The main objective of the current research is providing a method for the decision makers to analysis the water-food-energy nexus of the crop production system at the national level and carrying out a quantitative assessment of it. Through the proposed method, indicators considering the water and energy consumption, mass productivity, and economic productivity were suggested. Based on these indicators a water-food-energy nexus index (WFENI) was performed. The study showed that the calculated WFENI of the Egyptian summer crops have scores that range from 0.21 to 0.79. Comparing to onion (the highest scoring WFENI,i.e., the best score), rice has the lowest WFENI among the summer food crops. Analysis of the water-food-energy nexus of forty-two Egyptian crops in year 2010 was caried out (energy consumed for irrigation represent 7.4% of the total energy footprint). WFENI can be applied to developed strategies for the optimal cropping pattern that minimizing the water and energy consumption and maximizing their productivity. It can be applied as a holistic tool to evaluate the progress in the water and agricultural national strategies. Moreover, WFENI could be applied yearly to evaluate the performance of the water-food-energy nexus managmant.

  12. Developing Sustainable Urban Water-Energy Infrastructures: Applying a Multi-Sectoral Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems (SEIS) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.

    2016-12-01

    Urban infrastructure - broadly defined to include the systems that provide water, energy, food, shelter, transportation-communication, sanitation and green/public spaces in cities - have tremendous impact on the environment and on human well-being (Ramaswami et al., 2016; Ramaswami et al., 2012). Aggregated globally, these sectors contribute 90% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and 96% of global water withdrawals. Urban infrastructure contributions to such impacts are beginning to dominate. Cities are therefore becoming the action arena for infrastructure transformations that can achieve high levels of service delivery while reducing environmental impacts and enhancing human well-being. Achieving sustainable urban infrastructure transitions requires: information about the engineered infrastructure, and its interaction with the natural (ecological-environmental) and the social sub-systems In this paper, we apply a multi-sector, multi-scalar Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems framework that describes the interactions among biophysical engineered infrastructures, the natural environment and the social system in a systems-approach to inform urban infrastructure transformations. We apply the SEIS framework to inform water and energy sector transformations in cities to achieve environmental and human health benefits realized at multiple scales - local, regional and global. Local scales address pollution, health, wellbeing and inequity within the city; regional scales address regional pollution, scarcity, as well as supply risks in the water-energy sectors; global impacts include greenhouse gas emissions and climate impacts. Different actors shape infrastructure transitions including households, businesses, and policy actors. We describe the development of novel cross-sectoral strategies at the water-energy nexus in cities, focusing on water, waste and energy sectors, in a case study of Delhi, India. Ramaswami, A.; Russell, A.G.; Culligan, P.J.; Sharma, K

  13. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  14. High frequency statistical energy analysis applied to fluid filled pipe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Smeulers, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In pipe systems, carrying gas with high velocities, broadband turbulent pulsations can be generated causing strong vibrations and fatigue failure, called Acoustic Fatigue. This occurs at valves with high pressure differences (i.e. chokes), relief valves and obstructions in the flow, such as sharp

  15. Applied systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of systems and processes of ‘Applied Systems Theory’ makes it suitable for managers, engineers, students, researchers, academics and professionals from a wide range of disciplines; they can use this ‘toolbox’ for describing, analysing and designing biological, engineering and organisational systems as well as getting a better understanding of societal problems. This revised, updated and expanded second edition includes coverage of a...

  16. Applying a novel extra-low temperature dedicated outdoor air system in office buildings for energy efficiency and thermal comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Han; Lee, W.L.; Jia, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dedicated outdoor air system was proposed and investigated. • The proposed system adopts extra-low temperature outdoor air for space cooling. • The extra-low temperature air was generated by a multi-stage direct expansion coil. • Heat pipe was added to the proposed system to recover the waste cooling energy. • Energy and exergy analysis as well as thermal comfort analysis were conducted. - Abstract: A novel dedicated outdoor air system consisting of a multi-stage direct expansion coil and a zero-energy heat pipe to generate extra-low temperature outdoor air to avoid moisture-related problems was proposed in this study. The proposed system’s performance in achieving the desirable air conditions and better energy efficiency objectives is compared with a conventional direct expansion system for air-conditioning of a typical office building in Hong Kong based on simulation investigations. The simulations were carried out using equipment performance data of a pilot study, and realistic building and system characteristics. It was found that the proposed system, as compared to the conventional system, could reduce the annual indoor discomfort hours by 69.4%. An energy and exergy analysis was also conducted. It was revealed that the proposed system could reduce the annual air-conditioning energy use by 15.6% and the system exergy loss rate by 13.6%. The associated overall exergy efficiency was also found 18.6% higher. The findings of this study confirm that the proposed system is better than the conventional system in terms of both energy and exergy efficiency and the desirable air conditions.

  17. Dictionary of applied energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, D

    1982-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.

  18. Chance to apply energy storage systems in liberalised electricity markets. Chancen des Einsatzes von Energiespeichern im liberalisierten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkner, P. (Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany). Abt. Netzbetrieb); Kuebler, B. (Piller Inc., Middletown, NY (United States))

    1999-05-17

    The liberalisation of the European and German electricity market causes an individual and customer specific evaluation of the various services offered by the single electricity supply company. In this connection energy storage systems are a modern technical device to guarantee extremely high customer demands concerning voltage quality. The following deals with the basic requirements to use energy storage systems and the possibilities that are offered by such systems. The installation of an energy storage system is compared with the classic gridbound measures to improve voltage quality. Furthermore, a non-technical attempt to settle the impact of quality deficiencies with the help of an insurance cover with a claim for compensation is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of Sliding Mode Control and Fuzzy Logic control applied to Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhila Rached Zine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available wind energy features prominently as a supplementary energy booster. It does not pollute and is inexhaustible. However, its high cost is a major constraint, especially on the less windy sites. The purpose of wind energy systems is to maximize energy efficiency, and extract maximum power from the wind speed. In This case, the MPPT control becomes important. To realize this control, strategy conventional Proportional and Integral (PI controller is usually used. However, this strategy cannot achieve better performance. This paper proposes other control methods of a turbine which optimizes its production such as fuzzy logic, sliding mode control. These methods improve the quality and energy efficiency. The proposed Sliding Mode Control (SMC strategy and the fuzzy controllers have presented attractive features such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of the turbine, simplicity of its design and good performances. The simulation result under Matlab\\Simulink has validated the performance of the proposed MPPT strategies.

  20. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  1. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  2. Lessons from spatial and environmental assessment of energy potentials for Anaerobic Digestion production systems applied to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierie, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gemert, W.J.Th. van; Moll, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    lessons drawn from the aforementioned are twofold: there is a substantial gap between bio-energy potential and net energy gain; there is also a gap between top–down regulation and actual emission reduction and sustainability. Therefore, a full life cycle-based understanding of the absolute energy and environmental impact of biogas production and utilization pathways is required to help governments to develop optimal policies serving a broad set of sustainable objectives. Well-founded ideas and decisions are needed on how best to utilize the limited biomass availability most effectively and sustainably in the near and far future, as biogas can play a supportive role for integrating other renewable sources into local decentralized energy systems as a flexible and storable energy source.

  3. Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems: State-of-the Art Survey on Evaluation and Aggregation Judgment Measures Applied to Performance Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kuznetsov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the experience gained in the application of multi-criteria decision making and uncertainty treatment methods to a comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems and related nuclear fuel cycles. These judgment measures provide a means for comprehensive evaluation according to different conflicting criteria, such as costs, benefits and risks, which are inevitably associated with the deployment of advanced technologies. Major findings and recommendations elaborated in international and national projects and studies are reviewed and discussed. A careful analysis is performed for multi-criteria comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycles on the basis of various evaluation and screening results. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the lessons learned, to share the identified solutions, and indicate promising future directions.

  4. Applied multidimensional systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Nirmal K

    2017-01-01

    Revised and updated, this concise new edition of the pioneering book on multidimensional signal processing is ideal for a new generation of students. Multidimensional systems or m-D systems are the necessary mathematical background for modern digital image processing with applications in biomedicine, X-ray technology and satellite communications. Serving as a firm basis for graduate engineering students and researchers seeking applications in mathematical theories, this edition eschews detailed mathematical theory not useful to students. Presentation of the theory has been revised to make it more readable for students, and introduce some new topics that are emerging as multidimensional DSP topics in the interdisciplinary fields of image processing. New topics include Groebner bases, wavelets, and filter banks.

  5. Applied systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and not having a grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of syst

  6. A study on the evaluation of ventilation system suitable for outside air cooling applied in large data center for energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Il

    2016-01-01

    In developed countries, expansion of communication technology has resulted in continual increase in the construction of data centers with high-density cooling loads. Throughout a year, IT equipment installed in a data center generates large and constant cooling load. As a result, data centers may be consuming an ever-growing amount of energy. The cooling system utilizing the energy of outside air is applied universally to reduce data center energy consumption. The application of the cooling system to the outdoor air cooling system of a data center considers that temperature efficiency and ventilation performance vary depending on the type of ventilation system. The displacement and mixed ventilation method can be applied generally to a data center. The efficiency of a ventilation system depends on inside temperature or contaminant concentrations in room and outlets. This study thus aims to evaluate the ventilation performance that varies according to type of ventilation system installed in the data center. Ventilation efficiency is assessed by applying the concept of total air age and considers the fresh air ratio and age of return air. Further, temperature efficiency gained by utilizing temperature difference is used to assess causes for changes in ventilation performance.

  7. A study on the evaluation of ventilation system suitable for outside air cooling applied in large data center for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Il [Shinhan University, Euijungbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In developed countries, expansion of communication technology has resulted in continual increase in the construction of data centers with high-density cooling loads. Throughout a year, IT equipment installed in a data center generates large and constant cooling load. As a result, data centers may be consuming an ever-growing amount of energy. The cooling system utilizing the energy of outside air is applied universally to reduce data center energy consumption. The application of the cooling system to the outdoor air cooling system of a data center considers that temperature efficiency and ventilation performance vary depending on the type of ventilation system. The displacement and mixed ventilation method can be applied generally to a data center. The efficiency of a ventilation system depends on inside temperature or contaminant concentrations in room and outlets. This study thus aims to evaluate the ventilation performance that varies according to type of ventilation system installed in the data center. Ventilation efficiency is assessed by applying the concept of total air age and considers the fresh air ratio and age of return air. Further, temperature efficiency gained by utilizing temperature difference is used to assess causes for changes in ventilation performance.

  8. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  9. Thermodynamic Laws Applied to Economic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José Villacís

    2009-01-01

    Economic activity in its different manifestations--production, exchange, consumption and, particularly, information on quantities and prices--generates and transfers energy. As a result, we can apply to it the basic laws of thermodynamics. These laws are applicable within a system, i.e., in a country or between systems and countries. To these…

  10. Lessons from spatial and environmental assessment of energy potentials for Anaerobic Digestion production systems applied to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, F.; Benders, R. M. J.; Bekkering, J.; van Gemert, W. J. Th.; Moll, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) can play an important role in achieving the renewable energy goals set within the European Union. Within this article the focus is placed on reaching the Dutch local renewable production goal set for the year 2020 with locally available biomass waste flows, avoiding

  11. Generalized linear solvation energy model applied to solute partition coefficients in ionic liquid-supercritical carbon dioxide systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Hohnová, Barbora; Šťavíková, Lenka; Roth, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1250, SI (2012), s. 54-62 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/11/P523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ionic liquid * supercritical carbon dioxide * solvation energy model Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  12. Custom design of a hanging cooling water power generating system applied to a sensitive cooling water discharge weir in a seaside power plant: A challenging energy scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Chuan Min; Jaffar, Mohd Narzam; Ramji, Harunal Rejan; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an innovative design of hydro-electricity system was applied to an unconventional site in an attempt to generate electricity from the exhaust cooling water of a coal-fired power plant. Inspired by the idea of micro hydro, present study can be considered new in three aspects: design, resource and site. This system was hung at a cooling water discharge weir, where all sorts of civil work were prohibited and sea water was used as the cooling water. It was designed and fabricated in the university's mechanical workshop and transported to the site for installation. The system was then put into proof run for a three-month period and achieved some success. Due to safety reasons, on-site testing was prohibited by the power plant authority. Hence, most data was acquired from the proof run. The driving system efficiency was tested in the range of 25% and 45% experimentally while modeling results came close to experimental results. Payback period for the system is estimated to be about 4.23 years. Result obtained validates the feasibility of the overall design under the sensitive site application. - Highlights: • Challenging energy scheme via a hanging cooling water power generating system. • Driving system efficiency was tested in the range of 25% and 45%. • Payback period for the system is estimated to be about 4.2 years

  13. Applied systems analysis. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Based on a detailed analysis of demands in the area Cologne/Frankfurt, the amount of the system products for this region were ascertained, which under consideration of technical conditions and entrepreneurial aspects seemed to be disposable at cost equality with competative energy supplies. Based on these data, the technical components of the system, location and piping were fixed and first- and operating costs were determined. For a judgement of the economics, the key numbers, cash value, internal rate of interest and cost recovery rate were determined from the difference of costs between the nuclear long distance energy system and alternative facilities. Furthermore specific production cost, associated prices and contribution margin were presented for each product. (orig.) [de

  14. Energy uses in combination processes applying irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    The costs of energy in the food system are significant and have increased as a result of the growth in population worldwide. This, in turn, demands an increased harvest per area of land, and thus intensive agriculture. The energy used in the food system is not only a drain on limited resources but also has an adverse impact on the environment. It is therefore important to devise methods that reduce energy in all undertakings. The energy used in food irradiation is relatively low compared with other methods and relative to the amount of energy used in producing food. for this reason, food irradiation is an environmentally friendly method and the costs of processing and preserving food do not depend greatly on the fluctuating costs of renewable energy sources such as oil. Irradiation in 60 Co facilities uses a very small amount of energy, about 0.032-0.0465 MJ/kg for radicidation doses of 3 kGy. Irradiation in 5 MV DC electron accelerator facilities uses about twice as much energy; 10 MV travelling wave accelerator facilities use about five times as much and 5 MV X ray facilities about 25 times as much as 60 Co facilities. In practice, X ray facilities are employed only for low dose applications such as sprout inhibition, inactivation of trichina in pork products and disinfestation of fruits, therefore the energy used in low. Frequently, irradiation can be used in combination with other low energy methods such as the sun drying of spices, condiments, vegetables and fish. The overall method of preservation is then particularly environmentally friendly and results in microbiologically safe and wholesome food. (author)

  15. Nanoenergy Nanotechnology Applied for Energy Production

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Edson

    2013-01-01

    Low dimensional systems have revolutionized the science and technology in several areas. However, their understanding is still a great challenge for the scientific community. Solar energy conversion devices based on nanostructured materials have shown exceptional gains in efficiency and stability. In this context, nanostructures allow an improvement of surface properties, transport and charge transfer, as well as direct application as sensors and storage devices and energy conversion. This book discuss the recent advances and future trends of the nanoscience in solar energy conversion and storage. It explores and discusses recent developments both in theory as well as in experimental studies and is of interest to materials scientists, chemists, physicists and engineers.

  16. OWL Ontologies and SWRL Rules Applied to Energy Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption has increased considerably in the last years. How to reduce and make energy consumption more efficient in home environments has become of great interest for researchers. This could be achieved by introducing a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) into user residences. This system...... might allow the user to control the devices in the home network through an interface and apply energy management strategies to reduce and optimize their consumption. Furthermore, the number of devices and appliances found in users residences is increasing and these devices are usually manufactured...

  17. Self-energy production applied to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, Fabricio Ramos del; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Sao Paulo State University Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: perrella@feg.unesp.br; Holanda, Marcelo Rodrigues de [Sao Paulo Univ. (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Engineering School], E-mail: marcelo@debas.eel.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The decentralization of energy production in order to obtain better environmental conditions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the cost reduction of electricity and thermal energy consumed in residential buildings has been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes to demonstrate what are the chances of having a microcogeneration system toward the residential application. In this study, we contemplate the technologies involved and their possible inputs that are arranged in a superstructure to be studied. As a first step we obtain the cost of the products generated by the configuration that consists basically of two sources of power generation, and through optimization calculations intended to obtain the best configuration, taking into consideration the selection between four fuels, two equipment generators (Fuel Cell and Internal Combustion Engine)and three levels of energy production for each one. An economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the opportunity of selling the energy generated considering the fluctuations of the residential building consumption needs. (author)

  18. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  19. Energy analysis applied to uranium resource estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that fuel prices and ore costs are interdependent, and that in estimating ore costs (involving the cost of fuels used to mine and process the uranium) it is necessary to take into account the total use of energy by the entire fuel system, through the technique of energy analysis. The subject is discussed, and illustrated with diagrams, under the following heads: estimate of how total workable resources would depend on production costs; sensitivity of nuclear electricity prices to ore costs; variation of net energy requirement with ore grade for a typical PWR reactor design; variation of average fundamental cost of nuclear electricity with ore grade; variation of cumulative uranium resources with current maximum ore costs. (U.K.)

  20. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  1. Energy infrastructure: hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T N

    1979-02-01

    In a hydrogen system, hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, but an intermediary, an energy carrier between the primary energy sources and the user. The new unconventional energy sources, such as nuclear breeder reactors, fusion reactors, direct solar radiation, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal energy have their shortcomings. These shortcomings of the new sources point out to the need for an intermediary energy system to form the link between the primary energy sources and the user. In such a system, the intermediary energy form must be transportable and storable; economical to produce; and if possible renewable and pollution-free. The above prerequisites are best met by hydrogen. Hydrogen is plentiful in the form of water. It is the cheapest synthetic fuel to manufacture per unit of energy stored in it. It is the least polluting of all of the fuels, and is the lightest and recyclable. In the proposed system, hydrogen would be produced in large plants located away from the consumption centers at the sites where primary new energy sources and water are available. Hydrogen would then be transported to energy consumption centers where it would be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Once such a system is established, it will never be necessary to change to any other energy system.

  2. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  3. Multiple Energy System Analysis of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    2015-01-01

    thermal grids and smart gas grids, Smart Energy Systems moves the flexibility away from the fuel as is the case in current energy systems and into the system itself. However, most studies applying a Smart Energy System approach deals with analyses for either single countries or whole continents......To eliminate the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector it is necessary to transition to future 100% renewable energy systems. One approach for this radical change in our energy systems is Smart Energy Systems. With a focus on development and interaction between smart electricity grids, smart......, but it is unclear how regions, municipalities, and communities should deal with these national targets. It is necessary to be able to provide this information since Smart Energy Systems utilize energy resources and initiatives that have strong relations to local authorities and communities, such as onshore wind...

  4. Applied photovoltaics as a practical education in renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, Mitko

    2009-01-01

    The optional course „Applied Photovoltaic” for MEng students specializing in Electronics at the Faculty of Electronics and Automation, TU-Plovdiv is presented. The main topics of the advanced PV course as a modern sustainable energetic based on the photovoltaic effect and energy from Sun as a renewable energy source; materials and technologies in photovoltaic; design of solar cells and PV modules and PV generators up to 100 kWp; BIPV and CIPV systems; hybrid PV systems; PV mounting; monitoring of PV systems and EC regulations for PV systems connected to the utility grid are discussed. The advanced teaching method by online e-platform with virtual resources is presented. Key words: PV education, PV technologies, applied photovoltaic, e-platform

  5. Applied computation and security systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Khalid; Choudhury, Sankhayan; Chaki, Nabendu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the extended version of the works that have been presented and discussed in the First International Doctoral Symposium on Applied Computation and Security Systems (ACSS 2014) held during April 18-20, 2014 in Kolkata, India. The symposium has been jointly organized by the AGH University of Science & Technology, Cracow, Poland and University of Calcutta, India. The Volume I of this double-volume book contains fourteen high quality book chapters in three different parts. Part 1 is on Pattern Recognition and it presents four chapters. Part 2 is on Imaging and Healthcare Applications contains four more book chapters. The Part 3 of this volume is on Wireless Sensor Networking and it includes as many as six chapters. Volume II of the book has three Parts presenting a total of eleven chapters in it. Part 4 consists of five excellent chapters on Software Engineering ranging from cloud service design to transactional memory. Part 5 in Volume II is on Cryptography with two book...

  6. Applying Physics to Clean Energy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Solar and ocean thermal energy sources offer real potential for an environmentally clean fuel by the year 2000. A review of current research contracts relating to ocean-thermal energy, cost requirements of plant construction and uses of the electricity produced, such as synthesizing ammonia and synthetic fuels, are discussed. (BT)

  7. Energy Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Building Energy Information Systems and Performance Monitoring (EIS-PM) Building Energy evaluate and improve performance monitoring tools for energy savings in commercial buildings. Within the and visualization capabilities to energy and facility managers. As an increasing number of

  8. Evolving energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.

    1991-04-01

    This thesis presents scenarios of future energy systems, a cost-benefit analysis of measures to avoid greenhouse-gas emissions, an analysis of the effect of energy prices on end-use efficiencies and fuel choices, and an evaluation of financial-incentive programs designed to induce investments in efficient energy use. Twelve integrated energy supply/demand scenarios for the Swedish heat-and-power sector are presented to illustrate the potential for improvements in end-use efficiency and increased utilization of renewable energy sources. The results show that greenhouse-gas emissions could be reduced by 35 per cent from 1987 levels by 2010, with a net economic benefit compared to a business-as-usual scenario. A generalized methodology for calculating the net costs of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions is applied to a variety of fuel choices and energy end-use technologies. A key finding is that a combination of increased end-use efficiencies and use of renewable energy systems is required to achieve maximum cost-effective emissions reductions. End-use efficiencies and inter-fuel competition in Denmark and Sweden are compared during a time period in which real electricity prices were declining in Sweden and increasing in Denmark. Despite these different price environments, efficiencies and choices of heating fuels did not generally develop as expected according to economic theory. The influences of counter-price and non-price factors are important in understanding this outcome. Relying on prices alone injects considerable uncertainty into the energy planning process, and precludes efficiency improvements and fuel choices attainable with other mechanisms. Incentive programs can be used to promote energy-efficient technologies. Utilities in Europe have recently offered financial incentives intended to stimulate the adoption of compact-fluorescent lamps. These programs have been cost-effective in comparison to new electric supply. (au).

  9. Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, T Agami

    2011-01-01

    ""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and

  10. CVD techniques applied to energy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreary, W.J.; Carroll, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the applications of chemical vapor deposition in energy related programs will be discussed, and coating parameters will be described. The coatings to be discussed were made at reduced pressures from the hydrogen reduction of metal fluorides, or metal silane and from the pyrolysis of metal carbonyls

  11. Croatian Energy System Defossilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2013-01-01

    Defossilization of an energy system, as primary cause of the actual climate change, means exchange of predominantly imported fossil fuels with climate more convenient energy carriers, facilitating thus the way out of crisis.Overview of the world and Croatian energy system situation is presented as well as the overview of climate change. The most important Croatian energy system defossilization measures-energy efficiency increase, renewable energy inclusion and others - are described.(author)

  12. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  13. Progressive innovations in applying of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yershina, Ainakul K.; Yershin, Chingiz Sh.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the current design of a laboratory model, the so-called model of vertical-axis wind turbine component. Construction work carried out, and then made a valid laboratory model of cross-sectional area S = 0,64 m 2 , which can operate as a conventional Darya, and in the mode of our constructive solutions. The tower that supports the wind turbine installed in the vertical position of the shaft 2, each of which is connected with only one blade and working with their current generator. The shafts are separated by a bearing and can operate autonomously, independently of each other. The mechanical energy of rotation is transferred to two different power generators, ie Each shaft works on his generator. Electricity generated by them is summarized. Thus, the feature of this design is the increased removal of wind energy in two independent working trees with the same swept area. Therefore, effective value of wind energy usage efficiency may be increased to 0.7 in case of high production culture.Vertical - axis turbine component has a special lock that supports the angle between the furs 180 °. Key words: wind turbine Darrieus, shaft, generator current, power, wind speed, blade

  14. Progressive innovations in applying of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yershina, Ainakul K. [Kazakh State Women Pedogogical University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Yershin, Chingiz Sh. [Kazakh Natio nal University named by al - Farabi, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2013-07-01

    The article presents the current design of a laboratory model, the so-called model of vertical-axis wind turbine component. Construction work carried out, and then made a valid laboratory model of cross-sectional area S = 0,64 m{sup 2} , which can operate as a conventional Darya, and in the mode of our constructive solutions. The tower that supports the wind turbine installed in the vertical position of the shaft 2, each of which is connected with only one blade and working with their current generator. The shafts are separated by a bearing and can operate autonomously, independently of each other. The mechanical energy of rotation is transferred to two different power generators, ie Each shaft works on his generator. Electricity generated by them is summarized. Thus, the feature of this design is the increased removal of wind energy in two independent working trees with the same swept area. Therefore, effective value of wind energy usage efficiency may be increased to 0.7 in case of high production culture.Vertical - axis turbine component has a special lock that supports the angle between the furs 180 °. Key words: wind turbine Darrieus, shaft, generator current, power, wind speed, blade.

  15. Neuroscience applied to nuclear energy teaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabás, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaianê, E-mail: robertabarabas@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Science and technology play a key role in helping countries increase the quality of life of their inhabitants. The development of peaceful nuclear applications offers important contribution for several fields. However, nuclear accidents are reported as factors that lead to the formation of prejudiced beliefs and attitudes against nuclear technology. The media also influence on what people believe about it. Holding prejudice against nuclear technology will lead to misconceptions and interfere with authorities' decision on the development of new technology. There are evidences in the literature that implicit prejudices might be avoidable, reduced and even reversed. Interest in prejudice and stereotyping is currently shared by emerging disciplines such as neuroscience. The field of educational neuroscience has developed several types of implicit association tests aiming to assess implicit prejudices that individuals are consciously unaware. As far as prejudices are reported in the nuclear energy education scenario implicit measurement techniques can be an effective tool to identify and measure prejudices against nuclear technology. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a valuable tool used worldwide as a measurement technique to assess implicit attitude toward discriminatory behaviors. This study aims to demonstrate the design and development of a neuroscience-based methodology, which will include a future administration of the IAT to school teachers to assess their implicit associations regarding nuclear energy. The procedure will contribute for understanding implicit prejudices interfering with teaching practices. Teaching a balanced view about the applications of the nuclear technology will contribute for the acceptance of nuclear technology. (author)

  16. Neuroscience applied to nuclear energy teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabás, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaianê

    2017-01-01

    Science and technology play a key role in helping countries increase the quality of life of their inhabitants. The development of peaceful nuclear applications offers important contribution for several fields. However, nuclear accidents are reported as factors that lead to the formation of prejudiced beliefs and attitudes against nuclear technology. The media also influence on what people believe about it. Holding prejudice against nuclear technology will lead to misconceptions and interfere with authorities' decision on the development of new technology. There are evidences in the literature that implicit prejudices might be avoidable, reduced and even reversed. Interest in prejudice and stereotyping is currently shared by emerging disciplines such as neuroscience. The field of educational neuroscience has developed several types of implicit association tests aiming to assess implicit prejudices that individuals are consciously unaware. As far as prejudices are reported in the nuclear energy education scenario implicit measurement techniques can be an effective tool to identify and measure prejudices against nuclear technology. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a valuable tool used worldwide as a measurement technique to assess implicit attitude toward discriminatory behaviors. This study aims to demonstrate the design and development of a neuroscience-based methodology, which will include a future administration of the IAT to school teachers to assess their implicit associations regarding nuclear energy. The procedure will contribute for understanding implicit prejudices interfering with teaching practices. Teaching a balanced view about the applications of the nuclear technology will contribute for the acceptance of nuclear technology. (author)

  17. Energy loss spectroscopy applied to surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecante, J.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of energy losses suffered by slow electrons (5eV to 300eV) back-scattered by single crystal surfaces appears to be a powerful method for surfaces studies. The inelastic scattering of these slow electrons limits their escape depth to the surface region. After a review of the basic excitation processes due to the interaction between electrons and surfaces (phonons, plasmons and electronic transitions) a brief discussion is given about the instruments needed for this electrons spectroscopy. Finally some experimental results are listed and it is shown that the comparison of the results given by ELS with other surface sensitive methods such as UPS is very fruitful and new information can be obtained. The improvement of theoretical studies on surface excitations due to slow electrons will provide in the next future the possibility of analysing in a more quantitative way the results given by ELS [fr

  18. Energy loss spectroscopy applied to surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecante, J.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of energy losses suffered by slow electrons (5 eV to 300 eV) back-scattered by single crystal surfaces appears to be a powerful method for surfaces studies. The inelastic scattering of these slow electrons limits their escape depth to the surface region which is defined here. After a review of the basic excitation processes due to the interaction between electrons and surfaces (phonons, plasmons and electronic transitions) a brief discussion is given about the instruments needed for this electron spectroscopy. Finally some experimental results are listed and it is shown that the comparison of the results given by ELS with other surface sensitive methods such as UPS is very fruitful and new information can be obtained [fr

  19. Energy retrofit of commercial buildings. Case study and applied methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aste, N.; Del Pero, C. [Department of Building Environment Science and Technology (BEST), Politecnico di Milano, Via Bonardi 3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Commercial buildings are responsible for a significant share of the energy requirements of European Union countries. Related consumptions due to heating, cooling, and lighting appear, in most cases, very high and expensive. Since the real estate is renewed with a very small percentage each year and current trends suggest reusing the old structures, strategies for improving energy efficiency and sustainability should focus not only on new buildings, but also and especially on existing ones. Architectural renovation of existing buildings could provide an opportunity to enhance their energy efficiency, by working on the improvement of envelopes and energy supply systems. It has also to be noted that the measures aimed to improve the energy performance of buildings should pay particular attention to the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. In general, there is a lack of well-established methods for retrofitting, but if a case study achieves effective results, the adopted strategies and methodologies can be successfully replicated for similar kinds of buildings. In this paper, an iterative methodology for energy retrofit of commercial buildings is presented, together with a specific application on an existing office building. The case study is particularly significant as it is placed in an urban climatic context characterized by cold winters and hot summers; consequently, HVAC energy consumption is considerable throughout the year. The analysis and simulations of energy performance before and after the intervention, along with measured data on real energy performance, demonstrate the validity of the applied approach. The specifically developed design and refurbishment methodology, presented in this work, could be also assumed as a reference in similar operations.

  20. Comparisons of system benefits and thermo-economics for exhaust energy recovery applied on a heavy-duty diesel engine and a light-duty vehicle gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Yajun; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Zhijun; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparisons of exhaust energy recovery are launched between two types of engine. • System performances are analyzed in terms of benefits and thermo-economics. • Diesel engine system presents superior to gasoline type in economic applicability. • Only diesel engine system using water under full load meets the economic demand. - Abstract: Exhaust energy recovery system (EERS) based on Rankine cycle (RC) in internal combustion engines have been studied mainly on heavy-duty diesel engines (D) and light-duty vehicle gasoline engines (G), however, little information available on systematical comparisons and evaluations between the two applications, which is a particularly necessary summary for clarifying the differences. In this paper, the two particular systems are compared quantitatively using water, R141b, R123 and R245fa as working fluids. The influences of evaporating pressure, engine type and load on the system performances are analyzed with multi-objectives, including the thermal efficiency improvement, the reduced CO 2 emission, the total heat transfer area per net power output (APP), the electricity production cost (EPC) and the payback period (PBP). The results reveal that higher pressure and engine load would be attractive for better performances. R141b shows the best performances in system benefits for the D-EERS, while water exhibits the largest contributions in the G-EERS. Besides, water performs the best thermo-economics, and R245fa serves as the most uneconomical fluid. The D-EERS presents superior to the G-EERS in the economic applicability as well as much more CO 2 emission reductions, although with slightly lower thermal efficiency improvement, and only the D-EERS with water under the full load meets the economic demand. Therefore the EERS based on RC serve more applicable on the heavy-duty diesel engine, while it might be feasible for the light-duty vehicle gasoline engine as the state-of-the art technologies are developed in the

  1. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  2. University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Search Help Research Our Expertise University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research | An Equal Opportunity University All Rights Remediation Power Generation CAER TechFacts CAER Factsheets CAER Affiliations Research Contacts Publications

  3. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  4. Quality system applied to the development and operation of the environmental and internal dosimetry laboratory of the National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossi, Mirta H.; Picardi, Haydee M.; Rona, Nicolas F.; Gonzalez, Maria I.; Cohen, Isaac M.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of the quality plan , applied to the project of construction, commissioning and operation of the Laboratory of Internal and Environmental Dosimetry of Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, are described. The basic objectives are: to carry out the determination of plutonium, natural and enriched uranium in biological samples, involving the operation of five plants connected with the fuel cycles, and radionuclides in environmental samples; to achieve enough sensitivity in the methods, so as to detect trends which could require the application of corrective measures or, alternatively, the practices standardisation that contribute to an operation improvement; to adequate the laboratory, under full operation conditions, for inclusion in a dose evaluation and environmental monitoring integrated system. (author). 1 ref

  5. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...

  6. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  7. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  8. The quality management system applied at PRPN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benar Bukit

    2007-01-01

    The ISO 9001-2000 is an International standard for quality management systems. The application of this quality management system is for guaranteeing that the organizations products will fulfill requirements set by its customers. Here the steps taken to apply the quality management system at PRPN are expounded in five main parts, namely quality management system, responsibilities of the management, resources, product realization, measurement, analysis and repair. (author)

  9. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Energy systems are essential in the support of modern societies’ activities, and can span a wide spectrum of electricity and heat generation systems and cooling systems. Along with their central role and large diversity, these systems have been demonstrated to cause serious impacts on human health...... , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...

  10. The applied theory of energy substitution in production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Henry

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the applied theory of energy cross price partial elasticities of substitution, and presents it in a transparent fashion. It uses log linear and translog production and cost functions due to their economic properties and convenient estimating forms, but the theory applies other functional forms. The objective is to encourage increased empirical research that would deepen understanding and appreciation of energy substitution. (author)

  11. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  12. New secondary energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1977-01-01

    As an introduction, the FRG's energy industry situation is described, secondary energy systems to be taken into consideration are classified, and appropriate market requirements are analyzed. Dealt with is district heating, i.e. the direct transport of heat by means of circulating media, and long-distance energy, i.e. the long-distance energy transport by means of chemical conversion in closed- or open-cycle systems. In closed-cycle systems heat is transported in the form of chemical latent energy. In contrast to this, chemical energy is transported in open-cycle systems in the form of fuel gases produced by coal gasification or by thermochemical water splitting. (GG) [de

  13. Applying distributions of hydraulic conductivity for anisotropic systems and applications to Tc Transport at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    43Tc99 is spreading mostly laterally through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site sediments. At higher tensions in the unsaturated zone, the hydraulic conductivity may be strongly anisotropic as a consequence of finer soils to retain more water than coarser ones, and for these soils to have been deposited primarily in horizontal structures. We have tried to develop a consistent modeling procedure that could predict the behavior of Tc plumes. Our procedure consists of: (1) Adapting existing numerical recipes based on critical path analysis to calculate the hydraulic conductivity, K, as a function of tension, h, (2) Statistically correlating the predicted K at various values of the tension with fine content, (3) Seeking a tension value, for which the anisotropy and the horizontal K values are both sufficiently large to accommodate multi-kilometer spreading, (4) Predicting the distribution of K values for vertical flow as a function of system support volume, (5) Comparing the largest likely K value in the vertical direction with the expected K in the horizontal direction, (6) Finding the length scale at which the two K values are roughly equal, (7) Comparing that length scale with the horizontal spreading of the plume. We find that our predictions of the value of the tension at which the principle spreading is likely occurring compares very well with experiment. However, we seem to underestimate the physical length scale at which the predominantly horizontal spreading begins to take on significant vertical characteristics. Our data and predictions would seem to indicate that this should happen after horizontal transport of somewhat over a km, but the chiefly horizontal transport appears to continue out to scales of 10km or so.

  14. Energy Systems Integration Facility News | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility News Energy Systems Integration Facility Energy Dataset A massive amount of wind data was recently made accessible online, greatly expanding the Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has completed technology validation testing for Go

  15. Combined confinement system applied to tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1986-01-01

    From particle orbit point of view, a tokamak is a combined confinement configuration where a closed toroidal volume is surrounded by an open confinement system like a magnetic mirror. By eliminating a cold halo plasma, the energy loss from the plasma becomes convective. The H-mode in diverted tokamaks is an example. Because of the favorable scaling of the energy confinement time with temperature, the performance of the tokamak may be significantly improved by taking advantage of this effect. (author)

  16. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  17. Smart energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  18. What Is Energy Systems Integration? | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL What Is Energy Systems Integration? What Is Energy Systems Integration? Energy systems integration (ESI) is an approach to solving big energy challenges that explores ways for energy systems to Research Community NREL is a founding member of the International Institute for Energy Systems Integration

  19. Integrative Systems Biology Applied to Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning

    associated with combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Testing all possible combinations of the tens of thousands environmental chemicals is impractical. This PhD project was launched to apply existing computational systems biology methods to toxicological research. In this thesis, I present in three...... of a system thereby suggesting new ways of thinking specific toxicological endpoints. Furthermore, computational methods can serve as valuable input for the hypothesis generating phase of the preparations of a research project....

  20. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  1. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  2. Energy Usage Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The EUAS application is a web based system which serves Energy Center of Expertise, under the Office of Facilitates Management and Service Programs. EUAS is used for...

  3. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics

  4. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  5. Evaluation of a new SNCR intermixing technique applied on a waste incinerator at Uppsala Energi (System ROTAMIX{sup TM}); Utvaerdering av ny SNCR inblandningsteknik vid avfallspanna hos Uppsala Energi (System ROTAMIX{sup TM})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, G [Mobotec AB (Sweden); Sollenberg, H; Westas, H [Uppsala Energi AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    A good intermixing of reductants in the exhaust gas is essential for good combustion and high NO{sub x} reduction. Good intermixing cuts down on the levels of reducing chemicals required for NO{sub x} reduction. Conventional SNCR is built on intermixing of reductants through a series of lances which are mounted to cover several cross sectional areas of the furnace. System ROTAMIX{sup TM} is a technique based on premixing the SNCR chemicals with air before entering the furnace by rotation. As a consequence, fewer numbers of mixing nozzles are needed. As a result; The investment cost can be kept down. Also the creation of unwanted byproducts are reduced. The reason for this is that a homogeneous mixture of gases inside the furnace results in more even temperature distribution through the cross-section of the furnace. Increasing the effectiveness of the reductants, so reducing the levels of chemicals required and so reducing the unwanted by-products. Furthermore; System ROTAMIX reduces levels of NO{sub x} by a further 50% over existing SNCR technology system; An increase in efficiency carried by needed lower levels of excess air; The actual levels of NO{sub x} are down to as low as 120-125 mg/MJ without the need for any addition, reducing chemical with Rotating Over Fire Air (ROFA). 4 figs, 9 tabs, 18 appendices

  6. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  7. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  8. Alternative Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.; Duckers, L.; Lockett, P.; Loughridge, B.; Peatfield, T.; White, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group has been involved in the United Kingdom wave energy research programme since its inception in 1975. Whilst the work of the group is mainly concerned with wave energy, and currently is directed towards the design of a wave energy device tailored to the needs of isolated/island communities, it has some involvement with other aspects of the alternatives. This conference, dealing with alternative energy systems and their electrical integration and utilisation was engendered by the general interest which the Polytechnic group members have in the alternatives and their use. The scope for electrical integration and utilisation is very broad. Energy for family groups may be provided in a relatively unsophisticated way which is acceptable to them. Small population centres, for example island communities relying upon diesel equipment, can reap the benefits of the alternatives through their ability to accept novel integration schemes and a flexible approach to the use of the energy available. Consumers already enjoying the benefits of a 'firm' electricity grid supply can use energy from a variety of alternative systems, via the grid, without having to modify their energy consumption habits. In addition to the domestic and industrial applications and coastal possibilities, specialist applications in isolated environments have also emerged. The Proceedings detail practical, technical and economic aspects of the alternatives and their electrical integration and utilisation.

  9. Applying Product Configuration Systems in Engineering Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde

    This Ph.D. thesis looks into the application of configuration systems in engineering companies, and how configuration systems can be used to support business processes in engineering companies. Often the motivation stated by researchers and practitioners is, that a configuration project...... and sustain competitive advantage” (Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997, pp.509) This question has puzzled academics and preoccupied managers for the last century. Yet, it seems there is still no consensus regarding the meaning of strategy, and how strategy works. Type in the word “strategy” on Amazon.co.uk and 76......,133 books apply. Type it in on Google scholar and 8,580,000 homepages apply3. Obviously, strategy is an important subject. However, the subject also seems to be difficult to perceive. Although this thesis is not about strategy, or strategizing, I would like to pursue the definition of strategy one step...

  10. Neutron activation analysis applied to energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to a number of problems concerned with energy production and the environment. Burning of fossil fuel, the search for new sources of uranium, possible presence of toxic elements in food and water, and the relationship of trace elements to cardiovascular disease are some of the problems in which neutron activation was used. (auth)

  11. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  12. Cost system applied in company of generating and transmitting electric energy - CHESF; Sistema de custos aplicado em empresa geradora e transmissora de energia eletrica - CHESF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Crisalvo Sampaio, e-mail: Crisalv@chesf.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the Operational Costs System 'SCOPES', developed by Companhia HidroEletrica do Sao Francisco - CHESF, with the objective of providing the leadership, knowledge of costs and expenditures generated in the various activities of the cost formation chain, enabling effective monitoring and management of resources incurred in the chain.

  13. Applying Risk and Resilience Metrics to Energy Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    include. Resilient energy infrastructure extends beyond the installation’s energy gird and distribution capability to the people controlling the system...Effects on Energy Supply The report, How Two Microgrids Fared After the 2011 Earthquake, states that the Great East Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami...Company was unable to supply power to its customers; however, two microgrids successfully produced and distributed power after the GEJE, when the

  14. Applying model predictive control to power system frequency control

    OpenAIRE

    Ersdal, AM; Imsland, L; Cecilio, IM; Fabozzi, D; Thornhill, NF

    2013-01-01

    16.07.14 KB Ok to add accepted version to Spiral Model predictive control (MPC) is investigated as a control method which may offer advantages in frequency control of power systems than the control methods applied today, especially in presence of increased renewable energy penetration. The MPC includes constraints on both generation amount and generation rate of change, and it is tested on a one-area system. The proposed MPC is tested against a conventional proportional-integral (PI) cont...

  15. Electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hawary, Mohamed E

    2007-01-01

    Features discussions ranging from the technical aspects of generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization to power system components, theory, protection, and the energy control center that offer an introduction to effects of deregulating electric power systems, blackouts and their causes, and minimizing their effects.

  16. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses on...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions.......Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...

  17. An alternative rule for determining demand and energy supply based in marginal cost optimization from interconnected hydrothermal systems, focalizing the individualized plants, applied to the interconnected system from South and Southeast regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Bond, P. de; Soares Filho, S.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology for determining optimal strategies of energy supply in the interconnected system from South and Southeast regions of Brazil is presented. The problem was modelled, having as principle the minimization of operation pluri annual cost. The dynamic restrictions of energy and peak flow, the dynamic configuration of hydrothermal park and the hydraulic operation restrictions are also considered. (C.G.C.). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  18. Effective motion design applied to energy-efficient handling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett, Tobias

    2013-10-01

    Industrial robots are available in a large variety of mechanical alternatives regarding size, motor power, link length ratio or payload. The four major types of serial kinematics dominating the market are complemented by various parallel kinematics for special purpose. In contrast, few other path planning alternatives are applied in industrial robotics which are based on similar analytic solution principles. The objective of this thesis is to develop a systematic design method for artifacts in motion, to integrate motion design and mechanical design to enable new processes for production. For each design, a theoretical benchmark is developed, which cannot be attained by conventional robots in principle. A key performance indicator enables to measure the degree of goal achievement towards the benchmark during all design phases. Motion behaviors are identified on a local level by dynamic systems modeling and are integrated into new global behavior featuring a new quality, suitable for exceeding the design benchmark in industrial processes. Two exemplary handling robot designs are presented. The first concept enables motion behavior to consume less electrical power than kinetic energy transferred to and from its payload during motion. The second concept enables motion with four degrees of freedom by single motor stimulation, reducing idle power consumption on factor 4 towards conventional robots.

  19. Plant introduction system applying virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Yasusuke; Tanaka, Kazuo; Kimura, Katsumi; Nakakosi, Tetsuhiro

    1995-01-01

    We developed the prototype of the introduction system for nuclear power plant applying 3D-CAD data and the virtual reality (V.R) technologies. For the purpose of the public acceptance (PA), the use of the V.R technologies, such as CG stereographic, will be interesting for the public. Also, it is very important to introduce the components of the plant in detail, which will become easy by using the 3D-CAD data of the nuclear plant. We made a prototype system for introducing the main portion of the nuclear power plant, such as main control room, containment vessel or turbine building, applying CG stereographic by plant 3D data and artificial voice guidance for the explanations. We have exhibited this system in two local festivals at the plant sites. It has been efficient for creating plant scene by using 3D-CAD from the viewpoint of cost, and stereographic has been much attractive to the resident. The detail scenario must be investigated from the viewpoint of PA effect. Also the performance of the graphics workstation should be increased to promote the quality of the CG movie. But we think that this system will have much effective by its novelty and flexibility. (author)

  20. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  1. Applied Information Systems Research Program Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The first Applied Information Systems Research Program (AISRP) Workshop provided the impetus for several groups involved in information systems to review current activities. The objectives of the workshop included: (1) to provide an open forum for interaction and discussion of information systems; (2) to promote understanding by initiating a dialogue with the intended benefactors of the program, the scientific user community, and discuss options for improving their support; (3) create an advocacy in having science users and investigators of the program meet together and establish the basis for direction and growth; and (4) support the future of the program by building collaborations and interaction to encourage an investigator working group approach for conducting the program.

  2. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy...... system. The conclusion is that China’s domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system...

  3. The Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Increased deployment of new technologies, e.g., renewable generation and electric vehicles, is rapidly transforming electrical power networks by crossing previously distinct spatiotemporal scales and invalidating many traditional approaches for designing, analyzing, and operating power grids. This trend is expected to accelerate over the coming years, bringing the disruptive challenge of complexity, but also opportunities to deliver unprecedented efficiency and reliability. Our Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS) Center will discover, enable, and solve emerging mathematics challenges arising in power systems and, more generally, in complex engineered networks. We will develop foundational applied mathematics resulting in rigorous algorithms and simulation toolboxes for modern and future engineered networks. The AMPS Center deconstruction/reconstruction approach 'deconstructs' complex networks into sub-problems within non-separable spatiotemporal scales, a missing step in 20th century modeling of engineered networks. These sub-problems are addressed within the appropriate AMPS foundational pillar - complex systems, control theory, and optimization theory - and merged or 'reconstructed' at their boundaries into more general mathematical descriptions of complex engineered networks where important new questions are formulated and attacked. These two steps, iterated multiple times, will bridge the growing chasm between the legacy power grid and its future as a complex engineered network.

  4. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.

    2011-01-01

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  5. Applying usability heuristics to radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Alvita J.; Islam, Mohammad K.; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A.; Easty, Anthony C.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Heuristic evaluations have been used to evaluate safety of medical devices by identifying and assessing usability issues. Since radiotherapy treatment delivery systems often consist of multiple complex user-interfaces, a heuristic evaluation was conducted to assess the potential safety issues of such a system. Material and methods: A heuristic evaluation was conducted to evaluate the treatment delivery system at Princess Margaret Hospital (Toronto, Canada). Two independent evaluators identified usability issues with the user-interfaces and rated the severity of each issue. Results: The evaluators identified 75 usability issues in total. Eighteen of them were rated as high severity, indicating the potential to have a major impact on patient safety. A majority of issues were found on the record and verify system, and many were associated with the patient setup process. While the hospital has processes in place to ensure patient safety, recommendations were developed to further mitigate the risks of potential consequences. Conclusions: Heuristic evaluation is an efficient and inexpensive method that can be successfully applied to radiotherapy delivery systems to identify usability issues and improve patient safety. Although this study was conducted only at one site, the findings may have broad implications for the design of these systems.

  6. Performance Monitoring Applied to System Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertille Somon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, automation is present in every aspect of our daily life and has some benefits. Nonetheless, empirical data suggest that traditional automation has many negative performance and safety consequences as it changed task performers into task supervisors. In this context, we propose to use recent insights into the anatomical and neurophysiological substrates of action monitoring in humans, to help further characterize performance monitoring during system supervision. Error monitoring is critical for humans to learn from the consequences of their actions. A wide variety of studies have shown that the error monitoring system is involved not only in our own errors, but also in the errors of others. We hypothesize that the neurobiological correlates of the self-performance monitoring activity can be applied to system supervision. At a larger scale, a better understanding of system supervision may allow its negative effects to be anticipated or even countered. This review is divided into three main parts. First, we assess the neurophysiological correlates of self-performance monitoring and their characteristics during error execution. Then, we extend these results to include performance monitoring and error observation of others or of systems. Finally, we provide further directions in the study of system supervision and assess the limits preventing us from studying a well-known phenomenon: the Out-Of-the-Loop (OOL performance problem.

  7. Applied wind energy research at the National Wind Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.C.; Tu, P.

    1997-01-01

    Applied research activities currently being undertaken at the National Wind Technology Center, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in the United States, are divided into several technical disciplines. An integrated multi-disciplinary approach is urged for the future in order to evaluate advanced turbine designs. The risk associated with any new turbine development program can thus be mitigated through the provision of the advanced technology, analysis tools and innovative designs available at the Center, and wind power can be promoted as a viable renewable energy alternative. (UK)

  8. Terahertz spectroscopy applied to food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe

    Water plays a crucial role in the quality of food. Apart from the natural water content of a food product, the state of that water is very important. Water can be found integrated into the biological material or it can be added during production of the product. Currently it is difficult...... to differentiate between these types of water in subsequent quality controls. This thesis describes terahertz time-domain spectroscopy applied on aqueous food model systems, with particular focus on ethanol-water mixtures and confined water pools in inverse micelles....

  9. Wiener filter applied to a neutrongraphic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispim, V.R.; Lopes, R.T.; Borges, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The randon characteristics of the image formation process influence the spatial image obtained in a neutrongraphy. Several methods can be used to optimize this image, though estimation of the noise added to the original signal. This work deals with the optimal filtering technique, using Wiener's filter. A simulation is made, where the signal (spatial resolution function) has a Lorentz's form, and ten kinds of random noise with increasing R.M.S. are generated and individually added to the original signal. Wiener's filter is applied to different noise amplitudes and the behaviour of the spatial resolution function for our system is also analysed. (Author) [pt

  10. A Case Study: Implementation of a Management System for the TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Energy (LENA) of the University of Pavia, Italy. Annex I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This annex provides an example for the implementation of a management system for operating organizations of research reactors, based on a case study in which the implementation of such a system has been completed. The case study relates the experience of the Applied Nuclear Energy Laboratory (hereafter referred to as LENA) of the University of Pavia, Italy. This example is used because of the recent completion of the implementation of an integrated management system, and also because of the specific characteristics of the organization (such as the limited number of staff, limited financial resources, etc.), which are often typical for organizations that operate smaller research reactors. Section I-1 gives a brief presentation of the organization, including the scope of work, the main activities performed, the organizational structure, the identification of interested parties and the applicable requirements and standards. Section I-2 describes the LENA Management System, the reasons for its implementation, the stages of its development and the processes involved. Some practical examples related to the development of the LENA Management System are discussed in Section I-3, indicating the choices made by the organization. In particular, Section I-3.12 shows the correlation between the LENA Management System processes and the processes considered in the main body of this publication.

  11. Energy systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  12. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  13. Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos Energy Systems Integration Facility Integration Facility NREL + SolarCity: Maximizing Solar Power on Electrical Grids Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration Robot-Powered Reliability Testing at NREL's ESIF Microgrid

  14. Energy Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Integration Laboratory Energy Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy Systems Integration Laboratory is advancing engineering knowledge and market deployment of hydrogen technologies. Applications include microgrids, energy storage for renewables integration, and home- and station

  15. Autonomous renewable energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtchev, V. [Technical University of Varna (Bulgaria). Dept. of Electronics; Bossche, A. van den; Ghijselen, J.; Melkebeek, J. [University of Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2000-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a high efficiency way to a local isolated load. The wind energy conversion operates at variable shaft speed yielding an improved annual energy production over constant speed systems. An induction generator (IG) has been used because of its reduced cost, robustness, absence of separate DC source for excitation, easier dismounting and maintenance. The maximum energy transfer of the wind energy is assured by a simple and reliable control strategy adjusting the stator frequency of the IG so that the power drawn is equal to the peak power production of the wind turbine at any wind speed. The presented control strategy also provides an optimal efficiency operation of the IG by applying a quadratic dependence between the IG terminal voltage and frequency V {approx} f{sup 2}. For improving the total system efficiency, high efficiency converters have been designed and implemented. The modular principle of the proposed DC/DC conversion provides the possibility for modifying the system structure depending on different conditions. The configuration of the presented ARECS and the implementation of the proposed control algorithm for optimal power transfer are fully discussed. The stability and dynamic performance as well as the different operation modes of the proposed control and the operation of the converters are illustrated and verified on an experimental prototype. (author)

  16. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  17. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  18. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  19. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  20. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  1. Pipesworld : applying planning systems to pipeline transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milidiu, R.L.; Santos Liporace, F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This paper explored issues facing the complex task of managing pipelines that transport large volumes of petroleum products over long distances. Since oil pipelines are generally a few inches wide and several miles long, reasonable amounts of distinct products can be transported with very small loss due to the mixing at liquid boundaries. Optimizing the transportation through oil pipelines in terms of maintenance and environmental safety is a high priority for pipeline operators. This paper presented the Pipesworld model which takes into account features such as product interface constraints, limited product storage capacities and due dates for product delivery. It has been benchmarked as a start-of-art general purpose artificial planning system. This paper also reported the results derived by general purpose artificial intelligence planning systems when applied to the Pipesworld model. It demonstrated how various modelling techniques can be used to enhance the planners performance. Current work in developing Plumber was also presented. This dedicated solver that addresses operational situations uses both general purpose planning techniques as well as domain specific knowledge. When Plumber was incorporated into Pipesworld, its outperformed Fast-Forward, one of the best available general purpose planning systems, suggesting that improved versions of Plumber have the potential to deal with various problem scenarios in pipeline operations. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  3. Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile operating system is the best way to reduce the energy consumption in mobile devices. In this paper, currently used energy efficient mobile operating system is discussed and compared. ...

  4. Wellons Canada energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Wellons Canada is a British Columbia-based company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of lumber drying and energy conversion equipment. This brochure provided details of the Wellons energy system designed for oriented strand board (OSB) plants. The brochure outlined the system's scope of supply, and provided illustrations of system procedures from the initial wet fuel bin through to the electric precipitator used for air clean-up. During the process, fuel was conveyed from the bin to metering bins into combustors and through a cyclo-blast cell. Forced draft fan systems were then used to provide primary and secondary combustion air. Radiant heaters were then used. A drop-out chamber was supplied to allow for complete combustion of fuel particles and to provide a drop-out of ash. A fan was then used to deliver diluent air to maintain the set point temperature in the hot gas stream. Refractory lined hot gas ducts were used to deliver heat to the dryers. Hot gas was then drawn through a multi-cyclone collector for ash removal. Electrostatic precipitators were used to clean up emissions on a continuous operating basis. An automatic system was used to collect ash from the combustion system grates and other areas. Details of installation services provided by the company were also included. 42 figs.

  5. Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Hector; Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos; Lambert, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO 2 to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO 2 . The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO 2 . - Highlights: → We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. → Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. → Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. → Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. → Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.

  6. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  7. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. Nejat; Sahin, Suemer

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century

  8. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  9. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  10. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Zhang, Xiliang

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO 2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy system. The conclusion is that China's domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system in China is not unreasonable. (author)

  11. Energy systems in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1989-01-01

    The principal point of the author was to discuss energy systems (ES) in transition, transition addresses the next 10-25 years, and strategy of the transition. He considers different scenarios of future development of ES. Further he presents considerations elaborated during the last years on the concept of novel horizontally integrated ES which gives promise to be at least an approximation to the desired object of no emissions. The main ideas of the concept are: to decompose and thereby clean all the primary inputs before they are brought to combustion; to develop a network combining all the primary inputs to an integrated supply structure of high absorption, buffer, and storage capacity that resembles in some way the supply and utility functions of the well established electric grid but completes it at best on the basis of mass flows; to achieve a high flexibility in supplying the final energy. The author considers the long run perspective of hydrogen, solar, and nuclear energy with respect to alternative energy sources. 6 refs, 24 figs

  12. Optical fiber-applied radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Ryuichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Izumi, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    A technique to measure radiation by using plastic scintillation fibers doped radiation fluorescent (scintillator) to plastic optical fiber for a radiation sensor, was developed. The technique contains some superiority such as high flexibility due to using fibers, relatively easy large area due to detecting portion of whole of fibers, and no electromagnetic noise effect due to optical radiation detection and signal transmission. Measurable to wide range of and continuous radiation distribution along optical fiber cable at a testing portion using scintillation fiber and flight time method, the optical fiber-applied radiation sensing system can effectively monitor space radiation dose or apparatus operation condition monitoring. And, a portable type scintillation optical fiber body surface pollution monitor can measure pollution concentration of radioactive materials attached onto body surface by arranging scintillation fiber processed to a plate with small size and flexibility around a man to be tested. Here were described on outline and fundamental properties of various application products using these plastic scintillation fiber. (G.K.)

  13. Energy System Analysis of 100 Per cent Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100 per cent renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed...... and designed a model for the future energy system of Denmark, putting emphasis on energy efficiency, CO2 reduction, and industrial development. The energy system analysis methodology includes hour by hour computer simulations leading to the design of flexible energy systems with the ability to balance...... the electricity supply and demand and to exchange electricity productions on the international electricity markets. The results are detailed system designs and energy balances for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100 per cent renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power...

  14. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  15. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Reliability has always been a concern in the energy sector, but concerns are escalating as energy demand increases and the political stability of many energy supply regions becomes more questionable. But how does one define and measure reliability? We introduce a method to assess reliability in energy supply systems in terms of adequacy and security. It derives from reliability assessment frameworks developed for the electricity sector, which are extended to include qualitative considerations and to be applicable to new energy systems by incorporating decision-making processes based on expert opinion and multi-attribute utility theory. The method presented here is flexible and can be applied to any energy system. To illustrate its use, we apply the method to two hydrogen pathways: (1) centralized steam reforming of imported liquefied natural gas with pipeline distribution of hydrogen, and (2) on-site electrolysis of water using renewable electricity produced independently from the electricity grid

  16. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  17. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Energy Systems Integration Facility as part of NREL's work with SolarCity and the Hawaiian Electric Companies. Photo by Amy Glickson, NREL Welcome to Energy Systems Integration News, NREL's monthly date on the latest energy systems integration (ESI) developments at NREL and worldwide. Have an item

  18. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  19. Calculations of energy consumption in ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreslins, Andris; Ramata, Anna [Riga Technical University (Latvia)], e-mail: kreslins@rbf.rtu.lv, email: Anna.Ramata@rtu.lv

    2011-07-01

    Energy cost is an important economic factor in the food industry production process. With the rising price of energy, a reduction in energy consumption would greatly impact production and the end product. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for optimizing energy consumption. A comparison between a traditional ventilation system and a mechanical system was carried out; the necessary enthalpy for heating the air supply and thermal energy consumption were calculated and compared for both systems during the heating season, from October to April, using climatological data for Latvia. Results showed that energy savings of 46% to 87% can be achieved by applying the methodology in the design of industrial buildings; in addition, a well-designed ventilation system increases the workers' productivity. This study presented a methodology which can optimize energy consumption in the food industry sector.

  20. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate ... generator. ... Its principle of operation is analogous to that of wind ..... Crisis-solar and wind power systems, 2009,.

  1. Medipix 2 detector applied to low energy electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastel, R. van; Sikharulidze, I.; Schramm, S.; Abrahams, J.P.; Poelsema, B.; Tromp, R.M.; Molen, S.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photo-emission electron microscopy (PEEM) traditionally use microchannel plates (MCPs), a phosphor screen and a CCD-camera to record images and diffraction patterns. In recent years, however, MCPs have become a limiting factor for these types of microscopy. Here, we report on a successful test series using a solid state hybrid pixel detector, Medipix 2, in LEEM and PEEM. Medipix 2 is a background-free detector with an infinite dynamic range, making it very promising for both real-space imaging and spectroscopy. We demonstrate a significant enhancement of both image contrast and resolution, as compared to MCPs. Since aging of the Medipix 2 detector is negligible for the electron energies used in LEEM/PEEM, we expect Medipix to become the detector of choice for a new generation of systems.

  2. Medipix 2 detector applied to low energy electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastel, R. van, E-mail: R.vanGastel@utwente.nl [University of Twente, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 217, NL-7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Sikharulidze, I. [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9502, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Schramm, S. [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Abrahams, J.P. [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9502, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Poelsema, B. [University of Twente, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 217, NL-7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Tromp, R.M. [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Molen, S.J. van der [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photo-emission electron microscopy (PEEM) traditionally use microchannel plates (MCPs), a phosphor screen and a CCD-camera to record images and diffraction patterns. In recent years, however, MCPs have become a limiting factor for these types of microscopy. Here, we report on a successful test series using a solid state hybrid pixel detector, Medipix 2, in LEEM and PEEM. Medipix 2 is a background-free detector with an infinite dynamic range, making it very promising for both real-space imaging and spectroscopy. We demonstrate a significant enhancement of both image contrast and resolution, as compared to MCPs. Since aging of the Medipix 2 detector is negligible for the electron energies used in LEEM/PEEM, we expect Medipix to become the detector of choice for a new generation of systems.

  3. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  4. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  5. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve......Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  6. An Improved Crow Search Algorithm Applied to Energy Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primitivo Díaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficient use of energy in electrical systems has become a relevant topic due to its environmental impact. Parameter identification in induction motors and capacitor allocation in distribution networks are two representative problems that have strong implications in the massive use of energy. From an optimization perspective, both problems are considered extremely complex due to their non-linearity, discontinuity, and high multi-modality. These characteristics make difficult to solve them by using standard optimization techniques. On the other hand, metaheuristic methods have been widely used as alternative optimization algorithms to solve complex engineering problems. The Crow Search Algorithm (CSA is a recent metaheuristic method based on the intelligent group behavior of crows. Although CSA presents interesting characteristics, its search strategy presents great difficulties when it faces high multi-modal formulations. In this paper, an improved version of the CSA method is presented to solve complex optimization problems of energy. In the new algorithm, two features of the original CSA are modified: (I the awareness probability (AP and (II the random perturbation. With such adaptations, the new approach preserves solution diversity and improves the convergence to difficult high multi-modal optima. In order to evaluate its performance, the proposed algorithm has been tested in a set of four optimization problems which involve induction motors and distribution networks. The results demonstrate the high performance of the proposed method when it is compared with other popular approaches.

  7. Financial overview of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croke, K. G.; Hurter, A. P.; Lerner, E.; Breen, W.; Baum, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is designed to analyze the commercialization potential of various concepts of community-scale energy systems that have been termed Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A case analysis of alternative ICES concepts applied to a major metropolitan development complex is documented. The intent of this study is twofold: (1) to develop a framework for comparing ICES technologies to conventional energy supply systems and (2) to identify potential problems in the commercialization of new systems approaches to energy conservation. In brief, the ICES Program of the ERDA Office of Energy Conservation is intended to identify the opportunities for energy conservation in the community context through analysis, development, and/or demonstration of: location and design of buildings, building complexes, and infrastructure links; engineering and systems design of existing, emerging, and advanced energy production and delivery technologies and systems; regulatory designs for public planning, administration, and regulation of energy-conserving community development and energy services; and financial planning for energy-conserving community development and energy supply systems.

  8. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    organization and independent system operator settle energy transactions in its real-time markets at the same time interval it dispatches energy, and settle operating reserves transactions in its real-time markets the electric grid. These control systems will enable real-time coordination between distributed energy

  9. Wavefront compensation applied to AVLIS laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsiorowski, T.; Wirth, A.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of an AVLIS system depends upon the power density and uniformity of the laser system. Because of wavefront aberrations the realized beam quality is not ideal. Wavefront compensation provides a means to improve beam quality and system efficiency. (author)

  10. Life-cycle analysis of renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    1994-01-01

    An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants......An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants...

  11. Applying improved instrumentation and computer control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.; Myers, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    In-core and out-of-core instrumentation systems for the Cherokee-I reactor are described. The reactor has 61m-core instrument assemblies. Continuous computer monitoring and processing of data from over 300 fixed detectors will be used to improve the manoeuvering of core power. The plant protection system is a standard package for the Combustion Engineering System 80, consisting of two independent systems, the reactor protection system and the engineering safety features activation system, both of which are designed to meet NRC, ANS and IEEE design criteria or standards. The plants protection system has its own computer which provides plant monitoring, alarming, logging and performance calculations. (U.K.)

  12. Renewable energy covernance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'political quota-/certificate price market' system introduces an inefficient competition between energy robots, and weakens the increasingly important competition between equipment producers. It hampers the competition between investors by making it difficult for neighbours and local investors to invest in wind turbines. Due to its mono price character, it gives too high profits to wind turbine owners at very good wind sites, and not high enough to wind turbine owners at poor wind sites. The 'political quota-/certificate price market' system is very far from being a market model, as the RE amount is politically decided and the certificate market price is also political influenced. The conclusion, therefore, is that it is time to find a RE governance model that considers the specific needs and characteristics of RE technologies. The present analysis strongly indicates that a 'political price-/amount market' model in this connection is far better than the 'political quota-/certificate price market' model. Furthermore, a common EU model, based on the principle of site efficiency, would be much more flexible, cheaper and easier to pursue than the 'political quota-/certificate price market', or mono price model, which is designed for uranium and fossil fuel technologies, and represents a governance model designed for the technologies of yesterday. (EHS)

  13. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  14. Z-1 perturbation theory applied to the correlation energy problem of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.H.

    1975-01-01

    Rayleigh--Schroedinger Perturbation Theory is applied to obtain directly exact and explicit analytic formulas for the electron correlation energies of N electron systems in terms of their pairwise interactions through second order in Z -1 , where Z is the nucleus of the atom. It is demonstrated that the second order correlation energy may be expressed as exactly the sum of pairwise correlation energies. In the case of no zeroth order degeneracy, the zeroth and first order terms vanish. The expression for the pairwise energies is an infinite sum, all terms of which are of the same sign. There is no numerical differencing. In the case of zeroth order degeneracy it is shown that the above statement concerning the second order energy still holds, but the expressions are a bit more complicated. It is shown that they ''almost'' reduce to a much simpler form. Also, the computation of the first order correlation energy is considered

  15. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO driven by electricity and Multi Stage Flash (MSF desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP. The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts on energy system performance. Results indicate that RO and MSF are similar in fuel use. While there is no use of waste heat from condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to results in lower fuel usage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity Production (CEEP even at relatively modest wind power penetrations. Here RO assists the energy system in decreasing CEEP – and even more if water storage is applied.

  16. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    grids. In terms of paper sessions, NREL ESI researcher Santosh Veda chaired a session on energy Kroposki chaired a session on advanced renewable energy power systems. While Veda, Muljadi, and Kroposki

  17. Predictive analysis on the electric energy distribution systems reliability: applying the synerGEE system; Analisis predictivo de la confiabilidad en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica: aplicando el sistema synerGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Andrade, Carlos

    2008-12-15

    Electrical distribution systems ought to deliver electric power as economical as possible with an acceptable degree of service quality and continuity. Nevertheless, their faults represent one of the main causes of customer's unavailability. At the moment, a wide range of determinist criteria in the improvement of systems reliability based on past behavior are used, but they do not respond to the stochastic nature of system behavior, and are applied without an adequate balance between reliability and economy. In order to obtain this balance a minimum cost planning methodology that considers the predictive analysis of different investment alternatives in addition to the past behavior of the system is required, which guarantees that the economic resource available and limited will be used to gather the greater possible reliability degree. In this work this problem is approached with the fundamentals and methodologies needed to assess the design effects and operative criteria over the main reliability indexes used by the main utilities around the world, with emphasis on the need to optimize economical resources. The use of the system SynerGEETM, is investigated, probing it as a useful tool for the predictive reliability analysis. Due to the lack of experience that exists in Mexico with this type of analysis, distribution engineers has to become familiar with the concepts of the reliability engineering, their application to establish distribution systems models, and acquiring the ability to use the modern simulation tools, allowing them to evaluate the behavior of these systems with enough analytical rigor. In this sense a serial of well known study cases are presented to help them in this labor. [Spanish] Los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica deben satisfacer la demanda de energia electrica de la forma mas economica posible, con un grado de calidad y continuidad aceptable. Sin embargo, sus fallas son una de las principales causas de indisponibilidad en

  18. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  19. National Energy Outlook Modelling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkers, C.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    For over 20 years, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has been developing the National Energy Outlook Modelling System (NEOMS) for Energy projections and policy evaluations. NEOMS enables 12 energy models of ECN to exchange data and produce consistent and detailed results.

  20. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  1. SORM applied to hierarchical parallel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2006-01-01

    of a particular first order reliability method (FORM) was first described in a celebrated paper by Rackwitz and Fiessler more than a quarter of a century ago. The method has become known as the Rackwitz-Fiessler algorithm. The original RF-algorithm as applied to a hierarchical random variable model...... is recapitulated so that a simple but quite effective accuracy improving calculation can be explained. A limit state curvature correction factor on the probability approximation is obtained from the final stop results of the RF-algorithm. This correction factor is based on Breitung’s asymptotic formula for second...

  2. Smart Energy Systems and Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duic, N.

    2016-01-01

    Transition to decarbonized energy systems is becoming more attractive with fall of investment costs of renewables and volatile prices and political insecurity of fossil fuels. Improving energy efficiency, especially of buildings and transport, is important, but due to long life of buildings, it will be a slow way of decarbonization. The renewable energy resources are bountiful, especially wind and solar, while integrating them into current energy systems is proving to be a challenge. Solar has reached grid parity making it cheapest electricity source for retail customers in most of the World, creating new prosumer markets. It has started to reach cost parity in sunny countries, and soon solar energy will be cheapest everywhere. The limit of cheap and easy integration for wind is around 20% of yearly electricity generation, while a combined wind and solar may reach 30%. Going any further asks for implementation of completely free energy markets (involving day ahead, intraday and various reserve and ancillary services markets), demand response, coupling of wholesale and retail energy prices, and it involves integration between electricity, heat, water and transport systems. The cheapest and simplest way of increasing further the penetration of renewables is integrating power and heating/cooling systems through the use of district heating and cooling (which may be centrally controlled and may have significant heat storage capacity), since power to heat technologies are excellent for demand response. District cooling is of particular importance to historic cities that want to remove split systems from their facades. In countries with low heat demand water supply system may be used to increase the penetration of renewables, by using water at higher potential energy as storage media, or in dry climates desalination and stored water may be used for those purposes, and reversible hydro may be used as balancing technology. Electrification of personal car transport allows

  3. OBTAINING FOOD SAFETY BY APPLYING HACCP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION CRIVEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the confidence of the trading partners and consumers in the products which are sold on the market, enterprises producing food are required to implement the food safety system HACCP,a particularly useful system because the manufacturer is not able to fully control finished products . SR EN ISO 22000:2005 establishes requirements for a food safety management system where an organization in the food chain needs to proove its ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that food is safe at the time of human consumption. This paper presents the main steps which ensure food safety using the HACCP system, and SR EN ISO 20000:2005 requirements for food safety.

  4. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  5. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  6. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. The energy principle applied to diverted tokamak configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasiu, C. V.; Guenter, S.; Lackner, K.; Moraru, A.; Zakharov, L. E.; Subbotin, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Writing the expression of the potential energy in terms of the perturbation of the flux function, and performing an Euler minimisation, one obtains a system of ordinary differential equations in that perturbation. For a diverted configuration, the usual vanishing boundary conditions for the perturbed flux function at the magnetic axis and at infinity can no longer be used. In place of the vanishing boundary conditions at infinity, an approach to fix 'natural' boundary conditions for the system of differential equations for the perturbed flux function, just at the plasma boundary has been developed. As an example of application of our approaches, a particular equilibrium configuration of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak has been considered and a detailed investigation of the dependence of the tearing stability parameter Δ' on plasma shape is given for a realistic tokamak equilibrium. The results shown are at least in qualitative agreement with experimental observations on ASDEX Upgrade and JET of a stabilizing influence of triangularity. The knowledge of Δ' for realistic tokamak plasmas is especially important for understanding of the plasma stability against NTMs. (authors)

  8. Systems biology: the reincarnation of systems theory applied in biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, O

    2001-09-01

    With the availability of quantitative data on the transcriptome and proteome level, there is an increasing interest in formal mathematical models of gene expression and regulation. International conferences, research institutes and research groups concerned with systems biology have appeared in recent years and systems theory, the study of organisation and behaviour per se, is indeed a natural conceptual framework for such a task. This is, however, not the first time that systems theory has been applied in modelling cellular processes. Notably in the 1960s systems theory and biology enjoyed considerable interest among eminent scientists, mathematicians and engineers. Why did these early attempts vanish from research agendas? Here we shall review the domain of systems theory, its application to biology and the lessons that can be learned from the work of Robert Rosen. Rosen emerged from the early developments in the 1960s as a main critic but also developed a new alternative perspective to living systems, a concept that deserves a fresh look in the post-genome era of bioinformatics.

  9. Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    • To reduce the costs of energy towards 2050 This transition faces many challenges from a variety of different perspectives, including: • Technology: The development of new technologies and infrastructures, which will enable us to utilise renewable energy resources. • Business: The design of new markets...

  10. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    , utilities can operate more efficiently and profitably. That can increase the use of renewable energy sources challenge to utility companies, grid operators, and other stakeholders involved in wind energy integration recording is available from the July 16 webinar "Smart Grid Research at NREL's Energy Systems

  11. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  12. Applying intelligent statistical methods on biometric systems

    OpenAIRE

    Betschart, Willie

    2005-01-01

    This master’s thesis work was performed at Optimum Biometric Labs, OBL, located in Karlskrona, Sweden. Optimum Biometric Labs perform independent scenario evaluations to companies who develop biometric devices. The company has a product Optimum preConTM which is surveillance and diagnosis tool for biometric systems. This thesis work’s objective was to develop a conceptual model and implement it as an additional layer above the biometric layer with intelligence about the biometric users. The l...

  13. Microemulsion systems applied to breakdown petroleum emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuma de Castro Dantas, Tereza; Avelino Dantas Neto, Afonso; Ferreira Moura, Everlane [Deptos de Quimica e Eng. Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario s/n, 59072.970, Natal/RN Campinas (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    Microemulsion systems obtained using commercial surfactants with demulsifier and emulsion prevention properties have been employed to break down Brazilian crude water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. These crude oils were supplied by the Brazilian oil company-PETROBRAS-and were characterized by the different Balance sheet of Sediment and Water (BSW) values of 48%, 36%, and 32%. The microemulsion systems formed in this study were composed of an aqueous phase (HCl 5.2% solution); an oil phase (toluene); a cosurfactant/surfactant (C/S) phase (isopropyl alcohol (C)/surfactants (S) with a ratio C/S of 9.0). The microemulsion efficiency to break down oil emulsions was evaluated by a direct contact method between the microemulsions and crude (W/O) emulsions. The Scheffe net statistical planning for mixtures was used to relate the component mass fractions to the relative breakdown of petroleum emulsions. The best composition of the microemulsion system for the complete breakdown of oil emulsions with high BSW values had the lowest C/S phase percentage.

  14. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  15. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entingh, Daniel J.

    1980-03-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government and an agency of the State of Maryland, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into four sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/DGE), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigation, supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, reports on a neotectonic investigation in Connecticut. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains two articles, the first on OTEC core unit testing supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST), and the second on an analysis of the Community Annual Storage Energy System at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va. This work is supported by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, Naval Facilities Engineering Command/Atlantic Division.

  16. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government and an agency of the State of Maryland, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 30 June 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into three sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains three articles. The first is on data analysis of OTEC core unit condenser tests, and is supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST). The second is on the current status of the Community Annual Storage Energy System at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va., and is supported by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, Naval Facilities Engineering Command/Atlantic Division. The third is on utilization of landfill methane and is supported by Argonne National Laboratory.

  17. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  18. Energy Systems Integration News - October 2016 | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL October 2016 Energy Systems Integration News A monthly recap of the latest energy systems integration (ESI) developments at NREL and around the world. Subscribe Archives October Integration Facility's main control room. OMNETRIC Group Demonstrates a Distributed Control Hierarchy for

  19. Energy: Systems for Control, Maintenance, and Storage. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald, Comp.; McKane, Irving, Comp.

    This publication is a bibliography of available periodical literature on specific aspects of energy and today's technology. The Applied Science and Technology Indexes were searched for articles that related to these specific areas: (1) Energy control systems; (2) Maintenance of Energy Systems; and (3) Energy storage. The articles and papers…

  20. Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-30

    SEDS is an economy-wide energy model of the U.S. The model captures dynamics between supply, demand, and pricing of the major energy types consumed and produced within the U.S. These dynamics are captured by including: the effects of macroeconomics; the resources and costs of primary energy types such as oil, natural gas, coal, and biomass; the conversion of primary fuels into energy products like petroleum products, electricity, biofuels, and hydrogen; and lastly the end- use consumption attributable to residential and commercial buildings, light and heavy transportation, and industry. Projections from SEDS extend to the year 2050 by one-year time steps and are generally projected at the national level. SEDS differs from other economy-wide energy models in that it explicitly accounts for uncertainty in technology, markets, and policy. SEDS has been specifically developed to avoid the computational burden, and sometimes fruitless labor, that comes from modeling significantly low-level details. Instead, SEDS focuses on the major drivers within the energy economy and evaluates the impact of uncertainty around those drivers.

  1. Dietary energy density: Applying behavioural science to weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J

    2017-09-01

    Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that energy density (kcal/g) provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients, such as vegetables or fruit, lowers a food's energy density. A number of studies show that when the energy density of the diet is reduced, both adults and children spontaneously decrease their ad libitum energy intake. Other studies show that consuming a large volume of a low-energy-dense food such as soup, salad, or fruit as a first course preload can enhance satiety and reduce overall energy intake at a meal. Current evidence suggests that energy density influences intake through a complex interplay of cognitive, sensory, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neural influences. Other studies that focus on practical applications show how the strategic incorporation of foods lower in energy density into the diet allows people to eat satisfying portions while improving dietary patterns. This review discusses studies that have led to greater understanding of the importance of energy density for food intake regulation and weight management.

  2. Applied optimal control theory of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lurie, K A

    1993-01-01

    This book represents an extended and substantially revised version of my earlierbook, Optimal Control in Problems ofMathematical Physics,originally published in Russian in 1975. About 60% of the text has been completely revised and major additions have been included which have produced a practically new text. My aim was to modernize the presentation but also to preserve the original results, some of which are little known to a Western reader. The idea of composites, which is the core of the modern theory of optimization, was initiated in the early seventies. The reader will find here its implementation in the problem of optimal conductivity distribution in an MHD-generatorchannel flow.Sincethen it has emergedinto an extensive theory which is undergoing a continuous development. The book does not pretend to be a textbook, neither does it offer a systematic presentation of the theory. Rather, it reflects a concept which I consider as fundamental in the modern approach to optimization of dis­ tributed systems. ...

  3. Liquid Chromatography Applied to Space System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinot, Pauline; Chazalnoel, Pascale; Geffroy, Claude; Sternberg, Robert; Carbonnier, Benjamin

    Searching for signs of past or present life in our Solar System is a real challenge that stirs up the curiosity of scientists. Until now, in situ instrumentation was designed to detect and determine concentrations of a wide number of organic biomarkers. The relevant method which was and still is employed in missions dedicated to the quest of life (from Viking to ExoMars) corresponds to the pyrolysis-GC-MS. Along the missions, this approach has been significantly improved in terms of extraction efficiency and detection with the use of chemical derivative agents (e.g. MTBSTFA, DMF-DMA, TMAH…), and in terms of analysis sensitivity and resolution with the development of in situ high-resolution mass spectrometer (e.g. TOF-MS). Thanks to such an approach, organic compounds such as amino acids, sugars, tholins or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were expected to be found. However, while there’s a consensus that the GC-MS of Viking, Huygens, MSL and MOMA space missions worked the way they had been designed to, pyrolysis is much more in debate (Glavin et al. 2001; Navarro-González et al. 2006). Indeed, (1) it is thought to remove low levels of organics, (2) water and CO2 could interfere with the detection of likely organic pyrolysis products, and (3) only low to mid-molecular weight organic molecules can be detected by this technique. As a result, researchers are now focusing on other in situ techniques which are no longer based on the volatility of the organic matter, but on the liquid phase extraction and analysis. In this line, micro-fluidic systems involving sandwich and/or competitive immunoassays (e.g. LMC, SOLID; Parro et al. 2005; Sims et al. 2012), micro-chip capillary electrophoreses (e.g. MOA; Bada et al. 2008), or nanopore-based analysis (e.g. BOLD; Schulze-Makuch et al. 2012) have been conceived for in situ analysis. Thanks to such approaches, molecular biological polymers (polysaccharides, polypeptides, polynucleotides, phospholipids, glycolipids

  4. Energy policies and renewable energy systems monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nisio, Attilio; Savino, Mario; Spadavecchia, Maurizio [Electrical and Electronic Measurements Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy)], e-mails: dinisio@misure.poliba.it, savino@misure.poliba.it, spadavecchia@misure.poliba.it

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The global energy crisis is forcing every country worldwide to review its policies on energy. The environmental disaster at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has accelerated this process. Many people around the world are citing the disaster as evidence that nuclear power would endanger the survival of mankind on earth and should be banned. Today we need to focus more substantially on energy saving, especially using smart devices with low power consumption. We have also to review the approach to the exploitation of energy and move from a philosophy 'from the ground to the subsurface' to another 'from the earth to the sun'. This paper highlights the increasing importance of solar power in meeting energy needs while achieving security of supply and minimising carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. It deals also with the development of solar power plants, which require a supervisory control system that improves their efficiency and reliability. (author)

  5. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  6. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D. M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  7. Electromagnetic energy applied to and gained from lunar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, T.T.; Vaniman, D.T.; Blake, R.D.; Cocks, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic energy may be useful in microwave frequencies for in-situ melting or sintering of lunar regolith. Simple configurations of magnetron or gyrotron tubes might be constructed for unique melting geometries. For energy production, lunar ilmenite has potential applications in photovoltaic devices. 11 refs., 11 figs

  8. Modified electron acoustic field and energy applied to observation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahed, H. G., E-mail: hgomaa-eg@yahoo.com, E-mail: hgomaa-eg@mans.edu.eg [College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Theoretical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); El-Shewy, E. K. [Theoretical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Improved electrostatic acoustic field and energy have been debated in vortex trapped hot electrons and fluid of cold electrons with pressure term plasmas. The perturbed higher-order modified-Korteweg-de Vries equation (PhomKdV) has been worked out. The effect of trapping and electron temperatures on the electro-field and energy properties in auroral plasmas has been inspected.

  9. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  10. Bayesian networks applied to process diagnostics. Applications in energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widarsson, Bjoern (ed.); Karlsson, Christer; Dahlquist, Erik [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden); Nielsen, Thomas D.; Jensen, Finn V. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark)

    2004-10-01

    Uncertainty in process operation occurs frequently in heat and power industry. This makes it hard to find the occurrence of an abnormal process state from a number of process signals (measurements) or find the correct cause to an abnormality. Among several other methods, Bayesian Networks (BN) is a method to build a model which can handle uncertainty in both process signals and the process itself. The purpose of this project is to investigate the possibilities to use BN for fault detection and diagnostics in combined heat and power industries through execution of two different applications. Participants from Aalborg University represent the knowledge of BN and participants from Maelardalen University have the experience from modelling heat and power applications. The co-operation also includes two energy companies; Elsam A/S (Nordjyllandsverket) and Maelarenergi AB (Vaesteraas CHP-plant), where the two applications are made with support from the plant personnel. The project ended out in two quite different applications. At Nordjyllandsverket, an application based (due to the lack of process knowledge) on pure operation data is build with capability to detect an abnormal process state in a coal mill. Detection is made through a conflict analysis when entering process signals into a model built by analysing the operation database. The application at Maelarenergi is built with a combination of process knowledge and operation data and can detect various faults caused by the fuel. The process knowledge is used to build a causal network structure and the structure is then trained by data from the operation database. Both applications are made as off-online applications, but they are ready for being run on-line. The performance of fault detection and diagnostics are good, but a lack of abnormal process states with known cause reduces the evaluation possibilities. Advantages with combining expert knowledge of the process with operation data are the possibility to represent

  11. Smart power systems and renewable energy system integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a wider spectrum of researches, developments, and case specific studies in the area of smart power systems and integration of renewable energy systems. The book will be for the benefit of a wider audience including researchers, postgraduate students, practicing engineers, academics, and regulatory policy makers. It covers a wide range of topics from fundamentals, and modelling and simulation aspects of traditional and smart power systems to grid integration of renewables; Micro Grids; challenges in planning and operation of a smart power system; risks, security, and stability in smart operation of a power system; and applied research in energy storage. .

  12. Decarbonization of Croatian Energy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2012-01-01

    Energy system decarbonization is reduction of greenhouse gases (CO 2 ) emission, chiefly from the fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) combustion. The main objective of an energy system decarbonization is the climate change mitigation, and at the same time development of local industry and employment, better environment and health protection, as well as reduction of the fossil fuels import and foreign debt. Croatia has small fossil fuels reserves and large renewable energy sources (RES) reserves, energy efficiency (ENEF) is relatively low, and energy import, according to the actual Energy strategy 2009, should increase from 50% to 70% until 2020. Croatian energy system participates with about one third in the Croatian foreign trade deficit. The main measures of the Croatian energy system decarbonization should be: increasing ENEF (energy savings), switch from fossil fuels to RES, administrative measures (low carbon development strategy, environmental tax reform, and decoupling income from energy sales). By urgent application of these measures, Croatia could become fossil fuels free until the year 2050.(author)

  13. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Muenster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade on the international market. The conclusion is that it is feasible for the Danish society to include the CHP plants in the balancing of fluctuating wind power. There are major advantages in equipping small CHP plants as well as the large CHP plants with heat pumps. By doing so, it will be possible to increase the share of wind power from the present 20 to 40% without causing significant problems of imbalance between electricity consumption and production. Investment in increased flexibility is in itself profitable. Furthermore, the feasibility of wind power is improved

  14. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  15. Energy transfer in plasmonic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, Vitaliy N; Urbas, Augustine M; Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2014-01-01

    We present our results on energy transfer between donor and acceptor molecules or quantum dots near a plasmonic nanoparticle. In such systems, the Förster resonance energy transfer is strongly modified due to plasmon-mediated coupling between donors and acceptors. The transfer efficiency is determined by a competition between transfer, radiation and dissipation that depends sensitively on system parameters. When donor and accepror spectral bands overlap with dipole surface plasmon resonance, the dominant transfer mechanism is through plasmon-enhanced radiative coupling. When transfer takes place from an ensemble of donors to an acceptor, a cooperative amplification of energy transfer takes place in a wide range of system parameters. (paper)

  16. Quantum computing applied to calculations of molecular energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pittner, Jiří; Veis, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 241, - (2011), 151-phys ISSN 0065-7727. [National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) /241./. 27.03.2011-31.03.2011, Anaheim] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : molecular energie * quantum computers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  18. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouro, Samir; Wu, Bin; Abu-Rub, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of grid-connected PV systems, including power curves, grid-connected configurations, different converter topologies (both single- and three-phase), control schemes, MPPT, and anti-islanding detection methods. The focus of the chapter has been on the ...

  19. Probabilistic Approaches to Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    of renewable energy generation. Particularly we focus on producing forecasting models that can predict renewable energy generation, single user demand, and provide advanced forecast products that are needed for an efficient integration of renewable energy into the power generation mix. Such forecasts can...... integration of renewable energy.Thus forecast products should be developed in unison with the decision making tool as they are two sides of the same overall challenge.......Energy generation from wind and sun is increasing rapidly in many parts of the world. This presents new challenges on how to integrate this uncertain, intermittent and non-dispatchable energy source. This thesis deals with forecasting and decision making in energy systems with a large proportion...

  20. Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    O&M Operations and Maintenance PSO Power System Optimization PV Photovoltaic RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks RBAC Role...elements of the initial study and operational power system model (feeder size , protective devices, generation sources, controllable loads, transformers...EW-201340) Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System December 2016 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution Statement A

  1. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  2. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K. [Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  3. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  4. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.

  5. The baltic states' energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitaravičius, Martynas

    2006-01-01

    THE BALTIC STATES’ ENERGY SYSTEM SUMMARY The goal of paper – the comparative analysis of Baltic states‘ (i.e. of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) energy systems in 1990-2004. The main causes that affected the development of Baltic states’ energetics are indicated in this work. By the method of statistical analysis, the comparative advantages of Baltic states‘ energetics are detected. Moreover, the main trends of further development of integration of Baltic states ‘ energetics into the energetics o...

  6. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  7. NSRL 200 MeV linac beam energy stabilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guirong; Pei Yuanji; Dong Sai

    2001-01-01

    By using the computer image processing technology and RF phase auto-shifting system, the ESS (Energy Stabilization System) was applied to 200 MeV Linac. the ESS adjusts beam energy automatically in a range of +-4 MeV. After adjustment beam energy stability is improved to +-6%

  8. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    determine how well a solar photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage can provide backup power to . These analyses will result in a design guide for climate-specific sizing of the system. NREL's Erfan , feasibility, and operational analyses for photovoltaic and concentrating solar power generation projects

  9. Energy Monitoring System Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novan Zulkarnain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM encourages the energy savings at whole buildings in Indonesia. Energy Monitoring System (EMS is a web-based solution to monitor energy usage in a building. The research methods used are the analysis, prototype design and testing. EMSconsists of hardware which consists of electrical sensors, temperature-humidity sensor, and a computer. Data on EMS are designed using Modbus protocol, stored in MySQL database application, and displayed on charts through Dashboard on LED TV using PHP programming.

  10. What criteria should now be applied in energy resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puechl, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty years ago decisions on nuclear power were made on purely economic grounds. Little attention was given to public acceptability, broad-scope cost/benefit analysis, environmental impacts, or conservation of resources. In the light of the significantly different situation that exists today, were the proper decisions made, and what should now be the basis for proper comparable analysis. Acknowledging that energy resource planning is extremely complex, a logical approach is suggested that provides a more meaningful basis for public choice and decision-making. (author)

  11. Innovative nuclear energy systems roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    Developing nuclear energy that is sustainable, safe, has little waste by-product, and cannot be proliferated is an extremely vital and pressing issue. To resolve the four issues through free thinking and overall vision, research activities of 'innovative nuclear energy systems' and 'innovative separation and transmutation' started as a unique 21st Century COE Program for nuclear energy called the Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World, COE-INES. 'Innovative nuclear energy systems' include research on CANDLE burn-up reactors, lead-cooled fast reactors and using nuclear energy in heat energy. 'Innovative separation and transmutation' include research on using chemical microchips to efficiently separate TRU waste to MA, burning or destroying waste products, or transmuting plutonium and other nuclear materials. Research on 'nuclear technology and society' and 'education' was also added in order for nuclear energy to be accepted into society. COE-INES was a five-year program ending in 2007. But some activities should be continued and this roadmap detailed them as a rough guide focusing inventions and discoveries. This technology roadmap was created for social acceptance and should be flexible to respond to changing times and conditions. (T. Tanaka)

  12. The Gtz system management applied to photovoltaic rural electrification projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Pablo [Brendel Proper, (Bolivia)]|[GTZ-Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica de Alemania, (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The GTZ (Federal Republic of Germany Technical Cooperation Society) has developed a general project design system, particularly for Renewable Energy, that systematically covers all aspects necessary in their planning and implementation, so that their effects are sustainable in the long run, and cover as well all the requirements of a determined diffusion. This is what they have called System Management. This methodology of project implementation can be described as capable of being applied to any action area, and has already proved and validated its efficiency in projects where it has been applied. The main reason for its use is based on the correction of previous experiences with projects that had a tendency towards one area of action alone, in a much too exclusive way -mainly the technological- neglecting important aspects in the sustainability of technologies being introduced. The experience of PROPER - Bolivia (Programa para la difusion de energias renovables), who has been applying this system to its projects, is being used as a methodological basis. PROPER started in 1991, and is programed to last until September or 1996. Among the main components being described in the system`s methodology, in the particular case of PHOTOVOLTAIC RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROJECTS, stand out the areas of Technological Transference; Training; Diffusion; Financing; Energy Policy; Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation; and Support and Follow-up to the supply and demand. [Espanol] La GTZ (Sociedad de Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica Federal de Alemania) ha desarrollado un proyecto de sistema de diseno general, particularmente para Energia Renovable, que cubre sistematicamente todos los aspectos necesarios en su planeacion y puesta en practica , de tal manera que sus efectos son a la larga sustentables y cubren, asimismo todos los requerimientos de una difusion determinada. Esto es lo que han llamado {sup A}dministracion del Sistema{sup .} Esta metodologia de puesta en practica

  13. The Gtz system management applied to photovoltaic rural electrification projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Pablo [Brendel Proper, (Bolivia); [GTZ-Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica de Alemania, (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The GTZ (Federal Republic of Germany Technical Cooperation Society) has developed a general project design system, particularly for Renewable Energy, that systematically covers all aspects necessary in their planning and implementation, so that their effects are sustainable in the long run, and cover as well all the requirements of a determined diffusion. This is what they have called System Management. This methodology of project implementation can be described as capable of being applied to any action area, and has already proved and validated its efficiency in projects where it has been applied. The main reason for its use is based on the correction of previous experiences with projects that had a tendency towards one area of action alone, in a much too exclusive way -mainly the technological- neglecting important aspects in the sustainability of technologies being introduced. The experience of PROPER - Bolivia (Programa para la difusion de energias renovables), who has been applying this system to its projects, is being used as a methodological basis. PROPER started in 1991, and is programed to last until September or 1996. Among the main components being described in the system`s methodology, in the particular case of PHOTOVOLTAIC RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROJECTS, stand out the areas of Technological Transference; Training; Diffusion; Financing; Energy Policy; Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation; and Support and Follow-up to the supply and demand. [Espanol] La GTZ (Sociedad de Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica Federal de Alemania) ha desarrollado un proyecto de sistema de diseno general, particularmente para Energia Renovable, que cubre sistematicamente todos los aspectos necesarios en su planeacion y puesta en practica , de tal manera que sus efectos son a la larga sustentables y cubren, asimismo todos los requerimientos de una difusion determinada. Esto es lo que han llamado {sup A}dministracion del Sistema{sup .} Esta metodologia de puesta en practica

  14. Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanoğlu, Mehmet; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear ...

  15. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  16. Nuclear structure studies with low-energy light ions: fundamental and applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, I.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in low and medium energy nuclear physics have been dominated by heavy-ion induced reactions for last five decades. Heavy-ion induced nuclear reactions have enriched our knowledge of the structural evolutions and intricacies of reaction dynamics of the nuclear many-body systems. However, the emergence and rise of heavy-ion physics have seen a general decline in studies with low- and medium-energy light-ion beams. The harsh reality of dwindling number of low-energy light ion facilities adversely affect research in nuclear physics. Very low-energy and high current light-ion facilities immediately conjures up in our minds the studies in nuclear astrophysics. Measurements of light-ion capture cross sections and astrophysical S factors are the major themes of research at most of the light-ion facilities. However, the importance low energy light-ion beams is multifarious. A variety of measurements providing vital support and inputs to heavy-ion research can only be carried out at the low-energy, light-ion facilities. Light-ion beams are also useful for generation of mono-energetic neutron beams. In this talk I will draw from some of our recent measurements to show the importance of light-ion beams in nuclear astrophysics and also in applied nuclear physics. (author)

  17. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  18. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Cogent Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    NREL is collaborating with Cogent Energy Systems (Cogent) to introduce small-scale waste-to-energy technology in microgrids.The focus of the project is to test and demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and usefulness of integrating electricity generated using a simulated syngas composition matching the syngas stream to be produced by a HelioStorm-based WTE gasifier to power a microgrid as a means of addressing and complementing the intermittency of other sources of electricity.

  19. Energy-Water System Solutions | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    System Solutions Energy-Water System Solutions NREL has been a pioneer in the development of energy -water system solutions that explicitly address and optimize energy-water tradeoffs. NREL has evaluated energy-water system solutions for Department of Defense bases, islands, communities recovering from

  20. XML: How It Will Be Applied to Digital Library Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Hee; Choi, Chang-Seok

    2000-01-01

    Shows how XML is applied to digital library systems. Compares major features of XML with those of HTML and describes an experimental XML-based metadata retrieval system, which is based on the Dublin Core and is designed as a subsystem of the Korean Virtual Library and Information System (VINIS). (Author/LRW)

  1. Techno-economic optimisation of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla Pellen, Ch.

    2006-07-01

    The traditional approach currently used to assess the economic interest of energy systems is based on a defined flow-sheet. Some studies have shown that the flow-sheets corresponding to the best thermodynamic efficiencies do not necessarily lead to the best production costs. A method called techno-economic optimisation was proposed. This method aims at minimising the production cost of a given energy system, including both investment and operating costs. It was implemented using genetic algorithms. This approach was compared to the heat integration method on two different examples, thus validating its interest. Techno-economic optimisation was then applied to different energy systems dealing with hydrogen as well as electricity production. (author)

  2. Analysis of integrated energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Takaharu; Kaya, Yoichi; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Taketo; Yasukawa, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    World attention is now attracted to the concept of Novel Horizontally Integrated Energy System (NHIES). In NHIES, all fossil fuels are fist converted into CO and H 2 . Potential environmental contaminants such as sulfur are removed during this process. CO turbines are mainly used to generate electric power. Combustion is performed in pure oxygen produced through air separation, making it possible to completely prevent the formation of thermal NOx. Thus, NHIES would release very little amount of such substances that would contribute to acid rain. In this system, the intermediate energy sources of CO, H 2 and O 2 are integrated horizontally. They are combined appropriately to produce a specific form of final energy source. The integration of intermediate energy sources can provide a wide variety of final energy sources, allowing any type of fossil fuel to serve as an alternative to other types of fossil fuel. Another feature of NHIES is the positive use of nuclear fuel to reduce the formation of CO 2 . Studies are under way in Japan to develop a new concept of integrated energy system. These studies are especially aimed at decreased overall efficiency and introduction of new liquid fuels that are high in conversion efficiency. Considerations are made on the final form of energy source, robust control, acid fallout, and CO 2 reduction. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Renewable Energy Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are firstly discussed. A state of the art review section covers fundamentals of wind turbines and PV systems. Included are schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topologies...... and the fundamental and increasing role of power electronics as an enabler for renewable energy integration, and for the future power system and smart grid. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants, as well for as residential and commercial......, fuel cells, and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in a final section. This paper also represents an editorial introduction for two special issues of the Electric Power Component...

  4. World energy data system (WENDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareau, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a unique application of System 2000: the storage of preformatted textual information in a completely user oriented data base. The World Energy Data System is an information system which allows qualified users online access to non-classified management level data on worldwide energy technology and research and development activities. WENDS has been used to transmit up-to-date informaion on foreign energy technology and research and development programs to DOE program divisions, the Congress, and other U.S. government officials going abroad. The WENDS concept is first described. Then, the method of storage of the textual information is discussed followed by a discussion of the retrieval system which is thoroughly designed to serve the user

  5. Comprehensive assessment of the role and potential for solar thermal in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2018-01-01

    to the energy system configurations. Solar thermal benefits reduce when moving towards a high-renewable energy system as other renewable energy sources start competing with solar thermal on energy prices and energy system flexibility. The findings can be applied to a diversity of energy systems also beyond...

  6. A generic framework for the description and analysis of energy security in an energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2012-01-01

    While many energy security indicators and models have been developed for specific jurisdictions or types of energy, few can be considered sufficiently generic to be applicable to any energy system. This paper presents a framework that attempts to meet this objective by combining the International Energy Agency's definition of energy security with structured systems analysis techniques to create three energy security indicators and a process-flow energy systems model. The framework is applicable to those energy systems which can be described in terms of processes converting or transporting flows of energy to meet the energy–demand flows from downstream processes. Each process affects the environment and is subject to jurisdictional policies. The framework can be employed to capture the evolution of energy security in an energy system by analyzing the results of indicator-specific metrics applied to the energy, demand, and environment flows associated with the system's constituent processes. Energy security policies are treated as flows to processes and classified into one of three actions affecting the process's energy demand or the process or its energy input, or both; the outcome is determined by monitoring changes to the indicators. The paper includes a detailed example of an application of the framework. - Highlights: ► The IEA's definition of energy security is parsed into three energy security indicators: availability, affordability, and acceptability. ► Data flow diagrams and other systems analysis tools can represent an energy system and its processes, flows, and chains. ► Indicator-specific metrics applied to a process's flow determine the state of energy security in an energy system, an energy chain, or process. ► Energy policy is considered as a flow and policy outcomes are obtained by measuring flows with indicator-specific metrics. ► The framework is applicable to most jurisdictions and energy types.

  7. Applying System of Systems Engineering(SoSE) to VIVO?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    System of systems (SoS) refers to a set of operational and managerial independent systems interacting with each other to provide capabilities which cannot be accomplished by any single system. SoS has its own characteristics and challenges, such as emergent behavior and evolutionary development. This presentation will: Introduce the concepts and characteristics of system of systems (SoS) and system thinking practice. discuss SoS challenges using SoS case studies such as Global Earth Observati...

  8. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . It is concluded that as the quick development of renewable energy, wind power and PV power both show great potential to be largely integrated into the power grid. Power electronics is playing essential role in both of the systems to achieve more controllable, efficient, and reliable energy production......In this chapter, the state-of-the-arts developments of renewable energy are reviewed in respect to the installed power and market share, where wind power and photovoltaic power generation are the main focuses due to the fast growing speed and large share of installed capacity. Some basic principles...... of operation, mission profiles, as well as power electronics solutions and corresponding controls are discussed respectively in the case of wind power and photovoltaic power systems. Finally a few development trends for renewable energy conversions are also given from a power electronics point of view...

  9. Multisphere system neutron spectrometry applied to dosimetry for the personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinei, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron dosimetry is a necessity that must be dealt with in order to ensure efficient monitoring of all personnel regarding radiology safety. Dosimetric variables are difficult to measure for they are dependent on complex functions evolving with the energy of neutrons, which forces us to determine their energetic distribution. We have chosen to use the multisphere system associated to an unfolding code in order to perform neutron spectrometry, our purpose being to determine these dosimetric variables. The initial stage consists in modifying a research code, the code SOHO, in order to adapt it to our needs. The resulting new version was subsequently tested and proven successful by means of computerized simulations. Afterwards, we used reference dosimetric and spectral beams to confirm the position results previously obtained. At the time of this test, the code SOHO yielded results coherent with the theoretical values, and even allowed the quantity of radiation diffused by the laboratory structures to be estimated. The final part of this study consists in applying the previously perfected technique to authentic situations. The results thus obtained are compared to those obtained by conventional methods in order to reveal the interest of neutron spectrometry used for dosimetry of the personnel

  10. High-energy power capacitors, their applied technology and the trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    High-voltage and high-energy-density power capacitors called high-power ones such as film or electrolytic capacitors, have been used in large quantities for the pulse power technology such as an impulse current or voltage generator and a laser power supply, and for the power electronics one with progress of the power semiconductor device and the inverter technology. Recently, electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) with remarkable technical progress have been applied for the equipments of electric power and industrial field for the purpose of energy saving or electric power quality improvement, which have come to link to the electric power system. Thus, using a lot of high-power capacitors near our life would require to know the structure, the principle and the characteristic of capacitors, and also to consider suitable directions for use, maintenance and safety and so on, when carrying out a system and a facility design. In the technical report, while describing the dielectric and the feature of some high-power capacitors, and introducing the application examples to the laser-fusion power supply and some systems with EDLC, the trend of standardization of EDLC and the directivity of the examination about installation and maintenance of the applied equipments are described. (author)

  11. Four Essays on Applied Energy Economics and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenestado, Raul Bajo

    This thesis is divided in two parts. The first part (chapters 1 and 2) studies capacity payments in the electricity sector. The second part (chapter 3 and 4) is on gasoline retail markets. The first chapter explores welfare implications of capacity markets in the electricity sector. We propose a theoretical model with cost heterogeneous firms, for which price and quantity equilibria are obtained both with and without a capacity market. The consequences for consumers are assessed using three different measures: consumer surplus, probability of blackout and price volatility. We conclude that a capacity market is able to reduce extreme events. Under some circumstances, we show that a capacity market is also efficiency enhancing. In the second chapter, we use data from the Texas ERCOT to study the impact of capacity payments in a stylized wholesale electricity market. We find that the introduction of capacity payments has two countervailing effects. On the one hand, it increases consumers' bills. On the other hand, it reduces price volatility and blackout probability. We find that the net impact on consumer surplus is negative both in a perfectly competitive market and in the presence of market power. In the third chapter, we use monthly data from the Spanish gasoline retail market to explore asymmetries in consumers' responses to changes in gasoline prices and taxes. We investigate whether an increase in taxes has a more negative impact on the demand than an increase in the "pre-tax" price of gasoline. We estimate consumers' behavioral responses using a rich set of robust models. We find evidence of asymmetric responses for the demand of unleaded fuels and agricultural diesel fuel. In the final chapter we study a game of spatial competition in prices. We focus on the linear city duopoly model to see what we can learn about the distribution of consumers, which is approximated using variation in equilibrium prices and costs. We apply our methodology to a dataset on

  12. Applied Distributed Model Predictive Control for Energy Efficient Buildings and Ramp Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Sarah Muraoka

    suited for nonlinear optimization problems. The parallel computation of the algorithm exploits iterative linear algebra methods for the main linear algebra computations in the algorithm. We show that the splitting of the algorithm is flexible and can thus be applied to various distributed platform configurations. The two proposed algorithms are applied to two main energy and transportation control problems. The first application is energy efficient building control. Buildings represent 40% of energy consumption in the United States. Thus, it is significant to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. The goal is to minimize energy consumption subject to the physics of the building (e.g. heat transfer laws), the constraints of the actuators as well as the desired operating constraints (thermal comfort of the occupants), and heat load on the system. In this thesis, we describe the control systems of forced air building systems in practice. We discuss the "Trim and Respond" algorithm which is a distributed control algorithm that is used in practice, and show that it performs similarly to a one-step explicit DMPC algorithm. Then, we apply the novel distributed primal-dual active-set method and provide extensive numerical results for the building MPC problem. The second main application is the control of ramp metering signals to optimize traffic flow through a freeway system. This application is particularly important since urban congestion has more than doubled in the past few decades. The ramp metering problem is to maximize freeway throughput subject to freeway dynamics (derived from mass conservation), actuation constraints, freeway capacity constraints, and predicted traffic demand. In this thesis, we develop a hybrid model predictive controller for ramp metering that is guaranteed to be persistently feasible and stable. This contrasts to previous work on MPC for ramp metering where such guarantees are absent. We apply a smoothing method to the hybrid model predictive

  13. Reliability Models Applied to a System of Power Converters in Particle Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Siemaszko, D; Speiser, M; Pittet, S

    2012-01-01

    Several reliability models are studied when applied to a power system containing a large number of power converters. A methodology is proposed and illustrated in the case study of a novel linear particle accelerator designed for reaching high energies. The proposed methods result in the prediction of both reliability and availability of the considered system for optimisation purposes.

  14. System theory as applied differential geometry. [linear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, R.

    1979-01-01

    The invariants of input-output systems under the action of the feedback group was examined. The approach used the theory of Lie groups and concepts of modern differential geometry, and illustrated how the latter provides a basis for the discussion of the analytic structure of systems. Finite dimensional linear systems in a single independent variable are considered. Lessons of more general situations (e.g., distributed parameter and multidimensional systems) which are increasingly encountered as technology advances are presented.

  15. Energy Systems Integration Newsletter - December 2016 | Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    system makes renewable energy integration easier. ESIF Research Shows That Connected Residential Devices and business intelligence. Baggu also noted the opportunity to harness next-generation graphical -through, ramp rate control, soft-start reconnection, and voltage-watt control. NREL then conducted power

  16. Development of adaptive control applied to chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Martin Andreas

    1997-12-01

    Continuous-time derivative control and adaptive map-based recursive feedback control techniques are used to control chaos in a variety of systems and in situations that are of practical interest. The theoretical part of the research includes the review of fundamental concept of control theory in the context of its applications to deterministic chaotic systems, the development of a new adaptive algorithm to identify the linear system properties necessary for control, and the extension of the recursive proportional feedback control technique, RPF, to high dimensional systems. Chaos control was applied to models of a thermal pulsed combustor, electro-chemical dissolution and the hyperchaotic Rossler system. Important implications for combustion engineering were suggested by successful control of the model of the thermal pulsed combustor. The system was automatically tracked while maintaining control into regions of parameter and state space where no stable attractors exist. In a simulation of the electrochemical dissolution system, application of derivative control to stabilize a steady state, and adaptive RPF to stabilize a period one orbit, was demonstrated. The high dimensional adaptive control algorithm was applied in a simulation using the Rossler hyperchaotic system, where a period-two orbit with two unstable directions was stabilized and tracked over a wide range of a system parameter. In the experimental part, the electrochemical system was studied in parameter space, by scanning the applied potential and the frequency of the rotating copper disk. The automated control algorithm is demonstrated to be effective when applied to stabilize a period-one orbit in the experiment. We show the necessity of small random perturbations applied to the system in order to both learn the dynamics and control the system at the same time. The simultaneous learning and control capability is shown to be an important part of the active feedback control.

  17. Design and Realization of Online Monitoring System of Distributed New Energy and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanfen; Zhou, Tao; Li, Mengwen; Zheng, Guotai; Li, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Aimed at difficult centralized monitoring and management of current distributed new energy and renewable energy generation projects due to great varieties, different communication protocols and large-scale difference, this paper designs a online monitoring system of new energy and renewable energy characterized by distributed deployment, tailorable functions, extendible applications and fault self-healing performance. This system is designed based on international general standard for grid information data model, formulates unified data acquisition and transmission standard for different types of new energy and renewable energy generation projects, and can realize unified data acquisition and real-time monitoring of new energy and renewable energy generation projects, such as solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, etc. within its jurisdiction. This system has applied in Beijing. At present, 576 projects are connected to the system. Good effect is achieved and stability and reliability of the system have been validated.

  18. Phosphazenes for energy production and storage: Applied and exploratory synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Andrew R.

    This dissertation involves progress toward phosphazene-based ion conducting materials with a focus on structure-property relationships to improve these materials. This dissertation also includes some more fundamental exploratory syntheses to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover structure-property relationships that may be useful in designing compounds to fulfill important technical requirements. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to polymers and polyphosphazenes as well as ion-conducting materials and the contribution of polyphosphazene chemistry to that field. Chapter 1 also provides a brief introduction to some analytical techniques. Chapter 2 begins with the use of organophosphates as stand-alone non-volatile and fire-retardant liquid electrolyte media for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as well as their use as plasticizer in polymer gel electrolytes intended for application in lithium batteries. These organophosphates are the smallest phosphorus containing model molecules investigated in this dissertation. A homologous series of oligoalkyleneoxy substituted phosphates was synthesized and the effect of the substituent chain length on viscosity and conductivity was investigated. Small, test-scale DSSCs were constructed and showed promising results with overall cell efficiencies of up to 3.6% under un-optimized conditions. Conductivity measurements were performed on polymer gel-electrolytes based on poly[bis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene] (MEEP) plasticized with the phosphate with the best combination of properties, using a system loaded with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as the charge carrier. In chapter 3 the effect of the cation of the charge carrier species on the anionic conductivity of DSSC type electrolytes is evaluated using hexakis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (MEE-trimer) as a small molecule model for MEEP. The iodides of lithium, sodium, and ammonium as well as the ionic liquid, 1-propyl-3

  19. Applying Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes in Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoye, Moses

    This work has been a scientific inquisition into the potential of carbon nanotubes, fabricated in a vertically aligned configuration, for their application to solving pressing energy problems. This dissertation is introduced by providing a background to energy storage and generation as well as the various major equipment and techniques used throughout the scientific inquisition. The generic method of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) growth is then presented. By using a combination of recipes previously described in literature, an easy to replicate method of growing carbon nanotubes is developed with demonstrated success on different substates. The different conditions required to facilitate efficiency in the VACNT growth are highlighted. The properties of the as-grown VACNT forest are also studied and presented. Based on the recipe used, the VACNT are categorized as multiwalled and the number of walls is confirmed to be about 15 walls using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their graphitic nature is confirmed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The surface area characterization is done using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and weight-gain method. The first part of this dissertation deals with the application of the VACNT electrodes fabricated for the harvesting of mechanical energy using the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology. Here, energy is harvested from mechanical systems using both polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyethylene (PET) counter electrodes to confirm the applicability of VACNT electrodes for this purpose. A mechanism for the electron motion is proposed based on the already identified dielectric-metal TENG pairing. Furthermore, the usefulness of this technology is demonstrated further by charging a 0.47microF capacitor to 4.5V in one minute using the VACNT-PTFE TENG. The second part of this dissertation deals with the application of VACNT electrodes in energy storage using supercapacitors. Firstly, the

  20. System for corrosion monitoring in pipeline applying fuzzy logic mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, O. N.; Kolosova, A. L.; Andreeva, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    A list of factors influencing corrosion rate on the external side of underground pipeline is determined. Principles of constructing a corrosion monitoring system are described; the system performance algorithm and program are elaborated. A comparative analysis of methods for calculating corrosion rate is undertaken. Fuzzy logic mathematics is applied to reduce calculations while considering a wider range of corrosion factors.

  1. Complex, Dynamic Systems: A New Transdisciplinary Theme for Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In this plenary address, I suggest that Complexity Theory has the potential to contribute a transdisciplinary theme to applied linguistics. Transdisciplinary themes supersede disciplines and spur new kinds of creative activity (Halliday 2001 [1990]). Investigating complex systems requires researchers to pay attention to system dynamics. Since…

  2. Energy efficient distributed computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Choon

    2012-01-01

    The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005.  From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems.  These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems.  This book brings together a group of outsta

  3. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Albuquerque, NM; Clark, Nancy H [Corrales, NM; Boyes, John D [Albuquerque, NM; Ranade, Satishkumar J [Las Cruces, NM

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  4. Path Integration Applied to Structural Systems with Uncertain Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Köylüoglu, H. Ugur

    Path integration (cell-to-cell mapping) method is applied to evaluate the joint probability density function (jpdf) of the response of the structural systems, with uncertain properties, subject to white noise excitation. A general methodology to deal with uncertainties is outlined and applied...... to the friction controlled slip of a structure on a foundation where the friction coefficient is modelled as a random variable. Exact results derived using the total probability theorem are compared to the ones obtained via path integration....

  5. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  6. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  7. An enviro-economic function for assessing energy resources for district energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    District energy (DE) systems provide an important means of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and the significant related concerns associated with global climate change. DE systems can use fossil fuels, renewable energy and waste heat as energy sources, and facilitate intelligent integration of energy systems. In this study, an enviro-economic function is developed for assessing various energy sources for a district energy system. The DE system is assessed for the considered energy resources by considering two main factors: CO 2 emissions and economics. Using renewable energy resources and associated technologies as the energy suppliers for a DE system yields environmental benefits which can lead to financial advantages through such instruments as tax breaks; while fossil fuels are increasingly penalized by a carbon tax. Considering these factors as well as the financial value of the technology, an analysis approach is developed for energy suppliers of the DE system. In addition, the proposed approach is modified for the case when thermal energy storage is integrated into a DE system. - Highlights: • Developed a function to assess various energy sources for a district energy system. • Considered CO 2 emissions and economics as two main factors. • Applied renewable energy resources technologies as the suppliers for a DE system. • Yields environmental benefits can lead to financial benefits by tax breaks. • Modified enviro-economic function for the TES integrated into a DE system

  8. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  9. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert

    2013-01-01

    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its

  10. Analysis of interconnecting energy systems over a synchronized life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology is developed for evaluating a life cycle of interconnected systems. • A new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced via quantitative formulation. • The interconnecting systems are synchronized through the partial temporal boundary. • A case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system is developed. - Abstract: Life cycle analysis (LCA) using the process chain analysis (PCA) approach has been widely applied to energy systems. When applied to an individual energy system, such as coal or nuclear electricity generation, an LCA–PCA methodology can yield relatively accurate results with its detailed process representation based on engineering data. However, there are fundamental issues when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to a more complex life cycle, namely, a synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems. A synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems is established through direct interconnections among the processes of different energy systems, and all interconnecting systems are bounded within the same timeframe. Under such a life cycle formation, there are some major complications when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to evaluate the interconnecting energy systems. Essentially, the conventional system and boundary formulations developed for a life cycle of individual energy system cannot be directly applied to a life cycle of interconnected energy systems. To address these inherent issues, a new LCA–PCA methodology is presented in this paper, in which a new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced to synchronize the interconnecting energy systems. The importance and advantages of these new developments are demonstrated through a case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system.

  11. Accelerating the transition to sustainable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    excessively under some national schemes for mature technologies that should not require support, and that frequently do not make the contribution to renewable energy output or carbon emission avoidance they claim. Costs to business and domestic electricity consumers, through the subsidy payments they make, are much greater under some schemes than what other carbon abatement measures would cost. Higher-cost, less mature renewable energy technologies that have large potential for meeting global energy needs are not getting the support they warrant. This is of grave concern given the minimum 30-50 year lead times required to make a large global contribution. Without departing from the sense of urgency required to address the pressing needs for sustainable energy systems, it is imperative that the involvement of people at the grassroots level is harnessed and sound commercial and technical criteria are applied

  12. Energy Systems and Population Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy

  13. Decentralized Energy from Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change.

  14. Decentralized energy from waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Turrion-Gomez, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change. (author)

  15. Applying Sustainable Systems Development Approach to Educational Technology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is an essential part of modern education. The roles and contributions of technology to education have been thoroughly documented in academic and professional literature. Despite the benefits, the use of educational technology systems (ETS) also creates a significant impact on the environment, primarily due to energy…

  16. Sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Z

    2011-11-01

    With the rising application of systems biology, sensitivity analysis methods have been widely applied to study the biological systems, including metabolic networks, signalling pathways and genetic circuits. Sensitivity analysis can provide valuable insights about how robust the biological responses are with respect to the changes of biological parameters and which model inputs are the key factors that affect the model outputs. In addition, sensitivity analysis is valuable for guiding experimental analysis, model reduction and parameter estimation. Local and global sensitivity analysis approaches are the two types of sensitivity analysis that are commonly applied in systems biology. Local sensitivity analysis is a classic method that studies the impact of small perturbations on the model outputs. On the other hand, global sensitivity analysis approaches have been applied to understand how the model outputs are affected by large variations of the model input parameters. In this review, the author introduces the basic concepts of sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models. Moreover, the author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different sensitivity analysis methods, how to choose a proper sensitivity analysis approach, the available sensitivity analysis tools for systems biology models and the caveats in the interpretation of sensitivity analysis results.

  17. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bok Seong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each PCM has its own phase change temperature, which is the temperature at which latent heat is absorbed or released, it is important to use an appropriate PCM for the purpose of building envelope design. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope by analyzing the thermal load characteristics. As results, the annual heating load increased at every phase change temperature, but the peak heating load decreased by 3.19% with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C, and the lowest indoor temperature increased by 0.86 °C with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C. The annual cooling load decreased by 1.05% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak cooling load decreased by 1.30% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.50 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C. When the night ventilation was applied to the building HVAC system for better passive cooling performance, the annual cooling load decreased by 9.28% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak load decreased by 11.33% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.85 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C.

  18. Agent based energy management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, Martin

    2012-07-01

    In liberalized, regulated energy markets, the different participants - namely producers and consumers of energy, transmission and distribution system operators as well as regulatory authorities - have partly divergent and partly convergent interests. Loads, power plants and grid operators try to maximize their own benefit in this highly complex environment accepting to act detrimentally to others. Although the relationship between the participants is mostly competitive, there are some fundamental shared interests, e.g. voltage stability, a constant system frequency or efficient energy production, transmission and distribution, which are endangered e.g. by increased injection of volatile sources in low and medium voltage grids, displacement of stabilizing bulk generation and the slowly progressing extension of the electric grid. There is a global consensus, that the resulting challenges can efficiently be faced using information and communication technologies to coordinate grid utilization and operation. The basic idea is to benefit from unused reserves by participating in deployment of system services e.g. reactive power supply to keep the voltage within certain bounds. The coordination can best be done by the grid operator. All activities of that kind are summarized under the umbrella term ''Smart Grid''. To simultaneously model the behavior and interests of different types of market participants and their convergent and divergent interests, multi-agent systems are used. They offer a perfectly fitting framework for this sort of game theory and can easily be adapted to all kinds of new challenges of electricity markets. In this work, multi-agent systems are used to either cooperatively or competitively solve problems in distribution and transmission systems. Therefore, conventional algorithms have to be modified to converge into multiple local optima using only small pieces of the entire system information. It is clearly stated, that personal

  19. Home Energy Systems: the State of the Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kaa, G.; Ligtvoet, A.; Fens, T.W.; Herder, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Smart home energy systems are technically possible to realize but are not yet applied on a large scale partly due to the fact that no common standards exist that enable interconnection of components that make up these smart energy systems. Multiple standards have been developed which are competing

  20. Fast and effective embedded systems design applying the ARM mbed

    CERN Document Server

    Toulson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the field of embedded systems; A focus on fast prototyping of embedded systems; All key embedded system concepts covered through simple and effective experimentation; An understanding of ARM technology, one of the world's leaders; A practical introduction to embedded C; Applies possibly the most accessible set of tools available in the embedded world.  This book is an introduction to embedded systems design, using the ARM mbed and C programming language as development tools. The mbed provides a compact, self-contained and low-cost hardware core, and the

  1. Applying incomplete statistics to nonextensive systems with different q indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivanen, L.; Pezeril, M.; Wang, Q.A.; Mehaute, A. Le

    2005-01-01

    The nonextensive statistics based on the q-entropy Sq=--bar i=1v(pi-piq)1-q has been so far applied to systems in which the q value is uniformly distributed. For the systems containing different q's, the applicability of the theory is still a matter of investigation. The difficulty is that the class of systems to which the theory can be applied is actually limited by the usual nonadditivity rule of entropy which is no more valid when the systems contain non uniform distribution of q values. In this paper, within the framework of the so called incomplete information theory, we propose a more general nonadditivity rule of entropy prescribed by the zeroth law of thermodynamics. This new nonadditivity generalizes in a simple way the usual one and can be proved to lead uniquely to the q-entropy

  2. SCADA system with predictive controller applied to irrigation canals

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, João; Botto, Miguel; Rijo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies a model predictive controller (MPC) to an automatic water canal with sensors and actuators controlled by a network (programmable logic controller), and supervised by a SCADA system (supervisory control and a data acquisition). This canal is composed by a set of distributed sub-systems that control the water level in each canal pool, constrained by discharge gates (control variables) and water off-takes (disturbances). All local controllers are available through an industria...

  3. Database management systems understanding and applying database technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, Michael M

    1991-01-01

    Database Management Systems: Understanding and Applying Database Technology focuses on the processes, methodologies, techniques, and approaches involved in database management systems (DBMSs).The book first takes a look at ANSI database standards and DBMS applications and components. Discussion focus on application components and DBMS components, implementing the dynamic relationship application, problems and benefits of dynamic relationship DBMSs, nature of a dynamic relationship application, ANSI/NDL, and DBMS standards. The manuscript then ponders on logical database, interrogation, and phy

  4. Applied dynamics with applications to multibody and mechatronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Francis C

    1998-01-01

    Applied Dynamics provides a modern and thorough examination of dynamics with specific emphasis on physical examples and applications such as: robotic systems, magnetic bearings, aerospace dynamics, and microelectromagnetic machines. Also includes the development of the method of virtual velocities based on the principle of virtual power

  5. Applied Information Systems Research Program (AISRP) Workshop 3 meeting proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The third Workshop of the Applied Laboratory Systems Research Program (AISRP) met at the Univeristy of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in August of 1993. The presentations were organized into four sessions: Artificial Intelligence Techniques; Scientific Visualization; Data Management and Archiving; and Research and Technology.

  6. Total energy system in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of energy systems from an exergy point of view is discussed. In total energy systems, we should employ multi-pass recycling consisting of thermal and chemical energies. The recycling system is supported by electrical energy, which is provided by a renewable energy source or by excess commercial electric power. This total energy system should be considered not only in one country, but all around the globe. (author). 6 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  7. Towards a More Energy Efficient Future: Applying indicators to enhance energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is a shared policy goal of many governments around the world. The benefits of more efficient use of energy are well known. Not only does it reduce energy costs and investments in energy infrastructure, it also lowers fossil fuel dependency and CO2 emissions, while at the same time increasing competitiveness and improving consumer welfare. Yet many questions remain unanswered. What are the latest trends in global energy use and CO2 emissions? How do factors such as demography, economic structure, income, lifestyle and climate affect these trends? Where are the greatest potentials to further improve energy efficiency, and which data are required to support energy efficiency policy development? This publication answers these questions using the latest insights from the IEA energy indicators work. The goal is to show policy makers how in-depth indicators can be used to track the progress in efficiency and identify new opportunities for improvements.

  8. Applying the energy productivity index that considers maximized energy reduction on SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Under the trend of global energy prices continuously going up, this paper considers the concept of maximized energy reduction to model the energy productivity index by decomposing it into energy technical change and energy efficiency change. The paper takes the eight SADC (Southern Africa Development Community ) members as an example to estimate their energy efficiency, energy productivity change, energy technical change, energy efficiency change, and rebound effect on energy use, as well as to test the Jevons Paradox. The time period of the data spans 2005 to 2009. The empirical result shows large energy performance differences among the eight SADC members. Not one country among the eight members is an energy technology innovator. After calculating the rebound effect and testing the Jevons Paradox, the result shows that there seems to be no obvious Jevons Paradox in this economic region. - Highlights: • This paper discusses the concept of maximized energy reduction. • The method is applied towards the Southern Africa Development Community members. • This paper also investigates the rebound effect of energy use. • We offer suggestions on energy use and CO 2 emission reductions.

  9. Bottom-Up modeling, a tool for decision support for long-term policy on energy and environment - The TIMES model applied to the energy intensive industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djemaa, A.

    2009-01-01

    Among the energy users in France and Europe, some industrial sectors are very important and should have a key role when assessing the final energy demand patterns in the future. The aim of our work is to apply a prospective model for the long range analysis of energy/technology choices in the industrial sector, focussing on the energy-intensive sectors. The modelling tool applied in this study is the TIMES model (family of best known MARKAL model). It is an economic linear programming model generator for local, national or multi regional energy systems, which provides a technology-rich basis for estimating energy dynamics over a long term, multi period time. We illustrate our work with nine energy-intensive industrial sectors: paper, steel, glass, cement, lime, tiles, brick, ceramics and plaster. It includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of industrial products, providing typical energy uses in each process step. In our analysis, we identified for each industry, several commercially available state-of-the-art technologies, characterized and chosen by the Model on the basis of cost effectiveness. Furthermore, we calculated potential energy savings, carbon dioxide emissions' reduction and we estimated the energy impact of a technological rupture. This work indicates that there still exists a significant potential for energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions' reduction in all industries. (author)

  10. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  11. Visions of sustainable urban energy systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, Ursula [HFT Stuttgart (Germany). zafh.net - Centre of Applied Research - Sustainable Energy Technology; Mikosch, Milena [Steinbeis-Zentrum, Stuttgart (Germany). Europaeischer Technologietransfer; Liesner, Lisa (eds.)

    2010-09-15

    Within the polycity final conference from 15th to 17th September, 2010, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Visions of sustainable urban energy system (Ursula Eicker); (2) Words of welcome (Tanja Goenner); (3) Zero-energy Europe - We are on our way (Jean-Marie Bemtgen); (4) Polycity - Energy networks in sustainable cities An introduction (Ursula Pietzsch); (5) Energy efficient city - Successful examples in the European concerto initiative (Brigitte Bach); (6) Sustainable building and urban concepts in the Catalonian polycity project contributions to the polycity final conference 2010 (Nuria Pedrals); (7) Energy efficient buildings and renewable supply within the German polycity project (Ursula Eicker); (8) Energy efficient buildings and cities in the US (Thomas Spiegehalter); (9) Energy efficient communities - First results from an IEA collaboration project (Reinhard Jank); (10) The European energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD) - Lessons learned (Eduardo Maldonado); (11) Passive house standard in Europe - State-of-the-art and challenges (Wolfgang Feist); (12) High efficiency non-residential buildings: Concepts, implementations and experiences from the UK (Levin Lomas); (13) This is how we can save our world (Franz Alt); (14) Green buildings and renewable heating and cooling concepts in China (Yanjun Dai); (15) Sustainable urban energy solutions for Asia (Brahmanand Mohanty); (16) Description of ''Parc de l'Alba'' polygeneration system: A large-scale trigeneration system with district heating within the Spanish polycity project (Francesc Figueras Bellot); (17) Improved building automation and control systems with hardware-in-the loop solutions (Martin Becker); (18) The Italian polycity project area: Arquata (Luigi Fazari); (19) Photovoltaic system integration: In rehabilitated urban structures: Experiences and performance results from the Italian polycity project in Turin (Franco

  12. Energy harvesting solar, wind, and ocean energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Also called energy scavenging, energy harvesting captures, stores, and uses ""clean"" energy sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Unlike conventional electric power generation systems, renewable energy harvesting does not use fossil fuels and the generation units can be decentralized, thereby significantly reducing transmission and distribution losses. But advanced technical methods must be developed to increase the efficiency of devices in harvesting energy from environmentally friendly, ""green"" resources and converting them into electrical energy.Recognizing t

  13. Meta-learning framework applied in bioinformatics inference system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Tomás; Ormazábal, Wladimir

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a meta-learner inference system development framework which is applied and tested in the implementation of bioinformatic inference systems. These inference systems are used for the systematic classification of the best candidates for inclusion in bacterial metabolic pathway maps. This meta-learner-based approach utilises a workflow where the user provides feedback with final classification decisions which are stored in conjunction with analysed genetic sequences for periodic inference system training. The inference systems were trained and tested with three different data sets related to the bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds. The analysis of the meta-learner-based framework involved contrasting several different optimisation methods with various different parameters. The obtained inference systems were also contrasted with other standard classification methods with accurate prediction capabilities observed.

  14. An overview of decision tree applied to power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The corrosive volume of available data in electric power systems motivate the adoption of data mining techniques in the emerging field of power system data analytics. The mainstream of data mining algorithm applied to power system, Decision Tree (DT), also named as Classification And Regression...... Tree (CART), has gained increasing interests because of its high performance in terms of computational efficiency, uncertainty manageability, and interpretability. This paper presents an overview of a variety of DT applications to power systems for better interfacing of power systems with data...... analytics. The fundamental knowledge of CART algorithm is also introduced which is then followed by examples of both classification tree and regression tree with the help of case study for security assessment of Danish power system....

  15. Analysis and design of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajura, R.A.; Marston, C.H.; Tstsaronis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The 1980s saw growing public awareness of environmental issues. Events such as an unusually hot and dry summer in parts of the world, contamination of community drinking water supplies by leakage from abandoned waste disposal sites, and the discovery of a hole in the ozone layer in the upper stratosphere over Antarctica made headlines in the popular press. The long-range impact of these events on the environment or on human health is still being debated by the scientific and technical communities. In the interim, however, it is prudent to mitigate any possible environmental problems by continuing to develop high-efficiency energy utilization systems that are also cost effective and environmentally sound. High-efficiency fossil energy systems have a number of environmental benefits: carbon dioxide production is reduced and this, in turn, reduces the potential environmental insult which may occur during resource extraction or shipping. Thermodynamic analysis coupled with economic analysis is a useful tool to identify practical, high-efficiency systems. The Symposium on the Analysis and Design of Energy Systems is intended to provide a forum to present both advances in analytical techniques for this type of system and case studies applying these techniques

  16. Applying Trusted Network Technology To Process Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhravi, Hamed; Nicol, David

    Interconnections between process control networks and enterprise networks expose instrumentation and control systems and the critical infrastructure components they operate to a variety of cyber attacks. Several architectural standards and security best practices have been proposed for industrial control systems. However, they are based on older architectures and do not leverage the latest hardware and software technologies. This paper describes new technologies that can be applied to the design of next generation security architectures for industrial control systems. The technologies are discussed along with their security benefits and design trade-offs.

  17. SOME EXAMPLES OF APPLIED SYSTEMS WITH SPEECH INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zhitko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three examples of applied systems with a speech interface are considered in the article. The first two of these provide the end user with the opportunity to ask verbally the question and to hear the response from the system, creating an addition to the traditional I / O via the keyboard and computer screen. The third example, the «IntonTrainer» system, provides the user with the possibility of voice interaction and is designed for in-depth self-learning of the intonation of oral speech.

  18. Human-Machine Systems concepts applied to Control Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Marangé , Pascale; Gellot , François; Riera , Bernard

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we interest us to Human-Machine Systems (HMS) concepts applied to Education. It is shown how the HMS framework enables to propose original solution in matter of education in the field of control engineering. We focus on practical courses on control of manufacturing systems. The proposed solution is based on an original use of real and large-scale systems instead of simulation. The main idea is to enable the student, whatever his/her level to control the ...

  19. Three-dimensional integrated CAE system applying computer graphic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshisada; Tanaka, Kazuo; Akitomo, Norio; Obata, Tokayasu.

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional CAE system for nuclear power plant design is presented. This system utilizes high-speed computer graphic techniques for the plant design review, and an integrated engineering database for handling the large amount of nuclear power plant engineering data in a unified data format. Applying this system makes it possible to construct a nuclear power plant using only computer data from the basic design phase to the manufacturing phase, and it increases the productivity and reliability of the nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  1. Energy Systems Group. Annual Progress Report 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Villadsen, B.

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risø National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff...

  2. Energy Systems Group annual progress report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.; Larsen, H.; Villadsen, B.

    1985-02-01

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risoe National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff members. (author)

  3. Stochastic Modelling of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2001-01-01

    is that the model structure has to be adequate for practical applications, such as system simulation, fault detection and diagnosis, and design of control strategies. This also reflects on the methods used for identification of the component models. The main result from this research is the identification......In this thesis dynamic models of typical components in Danish heating systems are considered. Emphasis is made on describing and evaluating mathematical methods for identification of such models, and on presentation of component models for practical applications. The thesis consists of seven...... research papers (case studies) together with a summary report. Each case study takes it's starting point in typical heating system components and both, the applied mathematical modelling methods and the application aspects, are considered. The summary report gives an introduction to the scope...

  4. Integrating renewables into energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    An analysis of renewable energy schemes was undertaken via case studies in China, India, Indonesia, Kenya, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe, that provided an insight into the application of best practice for overcoming market, technical and financial barriers to the establishment of the sustainable markets required for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies. The project showed clearly the need to select and target interventions according to the context. Lessons were extracted against a number of themes, as well as against the various technologies analysed and simple guides to the principles of best practice were derived under the following headings:- experience of gaining access to (micro) finance; the technical and non-technical issues raised when small, typically independent, generators seek access to central electricity grid systems; how to best undertake awareness raising and dissemination activities; promoting, building and operating biogas systems; promoting, building and operating solar (photovoltaic) home systems; promoting, building and operating grid connected wind power; promoting, building and operating solar hot water systems; promoting agricultural cogeneration using crop residues. (author)

  5. Battery Energy Storage Sizing When Time of Use Pricing Is Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khormali, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications when time-of-use tariff schemes are applied. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs. PMID:25295309

  6. Battery Energy Storage Sizing When Time of Use Pricing Is Applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Carpinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESSs are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications when time-of-use tariff schemes are applied. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs.

  7. A Framework for Engaging Navajo Women in Clean Energy Development through Applied Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Beth; Manygoats, Adrian; Weitkamp, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Through applied theatre, Navajo women can participate in authoring a new story for how energy is mined, produced, developed, disseminated and used in the Navajo Nation. This article is an analysis of a creative process that was utilised with primarily Navajo women to create a Navajo Women's Energy Project (NWEP). The framework for this creative…

  8. Integrated energy optimization with smart home energy management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asare-Bediako, B.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Kling, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of energy use is a vital concept in providing solutions to many of the energy challenges in our world today. Large chemical, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and electrical systems require energy efficiency as one of the important aspects of operating systems. At the micro-scale, the

  9. Power Management for Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive...... penetration of renewable, fossil-free energy sources such as solar and wind power. To facilitate such intermittent power producers, we must not only control the production of electricity, but also the consumption, in an ecient and exible manner. By enabling the use of thermal energy storage in supermarkets...... of temperature dependent efficiencies in the refrigeration cycle. -Nonlinear economic MPC with uncertain predictions and the implementation of very simple predictors that use entirely historical data of, e.g., electricity prices and outdoor temperatures. Economic MPC for wind turbines, including -Optimal steady...

  10. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  11. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  12. Applying of USB interface technique in nuclear spectrum acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Huang Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces applying of USB technique and constructing nuclear spectrum acquisition system via PC's USB interface. The authors choose the USB component USB100 module and the W77E58μc to do the key work. It's easy to apply USB interface technique, when USB100 module is used. USB100 module can be treated as a common I/O component for the μc controller, and can be treated as a communication interface (COM) when connected to PC' USB interface. It's easy to modify the PC's program for the new system with USB100 module. The authors can smoothly change from ISA, RS232 bus to USB bus. (authors)

  13. Model of sustainable development of energy system, case of Hamedan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahabmanesh, Aref; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable economic growth and improvement of the social welfare depend upon the sufficient supply of energy resources, while the utilization of energy resources is one of the main factors of environmental degradation. This research is involved with development of a sustainable energy system model and a new method for sustainability assessment. This model represents the flow of energy from primary resources through processing, conversion, and end-use technologies in an optimization framework where the useful energy demand in various social and economic sectors is met. The impact of energy supply and consumption chain on the environment at each level of energy system is also embedded in the model structure. A multi-criteria analysis of changes is then applied and sustainable development indices of the whole system are concluded. Finally, effects of the energy subsidy policy and high economic growth rate on sustainability of the energy system in three scenarios are analyzed. Results demonstrate that energy subsidy decelerates the improvement rate of the total sustainability index. Also, when a high economic growth is accompanied with the energy subsidy this index reduces considerably. Results show that how penetration of renewable energy potentials changes the sustainability situation of energy systems. - Highlights: • Developing a new model for sustainable energy systems. • Presenting a new method for sustainability assessment of energy systems. • Optimizing the energy flow and capacity expansion of Hamedan energy system. • Utilizing an MCDA approach to obtain sustainability indices of the whole system. • Analysis of energy subsidy and high economic growth on energy sustainability.

  14. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    To develop a strategy for incorporating and demonstrating safety, it is necessary to enumerate the unique aspects of space power reactor systems from a safety standpoint. These features must be differentiated from terrestrial nuclear power plants so that our experience can be applied properly. Some ideas can then be developed on how safe designs can be achieved so that they are safe and perceived to be safe by the public. These ideas include operating only after achieving a stable orbit, developing an inherently safe design, ''designing'' in safety from the start and managing the system development (design) so that it is perceived safe. These and other ideas are explored further in this paper

  15. Power management for energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gybel Hovgaard, T.

    2013-02-15

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive control of a commercial multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor, and is used to cool multiple areas or rooms, e.g., in supermarkets. For control of the commercial refrigeration application as well as the wind turbine application, we propose an economic optimizing model predictive controller, economic MPC. Our investigations are primarily concerned with: 1) modeling of the applications to suit the chosen control framework; 2) formulating the MPC controller laws to overcome challenges introduced by the industrial applications, and defining economic objectives that reect the real physics of the systems as well as our control objectives; 3) solving the involved, non-trivial optimization problems eciently in real-time; 4) demonstrating the feasibility and potential of the proposed methods by extensive simulation and comparison with existing control methods and evaluation of data from systems in actual operation. We demonstrate, i.a., substantial cost savings, on the order of 30 %, compared to a standard thermostat-based supermarket refrigeration system and show how our methods exhibit sophisticated demand response to real-time variations in electricity prices. Violations of the temperature ranges can be kept at a very low frequency of occurrence inspite of the presence of uncertainty. For the power output from wind turbines, ramp rates, as low a 3 % of the rated power per minute, can be effectively ensured with the use of energy storage and we show how the active use of rotor inertia as an additional energy storage can reduce the needed storage capacity by up to 30 % without reducing the power output. (Author)

  16. Study of applying a hybrid standalone wind-photovoltaic generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Dahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of applying a hybrid system wind/photovoltaic to supply a community in southern Algeria. Diesel generators are always used to provide such remote regions with energy. Using renewable energy resources is a good alternative to overcome such pollutant generators. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software is used to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed configuration. Assessment of renewable resources consisting in wind and solar potentials, load profile determination and sensitivity of different parameters analysis were performed. The cost of energy (COE of 0.226 $/kWh is very competitive with those found in literature.

  17. Energy and environmental evaluation of tri-generation energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, G.; Mancarella, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tri generation facilities manufactured with various technologies represent an important alternative solution for the development more efficient energy systems and low environmental impact. Are described the issues related to modelling and energy and environmental evaluation [it

  18. Discrete Event Supervisory Control Applied to Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Shah, Neerav

    2005-01-01

    The theory of discrete event supervisory (DES) control was applied to the optimal control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system and demonstrated in a simulation. The supervisory control, which is implemented as a finite-state automaton, oversees the behavior of a system and manages it in such a way that it maximizes a performance criterion, similar to a traditional optimal control problem. DES controllers can be nested such that a high-level controller supervises multiple lower level controllers. This structure can be expanded to control huge, complex systems, providing optimal performance and increasing autonomy with each additional level. The DES control strategy for propulsion systems was validated using a distributed testbed consisting of multiple computers--each representing a module of the overall propulsion system--to simulate real-time hardware-in-the-loop testing. In the first experiment, DES control was applied to the operation of a nonlinear simulation of a turbofan engine (running in closed loop using its own feedback controller) to minimize engine structural damage caused by a combination of thermal and structural loads. This enables increased on-wing time for the engine through better management of the engine-component life usage. Thus, the engine-level DES acts as a life-extending controller through its interaction with and manipulation of the engine s operation.

  19. Defence in Depth - Applied to the Nuclear System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weightman, M., E-mail: mike_weightman@hotmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Normally, the Defence in Depth concept is applied to the technical barriers that provide protection to the public and workers from nuclear accidents. This allows designers, operators and regulators to challenge (along with using other design principles such as independence, redundancy, diversity, single point failure, etc) the technical systems provided to see whether more needs to be done to provide adequate defence in depth to ensure risks are reduced so far as is reasonably practical. Post Fukushima, much thought has gone into reconsidering whether the effectiveness of the defence in depth concept can be enhanced by, for example, rebalancing the attention between prevention and mitigation or enhancing the independence of protective measures such as providing extremely robust standalone emergency cooling capability. This presentation argues that Fukushima teaches us a more fundamental lesson - that the defence in depth concept (along with other design principles') should be applied to the nuclear system to see whether more should be done to enhance the institutional barriers in any particular nuclear system. These barriers are at three main levels: industry, regulators and stakeholders each with sub-barriers. It reinforces the need for industry and regulators to be independent, open and transparent so that the nuclear system can work effectively. Examples are given where the application of the model identifies areas for improvement in existing systems. (author)

  20. Applied Ontology Engineering in Cloud Services, Networks and Management Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano Orozco, J Martín

    2012-01-01

    Metadata standards in today’s ICT sector are proliferating at unprecedented levels, while automated information management systems collect and process exponentially increasing quantities of data. With interoperability and knowledge exchange identified as a core challenge in the sector, this book examines the role ontology engineering can play in providing solutions to the problems of information interoperability and linked data. At the same time as introducing basic concepts of ontology engineering, the book discusses methodological approaches to formal representation of data and information models, thus facilitating information interoperability between heterogeneous, complex and distributed communication systems. In doing so, the text advocates the advantages of using ontology engineering in telecommunications systems. In addition, it offers a wealth of guidance and best-practice techniques for instances in which ontology engineering is applied in cloud services, computer networks and management systems. �...

  1. Water management - management actions applied to water resources system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovski, Ljupcho; Tanchev, Ljubomir

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented a general description of water resource systems, a systematisation of the management tasks and the approaches for solution, including a review of methods used for solution of water management tasks and the fundamental postulates in the management. The management of water resources is a synonym for the management actions applied to water resource systems. It is a general term that unites planning and exploitation of the systems. The modern planning assumes separating the water racecourse part from the hydro technical part of the project. The water resource study is concerned with the solution for the resource problem. This means the parameters of the system are determined in parallel with the definition of the water utilisation regime. The hydro-technical part of the project is the design of structures necessary for the water resource solution. (Original)

  2. Apply Functional Modelling to Consequence Analysis in Supervision Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Gola, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    This paper will first present the purpose and goals of applying functional modelling approach to consequence analysis by adopting Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM). MFM Models describe a complex system in multiple abstraction levels in both means-end dimension and whole-part dimension. It contains...... consequence analysis to practical or online applications in supervision systems. It will also suggest a multiagent solution as the integration architecture for developing tools to facilitate the utilization results of functional consequence analysis. Finally a prototype of the multiagent reasoning system...... causal relations between functions and goals. A rule base system can be developed to trace the causal relations and perform consequence propagations. This paper will illustrate how to use MFM for consequence reasoning by using rule base technology and describe the challenges for integrating functional...

  3. Loss energy states of nonstationary quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.V.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of loss energy states is introduced. The loss energy states of the quantum harmonic damping oscillator are considered in detail. The method of constructing the loss energy states for general multidimensional quadratic nonstationary quantum systems is briefly discussed

  4. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  5. Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model 'e3.at'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, Andrea; Grossmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the Austrian research project 'Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020'. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006-2020, using the integrated environment-energy-economy model 'e3.at'. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. - Highlights: → Together with stakeholders three renewable energy scenarios for Austria were defined. → The scenarios were simulated using an integrated environment-energy-economy model. → Increasing the share of renewables in total energy use is important but insufficient. → Efficiency and a cut of energy use are also essential for a sustainable energy system.

  6. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  7. Blockchain-Assisted Crowdsourced Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shen; Taha, Ahmad; Wang, Jianhui

    2018-01-01

    Crowdsourcing relies on people's contributions to meet product- or system-level objectives. Crowdsourcing-based methods have been implemented in various cyber-physical systems and realtime markets. This paper explores a framework for Crowdsourced Energy Systems (CES), where small-scale energy generation or energy trading is crowdsourced from distributed energy resources, electric vehicles, and shapable loads. The merits/pillars of energy crowdsourcing are discussed. Then, an operational model...

  8. Bio energy: Bio energy in the Energy System of the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finden, Per; Soerensen, Heidi; Wilhelmsen, Gunnar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 7, the final chapter, of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Factors leading to changes in the energy systems, (2) The energy systems of the future, globally, (3) The future energy system in Norway and (4) Norwegian energy policy at the crossroads

  9. A Sustainable Energy System in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems....

  10. Energy systems Diagnosis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, J.

    1991-01-01

    Energy systems diagnosis is necessary to allow evaluation of energy balance by administration and political authorities of a country. First, the author describes the principle stages of energetic diagnosis. Then this work is divided into three parts: First part: Energy consumption diagnosis in several districts (families, utilities, agriculture, transport, industry) Second part: Energy supplies diagnosis (energy markets). Third part: Interactions between energy consumption and energy supply. 28 figs.; 52 tabs.; 107 refs

  11. Systems approach in energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta-Choudhury, K.

    1993-01-01

    Several years ago when the author was working in the chemicals division of a paper company in Instrumentation and Controls, one experience had a lasting impact on his work approach which is systems approach. The maintenance manager told the author that a very important piece of boiler instrument of the power plant had broken down and delivery of the replacement needed to be expedited. The instrument was ordered over the phone in another city. The purchase order was personally delivered at the supplier's office and arrangements were made so the instrument was put on the next flight. A week later the maintenance manager indicated that the particular instrument still had not arrived in the plant and he could not run the power plant. Thus the company incurred substantial losses. Further inquiries showed that the instrument did indeed arrive at the plant stores on time. But, in the absence of any instructions thereon, the instrument was not delivered to the power plant. The sense of urgency was lost in the existing delivery process. In other words, the process or system failed. The whole process from requisitioning to delivery of ordered items was analyzed and corrective procedures were incorporated to prevent future repetitions. This brings up the subject of systems approach in engineering management in general and energy management in particular. This involves defining an objective and designing a system for an effective way of getting there

  12. SMES for wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    simulation results the utility of SMES in voltage sag mitigation for momentary interruptions. The 1MJ SMES mitigates voltage sags for a useful duration ~50 seconds. In conclusion (Chapter 7), we believe that in this dissertation, we have documented the design of SMES for both momentary and sustained interruptions in wind turbines. We have put forth some novel and relevant hypotheses, developed and performed suitable simulation studies to validate these hypotheses. By doing so, we have been able to expand our knowledge in our quest to grasp the underlying mechanisms of storage systems in wind energy integration. Although the resulting analysis has allowed us to gain valuable insight, we feel that it is only the tip of the iceberg, and that many yet unknown discoveries are to be made. We remain hopeful that the future of SMES for wind energy will only look brighter from here onward. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  13. [Microinjection Monitoring System Design Applied to MRI Scanning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfeng

    2017-09-30

    A microinjection monitoring system applied to the MRI scanning was introduced. The micro camera probe was used to stretch into the main magnet for real-time video injection monitoring of injection tube terminal. The programming based on LabVIEW was created to analysis and process the real-time video information. The feedback signal was used for intelligent controlling of the modified injection pump. The real-time monitoring system can make the best use of injection under the condition that the injection device was away from the sample which inside the magnetic room and unvisible. 9.4 T MRI scanning experiment showed that the system in ultra-high field can work stability and doesn't affect the MRI scans.

  14. Designing and Testing Composite Energy Storage Systems for Regulating the Outputs of Linear Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanxiang Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear wave energy converters generate intrinsically intermittent power with variable frequency and amplitude. A composite energy storage system consisting of batteries and super capacitors has been developed and controlled by buck-boost converters. The purpose of the composite energy storage system is to handle the fluctuations and intermittent characteristics of the renewable source, and hence provide a steady output power. Linear wave energy converters working in conjunction with a system composed of various energy storage devices, is considered as a microsystem, which can function in a stand-alone or a grid connected mode. Simulation results have shown that by applying a boost H-bridge and a composite energy storage system more power could be extracted from linear wave energy converters. Simulation results have shown that the super capacitors charge and discharge often to handle the frequent power fluctuations, and the batteries charge and discharge slowly for handling the intermittent power of wave energy converters. Hardware systems have been constructed to control the linear wave energy converter and the composite energy storage system. The performance of the composite energy storage system has been verified in experiments by using electronics-based wave energy emulators.

  15. Energy, economy, and environment analysis and optimization on manufacturing plant energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lujia; Mears, Laine; Beaufort, Cleveland; Schulte, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are proposed. • Objectives of energy, economy, and environment are proved conflicting. • 3-input-5-output energy supply system of an automotive plant is studied. - Abstract: Increasing attention has recently been drawn to energy consumption in manufacturing plants. Facing the challenges from reducing emissions coupled with rising raw material prices and energy costs, manufacturers are trying to balance the energy usage strategy among the total energy consumption, economy, and environment, which can be self-conflicting at times. In this paper, energy systems in manufacturing environments are reviewed, and the current status of onsite energy system and renewable energy usage are discussed. Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are effectively formulated for making the best use of energy delivered to the production processes. Energy supply operation suggestions based on the optimization results are obtained. Finally, an example from an automotive assembly manufacturer is described to demonstrate the energy usage in the current manufacturing plants and how the optimization approaches can be applied to satisfy the energy management objectives. According to the optimization results, in an energy oriented operation, it takes 35% more in monetary cost; while in an economy oriented operation, it takes 17% more in megawatt hour energy supply and tends to rely more on the inexpensive renewable energy.

  16. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  17. A Wind Forecasting System for Energy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jennifer; Lynch, Peter; Sweeney, Conor

    2010-05-01

    Accurate forecasting of available energy is crucial for the efficient management and use of wind power in the national power grid. With energy output critically dependent upon wind strength there is a need to reduce the errors associated wind forecasting. The objective of this research is to get the best possible wind forecasts for the wind energy industry. To achieve this goal, three methods are being applied. First, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model called WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) is being used to predict wind values over Ireland. Currently, a gird resolution of 10km is used and higher model resolutions are being evaluated to establish whether they are economically viable given the forecast skill improvement they produce. Second, the WRF model is being used in conjunction with ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ensemble forecasts to produce a probabilistic weather forecasting product. Due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, a single, deterministic weather forecast can only have limited skill. The ECMWF ensemble methods produce an ensemble of 51 global forecasts, twice a day, by perturbing initial conditions of a 'control' forecast which is the best estimate of the initial state of the atmosphere. This method provides an indication of the reliability of the forecast and a quantitative basis for probabilistic forecasting. The limitation of ensemble forecasting lies in the fact that the perturbed model runs behave differently under different weather patterns and each model run is equally likely to be closest to the observed weather situation. Models have biases, and involve assumptions about physical processes and forcing factors such as underlying topography. Third, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is being applied to the output from the ensemble forecasts in order to statistically post-process the results and achieve a better wind forecasting system. BMA is a promising technique that will offer calibrated

  18. Expert systems applied to two problems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.Y.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation describes two prototype expert systems applied to two problems in nuclear power plants. One problem is spare parts inventory control, and the other one is radionuclide release from containment during severe accident. The expert system for spare parts inventory control can handle spare parts requirements not only in corrective, preventive, or predictive maintenance, but also when failure rates of components or parts are updated by new data. Costs and benefits of spare parts inventory acquisition are evaluated with qualitative attributes such as spare part availability to provide the inventory manager with an improved basis for decision making. The expert system is implemented with Intelligence/Compiler on an IBM-AT. The other expert system for radionuclide release from containment can estimate magnitude, type, location, and time of release of radioactive materials from containment during a severe accident nearly on line, based on the actual measured physical parameters such as temperature and pressure inside the containment. The expert system has a function to check the validation of sensor data. The expert system is implemented with KEE on a Symbolics LISP machine

  19. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  20. Nonlinear model updating applied to the IMAC XXXII Round Robin benchmark system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mehmet; Moore, Keegan J.; Eriten, Melih; McFarland, D. Michael; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2017-05-01

    We consider the application of a new nonlinear model updating strategy to a computational benchmark system. The approach relies on analyzing system response time series in the frequency-energy domain by constructing both Hamiltonian and forced and damped frequency-energy plots (FEPs). The system parameters are then characterized and updated by matching the backbone branches of the FEPs with the frequency-energy wavelet transforms of experimental and/or computational time series. The main advantage of this method is that no nonlinearity model is assumed a priori, and the system model is updated solely based on simulation and/or experimental measured time series. By matching the frequency-energy plots of the benchmark system and its reduced-order model, we show that we are able to retrieve the global strongly nonlinear dynamics in the frequency and energy ranges of interest, identify bifurcations, characterize local nonlinearities, and accurately reconstruct time series. We apply the proposed methodology to a benchmark problem, which was posed to the system identification community prior to the IMAC XXXII (2014) and XXXIII (2015) Conferences as a "Round Robin Exercise on Nonlinear System Identification". We show that we are able to identify the parameters of the non-linear element in the problem with a priori knowledge about its position.

  1. Norm estimates of complex symmetric operators applied to quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil; Garcia, Stephan R; Putinar, Mihai

    2006-01-01

    This paper communicates recent results in the theory of complex symmetric operators and shows, through two non-trivial examples, their potential usefulness in the study of Schroedinger operators. In particular, we propose a formula for computing the norm of a compact complex symmetric operator. This observation is applied to two concrete problems related to quantum mechanical systems. First, we give sharp estimates on the exponential decay of the resolvent and the single-particle density matrix for Schroedinger operators with spectral gaps. Second, we provide new ways of evaluating the resolvent norm for Schroedinger operators appearing in the complex scaling theory of resonances

  2. Applying Distributed Object Technology to Distributed Embedded Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Dalgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our Java RMI inspired Object Request Broker architecture MicroRMI for use with networked embedded devices. MicroRMI relieves the software developer from the tedious and error-prone job of writing communication protocols for interacting with such embedded devices. MicroR...... in developing control systems for distributed embedded platforms possessing severe resource restrictions.......RMI supports easy integration of high-level application specific control logic with low-level device specific control logic. Our experience from applying MicroRMI in the context of a distributed robotics control application, clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to use distributed object technology...

  3. Can casemix-systems be applied in Danish primary care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Anders; Kristensen, Troels

    -sectional study uses individual data on gender, age and diagnoses for the year 2013 from the Danish General Practice Database (DAMD) to make ACG groupings of a sample of 700,443 citizens of Zealand in Denmark. The Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups ACG software, Version 10 December 2011 was applied to make...... that the corresponding ACG / RUB-grouping provide useful estimates of morbidity burden (casemix) and related resource need. Before a casemix system is implemented in Denmark, however, further research should be undertaken of the applicability of the DAMD data and the corresponding ACG groupings....

  4. Applied Information Systems Research Program (AISRP). Workshop 2: Meeting Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Earth and space science participants were able to see where the current research can be applied in their disciplines and computer science participants could see potential areas for future application of computer and information systems research. The Earth and Space Science research proposals for the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program were under evaluation. Therefore, this effort was not discussed at the AISRP Workshop. OSSA's other high priority area in computer science is scientific visualization, with the entire second day of the workshop devoted to it.

  5. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  6. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  7. An enterprise energy-information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swords, B.; Coyle, E. [School of Control Systems and Electrical Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin 8 (Ireland); Norton, B. [President, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier St., Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2008-01-15

    This paper outlines the background, development, and assessment of a prototype enterprise energy information system (EEIS) that supports strategic energy-management by providing comprehensive energy monitoring and targeting, integrating with energy modelling software and enterprise business databases, and supporting measurement and verification (M and V). The EEIS prototype system was developed and assessed in an industrial site and a third-level education institution with colleges throughout Dublin. The industrial site provided the opportunity for the EEIS to meet the requirements of a large energy intensive site, and to integrate with energy modelling software. The higher education establishment accommodated the development of a networked energy-information system. (author)

  8. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelesen, Peter [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  9. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  10. Managing urban energy system: A case of Suzhou in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Managing urban energy system is vital for energy conservation and CO 2 reduction. Integrating energy input-output model with carbon emission pinch analysis, we propose a framework for managing urban energy system. This framework could analyze current energy demands and CO 2 emissions, predict their future possibilities and optimize energy mix of key sectors under CO 2 emission constraints. Key sectors are identified by the energy input-output table from both direct and accumulative perspectives. Moreover, taking Suzhou, a typical manufacturing center and export-oriented city in China, as a case example, energy metabolism of Suzhou in 2020 is predicted using energy input-output model. And three sectors named Coking, Smelting and pressing of metals and Production and supply of electric power are identified to have big effects on CO 2 emissions. Subsequently, energy mix of three identified key sectors is optimized under CO 2 emission constraints by the carbon emission pinch analysis. According to the results, clean energy sources will occupy a great position in Suzhou's future energy demands. And the reuse of wastes as energy sources should be limited to achieve CO 2 mitigation targets. Finally, policy implications of results and future work are discussed. - Research highlights: → We construct a framework for sustainable energy system management. → We apply the framework in a typical manufacturing center named Suzhou in China. → Key sectors for CO 2 emissions are identified, and energy mix is optimized. → Policy implications of results and future work are discussed.

  11. The role of cogeneration systems in sustainability of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakir, Uğur; Çomakli, Kemal; Yüksel, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy source on the world is tending to run out day by day while the energy need of humanity is increasing simultaneously. ► There are two ways to overcome this problem; one of them is renewable energy sources like solar or wind energy systems. ► The other way is like cogeneration systems. ► Cogeneration system is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. ► A case study is made for a hospital to present the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Cogeneration system (CHP) is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. When compared to separate fossil-fired generation of heat and electricity, CHP may result in a consistent energy conservation (usually ranging from 10% to 30%) while the avoided CO 2 emissions are, as a first approximation, similar to the amount of energy saving. In terms of sustainability, one of the primary considerations is energy efficiency. Sustainable energy is considered as a kind of energy which is renewable and continuous, meaning that the use of such energy can potentially be kept up well into the future without causing harmful repercussions for future generations. In this study, environmental benefits and sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems and importance of those systems to the use of sustainable energy are underlined. To support this idea, first we have referred some scientific studies previously made on cogeneration systems and then we have used our own case study. The case study made on gas engined cogeneration system was applied for a hospital to show the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems.

  12. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  13. Evaluation of two typical distributed energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaomiao; Tan, Xiu

    2018-03-01

    According to the two-natural gas distributed energy system driven by gas engine driven and gas turbine, in this paper, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to measure the distributed energy system from the two parties of “quantity” and “quality”. The calculation results show that the internal combustion engine driven distributed energy station has a higher energy efficiency, but the energy efficiency is low; the gas turbine driven distributed energy station energy efficiency is high, but the primary energy utilization rate is relatively low. When configuring the system, we should determine the applicable natural gas distributed energy system technology plan and unit configuration plan according to the actual load factors of the project and the actual factors such as the location, background and environmental requirements of the project. “quality” measure, the utilization of waste heat energy efficiency index is proposed.

  14. Applying principles of health system strengthening to eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Blanchet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Health systems have now become the priority focus of researchers and policy makers, who have progressively moved away from a project-centred perspectives. The new tendency is to facilitate a convergence between health system developers and disease-specific programme managers in terms of both thinking and action, and to reconcile both approaches: one focusing on integrated health systems and improving the health status of the population and the other aiming at improving access to health care. Eye care interventions particularly in developing countries have generally been vertically implemented (e.g. trachoma, cataract surgeries often with parallel organizational structures or specialised disease specific services. With the emergence of health system strengthening in health strategies and in the service delivery of interventions there is a need to clarify and examine inputs in terms governance, financing and management. This present paper aims to clarify key concepts in health system strengthening and describe the various components of the framework as applied in eye care interventions.

  15. An improved AVC strategy applied in distributed wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. N.; Liu, Q. H.; Song, S. Y.; Mao, W.

    2016-08-01

    Traditional AVC strategy is mainly used in wind farm and only concerns about grid connection point, which is not suitable for distributed wind power system. Therefore, this paper comes up with an improved AVC strategy applied in distributed wind power system. The strategy takes all nodes of distribution network into consideration and chooses the node having the most serious voltage deviation as control point to calculate the reactive power reference. In addition, distribution principles can be divided into two conditions: when wind generators access to network on single node, the reactive power reference is distributed according to reactive power capacity; when wind generators access to network on multi-node, the reference is distributed according to sensitivity. Simulation results show the correctness and reliability of the strategy. Compared with traditional control strategy, the strategy described in this paper can make full use of generators reactive power output ability according to the distribution network voltage condition and improve the distribution network voltage level effectively.

  16. Applied systems ecology: models, data, and statistical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L L

    1976-01-01

    In this report, systems ecology is largely equated to mathematical or computer simulation modelling. The need for models in ecology stems from the necessity to have an integrative device for the diversity of ecological data, much of which is observational, rather than experimental, as well as from the present lack of a theoretical structure for ecology. Different objectives in applied studies require specialized methods. The best predictive devices may be regression equations, often non-linear in form, extracted from much more detailed models. A variety of statistical aspects of modelling, including sampling, are discussed. Several aspects of population dynamics and food-chain kinetics are described, and it is suggested that the two presently separated approaches should be combined into a single theoretical framework. It is concluded that future efforts in systems ecology should emphasize actual data and statistical methods, as well as modelling.

  17. A Novel Surveillance System Applied in Civil Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hua Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional security monitoring of civil airport usually uses a fixed camera to acquire images. There are several problems with performance including difficulties introduced in the information transmission, storage, and analysis of the process. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target capture and these have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. This paper contributes to this research by proposing a new surveillance system applied in civil airport. We discuss the finished bionic structure of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduce the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and image mosaic. Image matching for large view is also illustrated with different conditions. This mode and algorithm effectively achieve safety surveillance of airport with large field of view and high real-time processing.

  18. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  19. Energy Management Systems to Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oriti, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY An energy management system comprises an electrical energy storage element such as a battery, renewable electrical energy sources such as solar and wind, a digital signal processing controller and a solid state power converter to interface the elements together. This hardware demonstration in the lab at the Naval Postgraduate School will focus on solid state power conversion methods to improve the reliability and efficiency of electrical energy consumption by Navy facilit...

  20. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  1. Dynamics of System of Systems and Applications to Net Zero Energy Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    collections and applied it in a variety of ways to energy - related problems. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY...UU UU 05-10-2017 1-Oct-2011 30-Sep-2016 Dynamics of System of Systems and Applications to Net Zero Energy Facilities The views, opinions and/or...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Koopman operator analysis, Energy systems REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10

  2. Applying systems ergonomics methods in sport: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Plant, Katherine L; Read, Gemma J M; Mclean, Scott; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M

    2018-04-16

    As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management. Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for the dates 01 January 1990 to 01 August 2017, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. Reported analyses were underpinned by a recognised systems ergonomics method, and study aims were related to the optimisation of sports performance (e.g. communication, playing style, technique, tactics, or equipment), and/or the management of sports injury (i.e. identification, prevention, or treatment). A total of seven articles were identified. Two articles were focussed on understanding and optimising sports performance, whereas five examined sports injury management. The methods used were the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork, Cognitive Work Analysis (the Work Domain Analysis Abstraction Hierarchy), Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes method. The individual sport application was distance running, whereas the team sports contexts examined were cycling, football, Australian Football League, and rugby union. The included systems ergonomics applications were highly flexible, covering both amateur and elite sports contexts. The studies were rated as valuable, providing descriptions of injury controls and causation, the factors influencing injury management, the allocation of responsibilities for injury prevention, as well as the factors and their interactions underpinning sports performance. Implications and future

  3. Building Energy Assessment and Computer Simulation Applied to Social Housing in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aranda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual energy consumption and simulated energy performance of a building usually differ. This gap widens in social housing, owing to the characteristics of these buildings and the consumption patterns of economically vulnerable households affected by energy poverty. The aim of this work is to characterise the energy poverty of the households that are representative of those residing in social housing, specifically in blocks of apartments in Southern Europe. The main variables that affect energy consumption and costs are analysed, and the models developed for software energy-performance simulations (which are applied to predict energy consumption in social housing are validated against actual energy-consumption values. The results demonstrate that this type of household usually lives in surroundings at a temperature below the average thermal comfort level. We have taken into account that a standard thermal comfort level may lead to significant differences between computer-aided energy building simulation and actual consumption data (which are 40–140% lower than simulated consumption. This fact is of integral importance, as we use computer simulation to predict building energy performance in social housing.

  4. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  5. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  6. Generic Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm for Combined Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Brezet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm which originally was dedicated only to photovoltaic (PV systems [1] are extended towards a Model and Algorithm suitable for combined systems which are a result of integration of two or more renewable energy sources into one. The systems under investigation will range from mobile portable devices up to the large renewable energy system conceivably to be applied at the Afsluitdijk (Closure- dike in the north of the Netherlands. This Afsluitdijk is the major dam in the Netherlands, damming off the Zuiderzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea and turning it into the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer. The energy chain of power supplies based on a combination of renewable energy sources can be modeled by using one generic Energy Matching Model as starting point.

  7. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  8. Applying the computer code ''beam scanning' for obtaining the electron beam energy spectrum and monitoring the beam scanning system with a faraday cup and edge current sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The results of experiments simulation, obtained in the development of technique for controlling the parameters of the electron beam in a compact radiation sterilization installation are presented. Calculations were performed with a help of a computer code ''BEAM SCANNING'', developed in MRTI. Proposed a method to obtain the spectrum of the electron beam by simulation the experiments in which a Faraday cup waveforms were measured. Preliminary results are presented. Also the results of the experiments and calculations obtained in the development of the amplitude angle sensors are presented. The experiments for the beam irradiation of lead plates proposed as current sensors were modeled. Results are presented in comparison with experimental data. Also are presented the simulation results for the device designed to control scanning system.

  9. Advanced solar irradiances applied to satellite and ionospheric operational systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Schunk, Robert; Eccles, Vince; Bouwer, Dave

    Satellite and ionospheric operational systems require solar irradiances in a variety of time scales and spectral formats. We describe the development of a system using operational grade solar irradiances that are applied to empirical thermospheric density models and physics-based ionospheric models used by operational systems that require a space weather characterization. The SOLAR2000 (S2K) and SOLARFLARE (SFLR) models developed by Space Environment Technologies (SET) provide solar irradiances from the soft X-rays (XUV) through the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum. The irradiances are provided as integrated indices for the JB2006 empirical atmosphere density models and as line/band spectral irradiances for the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM) developed by the Space Environment Corporation (SEC). We describe the integration of these irradiances in historical, current epoch, and forecast modes through the Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS). CAPS provides real-time and forecast HF radio availability for global and regional users and global total electron content (TEC) conditions.

  10. Management information system applied to radiation protection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela; Figueiredo, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    An effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. The complex and multisource information flux from all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations requires a robust tool/system to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Those organized and processed data are useful to reach a successful management and to support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents recent improvements on a management information system based on the radiation protection directives and regulations from Brazilian regulatory body. This radiation protection control system is applied to any radiation protection services and research institutes subjected to Brazilian nuclear regulation and is a powerful tool for continuous management, not only indicating how the health and safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned showing up the critical points. (author)

  11. Management information system applied to radiation protection services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela; Figueiredo, Arthur, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br, E-mail: lss@cdtn.br, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: arthurqof@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. The complex and multisource information flux from all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations requires a robust tool/system to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Those organized and processed data are useful to reach a successful management and to support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents recent improvements on a management information system based on the radiation protection directives and regulations from Brazilian regulatory body. This radiation protection control system is applied to any radiation protection services and research institutes subjected to Brazilian nuclear regulation and is a powerful tool for continuous management, not only indicating how the health and safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned showing up the critical points. (author)

  12. Electric vehicle energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  13. Studies on energy system for an energy-saving society; Sho energy gata shakai ni okeru energy system kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The system to which new energy technology and energy saving technology were introduced was constructed for case studies of urban areas including core cities and the peripheral areas, and the quantitative analysis was conducted on environmental effects, etc. In the energy supply system model, the following element technologies were all considered: cogeneration system, sewage water heat, river water heat, the photovoltaic power generation, energy storage/heat storage/cold heat storage, adsorption type refrigerator, etc. Also considered were power interchange between clusters, system power buying/power selling, heat interchange or no heat interchange, etc. As a result, it was found that when constructing the energy system which synthetically takes into account thermoelectric ratios, rates of simultaneous loads, ratios of daytime/nighttime in the energy supply and demand in the urban area, the energy saving effect multiplicatively increases, and the energy system using cogeneration and unused energy such as refuse and sewage in the urban area and river water brings an energy saving effect of 32% especially in the concentrated cluster. 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  14. Pilot fluidized bed combustor system applied to thermal energy production from light hydrocarbons - part I: description and hydrodynamics analysis; Sistema combustor piloto a leito fluidizado para producao de energia termica a partir de hidrocarbonetos leves. Parte I: descricao e analise hidrodinamica do sistema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro P. de; Souza Junior, Francisco de Assis; Alves, Stella M.A.; Estevao, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lucena, Sergio; Souza, Phillipi R. de O. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Controle e Otimizacao de Processos; Santos, Douglas A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    During the last years, the employment of light hydrocarbons in combustion systems for power generation has been announced by Brazilian Government's like a great bet for diversification the energetic matrix in spite of the provisional crisis. As consequence, high demand and growing R and D investments caused immediate reflexes in all economical and industrial sectors of the Natural Gas chain, mainly considering the gas from Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo offshore fields offered to the market. Regarding this, Northeast Region of Brazil shows itself to be attentive to the energy market tendencies and to environmental sector, creating conditions for developing new technologies and applications for the gas consumption. Among the possible applications of the gas consumption, the fluidized bed combustion systems are highlighted, like a real alternative for energy applying of the hydrocarbons produced, considering a good safety range to effective environmental demands. Thereby, the present work aimed to perform the description of a pilot fluidized bed combustor system with sand using light hydrocarbons - specifically, natural gas and LPG. Thereby, said pilot fluidized bed combustor operates isothermically without developing flames and/or hot spots. Besides the exposed, a hydrodynamic analysis of the system was made, identifying variables and parameters onto fluidized bed combustion process. (author.

  15. Applying of component system development in object methodology, case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To create computarization target software as a component system has been a very strong requirement for the last 20 years of software developing. Finally, the architectural components are self-contained units, presenting not only partial and overall system behavior, but also cooperating with each other on the basis of their interfaces. Among others, components have allowed flexible modification of processes the behavior of which is the foundation of components behavior without changing the life of the component system. On the other hand, the component system makes it possible, at design time, to create numerous new connections between components and thus creating modified system behaviors. This all enables the company management to perform, at design time, required behavioral changes of processes in accordance with the requirements of changing production and market.The development of software which is generally referred to as SDP (Software Development Process contains two directions. The first one, called CBD (Component–Based Development, is dedicated to the development of component–based systems CBS (Component–based System, the second target is the development of software under the influence of SOA (Service–Oriented Architecture. Both directions are equipped with their different development methodologies. The subject of this paper is only the first direction and application of development of component–based systems in its object–oriented methodologies. The requirement of today is to carry out the development of component-based systems in the framework of developed object–oriented methodologies precisely in the way of a dominant style. In some of the known methodologies, however, this development is not completely transparent and is not even recognized as dominant. In some cases, it is corrected by the special meta–integration models of component system development into an object methodology.This paper presents a case study

  16. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    only. The need for including also the economic policy in the energy planning is illustrated with what is termed the efficiency pittfall. This points towards difficulties in imaging an integrated resource planning combined with a liberalized market. The three variable parameters, population, energy...... service level and technology are demonstrated as the main determinants of future energy consumption. In the concluding remarks, the main flaws of present energy policy and some visions of the future are discussed....

  17. MPA-11: Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices; Overview of an Applied Energy Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew Martin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Our mission is to provide innovative and creative chemical synthesis and materials science solutions to solve materials problems across the LANL missions. Our group conducts basic and applied research in areas related to energy security as well as problems relevant to the Weapons Program.

  18. Conservation voltage regulation (CVR) applied to energy savings by voltage-adjusting equipment through AMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, B.-R.; Chang, C.-A.; Huang, P.-Y.; Kuo, C.-H.; Ye, Z.-J.; Shen, B.-C.; Chen, B.-K.

    2017-11-01

    Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) includes peak demand reduction, energy conservation, carbon emission reduction, and electricity bill reduction. This paper analyzes the energy-reduction of Siwei Feeders with applying CVR, which are situated in Penghu region and equipped with smart meters. Furthermore, the applicable voltage reduction range for the feeders will be explored. This study will also investigate how the CVR effect and energy conservation are improved with the voltage control devices integrated. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the Taiwan Power Company to promote and implement voltage reduction and energy conservation techniques. This study is expected to enhance the energy-reduction performance of the Penghu Low Carbon Island Project.

  19. Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Lee, K. B.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources are increased because of the depletion of natural resources and the increasing pollution level from energy production. The wind energy and the solar energy are most widely used among the renewable energy sources. Power electronics is needed in almost all kinds...... of renewable energy system. It controls the renewable source and interfaces with the load effectively, which can be grid-connected or van work in stand-alone mode. In this presentation, overview of wind and photovoltaic energy systems are introduced. Next, the power electronic circuits behind the most common...

  20. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  1. Identification of wind energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades wind energy is expected to secure a firm share of the total energy production capacity in many countries. To increase competitiveness of wind power with other power sources it is essential to lower the cost of wind energy. Given the design of a turbine, this objective can be

  2. Energy Use in Food System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, C.; Blonk, H.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Nature generates the raw materials for food, fuelled by energy from the sun. However, before food can be consumed, (mineral) energy is required for cultivation, transportation, preparation and conservation purposes. This paper presents and discusses the energy requirements for various categories of

  3. 1st International Symposium on Energy System Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fichtner, Wolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Leibfried, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume address diverse challenges in energy systems, ranging from operational to investment planning problems, from market economics to technical and environmental considerations, from distribution grids to transmission grids and from theoretical considerations to data provision concerns and applied case studies. The International Symposium on Energy System Optimization (ISESO) was held on November 9th and 10th 2015 at the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and was organized by HITS, Heidelberg University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.

  4. Modular Energy Management System Applicable to Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an energy management system is defined as a flexible architecture. This proposal can be applied to home and residential areas when they include generation units. The system has been integrated and tested in a grid-connected microgrid prototype, where optimal power generation profiles...

  5. Integrated electrofuels and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    energy into chemical energy by means of electrolysers, thus connecting fluctuating renewable energy to the vast amount of fuel storage already available in today’s energy systems. The conducted research indicates that electrofuels for heavy-duty transportation are technically and economically viable...... in energy systems and could play an important role in future energy systems. The cross-sector approach in the fuel production, by redirecting the excess electricity to the transport sector, is creating the flexibility and storage buffer for fluctuating electricity. The key concern in the short term should...

  6. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...

  7. The fusion-hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will describe the structure of the system, from energy generation and hydrogen production through distribution to the end users. It will show how stationary energy users will convert to hydrogen and will outline ancillary uses of hydrogen to aid in reducing other forms of pollution. It will show that the adoption of the fusion hydrogen energy system will facilitate the use of renewable energy such as wind and solar. The development of highly efficient fuel cells for production of electricity near the user and for transportation will be outlined. The safety of the hydrogen fusion energy system is addressed. This paper will show that the combination of fusion generation combined with hydrogen distribution will provide a system capable of virtually eliminating the negative impact on the environment from the use of energy by humanity. In addition, implementation of the energy system will provide techniques and tools that can ameliorate environmental problems unrelated to energy use. (Author)

  8. Power Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Power Systems Integration Laboratory Power Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy System Integration Facility's Power Systems Integration Laboratory focuses on the microgrid applications. Photo of engineers testing an inverter in the Power Systems Integration Laboratory

  9. Performance estimation of Tesla turbine applied in small scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei; Li, Xue-song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • One-dimensional model of the Tesla turbine is improved and applied in ORC system. • Working fluid properties and system operating conditions impact efficiency. • The influence of turbine efficiency on ORC system performance is evaluated. • Potential of using Tesla turbine in ORC systems is estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system has been proven to be an effective method for the low grade energy utilization. In small scale applications, the Tesla turbine offers an attractive option for the organic expander if an efficient design can be achieved. The Tesla turbine is simple in structure and is easy to be manufactured. This paper improves the one-dimensional model for the Tesla turbine, which adopts a non-dimensional formulation that identifies the dimensionless parameters that dictates the performance features of the turbine. The model is used to predict the efficiency of a Tesla turbine that is applied in a small scale ORC system. The influence of the working fluid properties and the operating conditions on the turbine performance is evaluated. Thermodynamic analysis of the ORC system with different organic working fluids and under various operating conditions is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the ORC system can generate a considerable net power output. Therefore, the Tesla turbine can be regarded as a potential choice to be applied in small scale ORC systems.

  10. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  11. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  12. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL January 2018 Blockchain concept demonstrated Blockchain to Enable Energy Market in BlockCypher Partnership NREL is partnering with BlockCypher, a blockchain Web services provider, to demonstrate how blockchain technology can support distributed energy markets. For some, the language and

  13. Hyperspectral imaging applied to complex particulate solids systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) is based on the utilization of an integrated hardware and software (HW&SW) platform embedding conventional imaging and spectroscopy to attain both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although HSI was originally developed for remote sensing, it has recently emerged as a powerful process analytical tool, for non-destructive analysis, in many research and industrial sectors. The possibility to apply on-line HSI based techniques in order to identify and quantify specific particulate solid systems characteristics is presented and critically evaluated. The originally developed HSI based logics can be profitably applied in order to develop fast, reliable and lowcost strategies for: i) quality control of particulate products that must comply with specific chemical, physical and biological constraints, ii) performance evaluation of manufacturing strategies related to processing chains and/or realtime tuning of operative variables and iii) classification-sorting actions addressed to recognize and separate different particulate solid products. Case studies, related to recent advances in the application of HSI to different industrial sectors, as agriculture, food, pharmaceuticals, solid waste handling and recycling, etc. and addressed to specific goals as contaminant detection, defect identification, constituent analysis and quality evaluation are described, according to authors' originally developed application.

  14. Rethinking Participation in Smart Energy System Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Imke; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    While the technical layout of smart energy systems is well advanced, the implementation of these systems is slowed down by the current decision-making practice regarding such energy infrastructures. We call for a reorganisation of the decision-making process on local energy planning and address the

  15. The intelligent energy system for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Bindslev, Henrik; Sonderberg Petersen, Leif

    2010-09-15

    In a future energy system non-fossil fuels have taken the lead, end-use technologies are highly efficient and closely interlinked to supply through intelligent energy systems. Climate change issues, security of supply and economic development need to be pursued concurrently. This calls for flexible and intelligent energy system infrastructures that effectively accommodate large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy and let the end-user interact with the supply through advanced ICT. The second important characteristic is intelligent integration of the entire transport sector. The third key area is advanced energy storage facilities in the system and the introduction of super-grids.

  16. Energy Systems Integration: A Convergence of Ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Garrett, B.; MacMillan, S.; Rice, B.; Komomua, C.; O' Malley, M.; Zimmerle, D.

    2012-07-01

    Energy systems integration (ESI) enables the effective analysis, design, and control of these interactions and interdependencies along technical, economic, regulatory, and social dimensions. By focusing on the optimization of energy from all systems, across all pathways, and at all scales, we can better understand and make use of the co-benefits that result to increase reliability and performance, reduce cost, and minimize environmental impacts. This white paper discusses systems integration and the research in new control architectures that are optimized at smaller scales but can be aggregated to optimize energy systems at any scale and would allow replicable energy solutions across boundaries of existing and new energy pathways.

  17. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  18. Applying physical input-output tables of energy to estimate the energy ecological footprint (EEF) of Galicia (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo Penela, Adolfo; Sebastian Villasante, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the achievement of sustainable development constitutes an important constraint in the design of energy policies, being necessary the development of reliable indicators to obtain helpful information about the use of energy resources. The ecological footprint (EF) provides a referential framework for the analysis of human demand for bioproductivity, including energy issues. In this article, the theoretical bases of the footprint analysis are described by applying input-output tables of energy to estimate the Galician energy ecological footprint (EEF). It is concluded that the location of highly polluting industries in Galicia makes the Galician EEF quite higher than more developed regions of Spain. The relevance of the outer component of the Galician EEF is also studied. First, available information seems to indicate that the energy incorporated to the trading of manufactured goods would notably increase the Galician consumption of energy. On the other hand, the inclusion of electricity trade in the EEF analysis, including an adjustment, following the same philosophy as with manufactured goods is proposed. This adjustment would substantially reduce the Galician EEF, as the exported electricity widely exceeds the imported one

  19. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  20. Barometric altimetry system as virtual constellation applied in CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoxiang; Sheng, Peixuan; Du, Jinlin; Zheng, Yongguang; Cai, Xiande; Wu, Haitao; Hu, Yonghui; Hua, Yu; Li, Xiaohui

    2009-03-01

    This work describes the barometric altimetry as virtual constellation applied to the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), which uses the transponders of communication satellites to transfer navigation messages to users. Barometric altimetry depends on the relationship of air pressure varying with altitude in the Earth’s atmosphere. Once the air pressure at a location is measured the site altitude can be found. This method is able to enhance and improve the availability of three-dimensional positioning. The difficulty is that the relation between barometric pressure and altitude is variable in different areas and under various weather conditions. Hence, in order to obtain higher accuracy, we need to acquire the real-time air pressure corresponding to an altimetric region’s reference height. On the other hand, the altimetry method will be applied to satellite navigation system, but the greatest difficulty lies in how to get the real-time air pressure value at the reference height in the broad areas overlaid by satellite navigation. We propose an innovational method to solve this problem. It is to collect the real-time air pressures and temperatures of the 1860 known-altitude weather observatories over China and around via satellite communication and to carry out time extrapolation forecast uniformly. To reduce data quantity, we first partition the data and encode them and then broadcast these information via navigation message to CAPS users’ receivers. Upon the interpolations being done in receivers, the reference air pressure and temperature at the receiver’s nearby place is derived. Lastly, combing with the receiver-observed real air pressure and temperature, the site’s altitude can be determined. The work is presented in the following aspects: the calculation principle, formulae, data collection, encoding, prediction, interpolation method, navigation message transmission together with errors causes and analyses. The advantages and shortcomings of the

  1. Designing and visualizing the water-energy-food nexus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, A.; Kumazawa, T.; Yamada, M.; Kato, T.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to design and visualize a water-energy-food nexus system to identify the interrelationships between water-energy-food (WEF) resources and to understand the subsequent complexity of WEF nexus systems holistically, taking an interdisciplinary approach. Object-oriented concepts and ontology engineering methods were applied according to the hypothesis that the chains of changes in linkages between water, energy, and food resources holistically affect the water-energy-food nexus system, including natural and social systems, both temporally and spatially. The water-energy-food nexus system that is developed is significant because it allows us to: 1) visualize linkages between water, energy, and food resources in social and natural systems; 2) identify tradeoffs between these resources; 3) find a way of using resources efficiently or enhancing the synergy between the utilization of different resources; and 4) aid scenario planning using economic tools. The paper also discusses future challenges for applying the developed water-energy-food nexus system in other areas.

  2. Implementation and rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at US industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of 5 years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well. - Highlights: ► We examine uptake/rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures. ► We examine metrics that correspond to uptake/rejection of recommended measures. ► We examine barriers hindering steam system energy efficiency measure implementation. ► Uptake/rejection of steam measures is linked to potential cost metrics. ► Increased uptake of measures and uptake of more costly measures increases with time

  3. Environmentally-adapted local energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, N; Oefverholm, E [NUTEK, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Owe [EKAN Gruppen (Sweden); Froste, H [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Energy companies, municipalities, property companies, firms of consultants, environmental groups and individuals are examples of players working locally to shape environmentally adapted energy systems. These players have needed information making them better able to make decisions on cost-efficient, environmentally-adapted energy systems. This book answers many of the questions they have put. The volume is mainly based on Swedish handbooks produced by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, together with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. These handbooks have been used in conjunction with municipal energy planning, local Agenda 21 work, to provide a basis for deciding on concrete local energy systems. The contents in brief: -The book throws new light on the concept of energy efficiency; -A section on the environment compares how air-polluting emissions vary with different methods of energy production; -A section contains more than 40 ideas for measures which can be profitable, reduce energy consumption and the impact on the environment all at the same time; -The book gives concrete examples of new, alternative and environmentally-adapted local energy systems. More efficient use of energy is included as a possible change of energy system; -The greatest emphasis is laid upon alternative energy systems for heating. It may be heating in a house, block of flats, office building or school; -Finally, there are examples of environmentally-adapted local energy planning.

  4. Energy Doubler cryoloop temperature monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.; Howard, D.

    1981-10-01

    The Cryoloop Temperature Monitor System is a fully electronic system designed to monitor temperature at key points in the Energy Doubler cryoloop system. It is used for cryoloop diagnostics, temperature studies, and cooldown valve control

  5. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  6. Introduction to wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H.-J.

    2017-07-01

    This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  7. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, July-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 September 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into four sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigations, supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), reports on neotectonic investigations of the Manhattan Prong. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains three articles. The first is an evaluation of the Einstein refrigerator, supported by independent IR&D funds. The second concerns OTEC pilot plant performance calculations, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST). The third, describing a study of landfill methane recovery, is supported by the National Park Service.

  8. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    distributed energy resourcessolar panels, wind turbines, microgrids, and battery storagethat use smart ) panels respond to changes in solar conditions. In addition to the design and construction of the new

  9. Adaptive control of energy storage systems for power smoothing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) are desired and widely applied for power smoothing especially in systems with renewable generation and pulsed loads. High-pass-filter (HPF) is commonly applied in those applications in which the HPF extracts the high frequency fluctuating power and uses...... that as the power reference for ESS. The cut-off frequency, as the critical parameter, actually decides the power/energy compensated by ESS. Practically the state-of-charge (SoC) of the ESS has to be limited for safety and life-cycle considerations. In this paper an adaptive cut-off frequency design is proposed...

  10. Simplified energy design economics: Principles of economics applied to energy conservation and solar energy investments in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H. E.; Ruegg, R. T.; Wilson, F.

    1980-01-01

    Economic analysis techniques for evaluating alternative energy conservation investments in buildings are presented. Life cycle cost, benefit cost, savings to investment, payback, and rate of return analyses are explained and illustrated. The procedure for discounting is described for a heat pump investment. Formulas, tables of discount factors, and detailed instructions are provided to give all information required to make economic evaluations of energy conserving building designs.

  11. Energy field of thermodynamic syste'ms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenkova, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    To reveal the qualitative and quantitative rules, regulating the properties of macro- and microsystems consideration is being given to the dependence of system enthalpy on environmental conditions. It was concluded that the dependence of material system enthalpy on temperature represents the energy field, containing the energy boundaries of phase states, described by exponential functions, in which the elements are arranged monotonically in the sequence of change of interatomic bonds, correlated with their physicomechanical properties; energy boundaries of phase states at that emanate from a single point, which is a reference a single point, which a reference one for the whole material system and determining its energy state in initial position. The presented energy field of thermodynamic systems enables to consider the change of their physicomechanical properties and energy state in dynamic process, depending on environmental parameters. Energy characteristics of single-component systems (W, Re, Hf, Nb, Mo etc) are given

  12. Optimal Investment Planning of Bulk Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Khastieva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have the ambition to increase the share of renewable sources in electricity generation. However, continuously varying renewable sources, such as wind power or solar energy, require that the power system can manage the variability and uncertainty of the power generation. One solution to increase flexibility of the system is to use various forms of energy storage, which can provide flexibility to the system at different time ranges and smooth the effect of variability of the renewable generation. In this paper, we investigate three questions connected to investment planning of energy storage systems. First, how the existing flexibility in the system will affect the need for energy storage investments. Second, how presence of energy storage will affect renewable generation expansion and affect electricity prices. Third, who should be responsible for energy storage investments planning. This paper proposes to assess these questions through two different mathematical models. The first model is designed for centralized investment planning and the second model deals with a decentralized investment approach where a single independent profit maximizing utility is responsible for energy storage investments. The models have been applied in various case studies with different generation mixes and flexibility levels. The results show that energy storage system is beneficial for power system operation. However, additional regulation should be considered to achieve optimal investment and allocation of energy storage.

  13. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccenini, E; Bettuzzi, M; Brancaccio, R; Casali, F; Morigi, M P; Albertin, F; Petrucci, F

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described

  14. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccenini, E.; Albertin, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Petrucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described.

  15. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li, Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach. (author)

  16. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Li Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  17. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Pei [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N., E-mail: e.pistikopoulos@imperial.ac.u [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  18. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, October-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into five sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains a report on institutional problems for small-scale hydroelectric power development in the southeastern states and a list of documents published by APL in the hydroelectric program and in the geothermal program, above. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigations, contains an article on work on the geologic structure of the Danbury Quadrangle that is supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and an in-house supported study on a new method for assessing earthquakes in intraplate regions. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains four articles. The first is an evaluation of the Einstein refrigerator, supported by independent IR and D funds. The second concerns fly-wheel technology development at APL supported by the Department of Energy, Division of Energy Storage (DOE/STOR). The third is a report on APL energy conservation efforts at its own buildings, and the fourth is an article on liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety evaluation, supported by the National Academy of Sciences. The fifth section explores the value of establishing an Energy Research Institute at The Johns Hopkins University.

  19. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  20. Energy Prices and Internal Costs in Croatian Energy System Restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V. , Magdic, M.

    1995-01-01

    After social and political changes in 1990, energy prices in Croatia have been getting closer to the West European averages, faster than in the most European countries in transition. The energy prices for industry are almost at the West European level, while the energy prices of electricity and natural gas for households and those of the gasoline are well behind. If the population purchasing power parity (PPP) is taken into account, these relations change. While the internalization of external energy costs is under way in the developed world, it has not practically started yet in Croatia. The Croatian energy system restructuring shall require gradual adjustment of energy prices, together with multistage internalization of external energy costs. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Adaptive Robotic Systems Design in University of Applied Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsing Jos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industry for highly specialized machine building (small series with high variety and high complexity and in healthcare a demand for adaptive robotics is rapidly coming up. Technically skilled people are not always available in sufficient numbers. A lot of know how with respect to the required technologies is available but successful adaptive robotic system designs are still rare. In our research at the university of applied sciences we incorporate new available technologies in our education courses by way of research projects; in these projects students will investigate the application possibilities of new technologies together with companies and teachers. Thus we are able to transfer knowledge to the students including an innovation oriented attitude and skills. Last years we developed several industrial binpicking applications for logistics and machining-factories with different types of 3D vision. Also force feedback gripping has been developed including slip sensing. Especially for healthcare robotics we developed a so-called twisted wire actuator, which is very compact in combination with an underactuated gripper, manufactured in one piece in polyurethane. We work both on modeling and testing the functions of these designs but we work also on complete demonstrator systems. Since the amount of disciplines involved in complex product and machine design increases rapidly we pay a lot of attention with respect to systems engineering methods. Apart from the classical engineering disciplines like mechanical, electrical, software and mechatronics engineering, especially for adaptive robotics more and more disciplines like industrial product design, communication … multimedia design and of course physics and even art are to be involved depending on the specific application to be designed. Design tools like V-model, agile/scrum and design-approaches to obtain the best set of requirements are being implemented in the engineering studies from

  2. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    and Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP). The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts......Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst...... others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity...

  3. An energy saving system for hospital laundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Polykrati, A.D.; Proios, A.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp. S.A., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Hospital laundries are one of the largest consumers of water and electrical and thermal energy. This paper examined the energy savings achieved by a system using the hot wastewater from the washing process. Hospital laundries consume thermal energy using steam, which is produced in boilers by burning diesel oil or natural gas. Electrical energy for the mechanical drives, ventilation and also the lighting required in the laundry area are big consumers of energy. The paper presented the proposed system and discussed the parameters of the system and system dimensioning. The paper also provided and discussed an interpretation of steam and energy savings. The proposed system was considered to be economically viable, simple in its construction, installation and operation. From the application of the suggested system, the cost savings resulted in a satisfactory payback period for the capital invested of approximately three to five years. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  5. Computer aided instrumented Charpy test applied dynamic fracture toughness evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshiro; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    1986-01-01

    Micro computer aided data treatment system and personal computer aided data analysis system were applied to the traditional instrumented Charpy impact test system. The analysis of Charpy absorbed energy (E i , E p , E t ) and load (P y , P m ), and the evaluation of dynamic toughness through whole fracture process, i.e. J Id , J R curve and T mat was examined using newly developed computer aided instrumented Charpy impact test system. E i , E p , E t , P y and P m were effectively analyzed using moving average method and printed out automatically by micro computer aided data treatment system. J Id , J R curve and T mat could be measured by stop block test method. Then, J Id , J R curve and T mat were effectively estimated using compliance changing rate method and key curve method on the load-load point displacement curve of single fatigue cracked specimen by personal computer aided data analysis system. (author)

  6. Development of energy management system - Case study of Serbian car manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordic, Dusan; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Sustersic, Vanja; Koncalovic, Davor; Jelic, Dubravka

    2010-01-01

    The procedure of development of energy management system applied to an existing company (Serbian car producer 'Zastava') is shown in the paper. The aim of the paper is to provide a guideline for entrepreneurs in metal-working industry in implementing energy management system. First of all, paper includes: critical analysis of existing energy management system (energy matrix), principles of effective energy management organization (with energy manager and energy team in its structure) and energy management politics. Based on the results of energy auditing and performed technological and economical feasibility studies several energy saving measures related to different energy sources (steam, hot water, compressed air, electricity and water) were proposed, implemented and valuated. The proposed measures are not exclusively related to car assembly industry; they can be easily applied to other metal-working facilities with minor modifications. Such energy management system reduces energy costs and increase profitability of a factory.

  7. Feasibility evaluation of two solar cooling systems applied to a cuban hotel. Comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz Torres, Yamile; Valdivia Nodal, Yarelis; Monteagudo Yanes, José Pedro; Miranda Torres, Yudit

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of technical and economic feasibility of using two configurations of solar cooling in a Cuban hotel. HVAC hybrid schemes are: a cooler of ice water vapor compression (chiller) interconnected in parallel with a smaller capacity chiller, first with a solar-powered absorption cooling system (SACS), and then with a photovoltaic cooling system(PSC). Both were simulated taking into account the weather conditions in the region, thermodynamic calculation methodologies and principles that govern these technologies. The results show that the use of these alternatives contributes to reducing energy consumption and the environmental impact of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC). Economic analysis highlights that PCS is more favorable than the SACS taking into account the cooling cost generation (CCG) but energy assessment indicates that SACS has higher thermal performance for the case study to which it is applied. (author)

  8. Energy accounting in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, J.L.; Essam, P.; Stocks, K.

    1976-01-01

    Energy analysis is a systematic way of tracing and accounting for the flows of energy through an industrial system and apportioning a quantity of the primary energy input to each of the goods and services sent out. The application of energy accounting to nuclear power stations and their growth in generating systems is discussed. Misunderstandings arising from discrepancies and weaknesses in some published simple analyses of hypothetical growth situations are outlined. Results of a more complex energy flow analysis are used to demonstrate that current nuclear energy programs are running at an energy profit. Large fossil fuel savings will occur in a real electrical grid system under anticipated nuclear power growth rates. These savings will give a new dimension in planning the use of fossil energy resources which will still be needed for transport and industrial processes, such as steelmaking, for some time to come. (author)

  9. Energy accounting in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, J.L.; Essam, P.; Stocks, K.

    1975-10-01

    Energy analysis is a systematic way of tracing and accounting for the flows of energy through an industrial system and apportioning a quantity of the primary energy input of the goods and services sent out. The application of energy accounting to nuclear power stations and their growth in generating systems is discussed. Misunderstandings arising from discrepancies and weaknesses in some published simple analyses of hypothetical growth situations are outlined. Results of a more complex energy flow analysis are used to demonstrate that current nuclear energy programs are running at an energy profit. Large fossil fuel savings will occur in a real electrical grid system under anticipated nuclear power growth rates. These savings will give a new dimension in planning the use of fossil energy resources which will still be needed for transport and industrial processes, such as steel-making, for some time to come. (author)

  10. WiFi Data Acquisition System Applied to a Photovoltaic Powered Water Pumping Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro César Silveira JUCÁ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes how to design and assemble a low cost online monitoring and WiFi data acquisition system using free software applied to microgeneration based on renewable energy sources. The development of online monitoring systems for microgeneration plants based on renewable energy sources is becoming more important, considering that monitoring and data acquisition systems are applicable in stages of the microgeneration process. The monitoring and data acquisition WiFi system was developed using an embedded WiFi modem (Wifly coupled to a microcontrolled board based on the free tool SanUSB. This monitoring system was applied to a photovoltaic (PV water pumping plant without batteries, so as the control system and the wireless communication with the online server, which is also autonomous and powered by PV panel. The free software for online monitoring and WiFi data acquisition allows the analysis of stored data and charts through mobile devices as notebooks, tablets and smartphones.

  11. Applying of component system development in object methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2013-01-01

    -oriented methodology (Arlo, Neust, 2007, (Kan, Müller, 2005, (​​Krutch, 2003 for problem domains with double-layer process logic. There is indicated an integration method, based on a certain meta-model (Applying of the Component system Development in object Methodology and leading to the component system formation. The mentioned meta-model is divided into partial workflows that are located in different stages of a classic object process-based methodology. Into account there are taken the consistency of the input and output artifacts in working practices of the meta-model and mentioned object methodology. This paper focuses on static component systems that are starting to explore dynamic and mobile component systems.In addition, in the contribution the component system is understood as a specific system, for its system properties and basic terms notation being used a set and graph and system algebra.

  12. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  13. Energy information systems: a general overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The unprecedented energy crises that engulfed the world in early 1970s brought about a spurt in energy research all over the world, which in turn caused the rapid growth of literature in the field. In order to achieve effective bibliographical control, proper dissemination of information, and rapid access to the desired document, energy information systems of diverse scope came into being. The paper describes the special features of several information systems like (i) International Nuclear Information Systems, which covers world literature on nuclear science and technology (ii) Energy Information Services which takes cares of energy information transfer among the Commonwealth countries of the Asia and Pacific region; (ii) Information Network on New Energy Sources and Technologies for Asia And Pacific. This system is being developed to ensure smooth energy information transfer amongst non-commonwealth countries of Asia and the Pacific. (author)

  14. Energy and Environmental Systems Division 1981 research review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    To effectively manage the nation's energy and natural resources, government and industry leaders need accurate information regarding the performance and economics of advanced energy systems and the costs and benefits of public-sector initiatives. The Energy and Environmental Systems Division (EES) of Argonne National Laboratory conducts applied research and development programs that provide such information through systems analysis, geophysical field research, and engineering studies. During 1981, the division: analyzed the production economics of specific energy resources, such as biomass and tight sands gas; developed and transferred to industry economically efficient techniques for addressing energy-related resource management and environmental protection problems, such as the reclamation of strip-mined land; determined the engineering performance and cost of advanced energy-supply and pollution-control systems; analyzed future markets for district heating systems and other emerging energy technologies; determined, in strategic planning studies, the availability of resources needed for new energy technologies, such as the imported metals used in advanced electric-vehicle batteries; evaluated the effectiveness of strategies for reducing scarce-fuel consumption in the transportation sector; identified the costs and benefits of measures designed to stabilize the financial condition of US electric utilities; estimated the costs of nuclear reactor shutdowns and evaluated geologic conditions at potential sites for permanent underground storage of nuclear waste; evaluated the cost-effectiveness of environmental regulations, particularly those affecting coal combustion; and identified the environmental effects of energy technologies and transportation systems

  15. Energy-Based Controller Design of Stochastic Magnetic Levitation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the control problem of magnetic levitation system, in which velocity feedback signal is influenced by stochastic disturbance. Firstly, single-degree-freedom magnetic levitation is regarded as an energy-transform action device. From the view of energy-balance relation, the magnetic levitation system is transformed into port-controlled Hamiltonian system model. Next, based on the Hamiltonian structure, the control law of magnetic levitation system is designed by applying Lyapunov theory. Finally, the simulation verifies the correctness of the proposed results.

  16. Risk management and energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaro, F.; Romerio, F.

    1992-01-01

    In five sessions the following topics were dealt with: risk problems, risk analysis and evaluation tools, risks in industrial societies, risks of energy production, technological risks, ethics and political-social consensus. figs., tabs., refs

  17. Energy analysis of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Next to economic viability, the holistic energy balance of electricity generation options' is a factor of major importance. All aspects of the energy balance, i. e. all expenditures and all revenues, are compared in a life cycle analysis. This turns out to be a complex task, especially because of the large number of input quantities to be determined, including the balancing limits to be taken into account. The article presents in detail the findings of analyses of energy balances for various types of nuclear power plants as well as electricity generation in fossil-fired power plants, and for renewable energies. The analyses and their databases are discussed. Moreover, the findings are presented for the energetic amortization periods and the amounts of CO 2 emissions specific to the respective generating technologies. (orig.)

  18. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-01-01

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  19. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-07-07

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  20. Facilitating energy transition through energy commons : An application of socio-ecological systems framework for integrated community energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, Cristina; Ortega, Mariana; Bunsen, Till; Koirala, B.P.; Ghorbani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are an emerging local energy system focusing on the collective use of distributed energy resources (DER). These socio-technical systems (STSs) have a high potential to advance the transition towards socially inclusive, environmentally-friendly energy

  1. Facilitating energy transition through energy commons : An application of socio-ecological systems framework for integrated community energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, Cristina; Ortega, Mariana; Bunsen, Till; Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ghorbani, Amineh

    2018-01-01

    Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are an emerging local energy system focusing on the collective use of distributed energy resources (DER). These socio-technical systems (STSs) have a high potential to advance the transition towards socially inclusive, environmentally-friendly energy

  2. Energy database system of NEDO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Noburu

    1990-01-01

    As to the offer of technical information and others to foreign countries by Japan, the state of more import than export has been criticized internationally. The NEDO energy data base explained in this report is to make the international contribution of information, and based on the Energy Technology Data Exchange Agreement concluded between 13 countries taking part in the IEA and France, the participating countries offer their own technical information on energy, the operating organization collects them and makes the data base, and NEDO systematizes it for distribution. The IEA and the activities of exchanging information, the course of starting the Energy Technology Data Exchange Agreement and its contents, and the works of NEDO based on the Agreement are described. As for the literatures which are not sold on the market, their texts are exchanged. As to the composition of the data base, according to the example in 1988, about 1/3 were directly related to energy, and the rest 2/3 were indirectly related to energy technology. The features of the data base and the method of its utilization are explained. (K.I.)

  3. Vertically and Horizontally Mounted Wind Mills : Wind Energy Production in Tampere University of Applied Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to gather information about vertical and horizontal wind mills and to complete a research on wind power production by wind mills which were installed in Tampere University of Applied Sciences. The horizontally mounted wind mill Windspot 3.5 and vertically mounted wind mill Cypress were installed in summer 2011 but they started functioning and supplying energy only during 2012. In the theoretical part of this thesis wind speed and wind power production is dis...

  4. Toward a Blended Ontology: Applying Knowledge Systems to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionanomedicine and environmental research share need common terms and ontologies. This study applied knowledge systems, data mining, and bibliometrics used in nano-scale ADME research from 1991 to 2011. The prominence of nano-ADME in environmental research began to exceed the publication rate in medical research in 2006. That trend appears to continue as a result of the growing products in commerce using nanotechnology, that is, 5-fold growth in number of countries with nanomaterials research centers. Funding for this research virtually did not exist prior to 2002, whereas today both medical and environmental research is funded globally. Key nanoparticle research began with pharmacology and therapeutic drug-delivery and contrasting agents, but the advances have found utility in the environmental research community. As evidence ultrafine aerosols and aquatic colloids research increased 6-fold, indicating a new emphasis on environmental nanotoxicology. User-directed expert elicitation from the engineering and chemical/ADME domains can be combined with appropriate Boolean logic and queries to define the corpus of nanoparticle interest. The study combined pharmacological expertise and informatics to identify the corpus by building logical conclusions and observations. Publication records informatics can lead to an enhanced understanding the connectivity between fields, as well as overcoming the differences in ontology between the fields. The National Exposure Resea

  5. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  6. Systems approach to regional energy/environment management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W K

    1980-08-01

    Energy and environmental systems have become a well-established component of national and regional planning and management. The University of Wisconsin, in collaboration with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and other institutions, has over the past several years conducted a number of case studies in which a family of energy/environment models was developed and applied to the assessment of alternative policies. This linked set of models, which treats energy demand, energy supply, and environmental impacts, has provided long-term planning information to a spectrum of public and private institution in the regions studied. The philosophy has been to maintain the flexibility to handle rapid change with innovation. 17 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  7. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning me...

  8. Smart and usable home energy management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews research into Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). These are intermediary products that can visualize, manage, and/or monitor the energy use of other products or whole households. HEMS have lately received increasing attention for their possible role in conserving energy within

  9. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  10. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Resource Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Schneider Electric Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  11. Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources. A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies, including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution, was developed and applied to a water supply system. The methodology developed includes three solutions: (1 the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed, (2 the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand, and (3 the use of other renewable energy sources, including a wind turbine, to supply energy to the pumping station, with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid. The use of an integrated solution (water and energy proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power, and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations, as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  12. Energy efficiency in a water supply system:Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena M.RAMOS; Filipe VIEIRA; Didia I.C.COVAS

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources.A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies,including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution,was developed and applied to a water supply system.The methodology developed includes three solutions:(1)the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed,(2)the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand,and(3)the use of other renewable energy sources,including a wind turbine,to supply energy to the pumping station,with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid.The use of an integrated solution(water and energy)proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power,and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations,as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  13. Five paradox on energy system management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Five paradox are detailed on energy management: internationalization of energy questions but always regional management is present, short term problems must be solved but without forgetting long term problems in environment, the third paradox is : we have time but we are in a hurry, we have reserves but ten, twenty or thirty years are necessary to adapt our energy system; the fourth paradox is : we cannot manage energy by managing only energy, for example : finances system development and environment importance. The last and fifth paradox is : the market, yes, but state too, as regulative force

  14. Graph theory applied to noise and vibration control in statistical energy analysis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Oriol; Cortés, Lluís

    2009-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of noise and vibration control in statistical energy analysis (SEA) models consists in first identifying and then reducing the energy flow paths between subsystems. In this work, it is proposed to make use of some results from graph theory to address both issues. On the one hand, linear and path algebras applied to adjacency matrices of SEA graphs are used to determine the existence of any order paths between subsystems, counting and labeling them, finding extremal paths, or determining the power flow contributions from groups of paths. On the other hand, a strategy is presented that makes use of graph cut algorithms to reduce the energy flow from a source subsystem to a receiver one, modifying as few internal and coupling loss factors as possible.

  15. Potentialities for the diversification of the energy matrix of the National Center for Applied Electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenguer Ungaro, Mónica Rosario; Yero, Douglas Deás; López Juanes, Pedro; Areas Gilar, Ramón; Prada Sánchez, Jorge; Hernández Rodríguez, Norma Rafaela

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the potential for the diversification of the energy matrix of the National Center for Applied Electromagnetism, CNEA. This evaluation were realize through Three steps . In the first step, were determinated the demand for electricity from the CNEA, the electric bill were the source of information. In the second step, were identified the possible locations, for instalation of the solar panels.the third step, were calculated what percentage of the demand for electrical energy the CNEA that could be covered by the generation with this photovoltaic panels . As a result, five possible locations were identified, all on the CNEA roof. With the proposition we can cover between a 35 and 78% of the demand of CNEA electrical energy. It was recommended to continue with the technical-economic study in order to present a project for the search of the financing. (author)

  16. Energy saving during bulb storage applying modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapounas, A.A.; Campen, J.B.; Wildschut, J.; Bot, G.P. [Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticutlure and Applied Plant Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Tulip bulbs are stored in ventilated containers to avoid high ethylene concentration between the bulbs. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used in this study to examine the distribution of air flow between the containers and the potential energy saving by applying simple solutions concerning the design of the air inlet area and the adjustment of the ventilation rate. The variation in container ventilation was calculated to be between 60 and 180 per cent, with 100 per cent being the average flow through the containers. Various improvement measures were examined. The study showed that 7 per cent energy can be saved by smoothing the sharp corners of the entrance channels of the ventilation wall. The most effective and simple improvement was to cover the open top containers. In this case, the variation was between 80 and 120 per cent. The energy saving was about 38 per cent by adjusting the overall ventilation to the container with the minimal acceptable air flow.

  17. Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out b...... by 11 university and industry partners has improved the basis for decision-making within energy planning and energy scenario making by providing new and improved tools and methods for energy systems analyses.......This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out...

  18. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  19. Thermal Distribution System | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal Distribution System Thermal Distribution System The Energy Systems Integration Facility's . Photo of the roof of the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The thermal distribution bus allows low as 10% of its full load level). The 60-ton chiller cools water with continuous thermal control

  20. Energy Efficient Operation of Distillation Columns and a Reactor Applying Irreversible Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeijer, Gelein M. de

    2002-05-01

    In this thesis the entropy production rates of diabatic distillation columns and a SO{sub 2} converter were minimised. This is the same as maximising the second law energy efficiency of the systems. The development of chemical industry can be made more sustainable by knowing this minimum. We found that the entropy production rate of distillation could be reduced up to 50 %. In order to achieve this reduction, heat exchangers were added on each tray. The characteristics of an optimum distillation column were presented. Furthermore, the entropy production rate of a SO{sub 2} converter was reduced with 16.7 % by altering the heights of catalytic beds, transfer areas of heat exchangers, and temperature differences over heat exchangers. These reductions show that there is still a large improvement potential in chemical industry. By applying the improved operations the world oil production can be reduced in the order of magnitude of 1 %. A similar reduction in the emission of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} can be expected. For deriving the entropy production rate in a systematic manner the theory of irreversible thermodynamics was useful. A simpler and a more complicated equation for the entropy production rate of distillation were derived. The simpler equation used only one force-flux product. It was suitable for minimisation of the entropy production rate of columns with the assumption of equilibrium between the outlets on each tray. The more complicated equation was able to describe satisfactorily the entropy production rate of an experimental column that separated the non-ideal mixture water-ethanol. It was next used to derive an extended set of transport equations for distillation, that includes the interface and the Soret effect (or thermal diffusion). Finally, irreversible thermodynamics was used to describe the contribution to the entropy production rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers. This contribution had a significant impact on the results of the

  1. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  2. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  3. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

      The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...... caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet...... the higher level of energy demand....

  4. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  5. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  6. A nonparametric approach for evaluating long-term energy policy scenarios: An application to the Greek energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos; Tzeremes, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    This paper by using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) constructs four different renewable energy scenarios for the Greek transport, energy, and industry sectors. By projecting the demand for renewable energy and the associated resulting carbon dioxide emissions up to the years 2020 and 2030, the paper applies in a second stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) evaluating the Greek renewable energy policy. As a result, it provides a quantitative measure for future renewable e...

  7. ADVANCES IN ZERO ENERGY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Othman

    2017-01-01

    Hyperloop mass transportation systems are activelydeveloped at the moment. They represent the forefront development of the ZeroEnergy Transportation systems where air drag is minimized by travelling in avacuum and friction is reduced by non-contact bearings. Hyperloop supportersare confident that the cost of their transportation systems would be lowcompared to existing transportation systems because of the low loss andtherefore low energy consumption as well as other cost-saving techniquesdoc...

  8. Comparative risk assessment of total energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses a methodology for total impact assessment of energy systems, ideally evaluating all the impacts that a given energy system has on the society in which it is imbedded or into which its introduction is being considered. Impacts from the entire energy conversion chain ('fuel cycle' if the system is fuel-based), including energy storage, transport and transmission, as well as the institutions formed in order to manage the system, should be compared on the basis of the energy service provided. A number of impacts are considered, broadly classified as impacts on satisfaction of biological needs, on health, on environment, on social relations and on the structure of society. Further considerations include impacts related to cost and resilience, and, last but not least, impacts on global relations. The paper discusses a number of published energy studies in the light of the comparative impact assessment methodology outlined above. (author)

  9. Wind energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with potential users of information on wind energy conversion. These interviews, part of a larger study covering nine different solar technologies, attempted to identify: the type of information each distinctive group of information users needed, and the best way of getting information to that group. Groups studied include: wind energy conversion system researchers; wind energy conversion system manufacturer representatives; wind energy conversion system distributors; wind turbine engineers; utility representatives; educators; county agents and extension service agents; and wind turbine owners.

  10. Restructuring the Energy System. Report of the Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The commission was instructed to examine the current energy policy programs for restructuring and developing the energy system (i.e. phasing out nuclear power and moving to renewable sources) and to analyze the needs for changes; to propose measures for ensuring an efficient electricity supply under the new conditions of a liberalized electricity market; and to present proposals for a schedule for reorganizing the energy system. The report gives a full picture of the Swedish energy system including supply, consumption, prices, environmental impacts, R and D, and international aspects. The commission concludes that one nuclear power plant can be closed during the 1990's without upsetting the power balances. Phasing out all nuclear plants by year 2010 will create problems with the price levels of electricity supply, and will conflict with the CO 2 reduction objective. The proposals for economic control measures for performing the restructuring include: An environmental bonus (or investment support) for environmentally sound electricity production financed by an electricity tax, a tax on nuclear power increasing with the age of the reactors, a reorganization fund to finance new and environmentally acceptable electricity production. Also, energy research should be allotted greater resources, in particular for new technology for electricity production. The commission points towards the possibilities for reducing energy consumption, and especially electricity consumption. Space heating should gradually move away from electric heating. Examples are given on measures for improving energy efficiency and problems with financing such measures should be studied

  11. Energy accounting and optimization for mobile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mian

    Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been widely used by operating system based energy management. While various energy accounting policies have been tried, there is no known way to evaluate them directly simply because it is hard to track every hardware use by software in a heterogeneous multi-core system like modern smartphones and tablets. In this thesis, we provide the ground truth for energy accounting based on multi-player game theory and offer the first evaluation of existing energy accounting policies, revealing their important flaws. The proposed ground truth is based on Shapley value, a single value solution to multi-player games of which four axiomatic properties are natural and self-evident to energy accounting. To obtain the Shapley value-based ground truth, one only needs to know if a process is active during the time under question and the system energy consumption during the same time. We further provide a utility optimization formulation of energy management and show, surprisingly, that energy accounting does not matter for existing energy management solutions that control the energy use of a process by giving it an energy budget, or budget based energy management (BEM). We show an optimal energy management (OEM) framework can always outperform BEM. While OEM does not require any form of energy accounting, it is related to Shapley value in that both require the system energy consumption for all possible combination of processes under question. We provide a novel system solution that meet this requirement by acquiring system energy consumption in situ for an OS scheduler period, i.e.,10 ms. We report a prototype implementation of both Shapley value-based energy accounting and OEM based scheduling. Using this prototype and smartphone workload, we experimentally demonstrate how erroneous existing energy accounting policies can

  12. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  13. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  14. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Poul Alberg Østergaard; Henrik Lund; Brian Vad Mathiesen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigatesa Jordanian energy sc...

  15. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  16. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of industrialised countries, which has consequences for energy modelling. New requirements need to be met by present-day energy models to adequately explore the future of developing countries' energy systems. This paper aims to assess if the main characteristics of developing countries are adequately incorporated in present-day energy models. We first discuss these main characteristics, focusing particularly on developing Asia, and then present a model comparison of 12 selected energy models to test their suitability for developing countries. We conclude that many models are biased towards industrialised countries, neglecting main characteristics of developing countries, e.g. the informal economy, supply shortages, poor performance of the power sector, structural economic change, electrification, traditional bio-fuels, urban-rural divide. To more adequately address the energy systems of developing countries, energy models have to be adjusted and new models have to be built. We therefore indicate how to improve energy models for increasing their suitability for developing countries and give advice on modelling techniques and data requirements

  17. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang (ed.) [Tsinghua Univ. Beijing (China). China Automotive Energy Research Center

    2013-06-01

    The latest research available on automotive energy system analysis in China. Thorough introduction on automotive energy system in China. Provides the broad perspective to aid in planning sustainable road transport in China. Sustainable Automotive Energy System in China aims at identifying and addressing the key issues of automotive energy in China in a systematic way, covering demography, economics, technology and policy, based on systematic and in-depth, multidisciplinary and comprehensive studies. Five scenarios of China's automotive energy development are created to analyze the possible contributions in the fields of automotive energy, vehicle fuel economy improvement, electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and the 2nd generation biofuel development. Thanks to this book, readers can gain a better understanding of the nature of China's automotive energy development and be informed about: (1) the current status of automotive energy consumption, vehicle technology development, automotive energy technology development and policy; (2) the future of automotive energy development, fuel consumption, propulsion technology penetration and automotive energy technology development, and (3) the pathways of sustainable automotive energy transformation in China, in particular, the technological and the policy-related options. This book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduates students in the low-carbon transportation and environmental protection field.

  18. Monitoring systems and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan Oliva, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The current situation in the general economic framework as well as the environmental context that surrounds us, has meant that increasingly more companies and institutions concerned with the control and expenditure of resources used. Among these, as an element common to any industry, building or installation, are energy resources, respondents more strongly every year. (Author)

  19. Model Scaling of Hydrokinetic Ocean Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ellenrieder, Karl; Valentine, William

    2013-11-01

    Numerical simulations are performed to validate a non-dimensional dynamic scaling procedure that can be applied to subsurface and deeply moored systems, such as hydrokinetic ocean renewable energy devices. The prototype systems are moored in water 400 m deep and include: subsurface spherical buoys moored in a shear current and excited by waves; an ocean current turbine excited by waves; and a deeply submerged spherical buoy in a shear current excited by strong current fluctuations. The corresponding model systems, which are scaled based on relative water depths of 10 m and 40 m, are also studied. For each case examined, the response of the model system closely matches the scaled response of the corresponding full-sized prototype system. The results suggest that laboratory-scale testing of complete ocean current renewable energy systems moored in a current is possible. This work was supported by the U.S. Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC).

  20. The mapping approach in the path integral formalism applied to curve-crossing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Alexey; Kleinekathoefer, Ulrich; Schreiber, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The path integral formalism in a combined phase-space and coherent-state representation is applied to the problem of curve-crossing dynamics. The system of interest is described by two coupled one-dimensional harmonic potential energy surfaces interacting with a heat bath consisting of harmonic oscillators. The mapping approach is used to rewrite the Lagrangian function of the electronic part of the system. Using the Feynman-Vernon influence-functional method the bath is eliminated whereas the non-Gaussian part of the path integral is treated using the generating functional for the electronic trajectories. The dynamics of a Gaussian wave packet is analyzed along a one-dimensional reaction coordinate within a perturbative treatment for a small coordinate shift between the potential energy surfaces

  1. Thermal energy systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Penoncello, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionThermal Energy Systems Design and AnalysisSoftwareThermal Energy System TopicsUnits and Unit SystemsThermophysical PropertiesEngineering DesignEngineering EconomicsIntroductionCommon Engineering Economics NomenclatureEconomic Analysis Tool: The Cash Flow DiagramTime Value of MoneyTime Value of Money ExamplesUsing Software to Calculate Interest FactorsEconomic Decision MakingDepreciation and TaxesProblemsAnalysis of Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionNomenclatureThermophysical Properties of SubstancesSuggested Thermal Energy Systems Analysis ProcedureConserved and Balanced QuantitiesConservation of MassConservation of Energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics)Entropy Balance (The Second Law of Thermodynamics)Exergy Balance: The Combined LawEnergy and Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesDetailed Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesProblemsFluid Transport in Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionPiping and Tubing StandardsFluid Flow FundamentalsValves and FittingsDesign and Analysis of Pipe NetworksEconomi...

  2. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Joao; Martins, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the 'heart and soul' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

  3. Intelligent energy management of optimally located renewable energy systems incorporating PHEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zonkoly, Amany

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The algorithm optimally selects the number, locations and sizes of DGs. • Wind units, PV units, diesel units and PHEV parking lots are considered as DGs. • The algorithm determines the corresponding energy scheduling of resources. • The problem is formulated as an optimization problem solved using ABC. • The objective is to minimize the overall energy cost of the system. - Abstract: The recent interest in plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) results in the increase in the utilization of vehicles batteries for grid support. In addition, the integration of renewable energy systems (RES) into electricity grid is a promising technique for addressing the environmental concerns. This paper presents a multi-objective algorithm to optimally allocate a number of renewable energy systems including parking lots for PHEV in a distribution system. The proposed algorithm determines the number, locations and sizes of the RES and parking lots. In addition, a rule based expert system is used to find the corresponding energy scheduling of the system resources. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to minimize the overall energy cost of the system. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem which is solved using artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm taking into consideration the power system and PHEV operational constraints. The proposed algorithm is applied to a 45-bus distribution network of Alexandria, Egypt. The test results indicate an improvement in the operational conditions of the system

  4. Self-consistent nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujiie, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A concept of self-consistent energy systems (SCNES) has been proposed as an ultimate goal of the nuclear energy system in the coming centuries. SCNES should realize a stable and unlimited energy supply without endangering the human race and the global environment. It is defined as a system that realizes at least the following four objectives simultaneously: (a) energy generation -attain high efficiency in the utilization of fission energy; (b) fuel production - secure inexhaustible energy source: breeding of fissile material with the breeding ratio greater than one and complete burning of transuranium through recycling; (c) burning of radionuclides - zero release of radionuclides from the system: complete burning of transuranium and elimination of radioactive fission products by neutron capture reactions through recycling; (d) system safety - achieve system safety both for the public and experts: eliminate criticality-related safety issues by using natural laws and simple logic. This paper describes the concept of SCNES and discusses the feasibility of the system. Both ''neutron balance'' and ''energbalance'' of the system are introduced as the necessary conditions to be satisfied at least by SCNES. Evaluations made so far indicate that both the neutron balance and the energy balance can be realized by fast reactors but not by thermal reactors. Concerning the system safety, two safety concepts: ''self controllability'' and ''self-terminability'' are introduced to eliminate the criticality-related safety issues in fast reactors. (author)

  5. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur; Wang, Wen Chung

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO 2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  6. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  7. Energy Management of Smart Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Bananeh

    Electric power distribution systems interface the end-users of electricity with the power grid. Traditional distribution systems are operated in a centralized fashion with the distribution system owner or operator being the only decision maker. The management and control architecture of distribution systems needs to gradually transform to accommodate the emerging smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources, and active electricity end-users or prosumers. The content of this document concerns with developing multi-task multi-objective energy management schemes for: 1) commercial/large residential prosumers, and 2) distribution system operator of a smart distribution system. The first part of this document describes a method of distributed energy management of multiple commercial/ large residential prosumers. These prosumers not only consume electricity, but also generate electricity using their roof-top solar photovoltaics systems. When photovoltaics generation is larger than local consumption, excess electricity will be fed into the distribution system, creating a voltage rise along the feeder. Distribution system operator cannot tolerate a significant voltage rise. ES can help the prosumers manage their electricity exchanges with the distribution system such that minimal voltage fluctuation occurs. The proposed distributed energy management scheme sizes and schedules each prosumer's ES to reduce the electricity bill and mitigate voltage rise along the feeder. The second part of this document focuses on emergency energy management and resilience assessment of a distribution system. The developed emergency energy management system uses available resources and redundancy to restore the distribution system's functionality fully or partially. The success of the restoration maneuver depends on how resilient the distribution system is. Engineering resilience terminology is used to evaluate the resilience of distribution system. The proposed emergency energy

  8. Enhancement of power output by a new stress-applied mode on circular piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Fangming; Yang, Tongqing; Liu, Yaoze

    2018-04-01

    A new stress-applied mode is proposed on piezoelectric circular diaphragm energy harvester. Differing from the usual mode used in previous researches, the mass stick at the center of the diaphragm (PZT-51) is designed into an annular hollow shape. In this case, stress of the mass is applied along the edge of the copper sheet. A screw bonded with the undersurface of the diaphragm transfers force from the vibrator to the diaphragm. This device has a cylindrical shape and its volume is ˜7.9 cm3. With this new stress-applied mode, the piezoelectric energy harvester (with an optimal load of 18 kΩ, a mass of 30 g) could generate a maximum power output of ˜20.8 mW under 9.8 m.s-2 at its resonant frequency of ˜237 Hz. Meanwhile, the greater the hardness ratio between the ceramic and the copper sheet, the greater the advantages of the new structure.

  9. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  10. Energy efficiency information systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that different cultures and countries are receptive in different ways to information transfer. Modern information technology, including computers, videos, and telecommunications, can provide a very useful tool for the dissemination of information. At the same time, however, the use of new media involves many new and varied challenges. It is important therefore that the new dissemination methods are developed and utilised in the most effective way depending on the subjects distinctive character, needs and traditions. This workshop was designed to gather experts from all the CADDET member countries, to share knowledge, experiences and ideas about the use of new methods of information exchange and training in the field of energy efficiency. The workshop was divided into four plenary sessions: dissemination of information on energy efficient technologies; training technologies and effective learning; computer-based training tools on energy efficiency; databases and network resources. Two discussion groups followed the plenary sessions, to concentrate on: different aspects of information exchange; and different aspects of state-of-the-art training tools. The workshop was attended by 44 participants from 17 countries, and included 14 speakers

  11. Greener energy systems energy production technologies with minimum environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen acceleration in the development of cleaner energy systems. In Europe and North America, many old coal-fired power plants will be shut down in the next few years and will likely be replaced by combined cycle plants with higher-efficiency gas turbines that can start up and load quickly. With the revival of nuclear energy, designers are creating smaller nuclear reactors of a simpler integrated design that could expand the application of clean, emission-free energy to industry. And a number of manufacturers now offer hybrid cars with an electric motor and a gasoline engine t

  12. Electric Machine Topologies in Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Juan De; Oliveira, Janaina Goncalves de

    2010-01-01

    Energy storage development is essential if intermittent renewable energy generation is to increase. Pumped hydro, CAES and flywheels are environmentally friendly and economical storage alternatives that required electric motor/generators. The popularization of power electronics is relatively new and therefore the technology is still under development. There is not a clear winner when comparing technologies and therefore the optimal alternative depends on the specific requirements of the appli...

  13. Improved self-management of datacenter systems applying machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Berral García, Josep Lluís

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic Computing is a Computer Science and Technologies research area, originated during mid 2000's. It focuses on optimization and improvement of complex distributed computing systems through self-control and self-management. As distributed computing systems grow in complexity, like multi-datacenter systems in cloud computing, the system operators and architects need more help to understand, design and optimize manually these systems, even more when these systems are distributed along the...

  14. Soft computing trends in nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramasivan, B.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of so many advancements in the power and energy sector over the last two decades, its survival to cater quality power with due consideration for planning, coordination, marketing, safety, stability, optimality and reliability is still believed to remain critical. Though it appears simple from the outside, yet the internal structure of large scale power systems is so complex that event management and decision making requires a formidable preliminary preparation, which gets still worsened in the presence of uncertainties and contingencies. These aspects have attracted several researchers to carryout continued research in this field and their valued contributions have been significantly helping the newcomers in understanding the evolutionary growth in this sector, starting from phenomena, tools, methodologies to strategies so as to ensure smooth, stable, safe, reliable and economic operation. The usage of soft computing would accelerate interaction between the energy and technology research community with an aim to foster unified development in the next generation. Monitoring the mechanical impact of a loose (detached or drifting) part in the reactor coolant system of a nuclear power plant is one of the essential functions for operation and maintenance of the plant. Large data tables are generated during this monitoring process. This data can be 'mined' to reveal latent patterns of interest to operation and maintenance. Rough set theory has been applied successfully to data mining. It can be used in the nuclear power industry and elsewhere to identify classes in datasets, finding dependencies in relations and discovering rules which are hidden in databases. An important role may be played by nuclear energy, provided that major safety, waste and proliferation issues affecting current nuclear reactors are satisfactorily addressed. In this respect, a large effort is under way since a few years towards the development of advanced nuclear systems that would use

  15. The network-based energy management system for convenience stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, An-Ping; Hsu, Pau-Lo [Department of Electrical and Control Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsiue Road, Hsinchu City 310 (China)

    2008-07-01

    Convenience stores generally consume energy higher than other retailing merchants. As the problem of energy shortage becomes more serious during summer, almost all convenience stores sign a contract with power plants, which provides for fines if demand limiting occurs in Taiwan and many other countries. Therefore, a reliable and effective method to reduce their utility consumption is required for modern business and industry. This research integrates the remote sensors, the control network, and the embedded system technologies to construct a distributed energy management control system for dedicated convenience stores. Energy consumption can thus be reasonably managed with demand limits by measuring and analyzing the power consumption sources in four major subsystems of convenience stores, namely, (1) air-conditioning, (2) lighting, (3) heating, and (4) refrigeration. By applying the proposed demand prediction and control method, the demand limiting condition can be properly predicted, and the possible peak load can thus be eliminated via the network control mechanism. Moreover, by integrating the LonWork fieldbus and the WinCE operating system (OS), the proposed system has been successfully applied to a convenience store. The experimental results indicate that the proposed distributed energy management system suitably predicts the peak loading condition and successfully prevents its occurrence by switching the air-conditioning system without affecting the indoor temperature regulation. (author)

  16. Sustainable energy system. A case study from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin, A.; Karlsson, B. [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Bjoernfot, K. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Torslandavaegen, Box 8889, SE-402 72 (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents some of the results of a power system analysis for Chile. The two major Chilean electric systems are roughly modelled and optimized using a linear programming method with the option to integrate renewable energy sources like wind power, solar power, mini-hydropower and biomass-fired power and also 'municipal waste'. A total of four different scenarios are outlined: reference system, new production units, gas and coal price variations and a policy measure to encourage power production based on renewable energy. The objective of the scenarios was to illustrate under what conditions integration of the different energy sources in the existing production system is possible. The study shows that even under current conditions, mini-hydro and waste to energy plants are economically viable. Wind power might be interesting alternatives if policy instrument measures are applied. On the other hand, it is hard for the other energy sources to enter the system even when higher price levels of gas and coal are applied. The system is more sensitive to coal price increases than to gas price increases and this mainly encourages CO{sub 2} emission reduction. (author)

  17. Analytical investigation of low temperature lift energy conversion systems with renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of the renewable energy powered energy conversion system is typically low due to its moderate heat source temperature. Therefore, improving its energy efficiency is essential. In this study, the performance of the energy conversion system with renewable energy source was theoretically investigated in order to explore its design aspect. For this purpose, a computer model of n-stage low temperature lift energy conversion (LTLEC) system was developed. The results showed that under given operating conditions such as temperatures and mass flow rates of heat source and heat sink fluids the unit power generation of the system increased with the number of stage, and it became saturated when the number of staging reached four. Investigation of several possible working fluids for the optimum stage LTLEC system revealed that ethanol could be an alternative to ammonia. The heat exchanger effectiveness is a critical factor on the system performance. The power generation was increased by 7.83% for the evaporator and 9.94% for the condenser with 10% increase of heat exchanger effectiveness. When these low temperature source fluids are applied to the LTLEC system, the heat exchanger performance would be very critical and it has to be designed accordingly. - Highlights: •Energy conversion system with renewable energy is analytically investigated. •A model of multi-stage low temperature lift energy conversion systems was developed. •The system performance increases as the stage number is increased. •The unit power generation is increased with increase of HX effectiveness. •Ethanol is found to be a good alternative to ammonia

  18. Complex energy system management using optimization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Stuart; Hurdowar-Castro, Diana; Allen, Rick; Olason, Tryggvi; Welt, Francois

    2010-09-15

    Modern energy systems are often very complex with respect to the mix of generation sources, energy storage, transmission, and avenues to market. Historically, power was provided by government organizations to load centers, and pricing was provided in a regulatory manner. In recent years, this process has been displaced by the independent system operator (ISO). This complexity makes the operation of these systems very difficult, since the components of the system are interdependent. Consequently, computer-based large-scale simulation and optimization methods like Decision Support Systems are now being used. This paper discusses the application of a DSS to operations and planning systems.

  19. Energy sources for future. Change to a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.

    2005-01-01

    Can Germany give up gasoline and power from coal or nuclear energy and how much does it cost? The book does away with all common misunderstandings due to renewable energy sources and describes a compatible model for a sustainable energy mixing in future. Nevertheless fossil fuels are not denounced but seen as a platform for the advanced system. The author explains first why objections to renewable energy sources base on bad information, and pursues quite an other argumentation as such authors emphasizing the potential of these energy sources. Than he shows in detail the possibility of the optimal energy mixing for biomass, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower and energy efficiency. The environment will reward us for this and instead buying expensive resources from foreign countries we will create work places at home. The number of big power plants - taking into account safety risks - will decrease and small units of on-site power generation feeded with this renewable sources will play more and more an important role. (GL) [de

  20. Renewable energy for sustainable electrical energy system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    Present trends of electrical energy supply and demand are not sustainable because of the huge gap between demand and supply in foreseeable future in India. The path towards sustainability is exploitation of energy conservation and aggressive use of renewable energy systems. Potential of renewable energy technologies that can be effectively harnessed would depend on future technology developments and breakthrough in cost reduction. This requires adequate policy guidelines and interventions in the Indian power sector. Detailed MARKAL simulations, for power sector in India, show that full exploitation of energy conservation potential and an aggressive implementation of renewable energy technologies lead to sustainable development. Coal and other fossil fuel (gas and oil) allocations stagnated after the year 2015 and remain constant up to 2040. After the year 2040, the requirement for coal and gas goes down and carbon emissions decrease steeply. By the year 2045, 25% electrical energy can be supplied by renewable energy and the CO 2 emissions can be reduced by 72% as compared to the base case scenario. (author)