WorldWideScience

Sample records for applying energy system

  1. Applied Data Analysis in Energy Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kychkin А.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Software and hardware system organization is presented as an example for building energy monitoring of multi-sectional lighting and climate control / conditioning needs. System key feature is applied office energy data analysis that allows to provide each type of hardware localized work mode recognition. It is based on general energy consumption profile with following energy consumption and workload evaluation. Applied data analysis includes primary data processing block, smoothing filter, time stamp identification block, clusterization and classification blocks, state change detection block, statistical data calculation block. Time slot consumed energy value and slot time stamp are taken as work mode classification main parameters. Energy data applied analysis with HIL and OpenJEVis visualization system usage experimental research results for chosen time period has been provided. Energy consumption, workload calculation and eight different states identification has been executed for two lighting sections and one climate control / conditioning emulating system by integral energy consumption profile. Research has been supported by university internal grant №2016/PI-2 «Methodology development of monitoring and heat flow utilization as low potential company energy sources».

  2. Applying Systems Engineering on Energy Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safi, J.; Muller, G.; Bonnema, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Systems engineering is a discipline with methods and techniques to address complex problems. We want to study how Systems Engineering methods can help to address today's grand challenges, such as the energy problem. The first step is problem definition which aims at articulating the problem in its c

  3. A Vision for Systems Engineering Applied to Wind Energy (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, F.; Dykes, K.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop on January 14, 2015. Topics covered include the importance of systems engineering, a vision for systems engineering as applied to wind energy, and application of systems engineering approaches to wind energy research and development.

  4. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  5. Innovative wave energy device applied to coastal observatory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Scanu, Sergio; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Martellucci, Riccardo; Maximo, Peviani

    2017-04-01

    Marine environment is one of the most promising sources of renewable energy, whose exploitation could have an effect on several application fields. This work presents the design of an innovative device based on the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), that allows to convert wave energy into electricity, suitable for the typical Mediterranean wave climate. The flexibility of the device permits its installation either in deep or shallow waters, with reduced costs of deployment, maintenance and connection to the grid. Furthermore, the replicability of the design allows the device to be installed in array of several number of similar units. The technical concept is to convey the sea water within a vertical pipe, in which the water movements activate a rotor connected to a generator that transforms the energy of the water motion into electricity. The hydrodynamic design of the pipe is built to minimize the losses due to friction and turbulence and to exploit the maximum possible energy from wave motion. The wave energy is directly absorbed by the rotational movement of the turbine blades located in the water itself allowing a further reduction of the energy losses associated with the transformation of the linear water motion into electrical generation in the air phase (typical configuration of the OWC devices). In this work the device components are described considering two possible configurations that use a Wells turbine or a Bulb type turbine. The system can be realized at a low cost, because of the modularity of the device project, which allows large freedom of sizes and placements, being able to be installed both individually and in arrays. The modularity, associated with the fact that the main elements of the system are available on the market, makes the device particularly attractive from the economic point of view. Finally, it is realized with a high constructive flexibility: the proposed system can be transported floating and moored to existing coastal structures or

  6. Evaluation of atrazine degradation applied to different energy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ailton J; Pinheiro, Bianca S; Araújo, André F; Freschi, Gian P G

    2016-09-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide widely used in crops and has drawn attention due to potential pollution present in soil, sediment, water, and food. Since conventional methods are not potentially efficient to persistent degradation of organic compounds, new technology has been developed to remove them, especially practices utilizing advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This work aims to evaluate the use of different energies (ultraviolet (UV), microwaves (MW), and radiations (MW-UV)) to the herbicide atrazine through the process of photo-oxidation. These systems found degradation rates of around 12 % (UV), 28 % (MW), and 83 % (MW-UV), respectively, with time intervals of 120 s. After the photolytic processes, the samples were analyzed at a wavelength scanning the range of 190 to 300 nm, where the spectral analysis of the signal was used to evaluate the degradation of atrazine and the appearance of some other peaks (degradation products). The spectrum evaluation resulting from photolytic processes gave rise to a new signal which was confirmed by chromatography. This spectrum indicated the possible pathway of atrazine degradation by the process of photolytic MW-UV, generating atrazine-2-hydroxy, atrazine-desethyl-2-hidroxy, and atrazine-desisopropyl-2-hydroxy. The process indicated that in all situations, chloride was present in the analytic structure and was substituted by a hydroxyl group, which lowered the toxicity of the compound through the photolytic process MW-UV. Chromatographic analysis ascertained these preliminary assessments using spectrophotometry. It was also significantly observed that the process can be optimized by adjusting the pH of the solution, which was evident by an improvement of 10 % in the rate of degradation when subjected to a pH solution equal to 8.37.

  7. Computing and Systems Applied in Support of Coordinated Energy, Environmental, and Climate Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk focuses on how Dr. Loughlin is applying Computing and Systems models, tools and methods to more fully understand the linkages among energy systems, environmental quality, and climate change. Dr. Loughlin will highlight recent and ongoing research activities, including: ...

  8. Multi-energy systems applied to the building sector (Heat Pump Technology)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Izquierdo, Marta

    2008-01-01

    The project deals with the study of multi-energy systems applied to the building sector. Nowadays, this thematic is very important because the use of systems integrating different energy sources and energy technologies is a key element in the design of low emission buildings. In particular, the project focuses on heat pump technologies. In the first part of the project an over view of the status of the heat pump development is investigated. Then, a numerical model to simulat...

  9. Comparing Waste-to-Energy technologies by applying energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Lund, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are hence interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research...... into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together the two solutions may contribute to alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority to combined heat and power plants with high electric efficiency.......Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This article asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste...

  10. Comparing Waste-to-Energy technologies by applying energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Lund, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are hence interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research......Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This article asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste...... into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together the two solutions may contribute to alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority to combined heat and power plants with high electric efficiency....

  11. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  12. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio T. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  13. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  14. Applied & Computational MathematicsChallenges for the Design and Control of Dynamic Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L; Burns, J A; Collis, S; Grosh, J; Jacobson, C A; Johansen, H; Mezic, I; Narayanan, S; Wetter, M

    2011-03-10

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was passed with the goal 'to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security.' Energy security and independence cannot be achieved unless the United States addresses the issue of energy consumption in the building sector and significantly reduces energy consumption in buildings. Commercial and residential buildings account for approximately 40% of the U.S. energy consumption and emit 50% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the U.S. which is more than twice the total energy consumption of the entire U.S. automobile and light truck fleet. A 50%-80% improvement in building energy efficiency in both new construction and in retrofitting existing buildings could significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption and mitigate climate change. Reaching these aggressive building efficiency goals will not happen without significant Federal investments in areas of computational and mathematical sciences. Applied and computational mathematics are required to enable the development of algorithms and tools to design, control and optimize energy efficient buildings. The challenge has been issued by the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Dr. Steven Chu (emphasis added): 'We need to do more transformational research at DOE including computer design tools for commercial and residential buildings that enable reductions in energy consumption of up to 80 percent with investments that will pay for themselves in less than 10 years.' On July 8-9, 2010 a team of technical experts from industry, government and academia were assembled in Arlington, Virginia to identify the challenges associated with developing and deploying newcomputational methodologies and tools thatwill address building energy efficiency. These experts concluded that investments in fundamental applied and computational mathematics will be required to build enabling technology that can be used to realize the target of 80% reductions in energy

  15. Stochastic Methods Applied to Power System Operations with Renewable Energy: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Austin, TX (United States); Botterud, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Renewable energy resources have been rapidly integrated into power systems in many parts of the world, contributing to a cleaner and more sustainable supply of electricity. Wind and solar resources also introduce new challenges for system operations and planning in terms of economics and reliability because of their variability and uncertainty. Operational strategies based on stochastic optimization have been developed recently to address these challenges. In general terms, these stochastic strategies either embed uncertainties into the scheduling formulations (e.g., the unit commitment [UC] problem) in probabilistic forms or develop more appropriate operating reserve strategies to take advantage of advanced forecasting techniques. Other approaches to address uncertainty are also proposed, where operational feasibility is ensured within an uncertainty set of forecasting intervals. In this report, a comprehensive review is conducted to present the state of the art through Spring 2015 in the area of stochastic methods applied to power system operations with high penetration of renewable energy. Chapters 1 and 2 give a brief introduction and overview of power system and electricity market operations, as well as the impact of renewable energy and how this impact is typically considered in modeling tools. Chapter 3 reviews relevant literature on operating reserves and specifically probabilistic methods to estimate the need for system reserve requirements. Chapter 4 looks at stochastic programming formulations of the UC and economic dispatch (ED) problems, highlighting benefits reported in the literature as well as recent industry developments. Chapter 5 briefly introduces alternative formulations of UC under uncertainty, such as robust, chance-constrained, and interval programming. Finally, in Chapter 6, we conclude with the main observations from our review and important directions for future work.

  16. Chaos control applied to piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, W. O. V.; De Paula, A. S.; Savi, M. A.; Inman, D. J.

    2015-11-01

    Chaotic behavior presents intrinsic richness due to the existence of an infinity number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs). The possibility of stabilizing these periodic patterns with a small amount of energy makes this kind of response interesting to various dynamical systems. Energy harvesting has as a goal the use of available mechanical energy by promoting a conversion into electrical energy. The combination of these two approaches may establish autonomous systems where available environmental mechanical energy can be employed for control purposes. Two different goals can be defined as priority, allowing a change between them: vibration reduction and energy harvesting enhancement. This work deals with the use of harvested energy to perform chaos control. Both control actuation and energy harvesting are induced employing piezoelectric materials, in a simultaneous way. A bistable piezomagnetoelastic structure subjected to harmonic excitations is investigated as a case study. Numerical simulations show situations where it is possible to perform chaos control using only the energy generated by the harvesting system.

  17. An approach for evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, Nobuo, E-mail: nakae-nobuo@jnes.go.jp [Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy System, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-19, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ozawa, Takayuki [Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1194 (Japan); Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1, Iwado Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy System, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-19, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    One of the important issues in the study of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems is evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems. An approach for evaluating the integrity of the fuel is discussed here based on the procedure currently used in the integrity evaluation of fast reactor fuel. The fuel failure modes determining fuel life time were reviewed and fuel integrity was analyzed and compared with the failure criteria. Metal and nitride fuels with austenitic and ferritic stainless steel (SS) cladding tubes were examined in this study. For the purpose of representative irradiation behavior analyses of the fuel for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems, the correlations of the cladding characteristics were modeled based on well-known characteristics of austenitic modified 316 SS (PNC316), ferritic–martensitic steel (PNC–FMS) and oxide dispersion strengthened steel (PNC–ODS). The analysis showed that the fuel lifetime is limited by channel fracture which is a nonductile type (brittle) failure associated with a high level of irradiation-induced swelling in the case of austenitic steel cladding. In case of ferritic steel, on the other hand, the fuel lifetime is controlled by cladding creep rupture. The lifetime evaluated here is limited to 200 GW d/t, which is lower than the target burnup value of 500 GW d/t. One of the possible measures to extend the lifetime may be reducing the fuel smeared density and ventilating fission gas in the plenum for metal fuel and by reducing the maximum cladding temperature from 650 to 600 °C for both metal and nitride fuel.

  18. Economic advantages of applying model predictive control to distributed energy resources: The case of micro-CHP systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing presence of distributed energy resources, information and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure increases the possibilities for larger economic efficiency of power systems. This work shows the possible cost advantages of applying a model predictive control (MPC) strategy to

  19. Maximum-power-point tracking with reduced mechanical stress applied to wind-energy-conversion-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, L.G. [Departamento de Electronica y Comunicaciones, Universidad de los Andes, nucleo la Hechicera, 5101 Merida (Venezuela); Figueres, E.; Garcera, G. [Grupo de Sistemas Electronicos Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Carranza, O. [Escuela Superior de Computo, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Batiz s/n, 07738 DF (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents an improved maximum-power-point tracking algorithm for wind-energy-conversion-systems. The proposed method significantly reduces the turbine mechanical stress with regard to conventional techniques, so that both the maintenance needs and the medium time between failures are expected to be improved. To achieve these objectives, a sensorless speed control loop receives its reference signal from a modified Perturb and Observe algorithm, in which the typical steps on the reference speed have been substituted by a fixed and well-defined slope ramp signal. As a result, it is achieved a soft dynamic response of both the torque and the speed of the wind turbine, so that the whole system suffers from a lower mechanical stress than with conventional P and O techniques. The proposed method has been applied to a wind turbine based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator operating at variable speed, which is connected to the distribution grid by means of a back to back converter. (author)

  20. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume III. Wind conversion systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The variability of energy output inherent in wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has led to the investigation of energy storage as a means of managing the available energy when immediate, direct use is not possible or desirable. This portion of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a wind energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with wind energy conversion systems.

  1. Environmental profile of latent energy storage materials applied to industrial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Mainar-Toledo, M D; Ferreira, Victor J; Ferreira, Germán

    2014-03-01

    Industry sector is an intensive-energy consumer and approximately 20-50% of industrial energy consumption is lost as waste heat. Therefore, there is a great potential for reducing energy consumption and, subsequently, decreasing the fossil fuels used if this lost energy can be recovered. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) based on Latent Heat Storage systems (LHS) using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) has become one of the most feasible solutions in achieving energy savings through waste heat recovery, especially when there is a mismatch between the supply and consumption of energy processes. In this paper, a shell and tube heat exchanger incorporating PCMs has been considered to store the excess energy available in an industrial process. Several attempts have been made to design the most appropriate system considering many cost-benefit and technical criteria to maximise the heat recovery. However, the environmental criterion also is an important factor when determining whether this technology is not only energy and cost-efficient but also environmentally friendly, considering the whole life of the system from its manufacture to its disposal. To this end, this research includes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to determine whether the energy savings of conventional fuels during the operation stage are large enough to balance the environmental impact originated in an industrial TES system including the manufacture, use and disposal phases. Inputs and outputs of each management stage have been defined, and the inventory emissions calculated by SIMAPRO v7.3.2. A midpoint and endpoint approaches have been carried out using two methods, CML 2001 and Eco-indicator 99, respectively. As a preliminary result, a promising reduction in the overall impacts was obtained by the use of this technology. From the environmental impact results, a matrix of possible technical solutions is displayed, to improve the environmental performance.

  2. Deriving efficient policy portfolios promoting sustainable energy systems-Case studies applying Invert simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Stadler, Michael; Huber, Claus; Haas, Reinhard [Energy Economics Group, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 28/29/373-2A, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Ragwitz, Mario; Brakhage, Anselm [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Breslauer Strasse 48, D-76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gula, Adam; Figorski, Arkadiusz [Faculty of Fuels and Energy, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2006-12-15

    Within recent years, energy policies have imposed a number of targets at European and national level for rational use of energy (RUE), renewable energy sources (RES) and related CO{sub 2} reductions. As a result, a wide variety of policy instruments is currently implemented and hence the question arises: how can these instruments be designed in a way to reach the maximum policy target with the minimum public money spent? The objective of this paper is to derive a methodology for obtaining efficient policy portfolios promoting sustainable energy systems depending on the policy target and show corresponding results from case studies in Austria, Germany and Poland. The investigations were carried out by application of Invert simulation tool, a computer model developed for simulating the impacts of various promotion schemes for renewable and efficient energy systems. With this tool, the CO{sub 2} reductions and related public expenses have been calculated for various policy mixes. In the building-related energy sector, it turned out that in all investigated regions support schemes for supply side measures are the most cost-efficient instruments. However, their potential is restricted and for achieving higher levels of CO{sub 2} reduction, promotion of demand side measures is indispensable. The paper shows that for a comprehensive comparison of policy portfolios, there are always two dimensions to be considered: efficiency and effectiveness. The more effective, i.e. the higher the implementation rate of a scheme, the more essential becomes the efficiency criteria. (author)

  3. Multi-attribute criteria applied to electric generation energy system analysis LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Drennen, Thomas E.; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Paananen, Orman Henrie; Jones, Scott A.; Ortner, Juergen G. (DLR, German Aerospace, Cologne); Brewer, Jeffrey D.; Valdez, Maximo M.

    2005-10-01

    This report began with a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve Sandia National Laboratories multidisciplinary capabilities in energy systems analysis. The aim is to understand how various electricity generating options can best serve needs in the United States. The initial product is documented in a series of white papers that span a broad range of topics, including the successes and failures of past modeling studies, sustainability, oil dependence, energy security, and nuclear power. Summaries of these projects are included here. These projects have provided a background and discussion framework for the Energy Systems Analysis LDRD team to carry out an inter-comparison of many of the commonly available electric power sources in present use, comparisons of those options, and efforts needed to realize progress towards those options. A computer aid has been developed to compare various options based on cost and other attributes such as technological, social, and policy constraints. The Energy Systems Analysis team has developed a multi-criteria framework that will allow comparison of energy options with a set of metrics that can be used across all technologies. This report discusses several evaluation techniques and introduces the set of criteria developed for this LDRD.

  4. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  5. Expert systems applied to fault isolation and energy storage management, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A user's guide for the Fault Isolation and Energy Storage (FIES) II system is provided. Included are a brief discussion of the background and scope of this project, a discussion of basic and advanced operating installation and problem determination procedures for the FIES II system and information on hardware and software design and implementation. A number of appendices are provided including a detailed specification for the microprocessor software, a detailed description of the expert system rule base and a description and listings of the LISP interface software.

  6. System design and optimization study of axial flow turbine applied in an overtopping wave energy convertor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuquan Zhang; Yuan Zheng; Chunxia Yang; Yantao Zhu; Xin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    The axial flow turbine applied in an overtopping wave energy convertor can continuously provide power with high efficiency and reliably. To study the rules between parameters of the turbine and flows, three different types of turbines with complete 3D flow-channel models were designed and optimized. It appears that diameter of the runner, flow rates, number of guide vanes and shape of outflow passage have a considerable impact on the performance of the whole convertor. The turbine with a diameter of 0.8 m, flow rate of 0.5 m3/s, double guide vanes and bent section in outflow passage shows the best comprehensive performance. Moreover, the results of the experiments indicate that the output power can be enhanced by increasing the wave overtopping rate.

  7. Systems Engineering Applied to the Development of a Wave Energy Farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Malins, Robert Joseph; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    A motivation for undertaking this stakeholder requirements analysis and Systems Engineering exercise is to document the requirements for successful wave energy farms to facilitate better design and better design assessments. A difficulty in wave energy technology development is the absence to date of a verifiable minimum viable product against which the merits of new products might be measured. A consequence of this absence is that technology development progress, technology value, and technology funding have largely been measured, associated with, and driven by technology readiness, measured in technology readiness levels (TRLs). Originating primarily from the space and defense industries, TRLs focus on procedural implementation of technology developments of large and complex engineering projects, where cost is neither mission critical nor a key design driver. The key deficiency with the TRL approach in the context of wave energy conversion is that WEC technology development has been too focused on commercial readiness and not enough on the stakeholder requirements and particularly economic viability required for market entry.

  8. Sustainable Product-Service System Design applied to Distributed Renewable Energy fostering the goal of sustainable energy for all

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzoli, C; Ceschin, F; Diehl, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy is a fundamental imperative to the quest for sustainable development. The current challenge is to provide sustainable energy solutions for all, whilst concomitantly increasing the access to energy and improving its efficiency. Within this perspective, design Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to be able to equip design students with a broad knowledge base, as well as effective methods and tools so that a new generation of designers (and design educators) can play an active role ...

  9. Spatial and environmental assessment of energy potentials for Anaerobic Digestion production systems applied to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gemert, W.J.T. van; Moll, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) can play an important role in achieving renewable goals set within the Netherlands which strives for 40 PJ bio-energy in the year 2020. This research focusses on reaching this goal with locally available biomass waste flows (e.g. manures, grasses, harvest remains, municipal

  10. Developing Sustainable Urban Water-Energy Infrastructures: Applying a Multi-Sectoral Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems (SEIS) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.

    2016-12-01

    Urban infrastructure - broadly defined to include the systems that provide water, energy, food, shelter, transportation-communication, sanitation and green/public spaces in cities - have tremendous impact on the environment and on human well-being (Ramaswami et al., 2016; Ramaswami et al., 2012). Aggregated globally, these sectors contribute 90% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and 96% of global water withdrawals. Urban infrastructure contributions to such impacts are beginning to dominate. Cities are therefore becoming the action arena for infrastructure transformations that can achieve high levels of service delivery while reducing environmental impacts and enhancing human well-being. Achieving sustainable urban infrastructure transitions requires: information about the engineered infrastructure, and its interaction with the natural (ecological-environmental) and the social sub-systems In this paper, we apply a multi-sector, multi-scalar Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems framework that describes the interactions among biophysical engineered infrastructures, the natural environment and the social system in a systems-approach to inform urban infrastructure transformations. We apply the SEIS framework to inform water and energy sector transformations in cities to achieve environmental and human health benefits realized at multiple scales - local, regional and global. Local scales address pollution, health, wellbeing and inequity within the city; regional scales address regional pollution, scarcity, as well as supply risks in the water-energy sectors; global impacts include greenhouse gas emissions and climate impacts. Different actors shape infrastructure transitions including households, businesses, and policy actors. We describe the development of novel cross-sectoral strategies at the water-energy nexus in cities, focusing on water, waste and energy sectors, in a case study of Delhi, India. Ramaswami, A.; Russell, A.G.; Culligan, P.J.; Sharma, K

  11. High frequency statistical energy analysis applied to fluid filled pipe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Smeulers, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In pipe systems, carrying gas with high velocities, broadband turbulent pulsations can be generated causing strong vibrations and fatigue failure, called Acoustic Fatigue. This occurs at valves with high pressure differences (i.e. chokes), relief valves and obstructions in the flow, such as sharp

  12. High frequency statistical energy analysis applied to fluid filled pipe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Smeulers, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In pipe systems, carrying gas with high velocities, broadband turbulent pulsations can be generated causing strong vibrations and fatigue failure, called Acoustic Fatigue. This occurs at valves with high pressure differences (i.e. chokes), relief valves and obstructions in the flow, such as sharp be

  13. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  14. Applying bottom-up material flow analysis to identify the system boundaries of non-energy use data in international energy statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Neelis, M.L.; Zuidberg, M.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Data on the non-energy use of fossil fuels in energy statistics are subject to major uncertainties. We apply a simple bottom-up methodology to recalculate non-energy use for the entire world and for the 50 countries with the highest consumption of fossil fuels for non-energy purposes. We quantify wo

  15. Comparison of user performance when applying system identification for assessment of the energy performance of building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androutsopoulos, A. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Buildings Department, 19th km Marathonos Av., 190 09 Pikermi (Greece); Bloem, J.J. [Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Renewable Energies Unit, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Italy); Dijk, H.A.L. van [TNO, Department of Building Physics, Indoor Climate and Systems, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft (Netherlands); Baker, P.H. [Centre for Research on Indoor Climate and Health, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    The application of system identification techniques to the energy performance assessment of buildings and building components requires a high level of knowledge of physical and mathematical processes. This factor, combined with the quality of the data, the description of the monitoring procedure and test environment, together with the experience of the user of the analysis software itself, can produce varying results from different users when applying different models and software packages. Past international system identification competitions (1994 and 1996) demonstrated the spread in results that can be expected regarding the application of different models and techniques to the same benchmark data. The PASLINK EEIG has attempted to consolidate and strengthen knowledge and expertise of system identification techniques within the grouping and also ensure that data analysis meets minimum quality levels. This paper compares the spread in results obtained during the previous competitions to that obtained during the workshops carried out by the PASLINK EEIG following 10 years of networking activities in the field. The objective is to identify the extent to which the networking activities have strengthened the position of the individual teams working in the field and to identify the areas where quality assurance is met and, furthermore, where further improvements can be made. A direct comparison of the quality of results obtained during data analysis from the previous decade is made with recent results after a significant period of collaboration and networking activities. (author)

  16. Applied systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of systems and processes of ‘Applied Systems Theory’ makes it suitable for managers, engineers, students, researchers, academics and professionals from a wide range of disciplines; they can use this ‘toolbox’ for describing, analysing and designing biological, engineering and organisational systems as well as getting a better understanding of societal problems. This revised, updated and expanded second edition includes coverage of a...

  17. Preventing Control Constraint Violations by Use of Energy Balances for a Class of Coupled Systems: Applied to a Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a scheme is presented for preventing violations of control signal constraints in a class of coupled systems. The scheme is an add-on solution to the existing control system; it works like a fault tolerant scheme, by accommodating the problem then occurring. The proposed scheme...... and not to optimize performance during all conditions. The scheme is applied to an example with a coal mill pulverizing coal for a power plant.  ...

  18. Explaining the apparent arbitrariness of the LDA-1/2 self-energy correction method applied to purely covalent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Kan-Hao; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2016-01-01

    The LDA-1/2 method expands Slater's half occupation technique to infinite solid state materials by introducing a self-energy potential centered at the anions to cancel the energy associated with electron-hole self-interaction. To avoid an infinite summation of long-ranged self-energy potentials they must be trimmed at a variationally-defined cutoff radius. The method has been successful in predicting accurate band gaps for a large number of elementary and binary semiconductors. Nevertheless, there has been some confusion regarding carbon and silicon, both in the cubic diamond structure, which require different ionizations of the valence charge, 1/2 for carbon and 1/4 for silicon respectively, to yield band gaps in agreement with experimental data. We here analyze the spatial distribution of the valence electrons of these two materials to conclude that in silicon and in carbon LDA-1/4 and LDA-1/2, respectively, must be adopted for the proper cancellation of the self-energies. Such analysis should be applied to...

  19. Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems: State-of-the Art Survey on Evaluation and Aggregation Judgment Measures Applied to Performance Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kuznetsov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the experience gained in the application of multi-criteria decision making and uncertainty treatment methods to a comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems and related nuclear fuel cycles. These judgment measures provide a means for comprehensive evaluation according to different conflicting criteria, such as costs, benefits and risks, which are inevitably associated with the deployment of advanced technologies. Major findings and recommendations elaborated in international and national projects and studies are reviewed and discussed. A careful analysis is performed for multi-criteria comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycles on the basis of various evaluation and screening results. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the lessons learned, to share the identified solutions, and indicate promising future directions.

  20. PHYSICAL MEANING OF THE «REACTIVE POWER» CONCEPT APPLIED TO THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS WITH NON-LINEAR LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Zhemerov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The contradictions in the use of the term «reactive power» require justification by clarifying its physical meaning. The aim of the paper is to reveal the physical meaning of the term «reactive power» applied to three-phase three-wire and four-wire energy supply systems. Methodology. We have applied the modern theory of instantaneous active and reactive power, the graphical filling complex branched energy supply system of simplified design scheme, the theory of electrical circuits, computer Matlab-simulation. Results. We have provided answers to six basic questions that reveal the physical meaning and definition of the concept of «reactive power». We have justified the assumptions suggesting a universal calculation formula to determine the relative total power loss in the three-phase energy supply system as the sum of four components caused by: a minimal losses, reactive power, active power pulsations and instantaneous current flow in the neutral wire. Originality. We have developed the definition that reveals the physical meaning of the term «reactive power» for three-phase energy supply systems corresponding to modern theories of instantaneous active and reactive power. Practical value. We have proposed energy efficiency method ideas of energy supply systems with non-linear load based on the additional components of the power losses calculation. The further development of the method will allow to amend the design, selection and operation of the power active filters practices.

  1. A study on the evaluation of ventilation system suitable for outside air cooling applied in large data center for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Il [Shinhan University, Euijungbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In developed countries, expansion of communication technology has resulted in continual increase in the construction of data centers with high-density cooling loads. Throughout a year, IT equipment installed in a data center generates large and constant cooling load. As a result, data centers may be consuming an ever-growing amount of energy. The cooling system utilizing the energy of outside air is applied universally to reduce data center energy consumption. The application of the cooling system to the outdoor air cooling system of a data center considers that temperature efficiency and ventilation performance vary depending on the type of ventilation system. The displacement and mixed ventilation method can be applied generally to a data center. The efficiency of a ventilation system depends on inside temperature or contaminant concentrations in room and outlets. This study thus aims to evaluate the ventilation performance that varies according to type of ventilation system installed in the data center. Ventilation efficiency is assessed by applying the concept of total air age and considers the fresh air ratio and age of return air. Further, temperature efficiency gained by utilizing temperature difference is used to assess causes for changes in ventilation performance.

  2. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  3. Applied multidimensional systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Nirmal K

    2017-01-01

    Revised and updated, this concise new edition of the pioneering book on multidimensional signal processing is ideal for a new generation of students. Multidimensional systems or m-D systems are the necessary mathematical background for modern digital image processing with applications in biomedicine, X-ray technology and satellite communications. Serving as a firm basis for graduate engineering students and researchers seeking applications in mathematical theories, this edition eschews detailed mathematical theory not useful to students. Presentation of the theory has been revised to make it more readable for students, and introduce some new topics that are emerging as multidimensional DSP topics in the interdisciplinary fields of image processing. New topics include Groebner bases, wavelets, and filter banks.

  4. Wet and dry cooling systems optimization applied to a modern waste-to-energy cogeneration heat and power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barigozzi, G.; Perdichizzi, A.; Ravelli, S. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Bergamo University (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    In Brescia, Italy, heat is delivered to 70% of 200.000 city inhabitants by means of a district heating system, mainly supplied by a waste to energy plant, utilizing the non recyclable fraction of municipal and industrial solid waste (800,000 tons/year, otherwise landfilled), thus saving annually over 150,000 tons of oil equivalent and over 400,000 tons of CO{sub 2} emissions. This study shows how the performance of the waste-to-energy cogeneration plant can be improved by optimising the condensation system, with particular focus on the combination of wet and dry cooling systems. The analysis has been carried out using two subsequent steps: in the first one a schematic model of the steam cycle was accomplished in order to acquire a knowledge base about the variables that would be most influential on the performance. In the second step the electric power output for different operating conditions was predicted and optimized in a homemade program. In more details, a thermodynamic analysis of the steam cycle, according to the design operating condition, was performed by means of a commercial code (Thermoflex {sup copyright}) dedicated to power plant modelling. Then the off-design behaviour was investigated by varying not only the ambient conditions but also several parameters connected to the heat rejection rate, like the heat required from district heating and the auxiliaries load. Each of these parameters has been addressed and considered in determining the overall performance of the thermal cycle. After that, a complete prediction of the cycle behaviour was performed by simultaneously varying different operating conditions. Finally, a Matlab {sup copyright} computer code was developed in order to optimize the net electric power as a function of the way in which the condensation is operated. The result is an optimum set of variables allowing the wet and dry cooling system to be regulated in such a way that the maximum power is achieved. The best strategy consists in

  5. Applied systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and not having a grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of syst

  6. Multisource energy system project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, R. W.; Cowan, R. A.

    1987-03-01

    The mission of this project is to investigate methods of providing uninterruptible power to Army communications and navigational facilities, many of which have limited access or are located in rugged terrain. Two alternatives are currently available for deploying terrestrial stand-alone power systems: (1) conventional electric systems powered by diesel fuel, propane, or natural gas, and (2) alternative power systems using renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics (PV) or wind turbines (WT). The increased cost of fuels for conventional systems and the high cost of energy storage for single-source renewable energy systems have created interest in the hybrid or multisource energy system. This report will provide a summary of the first and second interim reports, final test results, and a user's guide for software that will assist in applying and designing multi-source energy systems.

  7. Econometrics analysis of consumer behaviour: a linear expenditure system applied to energy; Analisi econometrica delle preferenze dei consumatori: un sistema di spesa lineare applicato all`energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giansanti, C.; Ferrari, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-12-01

    In economics literature the expenditure system specification is a well known subject. The problem is to define a coherent representation of consumer behaviour through functional forms easy to calculate. In this work it is used the Stone-Geary Linear Expenditure System and its multi-level decision process version. The Linear Expenditure system is characterized by an easy calculating estimation procedure, and its multi-level specification allows substitution and complementary relations between goods. Moreover, the utility function separability condition on which the Utility Tree Approach is based, justifies to use an estimation procedure in two or more steps. This allows to use an high degree of expenditure categories disaggregation, impossible to reach the Linear Expediture System. The analysis is applied to energy sectors.

  8. Thermodynamic Laws Applied to Economic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José Villacís

    2009-01-01

    Economic activity in its different manifestations--production, exchange, consumption and, particularly, information on quantities and prices--generates and transfers energy. As a result, we can apply to it the basic laws of thermodynamics. These laws are applicable within a system, i.e., in a country or between systems and countries. To these…

  9. Nanoenergy Nanotechnology Applied for Energy Production

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Edson

    2013-01-01

    Low dimensional systems have revolutionized the science and technology in several areas. However, their understanding is still a great challenge for the scientific community. Solar energy conversion devices based on nanostructured materials have shown exceptional gains in efficiency and stability. In this context, nanostructures allow an improvement of surface properties, transport and charge transfer, as well as direct application as sensors and storage devices and energy conversion. This book discuss the recent advances and future trends of the nanoscience in solar energy conversion and storage. It explores and discusses recent developments both in theory as well as in experimental studies and is of interest to materials scientists, chemists, physicists and engineers.

  10. Investigations of a wave energy system by applying reactive control using stochastic analysis of the wave state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    the velocity of the oscillator to be in phase with the incoming wave moment, the damping coefficient is expressed by the autocovariance function of the stationary excitation process. The paper examines four different control strategies by means of numerical simulations in the time domain. The effects...... for larger and longer waves the amount of reactive power which is fed into the system is significant. The structural loads i.e. the mechanical control moment and the inertia due to the angular acceleration are therefore increased....

  11. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  12. Self-energy production applied to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, Fabricio Ramos del; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Sao Paulo State University Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: perrella@feg.unesp.br; Holanda, Marcelo Rodrigues de [Sao Paulo Univ. (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Engineering School], E-mail: marcelo@debas.eel.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The decentralization of energy production in order to obtain better environmental conditions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the cost reduction of electricity and thermal energy consumed in residential buildings has been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes to demonstrate what are the chances of having a microcogeneration system toward the residential application. In this study, we contemplate the technologies involved and their possible inputs that are arranged in a superstructure to be studied. As a first step we obtain the cost of the products generated by the configuration that consists basically of two sources of power generation, and through optimization calculations intended to obtain the best configuration, taking into consideration the selection between four fuels, two equipment generators (Fuel Cell and Internal Combustion Engine)and three levels of energy production for each one. An economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the opportunity of selling the energy generated considering the fluctuations of the residential building consumption needs. (author)

  13. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  14. Applying energy autonomous robots for dike inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresscher, Douwe; Vries, de Theo J.A.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an exploratory study of an energy-autonomous robot that can be deployed on the Dutch dykes. Based on theory in energy harvesting from sun and wind and the energy-cost of locomotion an analytic expression to determine the feasible daily operational time of such a vehicle is comp

  15. Energy systems in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The systems of energy in surgery are applied in order to achieve better and more effective performing of procedures. Whereas various energy sources, including electricity, ultrasound, laser and argon gas, may be used, the fundamental principle involves tissue necrosis and hemostasis by heating. Electro Surgery. Electro Surgery is a surgical technique by which surgical procedures are performed by focused heating of the tissue using devices based on high-frequency currents. It represents one of the most frequently used energy systems in laparoscopy. Ultrasound Energy. The basic principle of operation of the ultrasound surgical instruments is the usage of low-frequency mechanic vibrations (ultrasound energy within the range of 20-60 kHz for cutting and coagulation of tissue. Laser. Laser is the abbreviation for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, aimed at increasing light by stimulated emission of radiation and it is the name of the instrument which generates coherent beam of light. Argon Plasma Coagulation. It has been in use since 1991 for endoscopic hemostasis. It uses highfrequency electric current and ionized gas argon. The successful application of devices depends on the type of surgical procedure, training of the surgeon and his knowledge about the device. Surgeons do not agree on the choice of device which would be optimal for a certain procedure. Conclusion. The whole team in the operating room must have the basic knowledge of the way an energy system works so as to provide a safe and effective treatment of patients. The advantages and shortcomings of different systems of energy have to be taken into account while we use a special mode.

  16. Applied computation and security systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Khalid; Choudhury, Sankhayan; Chaki, Nabendu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the extended version of the works that have been presented and discussed in the First International Doctoral Symposium on Applied Computation and Security Systems (ACSS 2014) held during April 18-20, 2014 in Kolkata, India. The symposium has been jointly organized by the AGH University of Science & Technology, Cracow, Poland and University of Calcutta, India. The Volume I of this double-volume book contains fourteen high quality book chapters in three different parts. Part 1 is on Pattern Recognition and it presents four chapters. Part 2 is on Imaging and Healthcare Applications contains four more book chapters. The Part 3 of this volume is on Wireless Sensor Networking and it includes as many as six chapters. Volume II of the book has three Parts presenting a total of eleven chapters in it. Part 4 consists of five excellent chapters on Software Engineering ranging from cloud service design to transactional memory. Part 5 in Volume II is on Cryptography with two book...

  17. Applying Physics to Clean Energy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Solar and ocean thermal energy sources offer real potential for an environmentally clean fuel by the year 2000. A review of current research contracts relating to ocean-thermal energy, cost requirements of plant construction and uses of the electricity produced, such as synthesizing ammonia and synthetic fuels, are discussed. (BT)

  18. Applying Physics to Clean Energy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Solar and ocean thermal energy sources offer real potential for an environmentally clean fuel by the year 2000. A review of current research contracts relating to ocean-thermal energy, cost requirements of plant construction and uses of the electricity produced, such as synthesizing ammonia and synthetic fuels, are discussed. (BT)

  19. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  20. Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, T Agami

    2011-01-01

    ""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and

  1. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...

  2. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...

  3. Trends in SCADA solutions applied to wind energy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, Roland [Siemens AG (Germany); Lorimer, Martin [Siemens Ltd. (United Kingdom); Romero Velazquez, Manuel [Siemens S.A. (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Monitoring and control of wind parks - whether onshore or offshore - is done on three levels: at the first level a wind park SCADA deals with individual wind turbines, at an intermediate level SCADA oversees large wind parks or several smaller ones with their grid connection, and on the system operator level SCADA/EMS mainly addresses system stability. The paper focuses on SCADA solutions applied to the intermediate level. The goal of the paper is to identify different stages of wind park integration both from an organization/rules point of view and from a technical point of view. This is done on the basis of wind park projects in Europe. Besides others, the paper identifies technical trends in SCADA systems, system architecture, communication media, and communication protocols (incl. IEC 61850). Technical solutions applied, of course, reflect the organizational framework in the respective country/market. The paper identifies general requirements on SCADA solutions for wind energy integration that allow largely standardized solutions. This leads to faster and more economic solutions. An outlook includes standards not yet seen in grid level SCADA systems such as IEC 61400-25. (orig.)

  4. Competing Uses of Underground Systems Related to Energy Supply: Applying Single- and Multiphase Simulations for Site Characterization and Risk-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, A.; Walter, L.; Darcis, M.; Flemisch, B.; Class, H.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the resulting turn towards renewable sources of energy lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems. Among these competing uses are Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), geothermal energy, nuclear waste disposal, "renewable" methane or hydrogen storage as well as the ongoing production of fossil resources like oil, gas, and coal. Besides competing among themselves, these technologies may also create conflicts with essential public interests like water supply. For example, the injection of CO2 into the underground causes an increase in pressure reaching far beyond the actual radius of influence of the CO2 plume, potentially leading to large amounts of displaced salt water. Finding suitable sites is a demanding task for several reasons. Natural systems as opposed to technical systems are always characterized by heterogeneity. Therefore, parameter uncertainty impedes reliable predictions towards capacity and safety of a site. State of the art numerical simulations combined with stochastic approaches need to be used to obtain a more reliable assessment of the involved risks and the radii of influence of the different processes. These simulations may include the modeling of single- and multiphase non-isothermal flow, geo-chemical and geo-mechanical processes in order to describe all relevant physical processes adequately. Stochastic approaches have the aim to estimate a bandwidth of the key output parameters based on uncertain input parameters. Risks for these different underground uses can then be made comparable with each other. Along with the importance and the urgency of the competing processes this may lead to a more profound basis for a decision. Communicating risks to stake holders and a concerned public is crucial for the success of finding a suitable site for CCS (or other subsurface utilization). We present and discuss first steps towards an approach for addressing the issue of competitive

  5. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  6. Active system monitoring applied on wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Parbo, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A concept for active system monitoring (ASM) applied on wind turbines is presented in this paper. The concept is based on an injection of a small periodic auxiliary signal in the system. An investigation of the signature from the auxiliary input in residual (error) signals can then be applied...

  7. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...... to the public distibutor, it can serve as a backup system, as a non-interruptible power supply (with storage aggregation), provide low-voltage support, or give a clean surplus of energy transferred to the public network under economical and technological basis. In this chapter, several factors are also...

  8. Advanced Systems Theory Applied to AMB Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balini, H.M.N.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we look at the application of advanced systems theoretic algorithms for an experimental Active Magnetic Bearing System (AMB). These systems are inherently unstable and therefore require a feedback controller. Accurate modeling of these systems with input-output data is hindered due to

  9. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  10. Spacecraft Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Wilf; Hanks, James; Spina, Len; Havenhill, Doug; Gisler, Gary; Ginter, Steve; Brault, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Flywheel Energy Storage Systems represent an exciting alternative to traditional battery storage systems used to power satellites during periods of eclipse. The increasing demand for reliable communication and data access is driving explosive growth in the number of satellite systems being developed as well as their performance requirements. Power on orbit is the key to this performance, and batteries are becoming increasingly unattractive as an energy storage media. Flywheel systems offer ve...

  11. Applying System Engineering to Pharmaceutical Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Leveson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While engineering techniques are used in the development of medical devices and have been applied to individual healthcare processes, such as the use of checklists in surgery and ICUs, the application of system engineering techniques to larger healthcare systems is less common. System safety is the part of system engineering that uses modeling and analysis to identify hazards and to design the system to eliminate or control them. In this paper, we demonstrate how to apply a new, safety engineering static and dynamic modeling and analysis approach to healthcare systems. Pharmaceutical safety is used as the example in the paper, but the same approach is potentially applicable to other complex healthcare systems. System engineering techniques can be used in re-engineering the system as a whole to achieve the system goals, including both enhancing the safety of current drugs while, at the same time, encouraging the development of new drugs.

  12. Probabilistic Approaches to Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    and applied methodologies for gray box modeling to produce forecasts for vehicle driving patterns, solar irradiance, wind speeds, wind power, and solar power. The model for driving patterns has subsequently been used as input into an optimization algorithm for charging a single electric vehicle......Energy generation from wind and sun is increasing rapidly in many parts of the world. This presents new challenges on how to integrate this uncertain, intermittent and non-dispatchable energy source. This thesis deals with forecasting and decision making in energy systems with a large proportion...... of renewable energy generation. Particularly we focus on producing forecasting models that can predict renewable energy generation, single user demand, and provide advanced forecast products that are needed for an efficient integration of renewable energy into the power generation mix. Such forecasts can...

  13. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  14. Relative Binding Free Energy Calculations Applied to Protein Homology Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, Daniel; Hall, Michelle Lynn; Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; Qi, Jun; Bradner, James; Sherman, Woody

    2016-12-27

    A significant challenge and potential high-value application of computer-aided drug design is the accurate prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities. Free energy perturbation (FEP) using molecular dynamics (MD) sampling is among the most suitable approaches to achieve accurate binding free energy predictions, due to the rigorous statistical framework of the methodology, correct representation of the energetics, and thorough treatment of the important degrees of freedom in the system (including explicit waters). Recent advances in sampling methods and force fields coupled with vast increases in computational resources have made FEP a viable technology to drive hit-to-lead and lead optimization, allowing for more efficient cycles of medicinal chemistry and the possibility to explore much larger chemical spaces. However, previous FEP applications have focused on systems with high-resolution crystal structures of the target as starting points-something that is not always available in drug discovery projects. As such, the ability to apply FEP on homology models would greatly expand the domain of applicability of FEP in drug discovery. In this work we apply a particular implementation of FEP, called FEP+, on congeneric ligand series binding to four diverse targets: a kinase (Tyk2), an epigenetic bromodomain (BRD4), a transmembrane GPCR (A2A), and a protein-protein interaction interface (BCL-2 family protein MCL-1). We apply FEP+ using both crystal structures and homology models as starting points and find that the performance using homology models is generally on a par with the results when using crystal structures. The robustness of the calculations to structural variations in the input models can likely be attributed to the conformational sampling in the molecular dynamics simulations, which allows the modeled receptor to adapt to the "real" conformation for each ligand in the series. This work exemplifies the advantages of using all-atom simulation methods with

  15. Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Korpås, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy s...

  16. Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Korpås, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy s...

  17. Evolution of future energy demands till 2030 in different world regions: An assessment made for the two International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. M.; Hoelzl, A.

    1982-04-01

    Trends in energy demand, per capita consumption, production, and transportation were assessed for all the major world regions, except China and Asian countries with centrally planned economies. High and low economic growth rates relative to 1975, were considered. Energy demand in developed regions is expected to increase by a factor of 1.8 to 2.6. In developing regions it increases by a factor of 7 to 12. Per capita consumption in developed regions increases from a level of 2.8 to 7.9 kw to 3.9 to 11.6 kw; in developing countries it increases from 0.2 to 0.8 kw to 0.5 to 4.6 kw. The share of electricity in final energy continues to increase. Manufacturing activities remain the major energy consumers. Fossil fuels will remain the most important energy source.

  18. OWL Ontologies and SWRL Rules Applied to Energy Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption has increased considerably in the last years. How to reduce and make energy consumption more efficient in home environments has become of great interest for researchers. This could be achieved by introducing a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) into user residences. This syst...

  19. Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    Energy systems are currently undergoing a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy. This is occurring for a variety of reasons, which in an EU context includes: • To reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) • To reduce imported fossil fuels • To utilise local resources and create local jobs ...

  20. Energy Usage Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The EUAS application is a web based system which serves Energy Center of Expertise, under the Office of Facilitates Management and Service Programs. EUAS is used for...

  1. A Novel Home Energy Management System Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The number of electronic devices found in home environments is increasing, leading to an increase in the energy consumption in users’ premises. Introducing a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) into user residences might provide the necessary tools to reduce and optimize the energy consumption...... the different devices at the service level and provides the necessary tools to apply energy management strategies....

  2. Analysis of Energy Storage Technology Applied in Grid-Connected PV System%储能技术在光伏并网发电系统中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建涛; 张建成; 马杰; 曹雷

    2011-01-01

    In line with the structural features of the grid-connected PV power system, this paper explores the adverse impacts of the system on the grid if without the energy storage device. From perspective of both the electricity customer and the grid operator, the paper proposes several technologies of energy storage system applied in the grid-connected PV Power system. Finally, it puts forward development needs for the storage technology applied in the grid -connected PV Power system.%根据光伏并网发电系统的结构特点分析了不加储能装置的光伏并网发电系统对电网造成的不良影响,并分别从电网角度和用户角度提出了储能系统在光伏并网发电系统中的几种应用技术,最后提出了用于光伏并网发电系统的储能技术发展需求.

  3. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  4. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  5. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  6. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  7. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions....

  8. 基于LTC3108的能量收集系统的应用研究%Applied Research of Energy Collection System Based on LTC3108

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈永; 刘玉伟

    2015-01-01

    温差发电技术是一种无污染,无噪声,应用范围广的新型能量收集技术。用特殊材料制成温差发电片。温差发电片冷热端温度不同,就会产生电压,从而使热能转换为电能。利用LTC3108直流升压电路,将温差发电片转换来的低电压升高,就可以供低功耗设备工作。由于温差的变化或者设备间歇工作等原因,转换所得的电量可能会过剩或者不足。为解决上述问题,系统采用超级电容作为储能元件。在电量多余的情况下,将电量储存在超级电容里;在电量不足的情况下,将超级电容所存电量释放出来,供设备使用。%Thermal power generation technology is a kind of new energy harvesting technology with no pol ution, no noise, and wide application. Thermoelectric conversion module is made of special materials. When the temperature of both sides of the thermoelectric conversion module is different, it would form voltage. Thus, thermal energy changes into electrical energy. LTC3108 DC booster cir-cuit is used to boost the low voltage transformed by thermoelectric conversion module. And the boosted voltage can be supplied for low power consumption devices. Because the temperature difference between the two sides of thermoelectric conversion module is changed or the device operation is intermittent, the electrical energy might be surplus or lack. In order to solve this problem, this pa-per uses the super capacitors as energy storage elements. When the electricity is surplus, the rest of the electricity is stored into the super capacitors. And, when the electricity is lack, the stored energy is released to equipments.

  9. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  10. National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.W. (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration is developing a new National Energy Modeling System to provide annual forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices on a regional basis in the United States and, to a limited extent, in the rest of the world. The design for the system was based on a requirements analysis, a comparison of requirements with existing modeling capabilities, and a series of widely circulated issue papers defining the choices and tradeoffs for 13 key design decisions. An initial prototpye of the new NEMS was implemented in late 1992, with a more complete, operational version in 1993. NEMS is expected to provide EIA and other users with a greatly enhanced ability to illustrate quickly and effectively the effects of a wide range of energy policy proposals.

  11. 多电平逆变器在移动式光伏系统中应用%Multilevel inverter apply in portable photovoltaic system with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹄; 张建峡; 冯海涛

    2014-01-01

    在移动式光伏系统中,逆变器及其调制技术的好坏直接会影响独立式光伏发电系统的使用及发展。以13电平逆变器及载波相移SPWM控制技术为研究对象,在有限的成本下实现了独立式光伏系统性能达到最优化。该系统具有体积小巧、维护方便、性价比高等特点。应用Matlab/Simulink进行了系统仿真,其仿真结果与理论基本一致。%In the portable photovoltaic system ,the inverter and its modulation technology ,which are good or bad ,will directly affect the use and development of independent photovoltaic power generation system .Taking the 13 level and carrier phase-shifted SPWM inverter control technology as the research object , this paper achieves independent photovoltaic systems to optimize performance under the limited cost .This system has small size , convenient maintenance , high cost performance , etc . In order to verify the feasibility of this system ,it creates a system model with Matlab/Simulink .The simulation result is consistent with that of the theory .

  12. Integrative Systems Biology Applied to Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning

    associated with combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Testing all possible combinations of the tens of thousands environmental chemicals is impractical. This PhD project was launched to apply existing computational systems biology methods to toxicological research. In this thesis, I present in three...... of a system thereby suggesting new ways of thinking specific toxicological endpoints. Furthermore, computational methods can serve as valuable input for the hypothesis generating phase of the preparations of a research project....

  13. Cost system applied in company of generating and transmitting electric energy - CHESF; Sistema de custos aplicado em empresa geradora e transmissora de energia eletrica - CHESF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Crisalvo Sampaio, e-mail: Crisalv@chesf.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the Operational Costs System 'SCOPES', developed by Companhia HidroEletrica do Sao Francisco - CHESF, with the objective of providing the leadership, knowledge of costs and expenditures generated in the various activities of the cost formation chain, enabling effective monitoring and management of resources incurred in the chain.

  14. Energy systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  15. System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined wit...

  16. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  17. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  18. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  19. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  20. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  1. Energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to an energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source, wherein said electrochemical energy source comprises at least one assembly of a first electrode, a second electrode, and an intermediate solid-state electrolyte separating said first electrode and said second elec

  2. Optimal alarm system applied in coffee rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Resende Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm systems have very great utility in detecting and warning of catastrophes. This methodology was applied via TARSO model with Bayesian estimation, serving as a forecasting mechanism for coffee rust disease. The coffee culture is very susceptible to this disease causing several records of incidence in most cultivated crops. Researches involving this limiting factor for production are intense and frequent, indicating environmental factors as responsible for the epidemics spread, which does not occur if these factors are not favorable. The fitting type used by the a posteriori probability, allows the system to be updated each time point. The methodology was applied to the rust index series in the presence of the average temperature series. Thus, it is possible to verify the alarm resulted or in a high catastrophe detection in points at which the catastrophe has not occurred, or in the low detections if the point was already in the catastrophe state.

  3. Applying WebMining on KM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Keiko; Ozaki, Tomonobu; Furukawa, Koichi

    KM (Knowledge Management) systems have recently been adopted within the realm of enterprise management. On the other hand, data mining technology is widely acknowledged within Information systems' R&D Divisions. Specially, acquisition of meaningful information from Web usage data has become one of the most exciting eras. In this paper, we employ a Web based KM system and propose a framework for applying Web Usage Mining technology to KM data. As it turns out, task duration varies according to different user operations such as referencing a table-of-contents page, down-loading a target file, and writing to a bulletin board. This in turn makes it possible to easily predict the purpose of the user's task. By taking these observations into account, we segmented access log data manually. These results were compared with results abstained by applying the constant interval method. Next, we obtained a segmentation rule of Web access logs by applying a machine-learning algorithm to manually segmented access logs as training data. Then, the newly obtained segmentation rule was compared with other known methods including the time interval method by evaluating their segmentation results in terms of recall and precision rates and it was shown that our rule attained the best results in both measures. Furthermore, the segmented data were fed to an association rule miner and the obtained association rules were utilized to modify the Web structure.

  4. Spectral Selectivity Applied To Hybrid Concentration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, M. A.; Luttmann, F.; Osborn, D. E.; Jacobson, M. R.; MacLeod, H. A.

    1985-12-01

    The efficiency of conversion of concentrated solar energy can be improved by separating the solar spectrum into portions matched to specific photoquantum processes and the balance used for photothermal conversion. The basic approaches of spectrally selective beam splitters are presented. A detailed simulation analysis using TRNSYS is developed for a spectrally selective hybrid photovoltaic/photothermal concentrating system. The analysis shows definite benefits to a spectrally selective approach.

  5. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  6. Energy efficiency in manufacturing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiede, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology - with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element - is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  7. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  8. Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Hector, E-mail: hcampbellr@gmail.com [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C., Mexico, P.O. Box 3439, Calexico, CA 92232 (United States); Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C., Mexico, P.O. Box 3439, Calexico, CA 92232 (United States); Lambert, Alejandro [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO{sub 2}. The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO{sub 2}. - Highlights: > We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. > Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. > Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. > Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. > Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.

  9. The Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Increased deployment of new technologies, e.g., renewable generation and electric vehicles, is rapidly transforming electrical power networks by crossing previously distinct spatiotemporal scales and invalidating many traditional approaches for designing, analyzing, and operating power grids. This trend is expected to accelerate over the coming years, bringing the disruptive challenge of complexity, but also opportunities to deliver unprecedented efficiency and reliability. Our Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS) Center will discover, enable, and solve emerging mathematics challenges arising in power systems and, more generally, in complex engineered networks. We will develop foundational applied mathematics resulting in rigorous algorithms and simulation toolboxes for modern and future engineered networks. The AMPS Center deconstruction/reconstruction approach 'deconstructs' complex networks into sub-problems within non-separable spatiotemporal scales, a missing step in 20th century modeling of engineered networks. These sub-problems are addressed within the appropriate AMPS foundational pillar - complex systems, control theory, and optimization theory - and merged or 'reconstructed' at their boundaries into more general mathematical descriptions of complex engineered networks where important new questions are formulated and attacked. These two steps, iterated multiple times, will bridge the growing chasm between the legacy power grid and its future as a complex engineered network.

  10. Performance Monitoring Applied to System Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertille Somon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, automation is present in every aspect of our daily life and has some benefits. Nonetheless, empirical data suggest that traditional automation has many negative performance and safety consequences as it changed task performers into task supervisors. In this context, we propose to use recent insights into the anatomical and neurophysiological substrates of action monitoring in humans, to help further characterize performance monitoring during system supervision. Error monitoring is critical for humans to learn from the consequences of their actions. A wide variety of studies have shown that the error monitoring system is involved not only in our own errors, but also in the errors of others. We hypothesize that the neurobiological correlates of the self-performance monitoring activity can be applied to system supervision. At a larger scale, a better understanding of system supervision may allow its negative effects to be anticipated or even countered. This review is divided into three main parts. First, we assess the neurophysiological correlates of self-performance monitoring and their characteristics during error execution. Then, we extend these results to include performance monitoring and error observation of others or of systems. Finally, we provide further directions in the study of system supervision and assess the limits preventing us from studying a well-known phenomenon: the Out-Of-the-Loop (OOL performance problem.

  11. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy......, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously...

  12. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  13. High Efficiency Micromachining System Applied in Nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Lee, Dong Weon; Choi, Young Soo

    Scanning probe lithography such as direct-writing lithographic processes and nanoscratching techniques based on scanning probe microscopy have presented new micromachining methods for microelectromechanical system (MEMS). In this paper, a micromachining system for thermal scanning probe lithography is introduced, which consists of the cantilever arrays and a big stroke micro XY-stage. A large machining area and high machining speed can be realized by combining arrays of cantilevers possessing sharp tips at their top with the novel micro XY-stage which can obtain big displacements under relatively low driving voltage and in a small size. According to the above configuration, this micromachining system is provided with high throughputs and suitable for industrialization due to its MEMS-based simple fabrication process. The novel micro XY-stage applied in this system is presented in detail including the unique structure and principles, which shows an obvious improvement and distinct advantages in comparison with traditional structures. It is analyzed by mathematical model and then simulated using finite element method (FEM), it is proved to be able to practically serve the micromachining system with high capability.

  14. Multiple Energy System Analysis of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    2015-01-01

    To eliminate the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector it is necessary to transition to future 100% renewable energy systems. One approach for this radical change in our energy systems is Smart Energy Systems. With a focus on development and interaction between smart electricity grids, smart...... guidelines to municipalities in the transition to future 100% renewable Smart Energy Systems. A tool with such capabilities enables better discussions of energy systems and can potentially handle multiple country analyses. This paper discusses the development and consequences of modelling an energy system...... analysis tools capable of handling multiple system. This includes a review of how interconnection works, and what assumptions make sense when integrating them in large scale analysis of national energy systems. The result of the paper is the development of an actual tool capable of simulating and analyzing...

  15. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  16. Calculations of energy consumption in ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreslins, Andris; Ramata, Anna [Riga Technical University (Latvia)], e-mail: kreslins@rbf.rtu.lv, email: Anna.Ramata@rtu.lv

    2011-07-01

    Energy cost is an important economic factor in the food industry production process. With the rising price of energy, a reduction in energy consumption would greatly impact production and the end product. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for optimizing energy consumption. A comparison between a traditional ventilation system and a mechanical system was carried out; the necessary enthalpy for heating the air supply and thermal energy consumption were calculated and compared for both systems during the heating season, from October to April, using climatological data for Latvia. Results showed that energy savings of 46% to 87% can be achieved by applying the methodology in the design of industrial buildings; in addition, a well-designed ventilation system increases the workers' productivity. This study presented a methodology which can optimize energy consumption in the food industry sector.

  17. Terahertz spectroscopy applied to food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe

    Water plays a crucial role in the quality of food. Apart from the natural water content of a food product, the state of that water is very important. Water can be found integrated into the biological material or it can be added during production of the product. Currently it is difficult to differ...... to differentiate between these types of water in subsequent quality controls. This thesis describes terahertz time-domain spectroscopy applied on aqueous food model systems, with particular focus on ethanol-water mixtures and confined water pools in inverse micelles.......Water plays a crucial role in the quality of food. Apart from the natural water content of a food product, the state of that water is very important. Water can be found integrated into the biological material or it can be added during production of the product. Currently it is difficult...

  18. 国际文摘%Applied Energy(英国)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯恩哲

    2015-01-01

    Energy management system (EMS) within buildings has always been one of the main approaches for an automated demand side management (DSM). These energy management systems are supposed to increase load flexibility to fit more the generation from renewable energies and m icro co-generation devices. For EMS to operate efficiently, it must learn ahead about the available supply and demand so that it can work on supply-demand match-ing and minimizing the imports from the grid and running costs. This article presents a simple efficient day-ahead electrical load prediction approach for any EMS. In comparison to other ap-proaches, the presented algorithm was designed to be apart of any generic EMS and it does not require to be associated with a pre-pared statistical or historical databases, or even to get connected to any kinds of sensors. The proposed algorithm was tested over the data of 25 households in Austria and the results have shown an er-ror range that goes down to 8.2% as an initial prediction.

  19. Shape analysis applied in heavy ion reactions near Fermi energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Liu, X.; Lin, W.; Wang, J.

    2017-03-01

    A new method is proposed to perform shape analyses and to evaluate their validity in heavy ion collisions near the Fermi energy. In order to avoid erroneous values of shape parameters in the calculation, a test particle method is utilized in which each nucleon is represented by n test particles, similar to that used in the Boltzmann–Uehling–Uhlenbeck (BUU) calculations. The method is applied to the events simulated by an antisymmetrized molecular dynamics model. The geometrical shape of fragments is reasonably extracted when n = 100 is used. A significant deformation is observed for all fragments created in the multifragmentation process. The method is also applied to the shape of the momentum distribution for event classification. In the momentum case, the errors in the eigenvalue calculation become much smaller than those of the geometrical shape analysis and the results become similar between those with and without the test particle method, indicating that in intermediate heavy ion collisions the shape analysis of momentum distribution can be used for the event classification without the test particle method.

  20. Financial overview of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croke, K. G.; Hurter, A. P.; Lerner, E.; Breen, W.; Baum, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is designed to analyze the commercialization potential of various concepts of community-scale energy systems that have been termed Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A case analysis of alternative ICES concepts applied to a major metropolitan development complex is documented. The intent of this study is twofold: (1) to develop a framework for comparing ICES technologies to conventional energy supply systems and (2) to identify potential problems in the commercialization of new systems approaches to energy conservation. In brief, the ICES Program of the ERDA Office of Energy Conservation is intended to identify the opportunities for energy conservation in the community context through analysis, development, and/or demonstration of: location and design of buildings, building complexes, and infrastructure links; engineering and systems design of existing, emerging, and advanced energy production and delivery technologies and systems; regulatory designs for public planning, administration, and regulation of energy-conserving community development and energy services; and financial planning for energy-conserving community development and energy supply systems.

  1. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  2. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  3. Life-cycle analysis of renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    1994-01-01

    An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants......An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants...

  4. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO driven by electricity and Multi Stage Flash (MSF desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP. The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts on energy system performance. Results indicate that RO and MSF are similar in fuel use. While there is no use of waste heat from condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to results in lower fuel usage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity Production (CEEP even at relatively modest wind power penetrations. Here RO assists the energy system in decreasing CEEP – and even more if water storage is applied.

  5. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  6. National Energy Outlook Modelling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkers, C.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    For over 20 years, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has been developing the National Energy Outlook Modelling System (NEOMS) for Energy projections and policy evaluations. NEOMS enables 12 energy models of ECN to exchange data and produce consistent and detailed results.

  7. Energy System Modeling with REopt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, Travis; Anderson, Kate; Cutler, Dylan; Olis, Dan; Elgqvist, Emma; DiOrio, Nick; Walker, Andy

    2016-07-15

    This poster details how REopt - NREL's software modeling platform for energy systems integration and optimization - can help to model energy systems. Some benefits of modeling with REopt include optimizing behind the meter storage for cost and resiliency, optimizing lab testing, optimizing dispatch of utility scale storage, and quantifying renewable energy impact on outage survivability.

  8. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  9. Applying Risk and Resilience Metrics to Energy Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    diversified energy portfolio with multiple sources of renewable energy counters the effects of a disrupted petroleum supply chain. 2. Report on Earthquake...Tokyo (p. 57). This diversified energy portfolio incorporates a higher ratio of energy generation to load components, which reduces risk and increases...the lessons learned from the GEJE provide evidence that a diversified energy portfolio with multiple sources of renewable energy counters the

  10. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  11. Nuclear Hybrid energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Sabharwall, P.; Yoon, S. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. B.; Stoot, C.

    2014-07-01

    Without growing concerns in reliable energy supply, the next generation in reliable power generation via hybrid energy systems is being developed. A hybrid energy system incorporates multiple energy input source sand multiple energy outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these combined systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilization because stored excess energy is used later to meet peak energy demands. With high thermal energy production the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct thermal properties. This paper discusses the criteria for efficient energy storage and molten salt energy storage system options for hybrid systems. (Author)

  12. Predictive analysis on the electric energy distribution systems reliability: applying the synerGEE system; Analisis predictivo de la confiabilidad en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica: aplicando el sistema synerGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Andrade, Carlos

    2008-12-15

    Electrical distribution systems ought to deliver electric power as economical as possible with an acceptable degree of service quality and continuity. Nevertheless, their faults represent one of the main causes of customer's unavailability. At the moment, a wide range of determinist criteria in the improvement of systems reliability based on past behavior are used, but they do not respond to the stochastic nature of system behavior, and are applied without an adequate balance between reliability and economy. In order to obtain this balance a minimum cost planning methodology that considers the predictive analysis of different investment alternatives in addition to the past behavior of the system is required, which guarantees that the economic resource available and limited will be used to gather the greater possible reliability degree. In this work this problem is approached with the fundamentals and methodologies needed to assess the design effects and operative criteria over the main reliability indexes used by the main utilities around the world, with emphasis on the need to optimize economical resources. The use of the system SynerGEETM, is investigated, probing it as a useful tool for the predictive reliability analysis. Due to the lack of experience that exists in Mexico with this type of analysis, distribution engineers has to become familiar with the concepts of the reliability engineering, their application to establish distribution systems models, and acquiring the ability to use the modern simulation tools, allowing them to evaluate the behavior of these systems with enough analytical rigor. In this sense a serial of well known study cases are presented to help them in this labor. [Spanish] Los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica deben satisfacer la demanda de energia electrica de la forma mas economica posible, con un grado de calidad y continuidad aceptable. Sin embargo, sus fallas son una de las principales causas de indisponibilidad en

  13. Energy System Analysis of 100 Per cent Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    renewable energy supply based on domestic resources is physically possible, and that the first step toward 2030 is feasible to Danish society. However, Denmark will have to consider to which degree the country shall rely mostly on biomass resources, which will involve the reorganisation of the present use......This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100 per cent renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed...... the electricity supply and demand and to exchange electricity productions on the international electricity markets. The results are detailed system designs and energy balances for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100 per cent renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power...

  14. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  15. Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-30

    SEDS is an economy-wide energy model of the U.S. The model captures dynamics between supply, demand, and pricing of the major energy types consumed and produced within the U.S. These dynamics are captured by including: the effects of macroeconomics; the resources and costs of primary energy types such as oil, natural gas, coal, and biomass; the conversion of primary fuels into energy products like petroleum products, electricity, biofuels, and hydrogen; and lastly the end- use consumption attributable to residential and commercial buildings, light and heavy transportation, and industry. Projections from SEDS extend to the year 2050 by one-year time steps and are generally projected at the national level. SEDS differs from other economy-wide energy models in that it explicitly accounts for uncertainty in technology, markets, and policy. SEDS has been specifically developed to avoid the computational burden, and sometimes fruitless labor, that comes from modeling significantly low-level details. Instead, SEDS focuses on the major drivers within the energy economy and evaluates the impact of uncertainty around those drivers.

  16. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  17. Energy: Systems for Control, Maintenance, and Storage. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald, Comp.; McKane, Irving, Comp.

    This publication is a bibliography of available periodical literature on specific aspects of energy and today's technology. The Applied Science and Technology Indexes were searched for articles that related to these specific areas: (1) Energy control systems; (2) Maintenance of Energy Systems; and (3) Energy storage. The articles and papers…

  18. Minimization of Heat Energy Intensity in Food Production Companies Applying Sustainable Industrial Development Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kliopova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian food and drink sector of industry is characterized by high energy intensity, which is 29% higher than the EU average. At the confectionary plant chosen for the experiment, an environmental impact has been controlled and its maximum managed by creating different procedures to reduce pollution. Assessment of the plant's environmental costs has revealed that the energy costs amount to main part of the environmental ones (up to 55.4%. In recent years several energy efficiency projects have been implemented allowing minimizing the plant's energy intensity up to 15%. An algorithm of feasibility analysis of increasing thermal energy efficiency of the plant was suggested which could also be applied to other food industry plants. Demand for heat energy within the plant was evaluated for each technological process; the fuel and energy balance of the plant boiler-house was drawn up. It was revealed that huge heat energy losses were made during heat energy production and usage. During the research period a control system of significant environmental aspects was suggested, its objective function was estimated. Several environmental alternatives were suggested for optimization of the heat energy production processes. Three projects were chosen for the feasibility analysis. Results of technical, economic and environmental evaluations of Cleaner Production (CP innovations as well as conclusions made are presented in this article.

  19. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government and an agency of the State of Maryland, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 30 June 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into three sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains three articles. The first is on data analysis of OTEC core unit condenser tests, and is supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST). The second is on the current status of the Community Annual Storage Energy System at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va., and is supported by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, Naval Facilities Engineering Command/Atlantic Division. The third is on utilization of landfill methane and is supported by Argonne National Laboratory.

  20. Renewable Energy Laboratory for Lighting Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cristian, Dumitru

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric lighting is an important part of our lives and also represents a significant part of the electric power consumption. Alternative solutions such as renewable energy applied in this domain are thus welcomed. This paper presents a workstation conceived for the study of photovoltaic solar energy for lighting systems by students of power engineering and civil engineering faculty. The proposed system is realized to study the generated photovoltaic solar energy parameters for lighting systems. For an easier way to study the most relevant parameters virtual instrumentation is implemented. National Instruments LabWindows CVI environment is used as a platform for virtual instrumentation. For future developments remote communication feature intends to be added on which currently remote monitoring of solar photovoltaic energy and electric energy parameters are monitored.

  1. Applying Clausewitz and Systems Thinking to Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Consequently, a new approach organized around the concept of systems took root. Ludwig von Bertalanffy , one of systems theory’s early proponents... Bertalanffy , “An Outline of General System Theory,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 1, 1950, pp. 134-165. 2. Gareth Morgan

  2. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  3. Theoretical and applied research on bistable dual-piezoelectric-cantilever vibration energy harvesting toward realistic ambience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Leng, Y.; Javey, A.; Tan, D.; Liu, J.; Fan, S.; Lai, Z.

    2016-11-01

    Pink noise, which is similar to realistic ambient noise, is normally used to simulate ambience where a piezoelectric energy harvesting system (PEHS) is set up. However, pink noise with standard spectral representation can only be used to simulate excitations assumed to possess constant intensity, whereas realistic ambient noise normally appears with a random spectrum and varying intensity in terms of different locations and time. The output performance of conventional bistable magnetic repulsive energy harvesters is significantly affected by the ambience intensity. Considering this fact, a model bistable dual-piezoelectric-cantilever energy harvester (DPEH) is developed in this study to achieve optimal broadband energy harvesting under a varying-intensity realistic circumstance. We utilized various realistic ambient conditions as excitations to obtain the DPEH energy harvesting performance for theoretical and applied study. The elastically supported PEHS has been proven to be more adaptive to realistic ambience with significant or medium intensity variation, but is less qualified for realistic ambience with constant intensity compared with the rigidly supported PEHS (RPEHS). Fortunately, the dual-piezoelectric-cantilever energy harvesting system is superior to the RPEHS under all circumstances because the dual-piezoelectric cantilevers are efficiently utilized for electromechanical energy conversion to realize optimal energy harvesting.

  4. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  5. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  6. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  7. Volatility Measurements Applied to Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    LISI Levels of Information Systems Integration NPV Net Present Value OEP Organizational Execution Plans ROI Return on Investment SIGINT Signals...IT system (Stikeleather, 2013). The interoperability performance can be measured with the Levels of Information Systems Interoperability ( LISI ), which...support (DoD CIO, 2012). There are several IT evaluation methods including net present value (NPV), ROI, information economics, cost benefit analysis, and

  8. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  9. Determination of kinetic energy applied by center pivot sprinklers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetic energy of discrete drops impacting a bare soil surface is generally observed to lead to a drastic reduction in water infiltration rate due to soil surface seal formation. Under center pivot sprinkler irrigation, kinetic energy transferred to the soil prior to crop canopy development can...

  10. Modified electron acoustic field and energy applied to observation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahed, H. G., E-mail: hgomaa-eg@yahoo.com, E-mail: hgomaa-eg@mans.edu.eg [College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Theoretical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); El-Shewy, E. K. [Theoretical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Improved electrostatic acoustic field and energy have been debated in vortex trapped hot electrons and fluid of cold electrons with pressure term plasmas. The perturbed higher-order modified-Korteweg-de Vries equation (PhomKdV) has been worked out. The effect of trapping and electron temperatures on the electro-field and energy properties in auroral plasmas has been inspected.

  11. OBTAINING FOOD SAFETY BY APPLYING HACCP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION CRIVEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the confidence of the trading partners and consumers in the products which are sold on the market, enterprises producing food are required to implement the food safety system HACCP,a particularly useful system because the manufacturer is not able to fully control finished products . SR EN ISO 22000:2005 establishes requirements for a food safety management system where an organization in the food chain needs to proove its ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that food is safe at the time of human consumption. This paper presents the main steps which ensure food safety using the HACCP system, and SR EN ISO 20000:2005 requirements for food safety.

  12. Applying Prolog to Develop Distributed Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Nuno P; Rybalchenko, Andrey; Singh, Atul; 10.1017/S1471068410000360

    2010-01-01

    Development of distributed systems is a difficult task. Declarative programming techniques hold a promising potential for effectively supporting programmer in this challenge. While Datalog-based languages have been actively explored for programming distributed systems, Prolog received relatively little attention in this application area so far. In this paper we present a Prolog-based programming system, called DAHL, for the declarative development of distributed systems. DAHL extends Prolog with an event-driven control mechanism and built-in networking procedures. Our experimental evaluation using a distributed hash-table data structure, a protocol for achieving Byzantine fault tolerance, and a distributed software model checker - all implemented in DAHL - indicates the viability of the approach.

  13. Applied signal processing concepts, circuits, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdy, Nadder

    2008-01-01

    Introduction What are Signals? Signal parameters Why Signal processing? Analog vs. Digital Signal processing Practical Signal processing Systems Analog Signal Processing Amplitude Shaping Frequency Spectrum Shaping Phase Errors Correction Waveform Generation Analog Filter Design Describing Equations Design Procedures Filter Specifications Approximations to the Ideal Response Realization Practical RC-Filters Design Switched Capacitor Filter Realization Design examples Data Converters Introduction A typical DSP System Specifications of Data Converters Sampling Samp

  14. Applying Membrane Systems in Food Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Escuela, Gabi; Hinze, Thomas; Dittrich, Peter; Schuster, Stefan; Moreno Álvarez, Mario; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2010-01-01

    Food engineering deals with manufacturing, packaging and distributing systems for drug and food products. In this work, we discuss about the applicability of membrane systems to model environmental conditions and their e ects on the produces during storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. In particular, we are interested in abstract molecular interactions that occur between produce, lm and surrounding atmosphere factors involved in fresh fruit and vegetable package designs. We ...

  15. Smart power systems and renewable energy system integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a wider spectrum of researches, developments, and case specific studies in the area of smart power systems and integration of renewable energy systems. The book will be for the benefit of a wider audience including researchers, postgraduate students, practicing engineers, academics, and regulatory policy makers. It covers a wide range of topics from fundamentals, and modelling and simulation aspects of traditional and smart power systems to grid integration of renewables; Micro Grids; challenges in planning and operation of a smart power system; risks, security, and stability in smart operation of a power system; and applied research in energy storage. .

  16. Rotational Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinulovic, Dragan; Brooks, Michael; Haug, Martin; Petrovic, Tomislav

    This paper presents development of the rotational electromagnetic energy harvesting transducer. The transducer is driven mechanically by pushing a button; therefore, the mechanical energy will be converted into electrical energy. The energy harvesting (EH) transducer consists of multilayer planar coils embedded in a PCB, multipolar NdFeB hard magnets, and a mechanical system for movement conversion. The EH transducer generate an energy of about 4 mJ at a load of 10 Ω. The maximum open circuit output voltage is as high as 2 V and the maximum short circuit output current is 800 mA.

  17. Systems biology: the reincarnation of systems theory applied in biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, O

    2001-09-01

    With the availability of quantitative data on the transcriptome and proteome level, there is an increasing interest in formal mathematical models of gene expression and regulation. International conferences, research institutes and research groups concerned with systems biology have appeared in recent years and systems theory, the study of organisation and behaviour per se, is indeed a natural conceptual framework for such a task. This is, however, not the first time that systems theory has been applied in modelling cellular processes. Notably in the 1960s systems theory and biology enjoyed considerable interest among eminent scientists, mathematicians and engineers. Why did these early attempts vanish from research agendas? Here we shall review the domain of systems theory, its application to biology and the lessons that can be learned from the work of Robert Rosen. Rosen emerged from the early developments in the 1960s as a main critic but also developed a new alternative perspective to living systems, a concept that deserves a fresh look in the post-genome era of bioinformatics.

  18. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  19. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  20. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  1. Sneak analysis applied to process systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetton, Cris

    Traditional safety analyses, such as HAZOP, FMEA, FTA, and MORT, are less than effective at identifying hazards resulting from incorrect 'flow' - whether this be flow of information, actions, electric current, or even the literal flow of process fluids. Sneak Analysis (SA) has existed since the mid nineteen-seventies as a means of identifying such conditions in electric circuits; in which area, it is usually known as Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA). This paper extends the ideas of Sneak Circuit Analysis to a general method of Sneak Analysis applied to process plant. The methods of SA attempt to capitalize on previous work in the electrical field by first producing a pseudo-electrical analog of the process and then analyzing the analog by the existing techniques of SCA, supplemented by some additional rules and clues specific to processes. The SA method is not intended to replace any existing method of safety analysis; instead, it is intended to supplement such techniques as HAZOP and FMEA by providing systematic procedures for the identification of a class of potential problems which are not well covered by any other method.

  2. SORM applied to hierarchical parallel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2006-01-01

    The old hierarchical stochastic load combination model of Ferry Borges and Castanheta and the corresponding problem of determining the distribution of the extreme random load effect is the inspiration to this paper. The evaluation of the distribution function of the extreme value by use of a part......The old hierarchical stochastic load combination model of Ferry Borges and Castanheta and the corresponding problem of determining the distribution of the extreme random load effect is the inspiration to this paper. The evaluation of the distribution function of the extreme value by use...... of a particular first order reliability method (FORM) was first described in a celebrated paper by Rackwitz and Fiessler more than a quarter of a century ago. The method has become known as the Rackwitz-Fiessler algorithm. The original RF-algorithm as applied to a hierarchical random variable model...... is recapitulated so that a simple but quite effective accuracy improving calculation can be explained. A limit state curvature correction factor on the probability approximation is obtained from the final stop results of the RF-algorithm. This correction factor is based on Breitung’s asymptotic formula for second...

  3. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R.; Cho, K. J.; Ferraris, John; Balkus, Ken; Chabal, Yves; Gnade, Bruce; Rotea, Mario; Vasselli, John

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. Significant accomplishments are detailed in each section. Those particularly noteworthy include: • Transition metal silicate cathodes with 2x higher storage capacity than commercial cobalt oxide cathodes were demonstrated. • MnO₂ nanowires, which are a promising replacement for RuO₂, were synthesized • PAN-based carbon nanofibers were prepared and characterized with an energy density 30-times higher than current ultracapacitors on the market and comparable to lead-acid batteries • An optimization-based control strategy for real-time power management of battery storage in wind farms was developed and demonstrated. • PVDF films were developed with breakdown strengths of > 600MVm⁻¹, a maximum energy density of approximately 15 Jcm⁻³, and an average dielectric constant of 9.8 (±1.2). Capacitors made from these films can support a 10-year lifetime operating at an electric field of 200 MV m⁻¹. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  4. Hypercube Expert System Shell - Applying Production Parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    that himian,, currentlly do better than machines (like the task of 3 piloting an aircraft ) lendl t wituselves to solution using an artificial ...research i ut eret tiit 1iw 1wrfuirtii i of artificial intelligence application software executing on a rriilt iconipilter. Liriti t liw analysis to...I IProc~ssing Compute- inteliive alilijcatiolis. such as the RAV expert system (28), require pro. cessing beyond the perforinance ability of

  5. Microemulsion systems applied to breakdown petroleum emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuma de Castro Dantas, Tereza; Avelino Dantas Neto, Afonso; Ferreira Moura, Everlane [Deptos de Quimica e Eng. Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario s/n, 59072.970, Natal/RN Campinas (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    Microemulsion systems obtained using commercial surfactants with demulsifier and emulsion prevention properties have been employed to break down Brazilian crude water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. These crude oils were supplied by the Brazilian oil company-PETROBRAS-and were characterized by the different Balance sheet of Sediment and Water (BSW) values of 48%, 36%, and 32%. The microemulsion systems formed in this study were composed of an aqueous phase (HCl 5.2% solution); an oil phase (toluene); a cosurfactant/surfactant (C/S) phase (isopropyl alcohol (C)/surfactants (S) with a ratio C/S of 9.0). The microemulsion efficiency to break down oil emulsions was evaluated by a direct contact method between the microemulsions and crude (W/O) emulsions. The Scheffe net statistical planning for mixtures was used to relate the component mass fractions to the relative breakdown of petroleum emulsions. The best composition of the microemulsion system for the complete breakdown of oil emulsions with high BSW values had the lowest C/S phase percentage.

  6. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouro, Samir; Wu, Bin; Abu-Rub, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of grid-connected PV systems, including power curves, grid-connected configurations, different converter topologies (both single- and three-phase), control schemes, MPPT, and anti-islanding detection methods. The focus of the chapter has been on the ...

  7. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouro, Samir; Wu, Bin; Abu-Rub, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    on the mainstream solutions available in the PV industry, in order to establish the current state-of-the-art in PV converter technology. Some examples of commercial PV converters have been included for this purpose. In addition, some recently introduced concepts on multilevel converter-based PV systems for large...

  8. World Energy Data Systems (WENDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, William E.

    The World Energy Data System (WENDS) allows qualified users on-line access to non-classified management level data on worldwide energy technology and research and development activities. Information is arranged on textual pages and available by means of a simple accessing procedure. Described in this report are the WENDS concept and approach, the…

  9. Applying Virtual Realitzy to Molecular Graphics System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChangNoYoon; MyungHwanChi; 等

    1996-01-01

    Mlecular graphics can be thought of as a window to the computer through which the chemist expresses ideas for computational evaluation and receives results in an understandable form.Furthermore,with beautiful graphic images it can give out the realistic molecular model like a real thing in real world.Molecule has various properties including volume,electronic,van der waals forces,etc.These properties are very important to understand the molecular world.So if the virtual reality tools are used,then the imaginary world can be studied intuitively by touching and feeling a tremendous amount of data.Computational chemistry generates such amount of molecular property data through supercomputing with molecular simulation experiment.One of the objects to investigate the molecular world is to understand the intermolecular interaction such as drug-receptor interaction.Another thing is to measure the geometrical data in molecular architecture.Virtual reality system provides the easiest way to meet these objects.This kind of simple system changes a numerical data set,which is very difficults to deal with,into a visible and understandable data set.Recently two functions of such a system were improved to get an insight into biomolecular interaction.The first one is a real time force generation during navigation in macromolecular environment.An cylindrical arrow shows the magnitude and direction of molecular force.The second one is to see a molecular vibration such as a concerted motion of the binding site in protein molecule.So one can understand th molecular shape change for drugreceptor docking procedure.But some problems which are difficult to solve still remain.

  10. Medipix 2 detector applied to low energy electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van R.; Sikharulidze, I.; Schramm, S.; Abrahams, J.P.; Poelsema, B.; Tromp, R.M.; Molen, van der S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photo-emission electron microscopy (PEEM) traditionally use microchannel plates (MCPs), a phosphor screen and a CCD-camera to record images and diffraction patterns. In recent years, however, MCPs have become a limiting factor for these types of microscopy.

  11. Energy Monitoring System Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novan Zulkarnain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM encourages the energy savings at whole buildings in Indonesia. Energy Monitoring System (EMS is a web-based solution to monitor energy usage in a building. The research methods used are the analysis, prototype design and testing. EMSconsists of hardware which consists of electrical sensors, temperature-humidity sensor, and a computer. Data on EMS are designed using Modbus protocol, stored in MySQL database application, and displayed on charts through Dashboard on LED TV using PHP programming.

  12. Applied optimal control theory of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lurie, K A

    1993-01-01

    This book represents an extended and substantially revised version of my earlierbook, Optimal Control in Problems ofMathematical Physics,originally published in Russian in 1975. About 60% of the text has been completely revised and major additions have been included which have produced a practically new text. My aim was to modernize the presentation but also to preserve the original results, some of which are little known to a Western reader. The idea of composites, which is the core of the modern theory of optimization, was initiated in the early seventies. The reader will find here its implementation in the problem of optimal conductivity distribution in an MHD-generatorchannel flow.Sincethen it has emergedinto an extensive theory which is undergoing a continuous development. The book does not pretend to be a textbook, neither does it offer a systematic presentation of the theory. Rather, it reflects a concept which I consider as fundamental in the modern approach to optimization of dis­ tributed systems. ...

  13. Design of the optocoupler applied to medical lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xibin; Lit, Rui; Zhu, Jianfeng; Xiong, Daxi

    2012-12-01

    A new type of optocoupler applied to medical lighting system is proposed, and the principle, Etendue and design process is introduced. With the help of Tracrpro, modeling and simulation of the optocoupler is conducted and the parameters are optimized. Analysis of factors affecting the energy coupling efficiency is done. With a view towards the development of Ultra High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes (UHB-LEDs), which play an important role a new sources of lighting in various biomedical devices, including those used in diagnosis and treatment, a series of simulations are executed and a variety of solutions are achieved. According to simulation results, the design target of coupling efficiency is achieved and the optical uniformity is also significantly improved. According to the result of theoretical analysis, verification experiments are designed and simulation results are verified. The optocoupler, which has simple structure, compact size and low cost, is suitable for applications in the field of low-cost medical domain.

  14. Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanoğlu, Mehmet; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear ...

  15. Efficient use of unutilized energy and holonic energy system. Miriyo energy katsuyo to energy yuzu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, M. (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-10

    In the present report, opinion is given about the activation of unutilized energy and circulative use of energy. The fuel imported to Japan is utilized by 35% and its balance of 65% is used to go for nothing. An estimation example of unutilized energy in Tokyo Metropolis indicates that, generally high on the exhaust heat, the denpendency is 34.5 and 31.4% on the refuse treatment plants and sewage treatment plants, respectively. The exhaust heat from the refuse treatment plants must be activated under a repowering system to heighten both the output power and efficiency, for which system the existing steam turbine is to be installed commonly with a gas turbine to structure a combined cycle. Then, needed are the circulative use and industrial purpose repowering of energy among different categories of both public and private industries. From the viewpoint of cogeneration system to require the supply and demand to be balanced, it is advisable to circulatively use and repower the energy among and by many producers of unutilized energy. Cooperation is needed of syndical and other organizations. A further need in of large capacity thermal source heat pump, and which is to utilize a low temperature however comparatively large capacity thermal source generated in the sewage treastment and other plants. The engine-driven heat pump is prior to the electrically driven one. 2 figs.

  16. Applying portfolio theory to the electricity sector. Energy versus power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarue, Erik; D' haeseleer, William; De Jonghe, Cedric; Belmans, Ronnie [Leuven University, Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    Portfolio theory has found its way in numerous applications for optimizing the electricity generation mix of a particular region. Existing models, however, consider typically a single time period and correspondingly do not properly account for actual dispatch constraints and energy sources with a non-dispatchable, variable output. This paper presents a portfolio theory model that explicitly distinguishes between installed capacity (power), electricity generation (energy) and actual instantaneous power delivery. This way, the variability of wind power and ramp limits of conventional power plants are correctly included in the investment optimization. The model is written as a quadratically constrained programming problem and illustrated in a case study. The results show that the introduction of wind power can be motivated to lower the risk on generation cost, albeit to smaller levels than typically reported in the literature. This wind power deployment further requires the need for sufficiently rampable technologies, to deal with its fluctuating output. (author)

  17. Calorimetry applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plasil, F.

    1988-01-01

    A general introduction to high-energy calorimetry is presented, together with brief descriptions of the two types of cascades relevant to calorimetric measurements. This is followed by a discussion of ''compensation'' and of the ''e/h'' ratio. A detailed description of two calorimeters designed and constructed for the CERN WA80 experiment are also given. 16 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. An Applied Research Program on Water Desalination with Renewable Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Alcocer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy for desalination might be quite different in many places of the world. In Mexico, specifically in Baja California, there is an abundance of “traditional” renewable resources like sun and wind but also some others like hot springs at the coast, tidal currents and tidal amplitudes of over six meters in the upper part of the Gulf of California associated with a severe scarcity of fresh water. The National University of Mexico (UNAM started two years ago a well organized research program to assess the amount of these resources and to find the way to use them for desalinating sea water. Very exiting results have being obtained: The abundance of hot springs at the shore, some of them over 84°C, lead to the design of thermal desalinating prototype plants with very little energy consumption. It was found by geochemistry that at a few meters deep, some 50 m, very high temperature can be obtained, easy to use in binary geothermal power plants to generate electricity for desalination. During the survey it was found that the amount of electrical power that can be generated with tidal storage and from deep sea hydrothermal vents is of the order of several thousands of MW. A special approach is also presented for the use of solar energy and the tidal currents of the Gulf. The IMPULSA research group at UNAM has been already consolidated with more than 30 students, dedicated to the design of appropriate equipment to make use of these resources and to characterize and quantify this huge amount of renewable energies that will permit to desalinate sea water.

  19. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  20. Liquid Chromatography Applied to Space System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinot, Pauline; Chazalnoel, Pascale; Geffroy, Claude; Sternberg, Robert; Carbonnier, Benjamin

    Searching for signs of past or present life in our Solar System is a real challenge that stirs up the curiosity of scientists. Until now, in situ instrumentation was designed to detect and determine concentrations of a wide number of organic biomarkers. The relevant method which was and still is employed in missions dedicated to the quest of life (from Viking to ExoMars) corresponds to the pyrolysis-GC-MS. Along the missions, this approach has been significantly improved in terms of extraction efficiency and detection with the use of chemical derivative agents (e.g. MTBSTFA, DMF-DMA, TMAH…), and in terms of analysis sensitivity and resolution with the development of in situ high-resolution mass spectrometer (e.g. TOF-MS). Thanks to such an approach, organic compounds such as amino acids, sugars, tholins or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were expected to be found. However, while there’s a consensus that the GC-MS of Viking, Huygens, MSL and MOMA space missions worked the way they had been designed to, pyrolysis is much more in debate (Glavin et al. 2001; Navarro-González et al. 2006). Indeed, (1) it is thought to remove low levels of organics, (2) water and CO2 could interfere with the detection of likely organic pyrolysis products, and (3) only low to mid-molecular weight organic molecules can be detected by this technique. As a result, researchers are now focusing on other in situ techniques which are no longer based on the volatility of the organic matter, but on the liquid phase extraction and analysis. In this line, micro-fluidic systems involving sandwich and/or competitive immunoassays (e.g. LMC, SOLID; Parro et al. 2005; Sims et al. 2012), micro-chip capillary electrophoreses (e.g. MOA; Bada et al. 2008), or nanopore-based analysis (e.g. BOLD; Schulze-Makuch et al. 2012) have been conceived for in situ analysis. Thanks to such approaches, molecular biological polymers (polysaccharides, polypeptides, polynucleotides, phospholipids, glycolipids

  1. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  2. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  3. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Cogent Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    NREL is collaborating with Cogent Energy Systems (Cogent) to introduce small-scale waste-to-energy technology in microgrids.The focus of the project is to test and demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and usefulness of integrating electricity generated using a simulated syngas composition matching the syngas stream to be produced by a HelioStorm-based WTE gasifier to power a microgrid as a means of addressing and complementing the intermittency of other sources of electricity.

  4. An Applied Research Program on Water Desalination with Renewable Energies

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The use of renewable energy for desalination might be quite different in many places of the world. In Mexico, specifically in Baja California, there is an abundance of traditional renewable resources like sun and wind but also some others like hot springs at the coast, tidal currents and tidal amplitudes of over six meters in the upper part of the Gulf of California associated with a severe scarcity of fresh water. The National University of Mexico (UNAM) started two years ago a well organize...

  5. Renewable Energy Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are firstly discussed. A state of the art review section covers fundamentals of wind turbines and PV systems. Included are schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topologies...

  6. Approaches to Energy System Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Jakobsen, Arne

    2002-01-01

    Considerations on selecting the appropriate modeling level when modeling energy systems are presented in this paper. A general three-level model leveling consisting of: "Overall efficiency", "Process" and "System" is suggested. As thermodynamic cycle models are central for modeling of the process...

  7. Isomer Energy System Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, D

    2003-09-01

    Isomer energy supplies offer the potential to increase the output power over time to accommodate varying power needs. Other materials with similar energy density (for example isotopic energy sources such as {sup 238}Pu) do not offer the potential to increase power with time. Often the design life of an energy source is significant when compared to the half-life of the isotope. As a result, the conventional isotopic energy supplies operate with significant excess power at start of life to meet the power needs at end-of-life. For example a {sup 238}Pu radioisotope energy supply with a 35-year design life must account for radioactive decay losses of about 25% of the plutonium present at the start of life. This decay loss is significant if the required output power from the device is constant with time. If the required power output from the device increases with time (such as some space applications), significant increases in power supply weight are required to meet design power requirements. Isomer energy supplies offer the potential to increase the output power over time to meet varying power needs, thereby offering a significant advantage over conventional systems. Isomer energy supplies also offer the possibility of being ''turned on'' based on need at a specific time. These characteristics offer distinct advantages to isomer energy supplies. This report examines the basic engineering characteristics of a hypothetical isomer energy supply in order to gain insight into properties of isomers that will make them potentially useful as energy sources in engineered systems. These isomer properties provide a basis for identification of candidate isomers and provide a basis for an isomer search.

  8. Work and energy in rotating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Manjarres, Diego A; Diaz, Rodolfo A

    2012-01-01

    Literature analyzes the way in which Newton's second law can be used when non-inertial rotating systems are used. However, the treatment of the work and energy theorem in rotating systems is not considered in textbooks. In this paper, we show that the work and energy theorem can still be applied to a closed system of particles in a rotating system, as long as the work of fictitious forces is properly included in the formalism. The coriolis force does not contribute to the work coming from fictitious forces. It worths remarking that real forces that do not do work in an inertial reference frame can do work in the rotating reference frame and viceversa. The combined effects of acceleration of the origin and rotation of the non-inertial system are also studied.

  9. System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Henshaw, Philip F; Zarnikau, Jay

    2011-01-01

    A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined with assignable energy needs for all other operating services. That serves to correct a large natural gap in energy use information. Current methods count traceable energy receipts for technology use. Self-managing services employed by businesses outsource their own energy needs to operate, and leave no records to trace. Those uncounted energy demands are often 80% of the total embodied energy of business end products. The scale of this "dark energy" was discovered from differing global accounts, and corrected so the average...

  10. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the state-of-the-arts developments of renewable energy are reviewed in respect to the installed power and market share, where wind power and photovoltaic power generation are the main focuses due to the fast growing speed and large share of installed capacity. Some basic principles...... of operation, mission profiles, as well as power electronics solutions and corresponding controls are discussed respectively in the case of wind power and photovoltaic power systems. Finally a few development trends for renewable energy conversions are also given from a power electronics point of view....... It is concluded that as the quick development of renewable energy, wind power and PV power both show great potential to be largely integrated into the power grid. Power electronics is playing essential role in both of the systems to achieve more controllable, efficient, and reliable energy production...

  11. Sensitivity Analysis Applied in Design of Low Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Building performance can be expressed by different indicators as primary energy use, environmental load and/or the indoor environmental quality and a building performance simulation can provide the decision maker with a quantitative measure of the extent to which an integrated design solution...... satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible...... to identify the most important parameters in relation to building performance and to focus design and optimization of sustainable buildings on these fewer, but most important parameters. The sensitivity analyses will typically be performed at a reasonably early stage of the building design process, where...

  12. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  13. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  14. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  15. Kinetic energy partition method applied to ground state helium-like atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hsin; Chao, Sheng D

    2017-03-28

    We have used the recently developed kinetic energy partition (KEP) method to solve the quantum eigenvalue problems for helium-like atoms and obtain precise ground state energies and wave-functions. The key to treating properly the electron-electron (repulsive) Coulomb potential energies for the KEP method to be applied is to introduce a "negative mass" term into the partitioned kinetic energy. A Hartree-like product wave-function from the subsystem wave-functions is used to form the initial trial function, and the variational search for the optimized adiabatic parameters leads to a precise ground state energy. This new approach sheds new light on the all-important problem of solving many-electron Schrödinger equations and hopefully opens a new way to predictive quantum chemistry. The results presented here give very promising evidence that an effective one-electron model can be used to represent a many-electron system, in the spirit of density functional theory.

  16. Energy efficient distributed computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Choon

    2012-01-01

    The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005.  From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems.  These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems.  This book brings together a group of outsta

  17. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  18. Hydraulic wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to design, build and test a hydraulic wind energy system. This design used a three bladed turbine, which drove a hydraulic pump. The energy is transmitted from the pump through a long hose and into a hydraulic motor, where the energy is used. This wind system was built and tested during the winter of 1980-1981. The power train included a five meter, three bladed wind turbine, a 9.8:1 ratio gearbox, a 1.44 cubic inch displacement pump with a small supercharge gear pump attached. The hydraulic fluid was pumped through a 70', 3/4'' I-D-high pressure flexhose, then through a volume control valve and into a 1.44 cubic inch displacement motor. The fluid was returned through a 70', 1'' I-D-flexhose.

  19. Phosphazenes for energy production and storage: Applied and exploratory synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Andrew R.

    This dissertation involves progress toward phosphazene-based ion conducting materials with a focus on structure-property relationships to improve these materials. This dissertation also includes some more fundamental exploratory syntheses to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover structure-property relationships that may be useful in designing compounds to fulfill important technical requirements. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to polymers and polyphosphazenes as well as ion-conducting materials and the contribution of polyphosphazene chemistry to that field. Chapter 1 also provides a brief introduction to some analytical techniques. Chapter 2 begins with the use of organophosphates as stand-alone non-volatile and fire-retardant liquid electrolyte media for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as well as their use as plasticizer in polymer gel electrolytes intended for application in lithium batteries. These organophosphates are the smallest phosphorus containing model molecules investigated in this dissertation. A homologous series of oligoalkyleneoxy substituted phosphates was synthesized and the effect of the substituent chain length on viscosity and conductivity was investigated. Small, test-scale DSSCs were constructed and showed promising results with overall cell efficiencies of up to 3.6% under un-optimized conditions. Conductivity measurements were performed on polymer gel-electrolytes based on poly[bis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene] (MEEP) plasticized with the phosphate with the best combination of properties, using a system loaded with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as the charge carrier. In chapter 3 the effect of the cation of the charge carrier species on the anionic conductivity of DSSC type electrolytes is evaluated using hexakis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (MEE-trimer) as a small molecule model for MEEP. The iodides of lithium, sodium, and ammonium as well as the ionic liquid, 1-propyl-3

  20. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  1. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  2. The Gtz system management applied to photovoltaic rural electrification projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Pablo [Brendel Proper, (Bolivia)]|[GTZ-Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica de Alemania, (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The GTZ (Federal Republic of Germany Technical Cooperation Society) has developed a general project design system, particularly for Renewable Energy, that systematically covers all aspects necessary in their planning and implementation, so that their effects are sustainable in the long run, and cover as well all the requirements of a determined diffusion. This is what they have called System Management. This methodology of project implementation can be described as capable of being applied to any action area, and has already proved and validated its efficiency in projects where it has been applied. The main reason for its use is based on the correction of previous experiences with projects that had a tendency towards one area of action alone, in a much too exclusive way -mainly the technological- neglecting important aspects in the sustainability of technologies being introduced. The experience of PROPER - Bolivia (Programa para la difusion de energias renovables), who has been applying this system to its projects, is being used as a methodological basis. PROPER started in 1991, and is programed to last until September or 1996. Among the main components being described in the system`s methodology, in the particular case of PHOTOVOLTAIC RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROJECTS, stand out the areas of Technological Transference; Training; Diffusion; Financing; Energy Policy; Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation; and Support and Follow-up to the supply and demand. [Espanol] La GTZ (Sociedad de Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica Federal de Alemania) ha desarrollado un proyecto de sistema de diseno general, particularmente para Energia Renovable, que cubre sistematicamente todos los aspectos necesarios en su planeacion y puesta en practica , de tal manera que sus efectos son a la larga sustentables y cubren, asimismo todos los requerimientos de una difusion determinada. Esto es lo que han llamado {sup A}dministracion del Sistema{sup .} Esta metodologia de puesta en practica

  3. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  4. Energy Systems and Population Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy

  5. Path Integration Applied to Structural Systems with Uncertain Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Köylüoglu, H. Ugur

    Path integration (cell-to-cell mapping) method is applied to evaluate the joint probability density function (jpdf) of the response of the structural systems, with uncertain properties, subject to white noise excitation. A general methodology to deal with uncertainties is outlined and applied...

  6. Research on Applying Bluetooth to an Elevator Wireless Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-cang; LUO Ya-jun; ZHAO Yu-ting

    2003-01-01

    Compared with other elevator control systems, the wireless control system has many advanta ges such as easy to install and maintain. Bluetooth is a new technology of short-range wireless communication, and the idea of applying Bluetooth to the elevator wireless control system is expected to get wide application. In this paper, a wireless control prototype system is introduced, and the experimentsof this system proved the feasibility of this idea.

  7. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  8. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  9. The Pinch-method Applied on a Biomass Gasifier System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Felicia; Thomsen, Kirstine; Houbak, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this study is to optimise the heat exchanger system in two down draft gasification systems and to compare them in terms of energy conversion efficiency and economy. In both cases the system consists of a thermal biomass gasifier followed by a gas cleaning unit and an IC engine with a...

  10. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  11. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy.......This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  12. Energy losses in photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Nour, M. Abdulsadek

    1994-10-01

    The maximum power generated by photovoltaic (PV) arrays is not fully used. During summer, the main cause for the energy loss is the system design that necessitates an oversizing of the PV array to supply the load during the winter season when the solar energy is limited. Other reasons that cause energy loss are: the mismatch between the array and the load or battery, the loss in the batteries, and the loss due to the PV array disconnect. The array disconnect loss takes place during summer season when the battery is fully charged. To avoid the disconnect loss, a novel battery voltage regulator (BVR) is used. This supplies the load directly from the array when the battery is fully charged. Energy losses have been analyzed and divided into fundamental (unavoidable) and non-fundamental losses. Both conventional (using a conventional BVR) and new (using a novel BVR) PV systems are studied. A load that consumes constant power for 24 h a day through the year is considered. The climatic condition of Cairo city is taken as the test case.

  13. Energy Dissipation in Molecular Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tramer, André; Lahmani, Fran oise

    2005-01-01

    Energy Dissipation in Molecular Systems analyzes experimental data on the redistribution and dissipation of energy injected into molecular systems by radiation or charged particles. These processes, competing with such practically important relaxation channels as chemical reaction or stimulated emission (laser action), are the primary focus in this monograph. Among other topics, the book treats vibrational redistribution and electronic relaxation in isolated molecules and the effects of inter-molecular interactions (collisions, complex formation, solvent effects) on the relaxation paths. Primary photo-chemical processes (such as isomerization, proton or hydrogen-atom transfer, electron transfer and ionization) are also treated as particular cases of vibrational or electronic relaxation. Only a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and spectroscopy is assumed and calculations are kept to a strict minimum, making the book more accessible to students.

  14. Energy harvesting solar, wind, and ocean energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Also called energy scavenging, energy harvesting captures, stores, and uses ""clean"" energy sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Unlike conventional electric power generation systems, renewable energy harvesting does not use fossil fuels and the generation units can be decentralized, thereby significantly reducing transmission and distribution losses. But advanced technical methods must be developed to increase the efficiency of devices in harvesting energy from environmentally friendly, ""green"" resources and converting them into electrical energy.Recognizing t

  15. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bok Seong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each PCM has its own phase change temperature, which is the temperature at which latent heat is absorbed or released, it is important to use an appropriate PCM for the purpose of building envelope design. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope by analyzing the thermal load characteristics. As results, the annual heating load increased at every phase change temperature, but the peak heating load decreased by 3.19% with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C, and the lowest indoor temperature increased by 0.86 °C with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C. The annual cooling load decreased by 1.05% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak cooling load decreased by 1.30% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.50 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C. When the night ventilation was applied to the building HVAC system for better passive cooling performance, the annual cooling load decreased by 9.28% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak load decreased by 11.33% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.85 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C.

  16. Towards a More Energy Efficient Future: Applying indicators to enhance energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is a shared policy goal of many governments around the world. The benefits of more efficient use of energy are well known. Not only does it reduce energy costs and investments in energy infrastructure, it also lowers fossil fuel dependency and CO2 emissions, while at the same time increasing competitiveness and improving consumer welfare. Yet many questions remain unanswered. What are the latest trends in global energy use and CO2 emissions? How do factors such as demography, economic structure, income, lifestyle and climate affect these trends? Where are the greatest potentials to further improve energy efficiency, and which data are required to support energy efficiency policy development? This publication answers these questions using the latest insights from the IEA energy indicators work. The goal is to show policy makers how in-depth indicators can be used to track the progress in efficiency and identify new opportunities for improvements.

  17. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  18. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V. Goncalves, Helena M. Ramos, Luisa Fernanda R. Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator – CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator – HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  19. Research on Energy Conversion System of Floating Wave Energy Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚群; 盛松伟; 游亚戈; 吴必军; 刘洋

    2014-01-01

    A wave power device includes an energy harvesting system and a power take-off system. The power take-off system of a floating wave energy device is the key that converts wave energy into other forms. A set of hydraulic power take-off system, which suits for the floating wave energy devices, includes hydraulic system and power generation system. The hydraulic control system uses a special“self-hydraulic control system”to control hydraulic system to release or save energy under the maximum and the minimum pressures. The maximum pressure is enhanced to 23 MPa, the minimum to 9 MPa. Quite a few experiments show that the recent hydraulic system is evidently improved in efficiency and reliability than our previous one, that is expected to be great significant in the research and development of our prototype about wave energy conversion.

  20. System theory as applied differential geometry. [linear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, R.

    1979-01-01

    The invariants of input-output systems under the action of the feedback group was examined. The approach used the theory of Lie groups and concepts of modern differential geometry, and illustrated how the latter provides a basis for the discussion of the analytic structure of systems. Finite dimensional linear systems in a single independent variable are considered. Lessons of more general situations (e.g., distributed parameter and multidimensional systems) which are increasingly encountered as technology advances are presented.

  1. Energy Systems Group. Annual Progress Report 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Villadsen, B.

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risø National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff...

  2. Complex, Dynamic Systems: A New Transdisciplinary Theme for Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In this plenary address, I suggest that Complexity Theory has the potential to contribute a transdisciplinary theme to applied linguistics. Transdisciplinary themes supersede disciplines and spur new kinds of creative activity (Halliday 2001 [1990]). Investigating complex systems requires researchers to pay attention to system dynamics. Since…

  3. Complex, Dynamic Systems: A New Transdisciplinary Theme for Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In this plenary address, I suggest that Complexity Theory has the potential to contribute a transdisciplinary theme to applied linguistics. Transdisciplinary themes supersede disciplines and spur new kinds of creative activity (Halliday 2001 [1990]). Investigating complex systems requires researchers to pay attention to system dynamics. Since…

  4. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areewan Kajorndech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system in order to improve reliability and save energy costs by determining an optimal charging schedule of the energy storage system. Simulation results demonstrate the benefits of energy storage system applications under the different control strategies.

  5. A Sustainable Energy System in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems.......This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems....

  6. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  7. Applied intelligent systems: blending fuzzy logic with conventional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filev, Dimitar; Syed, Fazal U.

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that design of applied intelligent control systems requires different types of blending between fuzzy logic and conventional control systems. Two alternative automotive applications - a manufacturing process control problem and an advisory system for fuel efficient driving - that benefit from both fuzzy and control theories are reviewed and different levels of prioritisations of both approaches are discussed based on the specificity of the applications.

  8. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  9. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  10. Design of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices subjected to broadband random vibrations by applying topology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe-Qi Lin; Hae Chang Gea; Shu-Tian Liu

    2011-01-01

    Converting ambient vibration energy into electrical energy by using piezoelectric energy harvester has attracted a lot of interest in the past few years.In this paper,a topology optimization based method is applied to simultaneously determine the optimal layout of the piezoelectric energy harvesting devices and the optimal position of the mass loading.The objective function is to maximize the energy harvesting performance over a range of vibration frequencies.Pseudo excitation method (PEM) is adopted to analyze structural stationary random responses,and sensitivity analysis is then performed by using the adjoint method.Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  11. A Framework for Engaging Navajo Women in Clean Energy Development through Applied Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Beth; Manygoats, Adrian; Weitkamp, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Through applied theatre, Navajo women can participate in authoring a new story for how energy is mined, produced, developed, disseminated and used in the Navajo Nation. This article is an analysis of a creative process that was utilised with primarily Navajo women to create a Navajo Women's Energy Project (NWEP). The framework for this creative…

  12. A Framework for Engaging Navajo Women in Clean Energy Development through Applied Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Beth; Manygoats, Adrian; Weitkamp, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Through applied theatre, Navajo women can participate in authoring a new story for how energy is mined, produced, developed, disseminated and used in the Navajo Nation. This article is an analysis of a creative process that was utilised with primarily Navajo women to create a Navajo Women's Energy Project (NWEP). The framework for this creative…

  13. Applying systems engineering methodologies to the micro- and nanoscale realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison Darrin, M. Ann

    2012-06-01

    Micro scale and nano scale technology developments have the potential to revolutionize smart and small systems. The application of systems engineering methodologies that integrate standalone, small-scale technologies and interface them with macro technologies to build useful systems is critical to realizing the potential of these technologies. This paper covers the expanding knowledge base on systems engineering principles for micro and nano technology integration starting with a discussion of the drivers for applying a systems approach. Technology development on the micro and nano scale has transition from laboratory curiosity to the realization of products in the health, automotive, aerospace, communication, and numerous other arenas. This paper focuses on the maturity (or lack thereof) of the field of nanosystems which is emerging in a third generation having transitioned from completing active structures to creating systems. The emphasis of applying a systems approach focuses on successful technology development based on the lack of maturity of current nano scale systems. Therefore the discussion includes details relating to enabling roles such as product systems engineering and technology development. Classical roles such as acquisition systems engineering are not covered. The results are also targeted towards small-scale technology developers who need to take into account systems engineering processes such as requirements definition, verification, and validation interface management and risk management in the concept phase of technology development to maximize the likelihood of success, cost effective micro and nano technology to increase the capability of emerging deployed systems and long-term growth and profits.

  14. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert

    2013-01-01

    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its

  15. Battery Energy Storage Sizing When Time of Use Pricing Is Applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Carpinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESSs are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications when time-of-use tariff schemes are applied. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs.

  16. Battery energy storage sizing when time of use pricing is applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinelli, Guido; Khormali, Shahab; Mottola, Fabio; Proto, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications when time-of-use tariff schemes are applied. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs.

  17. Power management for energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gybel Hovgaard, T.

    2013-02-15

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive control of a commercial multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor, and is used to cool multiple areas or rooms, e.g., in supermarkets. For control of the commercial refrigeration application as well as the wind turbine application, we propose an economic optimizing model predictive controller, economic MPC. Our investigations are primarily concerned with: 1) modeling of the applications to suit the chosen control framework; 2) formulating the MPC controller laws to overcome challenges introduced by the industrial applications, and defining economic objectives that reect the real physics of the systems as well as our control objectives; 3) solving the involved, non-trivial optimization problems eciently in real-time; 4) demonstrating the feasibility and potential of the proposed methods by extensive simulation and comparison with existing control methods and evaluation of data from systems in actual operation. We demonstrate, i.a., substantial cost savings, on the order of 30 %, compared to a standard thermostat-based supermarket refrigeration system and show how our methods exhibit sophisticated demand response to real-time variations in electricity prices. Violations of the temperature ranges can be kept at a very low frequency of occurrence inspite of the presence of uncertainty. For the power output from wind turbines, ramp rates, as low a 3 % of the rated power per minute, can be effectively ensured with the use of energy storage and we show how the active use of rotor inertia as an additional energy storage can reduce the needed storage capacity by up to 30 % without reducing the power output. (Author)

  18. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  19. hydrokinetic energy conversion systems: prospects and challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate other useable ... the natural pathway of moving water and is more .... Green House Gas emissions and lower energy-.

  20. Applying Sustainable Systems Development Approach to Educational Technology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is an essential part of modern education. The roles and contributions of technology to education have been thoroughly documented in academic and professional literature. Despite the benefits, the use of educational technology systems (ETS) also creates a significant impact on the environment, primarily due to energy…

  1. Speech Recognition Technology Applied to Intelligent Mobile Navigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The capability of human-computer interaction reflects the intelligent degree of mobile navigation system.The navigation data and functions of mobile navigation system are divided into system commands and non-system commands in this paper.And then a group of speech commands are Abstracted.This paper applies speech recognition technology to intelligent mobile navigation system to process speech commands and does some deep research on the integration of speech recognition technology with mobile navigation system.The navigation operation can be performed by speech commands,which makes human-computer interaction easy during navigation.Speech command interface of navigation system is implemented by Dutty ++ Software,which is based on speech recognition system -Via Voice of IBM.Through navigation experiments,navigation can be done almost without keyboard,which proved that human-computer interaction is very convenient by speech commands and the reliability is also higher.

  2. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areewan Kajorndech; Dulpichet Rerkpreedapong

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system ...

  3. Fast and effective embedded systems design applying the ARM mbed

    CERN Document Server

    Toulson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the field of embedded systems; A focus on fast prototyping of embedded systems; All key embedded system concepts covered through simple and effective experimentation; An understanding of ARM technology, one of the world's leaders; A practical introduction to embedded C; Applies possibly the most accessible set of tools available in the embedded world.  This book is an introduction to embedded systems design, using the ARM mbed and C programming language as development tools. The mbed provides a compact, self-contained and low-cost hardware core, and the

  4. Designing and Testing Composite Energy Storage Systems for Regulating the Outputs of Linear Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanxiang Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear wave energy converters generate intrinsically intermittent power with variable frequency and amplitude. A composite energy storage system consisting of batteries and super capacitors has been developed and controlled by buck-boost converters. The purpose of the composite energy storage system is to handle the fluctuations and intermittent characteristics of the renewable source, and hence provide a steady output power. Linear wave energy converters working in conjunction with a system composed of various energy storage devices, is considered as a microsystem, which can function in a stand-alone or a grid connected mode. Simulation results have shown that by applying a boost H-bridge and a composite energy storage system more power could be extracted from linear wave energy converters. Simulation results have shown that the super capacitors charge and discharge often to handle the frequent power fluctuations, and the batteries charge and discharge slowly for handling the intermittent power of wave energy converters. Hardware systems have been constructed to control the linear wave energy converter and the composite energy storage system. The performance of the composite energy storage system has been verified in experiments by using electronics-based wave energy emulators.

  5. A Sustainable Energy System in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems....

  6. SMES for wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    simulation results the utility of SMES in voltage sag mitigation for momentary interruptions. The 1MJ SMES mitigates voltage sags for a useful duration ~50 seconds. In conclusion (Chapter 7), we believe that in this dissertation, we have documented the design of SMES for both momentary and sustained interruptions in wind turbines. We have put forth some novel and relevant hypotheses, developed and performed suitable simulation studies to validate these hypotheses. By doing so, we have been able to expand our knowledge in our quest to grasp the underlying mechanisms of storage systems in wind energy integration. Although the resulting analysis has allowed us to gain valuable insight, we feel that it is only the tip of the iceberg, and that many yet unknown discoveries are to be made. We remain hopeful that the future of SMES for wind energy will only look brighter from here onward. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  7. Study on Braking Energy Regeneration System for City Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zheng-yao; CHEN Ru-wen; YANG Xue-mei; LIU Gou-bing; JIN Jia-jun

    2011-01-01

    Braking of the urban vehicles of public service wastes a large number of engine energy in the condition of starting and stopping frequently. Aiming at the problem, an electro-mechanical braking energy regeneration system was proposed which adopted a high-speed flywheel and a battery to recover the braking energy and achieve the secondary traction for the auxiliary start function. The system strategy was designed and the braking simulation was processed to validate its feasibility. The experiment results show that the system can effectively recover the braking energy, improve the starting performance of the city bus and it can be applied to the engineering.

  8. Database management systems understanding and applying database technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, Michael M

    1991-01-01

    Database Management Systems: Understanding and Applying Database Technology focuses on the processes, methodologies, techniques, and approaches involved in database management systems (DBMSs).The book first takes a look at ANSI database standards and DBMS applications and components. Discussion focus on application components and DBMS components, implementing the dynamic relationship application, problems and benefits of dynamic relationship DBMSs, nature of a dynamic relationship application, ANSI/NDL, and DBMS standards. The manuscript then ponders on logical database, interrogation, and phy

  9. We Are Family: Applying Family Systems Theory to Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph A., Jr.; Garrett, Joyce Lynn

    1988-01-01

    Describes how counselors can apply the family systems model to classrooms in helping teachers create a more open and effective climate. Discusses these strategies for implementation: basic communication and interpersonal skills, fairness conferences, classroom meetings, magic circle and circle of warmth, and role playing. (Author/ABL)

  10. Applied dynamics with applications to multibody and mechatronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Francis C

    1998-01-01

    Applied Dynamics provides a modern and thorough examination of dynamics with specific emphasis on physical examples and applications such as: robotic systems, magnetic bearings, aerospace dynamics, and microelectromagnetic machines. Also includes the development of the method of virtual velocities based on the principle of virtual power

  11. Integrated energy systems based on cascade utilization of energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hongguang; LI Bingyu; FENG Zhibing; GAO Lin; HAN Wei

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on the traditional principle of physical energy utilization,new integration concepts for combined cooling,heating and power (CCHP) system were identified,and corresponding systems were investigated.Furthermore,the principle of cascade utilization of both chemical and physical energy in energy systems with the integration of chemical processes and thermal cycles was introduced,along with a general equation describing the interrelationship among energy levels of substance,Gibbs free energy of chemical reaction and physical energy.On the basis of this principle,a polygeneration system for power and liquid fuel (methanol)production has been presented and investigated.This system innovatively integrates a fresh gas preparation subsystem without composition adjustment process (NA) and a methanol synthesis subsystem with partial-recycle scheme (PR).Meanwhile,a multi-functional energy system (MES) that consumes coal and natural gas as fuels simultaneously,and co-generates methanol and power,has been presented.In the MES,coal and natural gas are utilized synthetically based on the method of dual-fuel reforming,which integrates methane/steam reforming and coal combustion.Compared with conventional energy systems that do not consider cascade utilization of chemical energy,both of these systems provide superior performance,whose energy saving ratio can be as high as 10%-15%.With special attention paid to chemical energy utilization,the integration features of these two systems have been revealed,and the important role that the principle of cascade utilization of both chemical and physical energy plays in system integration has been identified.

  12. Panel report on corrosion in energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    Corrosion problems in high-temperature (non aqueous) energy systems, corrosion in aqueous energy systems and institutional problems inhibiting the development of corrosion science and engineering are discussed. (FS)

  13. Panel report on corrosion in energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    Corrosion problems in high-temperature (non aqueous) energy systems, corrosion in aqueous energy systems and institutional problems inhibiting the development of corrosion science and engineering are discussed. (FS)

  14. Applying Twisted Boundary Conditions for Few-body Nuclear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Körber, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We describe and implement twisted boundary conditions for the deuteron and triton systems within finite-volumes using the nuclear lattice EFT formalism. We investigate the finite-volume dependence of these systems with different twists angles. We demonstrate how various finite-volume information can be used to improve calculations of binding energies in such a framework. Our results suggests that with appropriate twisting of boundaries, infinite-volume binding energies can be reliably extracted from calculations using modest volume sizes with cubic length $L\\approx8-14$ fm. Of particular importance is our derivation and numerical verification of three-body analogue of `i-periodic' twist angles that eliminate the leading order finite-volume effects to the three-body binding energy.

  15. Energy Saving and Efficient Energy Use By Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    , such as in the applications of adjustable speed drives and solid-state lighting systems. Power electronics gives also a high flexibility when renewable power production is introduced to electrical energy systems. Future research opportunities and challenges will finally be discussed.......In the development of the modern society, one of the key factors is to save energy in order to become more independent of other energy resources. Two important approaches can be taken—one is to change behavior and thereby save energy—the second one is to develop new technology which is able to save...... energy in different applications. This chapter will give an overview of challenges and possibilities in terms of energy saving and also energy efficient use. This includes a discussion on high efficiency power electronics devices and the systems they are used for energy loss reduction. The key enabling...

  16. Thompson's renormalization group method applied to QCD at high energy scale

    CERN Document Server

    Nassif, Claudio; Silva, P R

    2007-01-01

    We use a renormalization group method to treat QCD-vacuum behavior specially closer to the regime of asymptotic freedom. QCD-vacuum behaves effectively like a "paramagnetic system" of a classical theory in the sense that virtual color charges (gluons) emerges in it as a spin effect of a paramagnetic material when a magnetic field aligns their microscopic magnetic dipoles. Due to that strong classical analogy with the paramagnetism of Landau's theory,we will be able to use a certain Landau effective action without temperature and phase transition for just representing QCD-vacuum behavior at higher energies as being magnetization of a paramagnetic material in the presence of a magnetic field $H$. This reasoning will allow us to apply Thompson's approach to such an action in order to extract an "effective susceptibility" ($\\chi>0$) of QCD-vacuum. It depends on logarithmic of energy scale $u$ to investigate hadronic matter. Consequently we are able to get an ``effective magnetic permeability" ($\\mu>1$) of such a ...

  17. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  18. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  19. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T.N.; Sahin, S. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century.

  20. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  1. Meta-learning framework applied in bioinformatics inference system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Tomás; Ormazábal, Wladimir

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a meta-learner inference system development framework which is applied and tested in the implementation of bioinformatic inference systems. These inference systems are used for the systematic classification of the best candidates for inclusion in bacterial metabolic pathway maps. This meta-learner-based approach utilises a workflow where the user provides feedback with final classification decisions which are stored in conjunction with analysed genetic sequences for periodic inference system training. The inference systems were trained and tested with three different data sets related to the bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds. The analysis of the meta-learner-based framework involved contrasting several different optimisation methods with various different parameters. The obtained inference systems were also contrasted with other standard classification methods with accurate prediction capabilities observed.

  2. An overview of decision tree applied to power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The corrosive volume of available data in electric power systems motivate the adoption of data mining techniques in the emerging field of power system data analytics. The mainstream of data mining algorithm applied to power system, Decision Tree (DT), also named as Classification And Regression...... Tree (CART), has gained increasing interests because of its high performance in terms of computational efficiency, uncertainty manageability, and interpretability. This paper presents an overview of a variety of DT applications to power systems for better interfacing of power systems with data...... analytics. The fundamental knowledge of CART algorithm is also introduced which is then followed by examples of both classification tree and regression tree with the help of case study for security assessment of Danish power system....

  3. Accelerating the transition to sustainable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, Michael [London Metropolitan University Business School, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    emission avoidance. Investors are rewarded excessively under some national schemes for mature technologies that should not require support, and that frequently do not make the contribution to renewable energy output or carbon emission avoidance they claim. Costs to business and domestic electricity consumers, through the subsidy payments they make, are much greater under some schemes than what other carbon abatement measures would cost. Higher-cost, less mature renewable energy technologies that have large potential for meeting global energy needs are not getting the support they warrant. This is of grave concern given the minimum 30-50 year lead times required to make a large global contribution. Without departing from the sense of urgency required to address the pressing needs for sustainable energy systems, it is imperative that the involvement of people at the grassroots level is harnessed and sound commercial and technical criteria are applied. (author)

  4. Methodology for Architecting Energy Systems in Ultra Low Energy Communities: Energy System Architecting Tool (ESAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Dahtzen Chu, Jim Miller (TPOC) Mike Case, Richard Liesen ( NetZero Installations Project) Security of energy supply  Vulnerable loads served under all...environmental impact External grid District-level smart switch Building microgrid District microgrid Energy microgrids are distributed power systems with...the capability to work seamless in islanding and grid-connected modes. They include thermal and electrical systems Building microgrid Building

  5. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devote...... service level and technology are demonstrated as the main determinants of future energy consumption. In the concluding remarks, the main flaws of present energy policy and some visions of the future are discussed.......The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply technology...

  6. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devote...... service level and technology are demonstrated as the main determinants of future energy consumption. In the concluding remarks, the main flaws of present energy policy and some visions of the future are discussed.......The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply technology...

  7. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  8. A System of Systems Approach to the EU Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess, Tom; Madani, Kaveh; Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora

    2016-04-01

    Around the world, measures to prevent dangerous climate change are being adopted and may change energy systems fundamentally. The European Union (EU) is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emission by 20% by 2020 and by 80-95% by 2050. In order to achieve this, EU member states aim to increase the share of renewables in the energy mix to 20% by 2020. This commitment comes as part of a series of other aims, principles, and policies to reform the EU's energy system. Cost-efficiency in the emissions reductions measures as well as strategic goals under the Resource Efficient Europe flagship initiative which would include a more prudent approach to other natural resources such as water and land. Using the "System of Systems Approach", as from Hadian and Madani (2015), energy sources' Relative Aggregate Footprints (RAF) in the EU are evaluated. RAF aggregates across four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. The four criteria are weighted by resource availability across the EU and for each Member State. This provides an evaluation of the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio and gives insight into the differences in the desirability of energy sources across Member States. Broadly, nuclear, onshore wind, and geothermal are most desirable under equal criteria weights and EU average weighting introduces only small changes in the relative performance of only few technologies. The member state specific weightings show that most countries have similar energy technology preferences. However, the UK deviates most strongly from the average, with an even stronger preference for nuclear and coal. Sweden, Malta and Finland also deviate from the typical preferences indicating the complexity in play in reforming the EU energy system. Reference Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All Renewables Really Green? Ecological Indicators, 52, 194-206.

  9. Short review on solar energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herez, Amal; Ramadan, Mohamad; Abdulhay, Bakri; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Solar energy can be utilized mainly in heat generation and electricity production. International energy agency (IEA) shows, in a comparative study on the world energy consumption that in 2050 solar arrays installation will provide about 45% of world energy demand. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy source which plays a great role in providing energy solutions. As known there is wide variety of types of collectors and applications of solar energy. This paper aimed to make a short review on solar energy systems, according to types of collectors and applications used.

  10. Innovating Multi-agent Systems Applied to Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Longo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to talk about a generic model of Smart City with a multi-agents system and the aspects correlated to Internet. Smart cities are made by a high level of Information and Communication Technology (ICT structures able to transmit energy, information flows multidirectional and connect a different sector that include mobility, energy, social, economy. These components are very important to offer intelligence in a city, as basic infrastructure for a definition of a model repeatable and exportable, as well as supported by the European Community, that is allocating considerable funds (Horizon 2020 for the creation of Smart City.

  11. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  12. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  13. Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out...... by 11 university and industry partners has improved the basis for decision-making within energy planning and energy scenario making by providing new and improved tools and methods for energy systems analyses....

  14. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  15. Generic Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm for Combined Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Brezet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm which originally was dedicated only to photovoltaic (PV systems [1] are extended towards a Model and Algorithm suitable for combined systems which are a result of integration of two or more renewable energy sources into one. The systems under investigation will range from mobile portable devices up to the large renewable energy system conceivably to be applied at the Afsluitdijk (Closure- dike in the north of the Netherlands. This Afsluitdijk is the major dam in the Netherlands, damming off the Zuiderzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea and turning it into the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer. The energy chain of power supplies based on a combination of renewable energy sources can be modeled by using one generic Energy Matching Model as starting point.

  16. Generic Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm for Combined Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Kan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm which originally was dedicated only to photovoltaic (PV systems [1] are extended towards a Model and Algorithm suitable for combined systems which are a result of integration of two or more renewable energy sources into one. The systems under investigation will range from mobile portable devices up to the large renewable energy system conceivably to be applied at the Afsluitdijk (Closure- dike in the north of the Netherlands. This Afsluitdijk is the major dam in the Netherlands, damming off the Zuiderzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea and turning it into the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer. The energy chain of power supplies based on a combination of renewable energy sources can be modeled by using one generic Energy Matching Model as starting point.

  17. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  18. Study of applying a hybrid standalone wind-photovoltaic generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Dahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of applying a hybrid system wind/photovoltaic to supply a community in southern Algeria. Diesel generators are always used to provide such remote regions with energy. Using renewable energy resources is a good alternative to overcome such pollutant generators. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software is used to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed configuration. Assessment of renewable resources consisting in wind and solar potentials, load profile determination and sensitivity of different parameters analysis were performed. The cost of energy (COE of 0.226 $/kWh is very competitive with those found in literature.

  19. Operational energy performance assessment system of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingbo; Zeng, Siyu; Chen, Jining; He, Miao; Yang, Wan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the statistical analysis of operational energy consumption and its influential factors from data of 599 Chinese WWTPs in 2006, it is noticed that the most influential factors include treatment technology adopted, treated sewage amount, removed pollutants amount, etc. Using the conclusion above, this paper sets up an integrated system of operational energy performance assessment for municipal wastewater treatment plants. Combining with result from on-spot research and model simulation, the calculating method of benchmark value and score of 7 energy efficiency indicators grouped into 3 levels is stated. Applying the assessment system to three plants, its applicability and objectivity are proved and suggestions to improve energy performance are provided.

  20. Electric vehicle energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  1. CONCEPTS OF GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY APPLIED ON GOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Onete

    2007-01-01

    The General Systems Theory is one of the most important points of view nowadays. Now, its concepts could be applied in a various number of sciences including Consumer Sciences. The complexity of the product, the different way in which it can be seen and also the exponentially diversifying assortment requires another approach to the product, through models. This approach must take into account certain particularities which do not appear in a regular modelling

  2. Decision support for information systems management: applying analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision making. AHP can be applied if the decision problem includes multiple objectives, conflicting criteria, incommensurable units, and aims at selecting an alternative from a known set of alternatives. ...

  3. Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Lee, K. B.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources are increased because of the depletion of natural resources and the increasing pollution level from energy production. The wind energy and the solar energy are most widely used among the renewable energy sources. Power electronics is needed in almost all kinds...... of renewable energy system. It controls the renewable source and interfaces with the load effectively, which can be grid-connected or van work in stand-alone mode. In this presentation, overview of wind and photovoltaic energy systems are introduced. Next, the power electronic circuits behind the most common...

  4. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  5. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    At a global level, it is essential that the world transfers from fossil fuels to renewable energy resources to minimize the implications of climate change, which has been clearly demonstrated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a). At a national level, for most countries......, the transition to renewable energy will improve energy security of supply, create new jobs, enhance trade, and consequently grow the national economy. However, even with such promising consequences, renewable energy only provided approximately 13% of the world's energy in 2007 (International Energy Agency, 2009a......). Therefore, identifying how to utilize more renewable energy is one of the most pressing challenges facing many countries at present. Owing to the ever-growing complexity of modern energy systems, energy-system-analysis tools are often used to analyze the potential of renewable energy in future energy...

  7. Postal system strategy selection by applying multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladeta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methods by which postal organizations adapt strategically to significant changes in the external environment in order to survive on the market and gain new possibilities for prosperity. It is proved that only planned changes can accelerate the speed of adjustment to new conditions. By studying environment demands and the ways postal administrations have implemented changes, it can be concluded that there exists a general model of postal system transformation. After reviewing the available transformation scenarios that are applicable to all postal operators, the paper proposes the selection of postal system development strategy by applying multicriteria analysis.

  8. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of ind

  9. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  10. Probabilistic Analysis Techniques Applied to Complex Spacecraft Power System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power system performance predictions are critical to spacecraft, such as the International Space Station (ISS), to ensure that sufficient power is available to support all the spacecraft s power needs. In the case of the ISS power system, analyses to date have been deterministic, meaning that each analysis produces a single-valued result for power capability because of the complexity and large size of the model. As a result, the deterministic ISS analyses did not account for the sensitivity of the power capability to uncertainties in model input variables. Over the last 10 years, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed advanced, computationally fast, probabilistic analysis techniques and successfully applied them to large (thousands of nodes) complex structural analysis models. These same techniques were recently applied to large, complex ISS power system models. This new application enables probabilistic power analyses that account for input uncertainties and produce results that include variations caused by these uncertainties. Specifically, N&R Engineering, under contract to NASA, integrated these advanced probabilistic techniques with Glenn s internationally recognized ISS power system model, System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE).

  11. 1st International Symposium on Energy System Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fichtner, Wolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Leibfried, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume address diverse challenges in energy systems, ranging from operational to investment planning problems, from market economics to technical and environmental considerations, from distribution grids to transmission grids and from theoretical considerations to data provision concerns and applied case studies. The International Symposium on Energy System Optimization (ISESO) was held on November 9th and 10th 2015 at the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and was organized by HITS, Heidelberg University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.

  12. Applied Ontology Engineering in Cloud Services, Networks and Management Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano Orozco, J Martín

    2012-01-01

    Metadata standards in today’s ICT sector are proliferating at unprecedented levels, while automated information management systems collect and process exponentially increasing quantities of data. With interoperability and knowledge exchange identified as a core challenge in the sector, this book examines the role ontology engineering can play in providing solutions to the problems of information interoperability and linked data. At the same time as introducing basic concepts of ontology engineering, the book discusses methodological approaches to formal representation of data and information models, thus facilitating information interoperability between heterogeneous, complex and distributed communication systems. In doing so, the text advocates the advantages of using ontology engineering in telecommunications systems. In addition, it offers a wealth of guidance and best-practice techniques for instances in which ontology engineering is applied in cloud services, computer networks and management systems. �...

  13. Modular Energy Management System Applicable to Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an energy management system is defined as a flexible architecture. This proposal can be applied to home and residential areas when they include generation units. The system has been integrated and tested in a grid-connected microgrid prototype, where optimal power generation profiles...

  14. The intelligent energy system for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Bindslev, Henrik; Sonderberg Petersen, Leif

    2010-09-15

    In a future energy system non-fossil fuels have taken the lead, end-use technologies are highly efficient and closely interlinked to supply through intelligent energy systems. Climate change issues, security of supply and economic development need to be pursued concurrently. This calls for flexible and intelligent energy system infrastructures that effectively accommodate large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy and let the end-user interact with the supply through advanced ICT. The second important characteristic is intelligent integration of the entire transport sector. The third key area is advanced energy storage facilities in the system and the introduction of super-grids.

  15. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... systems and therefore the experience with its application is limited. In the future, the energy test method may be used for evaluation of the efficiency of a new system or the improvement in efficiency when optimising an existing system....... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...

  16. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  17. Three essays on energy and environmental economics: Empirical, applied, and theoretical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karney, Daniel Houghton

    Energy and environmental economics are closely related fields as nearly all forms of energy production generate pollution and thus nearly all forms of environmental policy affect energy production and consumption. The three essays in this dissertation are related by their common themes of energy and environmental economics, but they differ in their methodologies. The first chapter is an empirical exercise that looks that the relationship between electricity price deregulation and maintenance outages at nuclear power plants. The second chapter is an applied theory paper that investigates environmental regulation in a multiple pollutants setting. The third chapter develops a new methodology regarding the construction of analytical general equilibrium models that can be used to study topics in energy and environmental economics.

  18. Environmentally-adapted local energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, N.; Oefverholm, E. [NUTEK, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Owe [EKAN Gruppen (Sweden); Froste, H. [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Energy companies, municipalities, property companies, firms of consultants, environmental groups and individuals are examples of players working locally to shape environmentally adapted energy systems. These players have needed information making them better able to make decisions on cost-efficient, environmentally-adapted energy systems. This book answers many of the questions they have put. The volume is mainly based on Swedish handbooks produced by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, together with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. These handbooks have been used in conjunction with municipal energy planning, local Agenda 21 work, to provide a basis for deciding on concrete local energy systems. The contents in brief: -The book throws new light on the concept of energy efficiency; -A section on the environment compares how air-polluting emissions vary with different methods of energy production; -A section contains more than 40 ideas for measures which can be profitable, reduce energy consumption and the impact on the environment all at the same time; -The book gives concrete examples of new, alternative and environmentally-adapted local energy systems. More efficient use of energy is included as a possible change of energy system; -The greatest emphasis is laid upon alternative energy systems for heating. It may be heating in a house, block of flats, office building or school; -Finally, there are examples of environmentally-adapted local energy planning.

  19. On a Ginzburg-Landau Type Energy with Discontinuous Constraint for High Values of Applied Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassen AYDI

    2011-01-01

    In the presence of applied magnetic fields H such that |Inε| << H <<1/ε2, the author evaluates the minimal Ginzburg-Landau energy with discontinuous constraint. Its expression is analogous to the work of Sandier and Serfaty.

  20. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  1. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  2. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Long, Elizabeth Cudney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  3. Downsized superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David N.

    Scaled-down superconductive magnetic energy storage systems (DSMES) and superconductive magnetic energy power sources (SMEPS) are proposed for residential, commercial/retail, industrial off-peak and critical services, telephone and other communication systems, computer operations, power back-up/energy storages, power sources for space stations, and in-field military logistics/communication systems. Recent advances in high-Tc superconducting materials technology are analyzed. DSMES/SMEPS concepts are presented, and design, materials, and systems requirements are discussed. Problems ar identified, and possible solutions are offered. Comparisons are made with mechanical and primary and secondary energy storage and conversion systems.

  4. Energy analysis of geothermal-electric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herendeen, R.A.; Plant, R.

    1979-12-01

    Standard energy analysis was applied to 4 types of geothermal-electric technologies: liquid dominated, hot dry rock, geopressure, and vapor dominated. It was found that all are net energy producers. Expected uncertainties are not large enough to threaten this conclusion. Vapor dominated, the only technology in current commercial use to produce electricity in the US, has the highest energy ratio (13 +- 4). These results for energy ratio are equal to or less than some from other workers. In the case of liquid dominated, environmental control technology has a considerable energy requirement.

  5. Pilot fluidized bed combustor system applied to thermal energy production from light hydrocarbons - part I: description and hydrodynamics analysis; Sistema combustor piloto a leito fluidizado para producao de energia termica a partir de hidrocarbonetos leves. Parte I: descricao e analise hidrodinamica do sistema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro P. de; Souza Junior, Francisco de Assis; Alves, Stella M.A.; Estevao, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lucena, Sergio; Souza, Phillipi R. de O. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Controle e Otimizacao de Processos; Santos, Douglas A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    During the last years, the employment of light hydrocarbons in combustion systems for power generation has been announced by Brazilian Government's like a great bet for diversification the energetic matrix in spite of the provisional crisis. As consequence, high demand and growing R and D investments caused immediate reflexes in all economical and industrial sectors of the Natural Gas chain, mainly considering the gas from Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo offshore fields offered to the market. Regarding this, Northeast Region of Brazil shows itself to be attentive to the energy market tendencies and to environmental sector, creating conditions for developing new technologies and applications for the gas consumption. Among the possible applications of the gas consumption, the fluidized bed combustion systems are highlighted, like a real alternative for energy applying of the hydrocarbons produced, considering a good safety range to effective environmental demands. Thereby, the present work aimed to perform the description of a pilot fluidized bed combustor system with sand using light hydrocarbons - specifically, natural gas and LPG. Thereby, said pilot fluidized bed combustor operates isothermically without developing flames and/or hot spots. Besides the exposed, a hydrodynamic analysis of the system was made, identifying variables and parameters onto fluidized bed combustion process. (author.

  6. Enhancing implementation science by applying best principles of systems science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Metcalf, Sara S

    2016-10-04

    Implementation science holds promise for better ensuring that research is translated into evidence-based policy and practice, but interventions often fail or even worsen the problems they are intended to solve due to a lack of understanding of real world structures and dynamic complexity. While systems science alone cannot possibly solve the major challenges in public health, systems-based approaches may contribute to changing the language and methods for conceptualising and acting within complex systems. The overarching goal of this paper is to improve the modelling used in dissemination and implementation research by applying best principles of systems science. Best principles, as distinct from the more customary term 'best practices', are used to underscore the need to extract the core issues from the context in which they are embedded in order to better ensure that they are transferable across settings. Toward meaningfully grappling with the complex and challenging problems faced in adopting and integrating evidence-based health interventions and changing practice patterns within specific settings, we propose and illustrate four best principles derived from our systems science experience: (1) model the problem, not the system; (2) pay attention to what is important, not just what is quantifiable; (3) leverage the utility of models as boundary objects; and (4) adopt a portfolio approach to model building. To improve our mental models of the real world, system scientists have created methodologies such as system dynamics, agent-based modelling, geographic information science and social network simulation. To understand dynamic complexity, we need the ability to simulate. Otherwise, our understanding will be limited. The practice of dynamic systems modelling, as discussed herein, is the art and science of linking system structure to behaviour for the purpose of changing structure to improve behaviour. A useful computer model creates a knowledge repository and a

  7. A novel flexible and modular energy storage system for near future Energy Banks

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We considered a novel energy storage system based on the compression of air through pumped water. Differently from CAES on trial, the proposed indirect compression leaves the opportunity to choose the kind of compression from adiabatic to isothermal. The energy storage process could be both fast or slow leading to different configuration and applications. These novel storage system are modular and could be applied in different scales for different locations and applications, being very flexible in charge and discharge process. The system may offer an ideal energy buffer for wind and solar storage with no (or negligible) environment hazard. The main features of this novel energy storage system will be showed together with overall energy and power data.

  8. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  9. Performance and Applied Research of A New Type Detecting System for Radon and α Energy Spectrum Machine%一种新型测氡仪一α谱仪的性能与应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建斌; 王磊; 童运福

    2011-01-01

    分析了222Rn以及220Rn衰变产生α粒子的过程,以及采用半导体探测器,利用核谱测量技术与嵌入式技术研制的新型测氡仪-α谱仪的基本原理,通过各种测试结果的对比,确定了仪器的基本设计参数.通过对分析方法,标定方法的分析,认为该仪器可以满足连续测氡与瞬时测氡以及α谱测量的要求.可用于室内测氡、壤中测氡、水溶液测氡以及钍射气测量等领域.%Paper analyzes the process of the decay of the 222Rn and 220Rn, and introduces the alpha ray spectrometer based on the nuclear spectrum technology and embedded system technology, using semi - conductor detector. It determined the parameters by comparing results of a few kinds of test. By analyzing measuring method and calibration method involved, paper believes that machine is able to meat the requirements of the continuous and instantaneous radon measurement and alpha measurement. It is also can be used to measure thorium and radon in soil, water, and air.

  10. An energy saving system for hospital laundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Polykrati, A.D.; Proios, A.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp. S.A., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Hospital laundries are one of the largest consumers of water and electrical and thermal energy. This paper examined the energy savings achieved by a system using the hot wastewater from the washing process. Hospital laundries consume thermal energy using steam, which is produced in boilers by burning diesel oil or natural gas. Electrical energy for the mechanical drives, ventilation and also the lighting required in the laundry area are big consumers of energy. The paper presented the proposed system and discussed the parameters of the system and system dimensioning. The paper also provided and discussed an interpretation of steam and energy savings. The proposed system was considered to be economically viable, simple in its construction, installation and operation. From the application of the suggested system, the cost savings resulted in a satisfactory payback period for the capital invested of approximately three to five years. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Applying Distributed Object Technology to Distributed Embedded Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Dalgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our Java RMI inspired Object Request Broker architecture MicroRMI for use with networked embedded devices. MicroRMI relieves the software developer from the tedious and error-prone job of writing communication protocols for interacting with such embedded devices. MicroR...... in developing control systems for distributed embedded platforms possessing severe resource restrictions.......RMI supports easy integration of high-level application specific control logic with low-level device specific control logic. Our experience from applying MicroRMI in the context of a distributed robotics control application, clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to use distributed object technology...

  12. ENFORM: an ENergy inFORMation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Cole, B.M.

    1977-03-01

    The ENFORM system of computer codes can be used to calculate the amount of fuel material in the nuclear fuel cycle as a function of time. The material amounts are determined by an input schedule of installed electric energy generation capacity. In addition to the amount of uranium and plutonium in the fuel cycle, the system also accounts for 175 radionuclides. The effect of the fuel cycle on the environment can be calculated for the release of radionuclides and chemicals. The released radionuclides are modeled through the use of release factors and dose coefficients applied to the contained isotopic inventories. The chemical effluents released to the environment are modeled by using simple release factors. All release factors and dose coefficients are specific for each type of plant in the nuclear fuel cycle. The material logistics and effluent accounting features of the ENFORM system are supplemented by a fuel cycle economics package. This module provides fuel cycle processing costs and the levelized cost of power. The ENFORM system also provides means of estimating the effect of changing nuclear growth scenarios and changing environmental control technologies on nuclear fuel cycle effluents, economics and logistics.

  13. Introduction to wind energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  14. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  15. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, October-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into five sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains a report on institutional problems for small-scale hydroelectric power development in the southeastern states and a list of documents published by APL in the hydroelectric program and in the geothermal program, above. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigations, contains an article on work on the geologic structure of the Danbury Quadrangle that is supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and an in-house supported study on a new method for assessing earthquakes in intraplate regions. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains four articles. The first is an evaluation of the Einstein refrigerator, supported by independent IR and D funds. The second concerns fly-wheel technology development at APL supported by the Department of Energy, Division of Energy Storage (DOE/STOR). The third is a report on APL energy conservation efforts at its own buildings, and the fourth is an article on liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety evaluation, supported by the National Academy of Sciences. The fifth section explores the value of establishing an Energy Research Institute at The Johns Hopkins University.

  16. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity...... and Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP). The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts...

  17. Energy performance of cleanroom environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Tschudi, William F.

    2001-11-01

    By developing metrics for evaluating cleanroom air system performance and overall load intensity, this paper provides energy benchmarking results for thirteen cleanroom environmental system performance, and identifies opportunities for improving cleanroom energy efficiency while maintaining or improving cleanroom contamination control. Comparisons with IEST Recommended Practice are made to examine the performance of cleanroom air systems. These results can serve as a vehicle to identify energy efficient cleanroom design practices and to highlight important issues in cleanroom operation and maintenance. Results from this study confirm that there are opportunities in improving energy efficiency of cleanroom environmental systems while maintaining effective contamination control.

  18. Energy performance of cleanroom environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Tschudi, William F.

    2001-11-01

    By developing metrics for evaluating cleanroom air system performance and overall load intensity, this paper provides energy benchmarking results for thirteen cleanroom environmental system performance, and identifies opportunities for improving cleanroom energy efficiency while maintaining or improving cleanroom contamination control. Comparisons with IEST Recommended Practice are made to examine the performance of cleanroom air systems. These results can serve as a vehicle to identify energy efficient cleanroom design practices and to highlight important issues in cleanroom operation and maintenance. Results from this study confirm that there are opportunities in improving energy efficiency of cleanroom environmental systems while maintaining effective contamination control.

  19. Wind energy systems: program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    The Federal Wind Energy Program (FWEP) was initiated to provide focus, direction and funds for the development of wind power. Each year a summary is prepared to provide the American public with an overview of government sponsored activities in the FWEP. This program summary describes each of the Department of Energy's (DOE) current wind energy projects initiated or renewed during FY 1979 (October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979) and reflects their status as of April 30, 1980. The summary highlights on-going research, development and demonstration efforts and serves as a record of progress towards the program objectives. It also provides: the program's general management structure; review of last year's achievements; forecast of expected future trends; documentation of the projects conducted during FY 1979; and list of key wind energy publications.

  20. Wind energy systems: program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    The Federal Wind Energy Program (FWEP) was initiated to provide focus, direction and funds for the development of wind power. Each year a summary is prepared to provide the American public with an overview of government sponsored activities in the FWEP. This program summary describes each of the Department of Energy's (DOE) current wind energy projects initiated or renewed during FY 1979 (October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979) and reflects their status as of April 30, 1980. The summary highlights on-going research, development and demonstration efforts and serves as a record of progress towards the program objectives. It also provides: the program's general management structure; review of last year's achievements; forecast of expected future trends; documentation of the projects conducted during FY 1979; and list of key wind energy publications.

  1. Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Architecture SPPI Smart Power Purchase Initiative TOPR Task Order Proposal Request UEOC Utility and Energy Operations Center UCSD...including scenario analysis based on data acquired during the operational phases in San Diego, augmented with relevant time series data for weather . B... architecture ; • Integrating energy management functions on a cyber-secure platform to meet current Navy security standards, and be adaptable and scalable for

  2. Applying principles of health system strengthening to eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Blanchet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Health systems have now become the priority focus of researchers and policy makers, who have progressively moved away from a project-centred perspectives. The new tendency is to facilitate a convergence between health system developers and disease-specific programme managers in terms of both thinking and action, and to reconcile both approaches: one focusing on integrated health systems and improving the health status of the population and the other aiming at improving access to health care. Eye care interventions particularly in developing countries have generally been vertically implemented (e.g. trachoma, cataract surgeries often with parallel organizational structures or specialised disease specific services. With the emergence of health system strengthening in health strategies and in the service delivery of interventions there is a need to clarify and examine inputs in terms governance, financing and management. This present paper aims to clarify key concepts in health system strengthening and describe the various components of the framework as applied in eye care interventions.

  3. Research of the grid computing system applied in optical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei-wei; Wang, Yu-dong; Liu, Qiangsheng; Cen, Zhao-feng; Li, Xiao-tong; Lin, Yi-qun

    2008-03-01

    A grid computing in the field of optics is presented in this paper. Firstly, the basic principles and research background of grid computing are outlined in this paper, along with the overview of its applications and the development status quo. The paper also discusses several typical tasks scheduling algorithms. Secondly, it focuses on describing a task scheduling of grid computing applied in optical computation. The paper gives details about the task scheduling system, including the task partition, granularity selection and tasks allocation, especially the structure of the system. In addition, some details of communication on grid computing are also illustrated. In this system, the "makespan" and "load balancing" are comprehensively considered. Finally, we build a grid model to test the task scheduling strategy, and the results are analyzed in detail. Compared to one isolated computer, a grid comprised of one server and four processors can shorten the "makespan" to 1/4. At the same time, the experimental results of the simulation also illustrate that the proposed scheduling system is able to balance loads of all processors. In short, the system performs scheduling well in the grid environment.

  4. Applying sustainable technology for saving primary energy in the brewhouse during beer brewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willaert, Ronnie G. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Ultrastructure, Brussel (Belgium); Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Brussel (Belgium); Baron, Gino V. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Chemical Engineering, Brussel (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    Wort boiling is the most energy intensive stage in the brewing process. For this reason considerable attention has been given to improve the efficiency of wort boiling systems. Alternative wort boiling technologies, such as low pressure boiling and high temperature wort boiling, have been studied in detail during the last decades, with a focus on the reduction of primary energy consumption. Recently, new boiling systems have been developed and commercialised. The new systems reduced the energy consumption still further and are all characterised by exerting a low thermal stress on the wort during boiling. In this review, an overview of wort boiling objectives, possibilities to reduce the thermal stress on wort and environmental aspects of wort boiling are discussed. Furthermore, recent wort boiling systems - i.e. dynamic low pressure boiling and boiling systems which are based on low thermal stress boiling in combination with volatile stripping (steam, film and vacuum stripping) - are given special attention. (orig.)

  5. Applied systems ecology: models, data, and statistical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L L

    1976-01-01

    In this report, systems ecology is largely equated to mathematical or computer simulation modelling. The need for models in ecology stems from the necessity to have an integrative device for the diversity of ecological data, much of which is observational, rather than experimental, as well as from the present lack of a theoretical structure for ecology. Different objectives in applied studies require specialized methods. The best predictive devices may be regression equations, often non-linear in form, extracted from much more detailed models. A variety of statistical aspects of modelling, including sampling, are discussed. Several aspects of population dynamics and food-chain kinetics are described, and it is suggested that the two presently separated approaches should be combined into a single theoretical framework. It is concluded that future efforts in systems ecology should emphasize actual data and statistical methods, as well as modelling.

  6. A Novel Surveillance System Applied in Civil Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hua Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional security monitoring of civil airport usually uses a fixed camera to acquire images. There are several problems with performance including difficulties introduced in the information transmission, storage, and analysis of the process. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target capture and these have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. This paper contributes to this research by proposing a new surveillance system applied in civil airport. We discuss the finished bionic structure of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduce the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and image mosaic. Image matching for large view is also illustrated with different conditions. This mode and algorithm effectively achieve safety surveillance of airport with large field of view and high real-time processing.

  7. Advanced Drug Delivery Systems - a Synthetic and Biological Applied Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lise Nørkjær

    Specific delivery of drugs to diseased sites in the body is a major topic in the development of drug delivery system today. Especially, the field of cancer treatment needs improved drug delivery systems as the strong dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy today often present a barrier...... unloading of the encapsulated drug have been tried optimized in a variety of ways. Many propose the use of small molecules, such as vitamins and peptides, for active targeting of the liposomes to overexpressed receptors on the cancerous tissue. Once located close to the diseased site a trigger mechanism...... for releasing the drug from the liposome interior is often needed. Several approaches have been suggested to work as release mechanisms such a pH changes, the presence of enzymes or external applied stimulus as heat or light. Chapter two deals with the synthesis of the functionalized phospholipids, which...

  8. Model Driven Mutation Applied to Adaptative Systems Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartel, Alexandre; Munoz, Freddy; Klein, Jacques; Mouelhi, Tejeddine; Traon, Yves Le

    2012-01-01

    Dynamically Adaptive Systems modify their behav- ior and structure in response to changes in their surrounding environment and according to an adaptation logic. Critical sys- tems increasingly incorporate dynamic adaptation capabilities; examples include disaster relief and space exploration systems. In this paper, we focus on mutation testing of the adaptation logic. We propose a fault model for adaptation logics that classifies faults into environmental completeness and adaptation correct- ness. Since there are several adaptation logic languages relying on the same underlying concepts, the fault model is expressed independently from specific adaptation languages. Taking benefit from model-driven engineering technology, we express these common concepts in a metamodel and define the operational semantics of mutation operators at this level. Mutation is applied on model elements and model transformations are used to propagate these changes to a given adaptation policy in the chosen formalism. Preliminary resul...

  9. Resonant state expansion applied to planar open optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Doost, M B; Muljarov, E A

    2011-01-01

    The resonant state expansion (RSE), a novel perturbation theory of Brillouin-Wigner type developed in electrodynamics [Muljarov, Langbein, and Zimmermann, Europhys. Lett., 92, 50010(2010)], is applied to planar, effectively one-dimensional optical systems, such as layered dielectric slabs and Bragg reflector microcavities. It is demonstrated that the RSE converges with a power law in the basis size. Algorithms for error estimation and their reduction by extrapolation are presented and evaluated. Complex eigenfrequencies, electro-magnetic fields, and the Green's function of a selection of optical systems are calculated, as well as the observable transmission spectra. In particular we find that for a Bragg-mirror microcavity, which has sharp resonances in the spectrum, the transmission calculated using the resonant state expansion reproduces the result of the transfer/scattering matrix method.

  10. Integrated preclinical photosafety testing strategy for systemically applied pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümann, Jens; Boudon, Stéphanie; Ulrich, Peter; Loll, Nathalie; Garcia, Déborah; Schaffner, René; Streich, Jeannine; Kittel, Birgit; Bauer, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Phototoxic properties of systemically applied pharmaceuticals may be the cause of serious adverse drug reactions. Therefore, a reliable preclinical photosafety assessment strategy, combining in vitro and in vivo approaches in a quantitative manner, is important and has not been described so far. Here, we report the establishment of an optimized modified murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), adapted for phototoxicity assessment of systemically applied compounds, as well as the test results for 34 drug candidates in this in vivo photo-LLNA. The drug candidates were selected based on their ability to absorb ultraviolet/visible light and the photo irritation factors (PIFs) determined in the well-established in vitro 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test. An in vivo phototoxic potential was identified for 13 of these drug candidates. The use of multiple dose levels in the described murine in vivo phototoxicity studies enabled the establishment of no- and/or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs/LOAELs), also supporting human photosafety assessment. An in vitro-in vivo correlation demonstrated that a drug candidate classified as "phototoxic" in vitro is not necessarily phototoxic in vivo. However, the probability for a drug candidate to cause phototoxicity in vivo clearly correlated with the magnitude of the phototoxicity identified in vitro.

  11. Energy efficiency in a water supply system:Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena M.RAMOS; Filipe VIEIRA; Didia I.C.COVAS

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources.A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies,including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution,was developed and applied to a water supply system.The methodology developed includes three solutions:(1)the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed,(2)the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand,and(3)the use of other renewable energy sources,including a wind turbine,to supply energy to the pumping station,with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid.The use of an integrated solution(water and energy)proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power,and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations,as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  12. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  13. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  14. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Resource Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Schneider Electric Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  15. Energy monitoring and control Systems - which one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agase, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Considering the high cost and general limitations of energy supplies, there is no better source of energy than simple conservation. It is the cheapest, the safest and the most productive alternative available today. This overview of Energy Monitoring and Control System types, and what to consider in their selection, will relate to conservation and significant dollar savings potential to the user.

  16. Energy propagation in linear hyperbolic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainardi, F.; Groesen, van E.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of energy velocity for linear dispersive waves is usually given for a normal mode solution of the system as the ratio between the mean energy flux and the mean energy density. In the absence of dissipation this velocity is known to coincide with the corresponding group velocity. When dis

  17. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  18. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning...

  19. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  20. Energy-based modelling and control of wind energy conversion system with DFIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. H.; Qu, Y. B.

    2011-02-01

    Focusing on wind energy conversion system (WECS) at the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) control level, a novel control approach was proposed to optimise wind energy capture from consideration of physical nature and energy relationship. According to energy flowing, the WECS was divided into several multi-ports energy conversion subsystems, and the structure matrices of the subsystems were elaborately designed. Based on this, port-controlled Hamiltonian models of the subsystems were obtained, and energy-based control using the models was provided to realise the machine side and the grid side control objectives of the WECS. The approach was applied on a 2 MW WECS, and compared with classical proportional-integral (PI) controller using MATLAB/Simulink. The results show that the energy-based control not only fully satisfies both side control requirements, but also has more robust control performances for a turbulent wind than the PI control.

  1. Buildings Interaction with Urban Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Wyckmans, Annemie; Zucker, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The goal towards a fossil free energy system is expressed in amongst others European and national targets, and puts pressure on the application of renewable energy sources combined with energy efficiency. Many cities are even more ambitious than their national targets and want to be among the first...... on the impacts that buildings play in the overall energy system. Here buildings are not only consumers but rather prosumers that are able to produce renewable energy themselves. Buildings moreover offer potential storage capacities that can be utilized in demand shifting, which is necessary to enable increased...

  2. Management information system applied to radiation protection services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela; Figueiredo, Arthur, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br, E-mail: lss@cdtn.br, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: arthurqof@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. The complex and multisource information flux from all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations requires a robust tool/system to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Those organized and processed data are useful to reach a successful management and to support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents recent improvements on a management information system based on the radiation protection directives and regulations from Brazilian regulatory body. This radiation protection control system is applied to any radiation protection services and research institutes subjected to Brazilian nuclear regulation and is a powerful tool for continuous management, not only indicating how the health and safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned showing up the critical points. (author)

  3. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  4. Energy-driven computing for energy-harvesting embedded systems

    OpenAIRE

    Merrett, Geoff V.

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest over the last decade in the powering of embedded systems from ‘harvested’ energy, and this has been further fuelled by the promise and vision of IoT. Energy harvesting systems present numerous challenges, although some of these are also posed by their battery-powered counterparts: e.g. ultra-low power consumption. However, a significant challenge not witnessed in battery-powered systems is a requirement to manage the combination of a highly unpredictable and...

  5. A sustainable energy-system in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy-system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems. Latvia has economic growth...... but a negative trade-balance. With this in mind, it is important that Latvia is able to meet the challenge and use the economic development to develop a sustainable energy-system and a sounder trade-balance. A combination of energy planning, national economy and innovation processes in boiler companies will form...... the reflective approach of this paper to the future of energy supplies in Latvia. Udgivelsesdato: SEP-NOV...

  6. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  7. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  8. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet......  The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...... the higher level of energy demand....

  9. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  10. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  11. Energy-Based Tree Illustration System: ETIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NAKAJIMA, Katsuto; MAMA, Azusa; MORIMOTO, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    We propose a system named ETIS (Energy-based Tree Illustration System) for automatically generating tree illustrations characteristic of two-dimensional ones with features such as exaggerated branch curves, leaves, and flowers...

  12. Applying of component system development in object methodology, case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To create computarization target software as a component system has been a very strong requirement for the last 20 years of software developing. Finally, the architectural components are self-contained units, presenting not only partial and overall system behavior, but also cooperating with each other on the basis of their interfaces. Among others, components have allowed flexible modification of processes the behavior of which is the foundation of components behavior without changing the life of the component system. On the other hand, the component system makes it possible, at design time, to create numerous new connections between components and thus creating modified system behaviors. This all enables the company management to perform, at design time, required behavioral changes of processes in accordance with the requirements of changing production and market.The development of software which is generally referred to as SDP (Software Development Process contains two directions. The first one, called CBD (Component–Based Development, is dedicated to the development of component–based systems CBS (Component–based System, the second target is the development of software under the influence of SOA (Service–Oriented Architecture. Both directions are equipped with their different development methodologies. The subject of this paper is only the first direction and application of development of component–based systems in its object–oriented methodologies. The requirement of today is to carry out the development of component-based systems in the framework of developed object–oriented methodologies precisely in the way of a dominant style. In some of the known methodologies, however, this development is not completely transparent and is not even recognized as dominant. In some cases, it is corrected by the special meta–integration models of component system development into an object methodology.This paper presents a case study

  13. Integrated design by optimization of electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roboam, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes systemic design methodologies applied to electrical energy systems, in particular integrated optimal design with modeling and optimization methods and tools. It is made up of six chapters dedicated to integrated optimal design. First, the signal processing of mission profiles and system environment variables are discussed. Then, optimization-oriented analytical models, methods and tools (design frameworks) are proposed. A "multi-level optimization" smartly coupling several optimization processes is the subject of one chapter. Finally, a technico-economic optimizatio

  14. ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF WIND/PV AND BATTERY HYBRID SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Almi; M. Arrouf; H.Belmili; S. Boulouma; Bendib, B

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with power control of a wind and solar hybrid generation system for interconnection operation with electric distribution system. Power control strategy is to extract the maximum energy available from varying condition of wind speed and solar irradiance while maintaining power quality at a satisfactory level. In order to capture the maximum power, variable speed control is employed for wind turbine and maximum power point tracking is applied for photovoltaic system. The grid i...

  15. Mathematical Modelling-Based Energy System Operation Strategy Considering Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jun-Hyung; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-06-25

    Renewable energy resources are widely recognized as an alternative to environmentally harmful fossil fuels. More renewable energy technologies will need to penetrate into fossil fuel dominated energy systems to mitigate the globally witnessed climate changes and environmental pollutions. It is necessary to prepare for the potential problems with increased proportions of renewable energy in the energy system, to prevent higher costs and decreased reliability. Motivated by this need, this paper addresses the operation of an energy system with an energy storage system in the context of developing a decision-supporting framework.

  16. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  17. Energy accounting and optimization for mobile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mian

    Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been widely used by operating system based energy management. While various energy accounting policies have been tried, there is no known way to evaluate them directly simply because it is hard to track every hardware use by software in a heterogeneous multi-core system like modern smartphones and tablets. In this thesis, we provide the ground truth for energy accounting based on multi-player game theory and offer the first evaluation of existing energy accounting policies, revealing their important flaws. The proposed ground truth is based on Shapley value, a single value solution to multi-player games of which four axiomatic properties are natural and self-evident to energy accounting. To obtain the Shapley value-based ground truth, one only needs to know if a process is active during the time under question and the system energy consumption during the same time. We further provide a utility optimization formulation of energy management and show, surprisingly, that energy accounting does not matter for existing energy management solutions that control the energy use of a process by giving it an energy budget, or budget based energy management (BEM). We show an optimal energy management (OEM) framework can always outperform BEM. While OEM does not require any form of energy accounting, it is related to Shapley value in that both require the system energy consumption for all possible combination of processes under question. We provide a novel system solution that meet this requirement by acquiring system energy consumption in situ for an OS scheduler period, i.e.,10 ms. We report a prototype implementation of both Shapley value-based energy accounting and OEM based scheduling. Using this prototype and smartphone workload, we experimentally demonstrate how erroneous existing energy accounting policies can

  18. Wind energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with potential users of information on wind energy conversion. These interviews, part of a larger study covering nine different solar technologies, attempted to identify: the type of information each distinctive group of information users needed, and the best way of getting information to that group. Groups studied include: wind energy conversion system researchers; wind energy conversion system manufacturer representatives; wind energy conversion system distributors; wind turbine engineers; utility representatives; educators; county agents and extension service agents; and wind turbine owners.

  19. Advanced, Energy Efficient Shelter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    Development Analysis, M&S Thermal Barriers Large Shelter Efficiency System Integration Follow-On Demonstrations Lessons Learned from Initial...UNCLASSIFIED 13 Technology Development: Thermal Barriers Objective: Address the enduring challenge of developing a thermal insulation for shelter systems

  20. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  1. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the state-of-the-arts developments of renewable energy are reviewed in respect to the installed power and market share, where wind power and photovoltaic power generation are the main focuses due to the fast growing speed and large share of installed capacity. Some basic principles...

  2. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  3. Optimised Hybrid Integrated Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arun Sandilya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid integrated renewable energy system for an isolated small community, where grid extension is considered uneconomical. This paper proposed cost optimization through dynamic matching between load and proper equipment sizing. The Matlab based computer program developed for determining the most cost effective energy source to supply required load any given time of the day. Integrated system based on green energy utilization and rural electricity development.

  4. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  5. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  6. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    and influential factors impact on the development of the singleisland or multi-island smart energy system are different. This paper presents the influential factors of the island smart energy system development by the literature analysis. Meanwhile, taking Philippines as a case study to investigate...

  7. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The re

  8. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The re

  9. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  10. Energy and Uncertainty: Models and Algorithms for Complex Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The problem of controlling energy systems (generation, transmission, storage, investment) introduces a number of optimization problems which need to be solved in the presence of different types of uncertainty. We highlight several of these applications, using a simple energy storage problem as a case application. Using this setting, we describe a modeling framework based around five fundamental dimensions which is more natural than the standard canonical form widely used in the reinforcement ...

  11. Hyperspectral imaging applied to complex particulate solids systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) is based on the utilization of an integrated hardware and software (HW&SW) platform embedding conventional imaging and spectroscopy to attain both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although HSI was originally developed for remote sensing, it has recently emerged as a powerful process analytical tool, for non-destructive analysis, in many research and industrial sectors. The possibility to apply on-line HSI based techniques in order to identify and quantify specific particulate solid systems characteristics is presented and critically evaluated. The originally developed HSI based logics can be profitably applied in order to develop fast, reliable and lowcost strategies for: i) quality control of particulate products that must comply with specific chemical, physical and biological constraints, ii) performance evaluation of manufacturing strategies related to processing chains and/or realtime tuning of operative variables and iii) classification-sorting actions addressed to recognize and separate different particulate solid products. Case studies, related to recent advances in the application of HSI to different industrial sectors, as agriculture, food, pharmaceuticals, solid waste handling and recycling, etc. and addressed to specific goals as contaminant detection, defect identification, constituent analysis and quality evaluation are described, according to authors' originally developed application.

  12. Greener energy systems energy production technologies with minimum environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen acceleration in the development of cleaner energy systems. In Europe and North America, many old coal-fired power plants will be shut down in the next few years and will likely be replaced by combined cycle plants with higher-efficiency gas turbines that can start up and load quickly. With the revival of nuclear energy, designers are creating smaller nuclear reactors of a simpler integrated design that could expand the application of clean, emission-free energy to industry. And a number of manufacturers now offer hybrid cars with an electric motor and a gasoline engine t

  13. Production systems and energy potential of tidal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Rodrigo Quintero-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of tidal power and distinguishes the types of systems to exploitation the tidal energy; the same way; it also shows how this technology serves as a source of energy in some countries around the world, which is a role associated with the energy potential available in each region. This point equally shows through numbers in GWh/year per km2 reservoir surface. Last but not least, it is the influence that this technology has had on the environment, its contributions for improving and evaluating from an environmental point of view.

  14. Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont, A.D.; Berry, G.D.

    2001-01-17

    By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near 10 billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy--and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh/yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50% above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st Century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil primary energy sources and sequester carbon emissions (Halmann, 1999). Both approaches share the need to convert, transmit, store and deliver energy to end-users through carbonless energy carriers.

  15. Shift to a low carbon society through energy systems design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihiko; NAKATA; Mikhail; RODIONOV; Diego; SILVA; Joni; JUPESTA

    2010-01-01

    Concern about global warming calls for an advanced approach for designing an energy system to reduce carbon emissions as well as to secure energy security for each country.Conventional energy systems tend to introduce different technologies with high conversion efficiency,leading to a higher average efficiency.Advanced energy systems can be achieved not by an aggregate form of conversion technologies but by an innovative system design itself.The concept of LCS(low carbon society) is a unique approach having multi-dimensional considerations such as social,economic and environmental dimensions.The LCS aims at an extensive restructuring of worldwide energy supply/demand network system by not only replacing the conventional parts with the new ones,but also integrating all the necessary components and designing absolutely different energy networks.As a core tool for the LCS design,energy-economic models are applied to show feasible solutions in future with alternatives such as renewable resources,combined heat and power,and smart grid operations.Models can introduce changes in energy markets,technology learning in capacity,and penetration of innovative technologies,leading to an optimum system configuration under priority settings.The paper describes recent trials of energy models application related to waste-to-energy,clean coal,transportation and rural development.Although the modelling approach is still under investigation,the output clearly shows possible options having variety of technologies and linkages between supply and demand sides.Design of the LCS means an energy systems design with the modelling approach,which gives solution for complex systems,choices among technologies,technology feasibility,R&D targets,and what we need to start.

  16. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Joao [Centre of Mechatronics Engineering - CEM/Institut of Mechanical Engineering - IDMEC, University of Evora, R. Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal); Martins, Joao [Centre of Technology and Systems/Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the ''heart and soul'' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems. (author)

  17. Barometric altimetry system as virtual constellation applied in CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI GuoXiang; SHENG PeiXuan; DU JinLin; ZHENG YongGuang; CAI XianDe; WU HaiTao; HU YongHui; HUA Yu; LI XiaoHui

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the barometric altimetry as virtual constellation applied to the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS),which uses the transponders of communication satellites to transfer navigation messages to users.Barometric altimetry depends on the relationship of air pressure varying with altitude in the Earth's atmosphere.Once the air pressure at a location is measured the site altitude can be found.This method is able to enhance and improve the availability of three-dimensional positioning.The difficulty is that the relation between barometric pressure and altitude is variable in different areas and under various weather conditions.Hence,in order to obtain higher accuracy,we need to acquire the real-time air pressure corresponding to an altimetric region's reference height.On the other hand,the altimetry method will be applied to satellite navigation system,but the greatest difficulty lies in how to get the real-time air pressure value at the reference height in the broad areas overlaid by satellite navigation.We propose an innovational method to solve this problem.It is to collect the real-time air pressures and temperatures of the 1860 known-altitude weather observatories over China and around via satellite communication and to carry out time extrapolation forecast uniformly.To reduce data quantity,we first partition the data and encode them and then broadcast these information via navigation message to CAPS users' receivers.Upon the interpolations being done in receivers,the reference air pressure and temperature at the receiver's nearby place is derived.Lastly,combing with the receiver-observed real air pressure and temperature,the site's altitude can be determined.The work is presented in the following aspects:the calculation principle,formulae,data collection,encoding,prediction,interpolation method,navigation message transmission together with errors causes and analyses.The advantages and shortcomings of the technique are discussed at the end.

  18. Barometric altimetry system as virtual constellation applied in CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the barometric altimetry as virtual constellation applied to the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), which uses the transponders of communication satellites to transfer navigation messages to users. Barometric altimetry depends on the relationship of air pressure varying with altitude in the Earth’s atmosphere. Once the air pressure at a location is measured the site altitude can be found. This method is able to enhance and improve the availability of three-dimensional positioning. The difficulty is that the relation between barometric pressure and altitude is variable in different areas and under various weather conditions. Hence, in order to obtain higher accuracy, we need to acquire the real-time air pressure corresponding to an altimetric region’s reference height. On the other hand, the altimetry method will be applied to satellite navigation system, but the greatest difficulty lies in how to get the real-time air pressure value at the reference height in the broad areas overlaid by satellite navigation. We propose an innovational method to solve this problem. It is to collect the real-time air pressures and temperatures of the 1860 known-altitude weather observatories over China and around via satellite communication and to carry out time extrapolation forecast uniformly. To reduce data quantity, we first partition the data and encode them and then broadcast these information via navigation message to CAPS users’ receivers. Upon the interpolations being done in receivers, the reference air pressure and temperature at the receiver’s nearby place is derived. Lastly, combing with the receiver-observed real air pressure and temperature, the site’s altitude can be determined. The work is presented in the following aspects: the calculation principle, formulae, data collection, encoding, prediction, interpolation method, navigation message transmission together with errors causes and analyses. The advantages and shortcomings of the

  19. Renewable energy for sustainable electrical energy system in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K. [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra 182320, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2010-08-15

    Present trends of electrical energy supply and demand are not sustainable because of the huge gap between demand and supply in foreseeable future in India. The path towards sustainability is exploitation of energy conservation and aggressive use of renewable energy systems. Potential of renewable energy technologies that can be effectively harnessed would depend on future technology developments and breakthrough in cost reduction. This requires adequate policy guidelines and interventions in the Indian power sector. Detailed MARKAL simulations, for power sector in India, show that full exploitation of energy conservation potential and an aggressive implementation of renewable energy technologies lead to sustainable development. Coal and other fossil fuel (gas and oil) allocations stagnated after the year 2015 and remain constant up to 2040. After the year 2040, the requirement for coal and gas goes down and carbon emissions decrease steeply. By the year 2045, 25% electrical energy can be supplied by renewable energy and the CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by 72% as compared to the base case scenario. (author)

  20. Power Management for Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel

    , we open up for exible power consumption schemes with the possibility of reducing operational costs and we develop and demonstrate prototype control technology that creates completely new business opportunities for selling regulating power to the grid. Moreover, this enables a larger penetration...... of wind energy in the power production and increases the potential market size for wind power generators and other renewable energy sources. Thus, we aim at promoting the use of environmentally sustainable power production technologies while creating new business opportunities for both power consumers...... with forecasts of future disturbances. At each time step the values of the control inputs are computed by solving an open-loop nite time optimal control problem over a dened prediction horizon. Only the rst step in this optimal open-loop sequence is implemented as a control command. Feedback is obtained...

  1. Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

    2006-11-01

    Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

  2. Energy Efficient Operation of Distillation Columns and a Reactor Applying Irreversible Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeijer, Gelein M. de

    2002-05-01

    In this thesis the entropy production rates of diabatic distillation columns and a SO{sub 2} converter were minimised. This is the same as maximising the second law energy efficiency of the systems. The development of chemical industry can be made more sustainable by knowing this minimum. We found that the entropy production rate of distillation could be reduced up to 50 %. In order to achieve this reduction, heat exchangers were added on each tray. The characteristics of an optimum distillation column were presented. Furthermore, the entropy production rate of a SO{sub 2} converter was reduced with 16.7 % by altering the heights of catalytic beds, transfer areas of heat exchangers, and temperature differences over heat exchangers. These reductions show that there is still a large improvement potential in chemical industry. By applying the improved operations the world oil production can be reduced in the order of magnitude of 1 %. A similar reduction in the emission of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} can be expected. For deriving the entropy production rate in a systematic manner the theory of irreversible thermodynamics was useful. A simpler and a more complicated equation for the entropy production rate of distillation were derived. The simpler equation used only one force-flux product. It was suitable for minimisation of the entropy production rate of columns with the assumption of equilibrium between the outlets on each tray. The more complicated equation was able to describe satisfactorily the entropy production rate of an experimental column that separated the non-ideal mixture water-ethanol. It was next used to derive an extended set of transport equations for distillation, that includes the interface and the Soret effect (or thermal diffusion). Finally, irreversible thermodynamics was used to describe the contribution to the entropy production rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers. This contribution had a significant impact on the results of the

  3. Urban energy systems an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    Energy demands of cities need to be met more sustainably. This book analyses the technical and social systems that satisfy these needs and asks how methods can be put into practice to achieve this.Drawing on analytical tools and case studies developed at Imperial College London, the book presents state-of-the-art techniques for examining urban energy systems as integrated systems of technologies, resources, and people.Case studies include:a history of the evolution of London's urban energy system, from pre-history to present daya history of the growth of d

  4. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  5. Eating energy. Identifying possibilities for reduced energy use in the future food supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallgren, Christine; Hoejer, Mattias [Division of Environmental Strategies Research-fms, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    This paper explores the possibilities for reducing future energy use for eating to a sustainable level. A backcasting approach is used to generate an image of the future where energy use for eating is 60% lower in 2050 than in 2000. The currently known potential to reduce energy use in the food supply system for producing, transporting, storing, cooking and eating food is explored and described in terms of a number of distinct changes that are numbered consecutively and presented in both a quantitative and qualitative way. Sweden is used as the case and all data regarding energy use apply for Swedish conditions. An exercise like this illustrates the possible outcome of taking sustainability seriously. If sustainability is to be achieved, some images of the future are needed so that potential targets can be identified. This paper does not present forecasts, but illustrates the kind of changes needed in order to achieve sustainable energy use in the food system. (author)

  6. Eating energy-Identifying possibilities for reduced energy use in the future food supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallgren, Christine [Division of Environmental Strategies Research-fms, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejer, Mattias, E-mail: hojer@kth.s [Division of Environmental Strategies Research-fms, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    This paper explores the possibilities for reducing future energy use for eating to a sustainable level. A backcasting approach is used to generate an image of the future where energy use for eating is 60% lower in 2050 than in 2000. The currently known potential to reduce energy use in the food supply system for producing, transporting, storing, cooking and eating food is explored and described in terms of a number of distinct changes that are numbered consecutively and presented in both a quantitative and qualitative way. Sweden is used as the case and all data regarding energy use apply for Swedish conditions. An exercise like this illustrates the possible outcome of taking sustainability seriously. If sustainability is to be achieved, some images of the future are needed so that potential targets can be identified. This paper does not present forecasts, but illustrates the kind of changes needed in order to achieve sustainable energy use in the food system.

  7. Policies for 100% Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The official Danish energy policy goal is both to increase the wind power share of electricity consumption from 33% in 2014 to 50% by 2020 and to have a 100% renewable energy based energy system by 2050. This is a huge technological change from stored, scarce and polluting fossil fuels...... to fluctuating, abundant and clean energy sources. “Stored” fossil fuels can be used when needed; fluctuating energy sources must be captured when available and transformed to meet the energy needs of society in the right amounts and at the right time. We are amidst this change. Renewable energy has come of age...... and is no longer a minor technology experimenting in the corner of the energy scene, but has become a large new technology taking away considerable market shares from the old fossil fuel technologies....

  8. Policies for 100% Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The official Danish energy policy goal is both to increase the wind power share of electricity consumption from 33% in 2014 to 50% by 2020 and to have a 100% renewable energy based energy system by 2050. This is a huge technological change from stored, scarce and polluting fossil fuels...... to fluctuating, abundant and clean energy sources. “Stored” fossil fuels can be used when needed; fluctuating energy sources must be captured when available and transformed to meet the energy needs of society in the right amounts and at the right time. We are amidst this change. Renewable energy has come of age...... and is no longer a minor technology experimenting in the corner of the energy scene, but has become a large new technology taking away considerable market shares from the old fossil fuel technologies....

  9. Evaluation of eruptive energy of a pyroclastic deposit applying fractal geometry to fragment size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Marino, Joali; Morgavi, Daniele; Di Vito, Mauro; de Vita, Sandro; Sansivero, Fabio; Perugini, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Fractal fragmentation theory has been applied to characterize the particle size distribution of pyroclastic deposits generated by volcanic explosions. Recent works have demonstrated that fractal dimension on grain size distributions can be used as a proxy for estimating the energy associated with volcanic eruptions. In this work we seek to establish a preliminary analytical protocol that can be applied to better characterize volcanic fall deposits and derive the potential energy for fragmentation that was stored in the magma prior/during an explosive eruption. The methodology is based on two different techniques for determining the grain-size distribution of the pyroclastic samples: 1) dry manual sieving (particles larger than 297μm), and 2) automatic grain size analysis via a CamSizer-P4®device, the latter measure the distribution of projected area, obtaining a cumulative distribution based on volume fraction for particles up to 30mm. Size distribution data have been analyzed by applying the fractal fragmentation theory estimating the value of Df, i.e. the fractal dimension of fragmentation. In order to test our protocol we studied the Cretaio eruption, Ischia island, Italy. Results indicate that size distributions of pyroclastic fall deposits follow a fractal law, indicating that the fragmentation process of these deposits reflects a scale-invariant fragmentation mechanism. Matching the results from manual and automated techniques allows us to obtain a value of the "fragmentation energy" from the explosive eruptive events that generate the Cretaio deposits. We highlight the importance of these results, based on fractal statistics, as an additional volcanological tool for addressing volcanic risk based on the analyses of grain size distributions of natural pyroclastic deposits. Keywords: eruptive energy, fractal dimension of fragmentation, pyroclastic fallout.

  10. Variation in energy stored and dissipated in type-II superconductor in applied ac magnetic field with relative phase of two sinusoidal components of the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janů, Zdeněk; Chagovets, Tymofiy

    2017-01-01

    We show that both the energy stored and dissipated by a system with hysteretic nonlinearity in an applied field varies with the relative phase of the sinusoidal components of the field, even if the magnitude of these components, and thus an effective value of the field, are kept constant. The explored system is a type-II superconductor in the critical state subjected to a time varying applied magnetic field. Complete analytical expressions for hysteresis loops, determined from basic physical phenomena, are known for this system. A theoretically predicted variation in the energy is in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  11. Energy Flexibility in the Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence...... the adoption of the flexibility solutions, such as flexible electricity generation, demand-response, and electricity storage. This paper tries to analyze the current energy flexibility solutions and the factors that can influence the energy flexibility adoption. This paper takes Philippines as case study...... to provide an overview of the current condition of the Philippines’ power system and discuss the energy flexibility in the Philippines’ power system. A further discussion and recommendation is conducted in the end of the paper....

  12. DTU International Energy Report 2013:Energy storage options for future sustainable energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    One of the great challenges in the transition to a non-fossil energy system with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources such as solar and wind is to align consumption and production in an economically satisfactory manner. Energy storage could provide the necessary balancing power to make this possible. This energy report addresses energy storage from a broad perspective: It analyses smaller stores that can be used locally in for example heat storage in the individual home or veh...

  13. Complex energy system management using optimization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Stuart; Hurdowar-Castro, Diana; Allen, Rick; Olason, Tryggvi; Welt, Francois

    2010-09-15

    Modern energy systems are often very complex with respect to the mix of generation sources, energy storage, transmission, and avenues to market. Historically, power was provided by government organizations to load centers, and pricing was provided in a regulatory manner. In recent years, this process has been displaced by the independent system operator (ISO). This complexity makes the operation of these systems very difficult, since the components of the system are interdependent. Consequently, computer-based large-scale simulation and optimization methods like Decision Support Systems are now being used. This paper discusses the application of a DSS to operations and planning systems.

  14. Factorial switching linear dynamical systems applied to physiological condition monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, John A; Williams, Christopher K I; McIntosh, Neil

    2009-09-01

    Condition monitoring often involves the analysis of systems with hidden factors that switch between different modes of operation in some way. Given a sequence of observations, the task is to infer the filtering distribution of the switch setting at each time step. In this paper, we present factorial switching linear dynamical systems as a general framework for handling such problems. We show how domain knowledge and learning can be successfully combined in this framework, and introduce a new factor (the "X-factor") for dealing with unmodeled variation. We demonstrate the flexibility of this type of model by applying it to the problem of monitoring the condition of a premature baby receiving intensive care. The state of health of a baby cannot be observed directly, but different underlying factors are associated with particular patterns of physiological measurements and artifacts. We have explicit knowledge of common factors and use the X-factor to model novel patterns which are clinically significant but have unknown cause. Experimental results are given which show the developed methods to be effective on typical intensive care unit monitoring data.

  15. Magnetic force of piezo electric cantilever energy harvesting system with an externally applied magnetic field based on magnetizing current metho d%外加磁场压电悬臂梁能量采集系统的磁化电流法磁力研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丹; 冷永刚; 范胜波; 高毓璣

    2015-01-01

    以外加磁场压电悬臂梁能量采集系统结构为研究对象,根据磁化电流方法探讨了具有悬臂梁特征的系统结构的磁场作用力及其计算方法,给出了相应的磁力计算模型,并将计算结果与实验数据进行了对比。研究表明,磁化电流方法导出的磁力计算模型存在偏差,其磁力计算误差随着磁铁间距缩小而增大。通过引入悬臂梁末端磁铁的偏转角度,对磁化电流法计算模型进行改进,得到合理的外加磁场压电悬臂梁能量采集系统的磁力计算模型,为该能量采集系统的进一步研究提供了可靠的磁力计算理论依据。%This paper focuses on the piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesting system with an externally applied magnetic field. The calculation method and model for the magnetic force are proposed from the magnetizing current method, and the calculation results are compared with a set of experimental data. The study shows that there is a deviation in the calculation model derived by the magnetizing current method, which increases as the distance between two magnets decreases. The calculation model is improved by introducing the deflection angle of the magnet at the end of the cantilever beam, and is reliable to calculate the magnetic force of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesting system with an externally applied magnetic field for further studying this energy harvesting system.

  16. Solar-energy storage-systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, R W

    1981-04-01

    Systems analysis activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) related to energy storage in solar applications are described, and the purpose, methods and, where available, the results of each study are summarized. Areas of investigation include storage of electrical and thermal energy in solar total energy systems, a theoretical investigation of the value of storage, and the national fuel displacement potential of semi-passive solar storage walls. Investigations of the cost effectiveness of a spectrum of passive solar storage devices and the value of several possible improvements in these devices constitutes BNL's contribution to the Solar Applications Analysis for Energy Storage (SAAES) project.

  17. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  18. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning...... methodology with Ireland as a case and the applicability of energy scenarios modelling tools as a main focus, evaluation of energy demands in Italy and finally evaluation of underground cables vs overhead lines and lacking public acceptance of incurring additional costs for the added benefit of having...

  19. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  20. Sustainable energy system. A case study from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin, A.; Karlsson, B. [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Bjoernfot, K. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Torslandavaegen, Box 8889, SE-402 72 (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents some of the results of a power system analysis for Chile. The two major Chilean electric systems are roughly modelled and optimized using a linear programming method with the option to integrate renewable energy sources like wind power, solar power, mini-hydropower and biomass-fired power and also 'municipal waste'. A total of four different scenarios are outlined: reference system, new production units, gas and coal price variations and a policy measure to encourage power production based on renewable energy. The objective of the scenarios was to illustrate under what conditions integration of the different energy sources in the existing production system is possible. The study shows that even under current conditions, mini-hydro and waste to energy plants are economically viable. Wind power might be interesting alternatives if policy instrument measures are applied. On the other hand, it is hard for the other energy sources to enter the system even when higher price levels of gas and coal are applied. The system is more sensitive to coal price increases than to gas price increases and this mainly encourages CO{sub 2} emission reduction. (author)

  1. Hydrogen based energy storage for energy harvesting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretthauer, Christian

    2011-07-01

    This thesis presents the development of a novel type of silicon integrated alkaline fuel cell - electrolyser device as on-chip energy storage. The alkaline environment allows not only a facilitated water management compared to state-of-the-art acidic integrated fuel cell systems, it further allows the usage of non-precious metal catalysts and hydrogen storage materials, for the first time. Additionally, a button cell shaped version of the accumulator is presented that incorporates a photoactive SrTiO{sub 3} ceramic for solar recharge. The solar charging mechanism is shown to be inherently self-regulating such that the cell depicts essentially a Micro Hydrogen Economy including energy conversion, energy management and energy storage in a single device. (orig.)

  2. Adaptive Robotic Systems Design in University of Applied Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsing Jos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industry for highly specialized machine building (small series with high variety and high complexity and in healthcare a demand for adaptive robotics is rapidly coming up. Technically skilled people are not always available in sufficient numbers. A lot of know how with respect to the required technologies is available but successful adaptive robotic system designs are still rare. In our research at the university of applied sciences we incorporate new available technologies in our education courses by way of research projects; in these projects students will investigate the application possibilities of new technologies together with companies and teachers. Thus we are able to transfer knowledge to the students including an innovation oriented attitude and skills. Last years we developed several industrial binpicking applications for logistics and machining-factories with different types of 3D vision. Also force feedback gripping has been developed including slip sensing. Especially for healthcare robotics we developed a so-called twisted wire actuator, which is very compact in combination with an underactuated gripper, manufactured in one piece in polyurethane. We work both on modeling and testing the functions of these designs but we work also on complete demonstrator systems. Since the amount of disciplines involved in complex product and machine design increases rapidly we pay a lot of attention with respect to systems engineering methods. Apart from the classical engineering disciplines like mechanical, electrical, software and mechatronics engineering, especially for adaptive robotics more and more disciplines like industrial product design, communication … multimedia design and of course physics and even art are to be involved depending on the specific application to be designed. Design tools like V-model, agile/scrum and design-approaches to obtain the best set of requirements are being implemented in the engineering studies from

  3. Modeling Malaysia's Energy System: Some Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The current dynamic and fragile world energy environment necessitates the development of new energy model that solely caters to analyze Malaysia’s energy scenarios. Approach: The model is a network flow model that traces the flow of energy carriers from its sources (import and mining through some conversion and transformation processes for the production of energy products to final destinations (energy demand sectors. The integration to the economic sectors is done exogeneously by specifying the annual sectoral energy demand levels. The model in turn optimizes the energy variables for a specified objective function to meet those demands. Results: By minimizing the inter temporal petroleum product imports for the crude oil system the annual extraction level of Tapis blend is projected at 579600 barrels per day. The aggregate demand for petroleum products is projected to grow at 2.1% year-1 while motor gasoline and diesel constitute 42 and 38% of the petroleum products demands mix respectively over the 5 year planning period. Petroleum products import is expected to grow at 6.0% year-1. Conclusion: The preliminary results indicate that the model performs as expected. Thus other types of energy carriers such as natural gas, coal and biomass will be added to the energy system for the overall development of Malaysia energy model.

  4. Applying Lean: Implementation of a Rapid Triage and Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murrell, Karen L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emergency department (ED crowding creates issues with patient satisfaction, long wait times and leaving the ED without being seen by a doctor (LWBS. Our objective was to evaluate how applying Lean principles to develop a Rapid Triage and Treatment (RTT system affected ED metrics in our community hospital.Methods: Using Lean principles, we made ED process improvements that led to the RTT system. Using this system, patients undergo a rapid triage with low-acuity patients seen and treated by a physician in the triage area. No changes in staffing, physical space or hospital resources occurred during the study period. We then performed a retrospective, observational study comparing hospital electronic medical record data six months before and six months after implementation of the RTT system.Results: ED census was 30,981 in the six months prior to RTT and 33,926 after. Ambulance arrivals, ED patient acuity and hospital admission rates were unchanged throughout the study periods. Mean ED length of stay was longer in the period before RTT (4.2 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.2-4.3; standard deviation [SD] = 3.9 than after (3.6 hours, 95% CI = 3.6-3.7; SD = 3.7. Mean ED arrival to physician start time was 62.2 minutes (95% CI = 61.5-63.0; SD = 58.9 prior to RTT and 41.9 minutes (95% CI = 41.5-42.4; SD = 30.9 after. The LWBS rate for the six months prior to RTT was 4.5% (95% CI = 3.1-5.5 and 1.5% (95% CI = 0.6-1.8 after RTT initiation.Conclusion: Our experience shows that changes in ED processes using Lean thinking and available resources can improve efficiency. In this community hospital ED, use of an RTT system decreased patient wait times and LWBS rates. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:184-191.

  5. Energy-Aware Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim

    2016-01-15

    The concept of energy-aware communications has spurred the interest of the research community in the most recent years due to various environmental and economical reasons. It becomes indispensable for wireless communication systems to shift their resource allocation problems from optimizing traditional metrics, such as throughput and latency, to an environmental-friendly energy metric. Although cognitive radio systems introduce spectrum efficient usage techniques, they employ new complex technologies for spectrum sensing and sharing that consume extra energy to compensate for overhead and feedback costs. Considering an adequate energy efficiency metric—that takes into account the transmit power consumption, circuitry power, and signaling overhead—is of momentous importance such that optimal resource allocations in cognitive radio systems reduce the energy consumption. A literature survey of recent energy-efficient based resource allocations schemes is presented for cognitive radio systems. The energy efficiency performances of these schemes are analyzed and evaluated under power budget, co-channel and adjacent-channel interferences, channel estimation errors, quality-of-service, and/or fairness constraints. Finally, the opportunities and challenges of energy-aware design for cognitive radio systems are discussed.

  6. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  7. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  8. Exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yongqiang; Sun Wenxu; Li Qinghua; Zhong Ming; Hao Wei; Du Wenchang

    2011-01-01

    Almost the same quantity to net output work of energy has been carried out and wasted by exhaust gas in typical automotive engine. Recovering the energy from exhaust gas and converting to mechanical energy will dramatically increase the heat efficiency and decrease the fuel consumption. With the increasing demand of fuel conservation, exhaust gas energy recovery technologies have been a hot topic. At present, many researches have been focused on heating or cooling the cab, mechanical energy using and thermo-electronic converting. Unfortunately, the complicated transmission of mechanical energy using and the depressed efficiency of thermo-electronic converting restrict their widely applying. In this paper, a kind of exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine, in which highly compressed air acts as energy storing and converting carrier, has been established. Pneumatic driving motor can produce moderate speed and high torque output, which is compatible for engine using. The feasibility has been certificated by GT-Power simulation and laboratory testes. The technologies about increasing recovery efficiency have been discussed in detail. The results demonstrated that the in parallel exhaust gas energy recovery system, which is similar to the compound turbo-charger structure can recovery 8 to 10 percent of rated power output. At last, a comprehensive system,which includes Rankine cycle based power wheel cycle unit etc. , has been introduced.

  9. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Advanced Energy (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Advanced Energy Industries at the ESIF to test its advanced photovoltaic inverter technology with the ESIF's power hardware-in-the-loop system and megawatt-scale grid simulators.

  10. Power Systems and Energy Storage Modeling for Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    electron laser kW Kilo-watt LCS Littoral Combat Ship LAWS Laser Weapon System MLD Maritime Laser Demonstration MW Mega -watt NiMH Nickel metal...and various littoral combat ships. Also, an accurate, working model of the capacitor energy bank is being developed and the flywheel model is being

  11. Modeling elements of energy systems for thermal energy transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurygin A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heating industrial facilities and the residential sector in recent years is the economic and technical challenge. It has been noted that the efficiency of the heat generating equipment depends not only on its sophistication, fuel type, but also on work of the distributing network taking into account the thermal, hydraulic losses, characteristics and modes of use of heating objects – buildings and technological processes. Possibility of supplying maximum heat flow from the heating system considering mismatch of highs and types of resources consumed from individual consumers should be provided by the right choice of energy equipment set, as well as bandwidth of transport systems and possibility of its regulation. It is important not just to configure the system to work effectively in the current mode (usually at the maximum load, but in the entire load range, as the calculated mode often takes a relatively small portion of the operating time. Thus, the efficiency of heating systems is largely determined by the method used for its control, including the possibility of regulating the main units and elements of the system. The paper considers the factors affecting the system efficiency. Mathematical models of the system elements allowing adjust the amount of released heat energy for consumers have been presented. Separately the mathematical model of the control system of electric drive vehicles used in the system has been considered and implemented.

  12. A new wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1975-01-01

    It is presupposed that vertical axis wind energy machines will be superior to horizontal axis machines on a power output/cost basis and the design of a new wind energy machine is presented. The design employs conical cones with sharp lips and smooth surfaces to promote maximum drag and minimize skin friction. The cones are mounted on a vertical axis in such a way as to assist torque development. Storing wind energy as compressed air is thought to be optimal and reasons are: (1) the efficiency of compression is fairly high compared to the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy in storage batteries; (2) the release of stored energy through an air motor has high efficiency; and (3) design, construction, and maintenance of an all-mechanical system is usually simpler than for a mechanical to electrical conversion system.

  13. A new wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, F.O.

    1975-11-01

    It is presupposed that vertical axis wind energy machines will be superior to horizontal axis machines on a power output/cost basis and the design of a new wind energy machine is presented. The design employs conical cones with sharp lips and smooth surfaces to promote maximum drag and minimize skin friction. The cones are mounted on a vertical axis in such a way as to assist torque development. Storing wind energy as compressed air is thought to be optimal and reasons are: (1) the efficiency of compression is fairly high compared to the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy in storage batteries; (2) the release of stored energy through an air motor has high efficiency; and (3) design, construction, and maintenance of an all-mechanical system is usually simpler than for a mechanical to electrical conversion system. (GRA)

  14. Buildings Interaction with Urban Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Wyckmans, Annemie; Zucker, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The goal towards a fossil free energy system is expressed in amongst others European and national targets, and puts pressure on the application of renewable energy sources combined with energy efficiency. Many cities are even more ambitious than their national targets and want to be among the first...... on the impacts that buildings play in the overall energy system. Here buildings are not only consumers but rather prosumers that are able to produce renewable energy themselves. Buildings moreover offer potential storage capacities that can be utilized in demand shifting, which is necessary to enable increased...... to demonstrate that they can become not only smart fossil-free energy cities but sustainable in a wider sense, including water, waste, transportation and more. In the current paper, the research agenda to support such goals through smart city efforts is presented for a few European cases as examples, focusing...

  15. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  16. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  17. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...... of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system...

  18. Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project...... energy and environmental analysis tools as well as analyses of the design and implementation of future renewable energy systems. For practical reasons, the work has been carried out as an interaction between five work packages, and a number of reports, papers and tools have been reported separately from...... of the different project parts in a coherent way by presenting tools and methodologies as well as analyses of the design and implementation of renewable energy systems – including both energy and environmental aspects. The authors listed in the report represent those who have contributed directly as well...

  19. Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovative approaches are needed to address the needs of the 1.3 billion people lacking electricity, while simultaneously transitioning to a decarbonized energy system. With particular focus on the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytic and conceptual framework that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. A historical analysis shows that the present day is a unique moment in the history of electrification where decentralized energy networks are rapidly spreading, based on super-efficient end-use appliances and low-cost photovoltaics. We document how this evolution is supported by critical and widely available information technologies, particularly mobile phones and virtual financial services. These disruptive technology systems can rapidly increase access to basic electricity services and directly inform the emerging Sustainable Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, inclusive energy systems.

  20. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...... of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system...

  1. Energy transfer in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  2. LCA of biomass-based energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2012-01-01

    supplied could be significantly reduced (from 68 to 17 Gg CO2-eq/PJ) by increased use of wind and residual biomass resources as well as by electrifying the transport sector. Energy crops for production of biofuels and the use of these biofuels for heavy terrestrial transportation were responsible for most......Decrease of fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector is an important step towards more sustainable energy production. Environmental impacts related to potential future energy systems in Denmark with high shares of wind and biomass energy were evaluated using life-cycle assessment (LCA). Based...... on the reference year 2008, energy scenarios for 2030 and 2050 were assessed. For 2050 three alternatives for supply of transport fuels were considered: (1) fossil fuels, (2) rapeseed based biodiesel, and (3) Fischer–Tropsch based biodiesel. Overall, the results showed that greenhouse gas emissions per PJ energy...

  3. Handbook of Systems Analysis: Volume 1. Overview. Chapter 2. The Genesis of Applied Systems Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis is preparing a Handbook of Systems Analysis, which will appear in three volumes: Volume 1: Overview is aimed at a widely varied audience of producers and users of systems analysis studies. Volume 2: Methods is aimed at systems analysts and other members of systems analysis teams who need basic knowledge of methods in which they are not expert; this volume contains introductory overviews of such methods. Volume 3: Cases co...

  4. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-07-07

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  5. Rethinking Diffusion Theory in an Applied Context: Role of Environmental Values in Adoption of Home Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Susanna Hornig; Greenhalgh, Ted; Neill, Helen R.; Young, Gabriel Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion theory, developed and popularized within communication research by Everett Rogers, is a venerable approach with much to recommend it as a theoretical foundation for applied communication research. In developing an applied project for a home energy conservation (energy efficiency retrofit) program in the state of Nevada, we utilized key…

  6. Toward a Blended Ontology: Applying Knowledge Systems to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionanomedicine and environmental research share need common terms and ontologies. This study applied knowledge systems, data mining, and bibliometrics used in nano-scale ADME research from 1991 to 2011. The prominence of nano-ADME in environmental research began to exceed the publication rate in medical research in 2006. That trend appears to continue as a result of the growing products in commerce using nanotechnology, that is, 5-fold growth in number of countries with nanomaterials research centers. Funding for this research virtually did not exist prior to 2002, whereas today both medical and environmental research is funded globally. Key nanoparticle research began with pharmacology and therapeutic drug-delivery and contrasting agents, but the advances have found utility in the environmental research community. As evidence ultrafine aerosols and aquatic colloids research increased 6-fold, indicating a new emphasis on environmental nanotoxicology. User-directed expert elicitation from the engineering and chemical/ADME domains can be combined with appropriate Boolean logic and queries to define the corpus of nanoparticle interest. The study combined pharmacological expertise and informatics to identify the corpus by building logical conclusions and observations. Publication records informatics can lead to an enhanced understanding the connectivity between fields, as well as overcoming the differences in ontology between the fields. The National Exposure Resea

  7. Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogirou, Soteris A. [Higher Technical Inst., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2004-11-01

    All nations of the world depend on fossil fuels for their energy needs. However the obligation to reduce CO{sub 2} and other gaseous emissions in order to be in conformity with the Kyoto agreement is the reason behind which countries turn to non-polluting renewable energy sources. In this paper the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels is initially presented followed by a study on the environmental protection offered by the two most widely used renewable energy systems, i.e. solar water heating and solar space heating. The results presented in this paper show that by using solar energy, considerable amounts of greenhouse polluting gases are avoided. For the case of a domestic water heating system, the saving, compared to a conventional system, is about 80% with electricity or Diesel backup and is about 75% with both electricity and Diesel backup. In the case of space heating and hot water systems the saving is about 40%. It should be noted, however, that in the latter, much greater quantities of pollutant gases are avoided. Additionally, all systems investigated give positive and very promising financial characteristics. With respect to life cycle assessment of the systems, the energy spent for manufacture and installation of the solar systems is recouped in about 1.2 years, whereas the payback time with respect to emissions produced from the embodied energy required for the manufacture and installation of the systems varies from a few months to 9.5 years according to the fuel and the particular pollutant considered. Moreover, due to the higher solar contribution, solar water heating systems have much shorter payback times than solar space heating systems. It can, therefore, be concluded that solar energy systems offer significant protection to the environment and should be employed whenever possible in order to achieve a sustainable future. (Author)

  8. Maximizing energy transfer in vibrofluidized granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, C.R.K.; Rosato, A.D.; Parker, D.J.; Thornton, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Using discrete particle simulations validated by experimental data acquired using the positron emission particle tracking technique, we study the efficiency of energy transfer from a vibrating wall to a system of discrete, macroscopic particles. We demonstrate that even for a fixed input energy from

  9. Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out...

  10. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  11. The captains of energy systems dynamics from an energy perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Prantil, Vincent C

    2015-01-01

    In teaching an introduction to transport or systems dynamics modeling at the undergraduate level, it is possible to lose pedagogical traction in a sea of abstract mathematics. What the mathematical modeling of time-dependent system behavior offers is a venue in which students can be taught that physical analogies exist between what they likely perceive as distinct areas of study in the physical sciences. We introduce a storyline whose characters are superheroes that store and dissipate energy in dynamic systems. Introducing students to the overarching conservation laws helps develop the analog

  12. Smart Cities and National Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    Energy system analysis follows two tracks, either through plans for future transitions of national energy systems, or local development of smart cities and regions. These two tracks seldom overlap. National plans neglect the local implementation of intermittent renewable technology and use of local...... resources, and smart cities and local development do not relate to national targets and fail to evaluate sub-optimization. Thus, there is a need for approaches that help researchers creating links between country analyses and local energy system transitions. This paper investigates the effects...... of such an approach, by investigating Western Denmark. By splitting Western Denmark into regions, it is possible to create individual energy systems for each region. Through interconnection, these regions can exchange electricity with each other. This enables analyses of interaction between smart cities and national...

  13. Renewable Energy Systems: Technology Overview and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system...... topologies are included. Also, the increasing role of power electronics is explained as an enabler for renewable energy integration and for future power systems and smart grids. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants......, including PV and concentrating solar power; wave energy; fuel cells; and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in the final section....

  14. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  15. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Solectria (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Solectria at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to to develop 500- and 750-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) inverters with advanced features that can support the electric grid.

  16. Unlocking Flexibility: Energy Systems Integration [Guest Editorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Mark; Kroposki, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The articles in this special section focus on energy systems integration (ESI). Electric power systems around the world are experiencing great changes, including the retirement of coal and nuclear plants along with a rapid increase in the use of natural gas turbines and variable renewable technologies such as wind and solar. There is also much more use of information and communications technologies to enhance the visibility and controllability of the grid. Flexibility of operation, the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply, is critical to enable higher levels of variable generation. One way to unlock this potential flexibility is to tap into other energy domains. This concept of interconnecting energy domains is called ESI. ESI is the process of coordinating the operation and planning of energy systems across multiple pathways and/or geographical scales to deliver reliable, cost-effective energy services with minimal impact on the environment. Integrating energy domains adds flexibility to the electrical power system. ESI includes interactions among energy vectors and with other large-scale infrastructures including water, transport, and data and communications networks, which are an enabling technology for ESI.

  17. Exergy analysis of building energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badakhshani, Azadeh; Hoh, Alexander; Muller, Dirk [RWTH Aachen University, E.ON Energy Research Center (Germany)], email: abadakhshani@eonerc.rwth-aachen.de

    2011-07-01

    In Germany, energy consumption for space heating represents about 25% of the total final energy consumption of the entire country. The concept of LowEx buildings, which have a low exergy demand, has been introduced; however, the associated pump devices have a high electrical energy consumption. The aim of this paper is to provide a novel approach for comparing the exergy efficiency of different buildings. A system was modeled and simulated using Modelica, and the exergy losses in heat generation, distribution and delivery were calculated for both a geothermal heat pump and a boiler system. Results showed that the heat pump system led to lower exergy losses for heat generation but higher exergy losses for heat distribution than the boiler system. This study provided a useful comparison of exergy performance of geothermal heat pump and boiler systems however the simulation model should be improved to fully describe both systems' behavior.

  18. Correlation energies beyond the random-phase approximation: ISTLS applied to spherical atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The inhomogeneous Singwi, Tosi, Land and Sjolander (ISTLS) correlation energy functional of Dobson, Wang and Gould [PRB {\\bf 66} 081108(R) (2008)] has proved to be excellent at predicting correlation energies in semi-homogeneous systems, showing promise as a robust `next step' fifth-rung functional by using dynamic correlation to go beyond the limitations of the direct random-phase approximation (dRPA), but with similar numerical scaling with system size. In this work we test the functional on fourteen spherically symmetric, neutral and charged atomic systems and find it gives excellent results (within 2mHa/$e^-$ except Be) for the absolute correlation energies of the neutral atoms tested, and good results for the ions (within 4mHa/$e^-$). In all cases it performs better than the dRPA. When combined with the previous successes, these new results point to the ISTLS functional being a prime contender for high-accuracy, benchmark DFT correlation energy calculations.

  19. Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Addison; Andrew Stanbury

    2005-12-15

    More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.

  20. Building Cyber-Physical Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatescu, Grigore; Stamatescu, Iulia; Arghira, Nicoleta; Calofir, Vasile; Fagarasan, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    The built environment, as hallmark of modern society, has become one of the key drivers of energy demand. This makes for meaningful application of novel paradigms, such as cyber-physical systems, with large scale impact for both primary energy consumption reduction as well as (micro-) grid stability problems. In a bottom-up approach we analyze the drivers of CPS design, deployment and adoption in smart buildings. This ranges from low-level embedded and real time system challenges, instrumenta...

  1. Modeling approach suitable for energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetschel, D. V.

    1979-01-01

    Recently increased attention has been placed on optimization problems related to the determination and analysis of operating strategies for energy systems. Presented in this paper is a nonlinear model that can be used in the formulation of certain energy-conversion systems-modeling problems. The model lends itself nicely to solution approaches based on nonlinear-programming algorithms and, in particular, to those methods falling into the class of variable metric algorithms for nonlinearly constrained optimization.

  2. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  3. 3rd annual biomass energy systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The main objectives of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conference were (1) to review the latest research findings in the clean fuels from biomass field, (2) to summarize the present engineering and economic status of Biomass Energy Systems, (3) to encourage interaction and information exchange among people working or interested in the field, and (4) to identify and discuss existing problems relating to ongoing research and explore opportunities for future research. Abstracts for each paper presented were edited separately. (DC)

  4. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  5. Energy enhancement and chaos control in microelectromechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangho; Chen, Qingfei; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2008-02-01

    For a resonator in an electrostatic microelectromechanical system (MEMS), nonlinear coupling between applied electrostatic force and the mechanical motion of the resonator can lead to chaotic oscillations. Better performance of the device can be achieved when the oscillations are periodic with large amplitude. We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a system of deformable doubly clamped beam, which is the core in many MEMS resonators, and propose a control strategy to convert chaos into periodic motions with enhanced output energy. Our study suggests that chaos control can lead to energy enhancement and consequently high performance of MEM devices.

  6. Systemic design methodologies for electrical energy systems analysis, synthesis and management

    CERN Document Server

    Roboam, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This book proposes systemic design methodologies applied to electrical energy systems, in particular analysis and system management, modeling and sizing tools. It includes 8 chapters: after an introduction to the systemic approach (history, basics & fundamental issues, index terms) for designing energy systems, this book presents two different graphical formalisms especially dedicated to multidisciplinary devices modeling, synthesis and analysis: Bond Graph and COG/EMR. Other systemic analysis approaches for quality and stability of systems, as well as for safety and robustness analysis tools are also proposed. One chapter is dedicated to energy management and another is focused on Monte Carlo algorithms for electrical systems and networks sizing. The aim of this book is to summarize design methodologies based in particular on a systemic viewpoint, by considering the system as a whole. These methods and tools are proposed by the most important French research laboratories, which have many scientific partn...

  7. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  8. WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS - A TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMESH BABU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  9. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy......Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...

  10. Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

  11. The internal energies of Heisenberg magnetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huai-Yu, E-mail: wanghuaiyu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhai, Liang-Jun [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qian, Meichun [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The internal energies, including transverse and longitudinal parts, of quantum Heisenberg systems for arbitrary spin S are investigated by the double-time Green's function method. The expressions for ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) systems are derived when one-component of magnetization is considered with the higher order longitudinal correlation functions being carefully treated. An unexpected result is that around the order–disorder transition points the neighboring spins in a FM (AFM) system are more likely longitudinally antiparallel (parallel) than parallel (antiparallel) to each other for S≤3/2 in spite of the FM (AFM) exchange between the spins. This is attributed to the strong quantum fluctuation of the systems with small S values. We also present the expressions of the internal energies of FM systems when the three-component of magnetizations are considered. - Highlights: • We give the best expressions of the internal energies for Heisenberg magnetic systems. • Around transition temperature, the longitudinal correlation energies for magnetic systems are positive due to strong quantum fluctuation. • A system with smaller spin quantum number has a stronger fluctuation even if there is spontaneous magnetization. • The strong quantum fluctuation cannot be totally suppressed by an external magnetic field. • The expressions of the internal energies when the magnetization has three components are given.

  12. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  13. Annual Cycle Energy System concept and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, J. C.; Hise, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), under development at ERDA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, promises to provide space heating, air conditioning, and water heating at a significantly lower expenditure of energy than conventional space conditioning and water heating systems. The ACES embodies heat pumping, thermal storage and, where climate dictates, solar assistance. The concept is described, along with variations in design that permit flexibility to maximize energy conservation or to provide load management capabilities. Installations that exist or are under construction are described and variations that are incorporated to meet specific objectives are discussed.

  14. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, A.L.R. [Wind Energy Group, Recife (Brazil); Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J. [DEE, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  15. State energy-price system: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report updates the State Energy Price Data System (STEPS) to include state-level energy prices by fuel and by end-use sectors for 1981. Both physical unit prices and Btu prices are presented. Basic documentation of the data base remains generally the same as in the original report: State Energy Price System; Volume 1: Overview and Technical Documentation (DOE/NBB-0029 Volume 1 of 2, November 1982). The present report documents only the changes in procedures necessitated by the update to 1981 and the corrections to the basic documentation.

  16. NEMO: Advanced energy systems and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, P.

    In this report, the contents and major results of the national research program on advanced energy system and technologies (NEMO) are presented. The NEMO-program was one of the energy research programs of the Ministry of Trade and Industry during 1988-1992. Helsinki University of Technology had the responsibility of the overall coordination of the program. NEMO has been the largest resource allocation into advanced energy systems in Finland so far. The total budget was 70 million FIM. The focus of the program has been in solar energy, wind power, and energy storage. Hydrogen and fuel cells have been included in smaller amount. On all major fields of the NEMO-program, useful and high quality results have been obtained. Results of international significance include among others arctic wind energy, new approaches for the energy storage problem in solar energy applications, and the development of a completely new storage battery. International collaboration has been given high priority. The NEMO-program has also been active in informing the industries of the various business and utilization possibilities that advanced energy technologies offer. For example, major demonstration plants of each technology group have been realized. It is recommended that the further R and D should be still more focused on commercial applications. Through research efforts at universities, a good technology base should be maintained, whereas the industries should take a stronger position in commercializing new technology. Parallel to technology R and D, more public resources should be allocated for market introduction.

  17. Complete Charging for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊康旗; 徐春辉; 王卫东

    2014-01-01

    Under an in-phase assumption, the complete charging for an energy harvesting system is studied, which consists of a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), a bridge rectifier, a filter capacitor, a switch, a controller and a rechargeable battery. For the transient charging, the results indicate that the voltage across the filter capacitor increases as the charging proceeds, which is consistent with that reported in the literature. However, a new finding shows that the charging rate and energy harvesting efficiency decrease over time after their respective peak values are acquired. For the steady-state charging, the results reveal that the energy harvesting efficiency can be adjusted by altering the critical charging voltage that controls the transition of the system. The optimal energy harvesting efficiency is limited by the optimal efficiency of the transient charging. Finally, the relationship between the critical charging voltage and the equivalent resistance of the controller and rechargeable battery is established explicitly.

  18. Internet Renewable energy Information System (IRIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäurle, Britta; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Ménard, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Even though the Internet is now a widely accessible data source, the unorganised flood of information makes a specific request e.g. for renewable energy products inefficient. In addition, existing databases on renewable energies are often old and incomplete. The objective of IRIS has been...... to organise and retrieve renewable energy product information on the Internet instead of collecting it manually. Updating coincides with the self interestself-interest of manufacturers to present their latest renewable energy products on their own HTML documents. IRIS is based on a set of powerful tools...... on biogas systems in order to become part of IRIS. IRIS has been developed in the context of the project „AVALANCHE" which is partly funded under the JOULE programme of the European Commission DGXII.Keywords: Renewable Energy Technologies - Electronic Commerce - Information System - META-tags...

  19. Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    recommended to support research into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together, the two solutions may contribute to an alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority given to combined heat......Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows...

  20. Applied energy solutions to grain elevator units; Cogeracao em unidades armazenadoras de graos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Carlos Alberto [Universidadfe Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UAST/UFRPE), Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia], E-mail: carlos.teixeira@uast.ufrpe.br; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio Flauzino de; Martins, Jose Helvecio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2009-07-01

    Solutions of energy can be adopted, to help the demand side management. The distributed generation and the cogeneration are management at the supply side, that should be adopted in grain elevator units. Aiming to point energy solutions to grain elevator units to become more energetically independent from the utilities and oscillations of the market. This study was done in a grain elevator units from Sao Paulo State. They were considered: (I) the patterns of electric power consumption in this crop periods; (II) different types of cogeneration systems; and (III) connection costs. The main conclusions of this work were: cogeneration is possible and viable in grain elevator units; the price of sale of the surplus energy in the cogeneration system influences, directly, decision to implement a cogeneration system; the electric power generation with the own production of firewood was decisive in the profitability of the cogeneration project; the option of connection of the electric power net favors the implantation of a cogeneration system; and the possibility of rejection steam use for drying grains (author)

  1. Baseline information development for energy smart schools -- applied research, field testing and technology integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Piette, Mary Ann

    2004-08-05

    by artificial lighting or daylight. It is impossible to reasonably estimate the lighting energy consumption for classroom areas in the sample of schools studied in this project. Third, there are many other compounding factors that may as well influence the overall classroom energy use, e.g., ventilation, insulation, system efficiency, occupancy, control, schedules, and weather. Fourth, although we have examined the school EUI grouped by various factors such as climate zones, window and daylighting design features from the California databases, no statistically significant associations can be identified from the sampled California K-12 schools in the current California CEUS. There are opportunities to expand such analyses by developing and including more powerful CEUS databases in the future. Finally, a list of parameters is recommended for future database development and for use of future investigation in K-12 classroom energy use, window and skylight design, and possible relations between them. Some of the key parameters include: (1) Energy end use data for lighting systems, classrooms, and schools; (2) Building design and operation including features for windows and daylighting; and (3) Other key parameters and information that would be available to investigate overall energy uses, building and systems design, their operation, and services provided.

  2. Guidelines for Datacenter Energy Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Reshma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mahdavi, Rod [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shukla, Yash [Center for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide structured guidance to data center owners, operators, and designers, to empower them with information on how to specify and procure data center energy information systems (EIS) for managing the energy utilization of their data centers. Data centers are typically energy-intensive facilities that can consume up to 100 times more energy per unit area than a standard office building (FEMP 2013). This guidance facilitates “data-driven decision making,” which will be enabled by following the approach outlined in the guide. This will bring speed, clarity, and objectivity to any energy or asset management decisions because of the ability to monitor and track an energy management project’s performance.

  3. Symmetry energy of warm nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.; Centelles, M.; Viñas, X.

    2014-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the symmetry energy and symmetry free energy coefficients of infinite nuclear matter and of finite nuclei is investigated. For infinite matter, both these coefficients are found to have a weaker dependence on temperature at densities close to saturation; at low but homogeneous densities, the temperature dependence becomes stronger. For finite systems, different definitions of symmetry energy coefficients are encountered in the literature yielding different values. A resolution to this problem is suggested from a global liquid-drop-inspired fit of the energies and free energies of a host of nuclei covering the entire periodic table. The hot nucleus is modeled in a subtracted finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi framework, with dynamical surface phonon coupling to nucleonic motion plugged in. Contrary to infinite nuclear matter, a substantial change in the symmetry energy coefficients is observed for finite nuclei with temperature.

  4. Symmetry energy of warm nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, B K; Samaddar, S K; Centelles, M; Viñas, X

    2013-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the symmetry energy and symmetry free energy coefficients of infinite nuclear matter and of finite nuclei is investigated. For infinite matter, both these coefficients are found to have a weaker dependence on temperature at densities close to saturation; at low but homogeneous densities, the temperature dependence becomes stronger. For finite systems, different definitions of symmetry energy coefficients are encountered in the literature yielding different values. A resolution to this problem is suggested from a global liquid-drop-inspired fit of the energies and free energies of a host of nuclei covering the entire periodic table. The hot nucleus is modeled in a subtracted finite-temperature-Thomas-Fermi framework, with dynamical surface phonon coupling to nucleonic motion plugged in. Contrary to infinite nuclear matter, a substantial change in the symmetry energy coefficients is observed for finite nuclei with temperature.

  5. Insight into a reversible energy transfer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming Xuan; Zou, Hong Yan; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Yue; Li, Na; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-09-15

    Resonance energy transfer (RET) processes have wide applications; these processes involve a unidirectional energy transfer from a particular donor to a particular acceptor. Here, we report a plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET), which occurs from the surface of gold nanoparticles to fluorescent organic dyes, and coexists with a nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) that operates in the reverse direction. The coexistence of both PRET and NSET in opposite directions means that the roles of both donor and acceptor can be interchanged, which could be identified by using spectrofluorometric measurements and light scattering dark field microscopic imaging. The experimental data could be further theoretically supported using Persson and Lang's model, the quasi-static approximation and finite-difference time-domain simulation. Moreover, disruption of the PRET process by altering the energy transfer pairs suggests that interactions occur inside the reversible energy transfer system, which manifest by increasing the fluorescence quenching efficiency of the NSET process.

  6. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  7. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  8. Evaluation of biomass combustion based energy systems by cumulative energy demand and energy yield coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.; Oser, M.

    2004-07-01

    This final report prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 32 presents a method for a comparison of different energy systems with respect to the overall energy yield during their life cycles. For this purpose, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) based on primary energy and the Energy Yield Factor (EYC) are introduced and determined for the following scenarios: Log wood, wood chips, and wood pellets for residential heating and - except for log wood - also for district heating. As an alternative to heat production, power production via combustion and use of the electricity for decentralised heat pumps is also looked at. The evaluation and comparison of both the EYC for all fuels and the EYC{sub N}R for the non-renewable part enables a ranking of energy systems without a subjective weighing of non-renewable and renewable fuels to be made. For a sustainable energy supply, it is proposed to implement renewable energy systems in future which achieve an energy yield EYC{sub N}R of at least greater than 2 but favourably greater than 5. The evaluation of the different scenarios presented is proposed as the future basis for the choice of the most efficient energy systems based on biomass combustion.

  9. Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. RAMOS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents important fundaments associated to the water/energy consumption and enhances the importance of renewable energy sources. A model of multi-criterion optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environment management policy, the preservation of the water resources, the control of water pressure and energy consumption, through a hybrid energy solution is developed and applied to a water supply system. The methodology developed includes three solutions: (i water turbine installation in pipes where there is a need to control the pressure by pressure reducing valves, (ii the optimization of pumping operations according to the electricity tariff and the water demand and (iii the addition of a renewable energy source, a wind turbine, to supply energy to the pump-station and to sell the remaining to the national grid. The use of an integrated solution (water/energy shows to be a valuable input to benefit from available hydro energy in WSS to produce clean power and the use of wind source allows reducing the energy consumption in pump-stations, which is still mostly based on fossil fuels with high levels of CO2 emissions.

  10. Statistical energy analysis of similarly coupled systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian

    2002-01-01

    Based on the principle of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) for non-conservatively coupled dynamical systems under non-correlative or correlative excitations, energy relationship between two similar SEA systems is established in the paper. The energy relationship is verified theoretically and experimentally from two similar SEA systems i.e., the structure of a coupled panel-beam and that of a coupled panel-sideframe, in the cases of conservative coupling and non-conservative coupling respectively. As an application of the method, relationship between noise power radiated from two similar cutting systems is studied. Results show that there are good agreements between the theory and the experiments, and the method is valuable to analysis of dynamical problems associated with a complicated system from that with a simple one.

  11. Cost projections for Redox Energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, K.; Hall, G.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary design and system cost analysis was performed for the redox energy storage system. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for each of two energy applications: (1) electric utility 100-MWh requirement (10-MW for ten hours) for energy storage for utility load leveling application, and (2) a 500-kWh requirement (10-kW for 50 hours) for use with a variety of residential or commercial applications, including stand alone solar photovoltaic systems. The conceptual designs were based on cell performance levels, system design parameters, and special material costs. These data were combined with estimated thermodynamic and hydraulic analysis to provide preliminary system designs. Results indicate that the redox cell stack to be amenable to mass production techniques with a relatively low material cost.

  12. Modeling power electronics and interfacing energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the application of mathematical and engineering tools for modeling, simulation and control oriented for energy systems, power electronics and renewable energy. This book builds on the background knowledge of electrical circuits, control of dc/dc converters and inverters, energy conversion and power electronics. The book shows readers how to apply computational methods for multi-domain simulation of energy systems and power electronics engineering problems. Each chapter has a brief introduction on the theoretical background, a description of the problems to be solved, and objectives to be achieved. Block diagrams, electrical circuits, mathematical analysis or computer code are covered. Each chapter concludes with discussions on what should be learned, suggestions for further studies and even some experimental work.

  13. Energy condensed packaged systems. Composition, production, properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kovalenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the substantiation of choice of fuel phase composition and optimal technology of emulsion production on the basis of binary solution of ammonium and calcium nitrates, which provide the obtaining of energy condensed packaged systems with specified properties. The thermal decomposition of energy condensed systems on the basis of ammonium nitrate is investigated. It is shown that the fuel phase of emulsion systems should be based on esters of polyunsaturated acids or on combinations thereof with petroleum products. And ceresin or petroleum wax can be used as the structuring additive. The influence of the technology of energy condensed systems production on the physicochemical and detonation parameters of emulsion explosives is considered. It is shown the possibility of obtaining of emulsion systems with dispersion of 1.3...1.8 microns and viscosity higher than 103 Pa∙s in the apparatus of original design. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated paraffin CP-470 on the thermolysis of energy condensed emulsion system is shown. The composition and production technology of energy condensed packaged emulsion systems of mark Ukrainit-P for underground mining in mines not dangerous on gas and dust are developed.

  14. Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Shilei; Zhu Neng [Tianjin University (China). School of Environmental Science and Technology; Feng Guohui [Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang (China)

    2006-06-15

    Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transitions temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated thermal cycle tests were conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of phase change wallboards combined with the eutectic mixtures of CA and LA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tested the transition temperature and latent heat. The results showed that the melting temperature and latent heat of these phase change wallboards with eutectic mixtures have not obvious variations after repeated 360 thermal cycles, which proved that these phase change wallboards have good thermal stability for melting temperature and variations in latent heat of fusion for long time application. Therefore, they can be used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation. (author)

  15. Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilei, L.; Neng, Z. [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Guohui, F. [Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang (China)

    2006-07-01

    Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transition temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated thermal cycle tests were conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of phase change wallboards combined with the eutectic mixtures of CA and LA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tested the transition temperature and latent heat. The results showed that the melting temperature and latent heat of these phase change wallboards with eutectic mixtures have no obvious variations after repeated 360 thermal cycles, which proved that these phase change wallboards have good thermal stability for melting temperature and variations in latent heat of fusion for long time application. Therefore, they can be used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation. (author)

  16. Energy efficiency of task allocation for embedded JPEG systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wu, Jan-Ou; Wang, San-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT) to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin.

  17. Energy Efficiency of Task Allocation for Embedded JPEG Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hsin Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin.

  18. Energy balance model applied to pasture experimental areas in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; de Castro Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; de Castro Victoria, Daniel; Furlan Nogueira, Sandra; Freitas Leivas, Janice; Coaguila, Daniel N.; Rodrigues Herling, Valdo

    2016-10-01

    The Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER) was used to estimate biophysical parameters and the energy balance components in two different pasture experimental areas, in the São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental pastures consist in six rotational (RGS) and three continuous grazing systems (CGS) paddocks. Landsat-8 images from 2013 and 2015 dry and rainy seasons were used, as these presented similar hydrological cycle, with 1,600 mm and 1,613 mm of annual precipitation, resulting in 19 cloud-free images. Bands 1 to 7 and thermal bands 10 and 11 were used with weather data from a station located near the experimental area. NDVI, biomass, evapotranspiration and latent heat flux (λE) temporal values statistically differ CGS from RGS areas. Grazing systems influences the energy partition and these results indicate that RGS benefits biomass production, evapotranspiration and the microclimate, due higher LE values. SAFER is a feasible tool to estimate biophysical parameters and energy balance components in pasture and has potential to discriminate continuous and rotation grazing systems in a temporal analysis.

  19. Risoe energy report 7. Future low carbon energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2008-10-15

    This Risoe Energy Report, the seventh of a series that began in 2002, takes as its point of reference the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. The IPCC states that if anticipated climate change is to remain in the order of 2 to 3 degrees centigrades over the next century, the world's CO{sub 2} emissions would have to peak within the next 10-15 years and ultimately be reduced to approximately 50% of their present level by the middle of the century. The IPCC states further that this would be possible, provided that serious action is taken now. The different regions and countries of the world are in various states of development, and hence have different starting points for contributing to these reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. This report presents state-of-the-art and development perspectives for energy supply technologies, new energy systems, end-use energy efficiency improvements and new policy measures. It also includes estimates of the CO{sub 2} reduction potentials for different technologies. The technologies are characterized with regard to their ability to contribute either to ensuring a peak in CO{sub 2} emissions within 10-15 years, or to long-term CO{sub 2} reductions. The report outlines the current and likely future composition of energy systems in Denmark, and examines three groups of countries: i) Europe and the other OECD member nations; ii) large and rapidly growing developing economies, notably India and China; iii) typical least developed countries, such as many African nations. The report emphasises how future energy developments and systems might be composed in these three country groupings, and to what extent the different technologies might contribute. The report addresses the need for research and demonstration together with market incentives, and policy measures with focus on initiatives that can promote the development towards CO{sub 2} reductions. Specifically, the report identifies system

  20. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  1. World Energy Projection System model documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutzler, M.J.; Anderson, A.T.

    1997-09-01

    The World Energy Projection System (WEPS) was developed by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent statistical and analytical agency of the US Department of Energy. WEPS is an integrated set of personal computer based spreadsheets containing data compilations, assumption specifications, descriptive analysis procedures, and projection models. The WEPS accounting framework incorporates projections from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product GDP), and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by natural gas, coal, and renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable resources). Projections produced by WEPS are published in the annual report, International Energy Outlook. This report documents the structure and procedures incorporated in the 1998 version of the WEPS model. It has been written to provide an overview of the structure of the system and technical details about the operation of each component of the model for persons who wish to know how WEPS projections are produced by EIA.

  2. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Manwell, James F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lackner, Matthew A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  3. Applying the energy-property concept under the Windfall Profit Tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    In selecting a ''Windfall Profit'' tax (WPT) over simpler but less discriminating excise tax approaches, Congress effectively assured significant compliance problems that will likely outlast the statute. While there is merit in the argument that elimination of the DOE system was worth the sacrifice of significant additional tax complexity, Congress acted both to terminate the system and to preserve its tangled legal underpinnings. The author identifies the principal interpretive issues caused by the incorporation into the WPT of the energy ''property'' concept as it was developed by DOE. A post script gives an update on court decisions and regulatory proposals. 157 references.

  4. Micro-financing of renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunse, Maike; Wallbaum, Holger [triple innova (Germany); Dienst, Carmen [Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    While improved energy services have many quality of life benefits like lighting or television, the productive use of electricity can also help to reduce poverty, leading to increased profitability and productivity for micro, small and medium enterprises, and small industries. The remoteness of rural locations usually makes it difficult to expand electricity supply through a centralised grid system. Therefore people living in off-grid regions often rely on expensive fossil fuels like diesel and kerosene. People in remote areas often do not have the financial background to afford the initial costs for renewable energy applications. Micro-financing of renewable energy systems is a possible answer to provide financial services and support productive activities in a sustainable manner for low-income people. There are various types of microfinance institutions (MFIs), ranging from local cooperatives, NGOs, credit unions, private commercial banks and non-bank financial institutions as well as parts of state-owned banks.To underline the benefits of micro financing renewable energy systems, good practice projects of local microfinance activities are presented. These projects have been identified in the course of WISIONS, an initiative of the Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment and Energy with support of ProEvolution, a Swiss-based foundation. The two different approaches of the project support on one side the realisation of new project ideas (SEPS - Sustainable Energy Project Support) and on the other spread successful examples (PREP - Promotion of Resource Efficiency Projects). Through the PREP field of action, good practices in energy and resource efficiency are spread worldwide through the Internet and brochures. In the 5th PREP-brochure of WISIONS on 'Microfinance and Renewable Energy' five good-practice examples are shown that link this promising financing system with modern and sustainable renewable energy technologies.

  5. Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

  6. Simulation approach towards energy flexible manufacturing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph provides in-depth analysis and methods for aligning electricity demand of manufacturing systems to VRE supply. The book broaches both long-term system changes and real-time manufacturing execution and control, and the author presents a concept with different options for improved energy flexibility including battery, compressed air and embodied energy storage. The reader will also find a detailed application procedure as well as an implementation into a simulation prototype software. The book concludes with two case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of green manufacturing systems. .

  7. Open cycle cooling systems using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Sovrano, M.

    Open cycle cooling systems are particularly suitable for utilizing solar energy. In all these systems the adsorption and absorption phenomena are very important, hence they are described separately. The cycles used are essentially two: the Baum-Kakabaev cycle using liquid absorbers and the dehumidification/humidification cycle where also adsorbent substances can be utilized. Solar energy is used in the regeneration process of dehumidifying substances. Reactivation modes can be various: suitability of one mode or the other can depend on the climate of the site where the system is installed.

  8. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Williamson and S. Puttagunta

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems, this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  9. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems,this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  10. Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project was interdis......This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project...... energy and environmental analysis tools as well as analyses of the design and implementation of future renewable energy systems. For practical reasons, the work has been carried out as an interaction between five work packages, and a number of reports, papers and tools have been reported separately from...... of the different project parts in a coherent way by presenting tools and methodologies as well as analyses of the design and implementation of renewable energy systems – including both energy and environmental aspects....

  11. Review of Magnetic Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Owusu-Ansah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study studies an overview of magnetic flywheel energy storage system. Energy storage is an integral part of any critical power system, as this stored energy is used to offset interruptions in the power delivered system from either a utility or an on-site generator. Magnetic flywheel as mechanical batteries using composite rotor, magnetic support bearings as well as power electronics to store electrical energy to replace stone wheel and chemical batteries has resulted in high power and energy densities. Traditionally, capacitors are used for short term storage (µs-ms and filtering, chemical batteries are used for intermediate storage (min-h and diesel fuel is used for long-term storage (h-days. Electricity generated from renewable sources, which has shown remarkable growth worldwide, can rarely provide immediate response to demand as these sources do not deliver regular supply easily adjustable to consumption needs. Thus, the growth of this decentralization production means greater network load stability problems and requires energy storage, generally using lead acid batteries as a potential solution. Finally the integration of all subsystems optimally of the magnetic flywheel system has resulted in a mechanical battery which can supply more efficient, reliable and uninterrupted power to meet the ever increasing demand of industrial machinery and automobiles.

  12. Renewable energy in energy efficient, low-pollution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    1997-03-01

    Energy use accounts for the dominating fraction of total sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, different strategies for reducing these emissions are evaluated, using a bottom-up approach. CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity and heat production in western Scania, Sweden, can be reduced by 25% and the emissions of acidifying gases (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) by 50% by the year 2010, compared with 1988 levels, using energy systems based on efficient end-use technologies, cogeneration of heat and electricity, renewable energy sources and low-pollution energy conversion technologies. Exhaust-pipe NO{sub x} emissions from the Swedish transportation sector can be reduced by 50 percent by the year 2015, compared with 1991, by implementing the best available vehicle technologies. Exhaust-pipe emissions of CO{sub 2} can be stabilized at the 1991 level. With further technical development and the use of fuels from renewable sources of energy, NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by 75 percent and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80 percent compared with 1991 levels. Swedish biomass resources are large, and, assuming production conditions around 2015, about 200 TWh/year could be utilised for energy. Major reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved by substituting biomass for fossil fuels in heat, electricity and transportation fuel production. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass are likely to be less expensive than transportation fuels from conventional biomass feedstocks such as oil plants, sugar-beet and cereals. 90 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Energy-aware design of digital systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruian, F.

    2000-02-01

    Power and energy consumption are important issues in many digital applications, for reasons such as packaging cost and battery life-span. With the development of portable computing and communication, an increasing number of research groups are addressing power and energy related issues at various stages during the design process. Most of the work done in this area focuses on lower abstraction levels, such as gate or transistor level. Ideally, a power and energy-efficient design flow should consider the power and energy issues at every stage in the design process. Therefore, power and energy aware methods, applicable early in the design process are required. In this trend, the thesis presents two high-level design methods addressing power and energy consumption minimization. The first of the two approaches we describe, targets power consumption minimization during behavioral synthesis. This is carried out by minimizing the switching activity, while taking the correlations between signals into account. The second approach performs energy consumption minimization during system-level design, by choosing the most energy-efficient schedule and configuration of resources. Both methods make use of the constraint programming paradigm to model the problems in an elegant manner. The experimental results presented in this thesis show the impact of addressing the power and energy related issues early in the design process.

  14. DNA – A General Energy System Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2005-01-01

    operation. The program decides at runtime to apply the DAE solver if the system contains differential equations. This makes it easy to extend an existing steady state model to simulate dynamic operation of the plant. The use of the program is illustrated by examples of gas turbine models. The paper also......The paper reviews the development of the energy system simulation tool DNA (Dynamic Network Analysis). DNA has been developed since 1989 to be able to handle models of any kind of energy system based on the control volume approach, usually systems of lumped parameter components. DNA has proven...... to be a useful tool in the analysis and optimization of several types of thermal systems: Steam turbines, gas turbines, fuels cells, gasification, refrigeration and heat pumps for both conventional fossil fuels and different types of biomass. DNA is applicable for models of both steady state and dynamic...

  15. Nonlinear Energy Collimation System for Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Resta-Lopez, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The post-linac energy collimation system of multi-TeV linear colliders is designed to fulfil an important function of protection of the Beam Delivery System (BDS) against miss-steered beams likely generated by failure modes in the main linac. For the case of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), the energy collimators are required to withstand the impact of a full bunch train in case of failure. This is a very challenging task, assuming the nominal CLIC beam parameters at 1.5 TeV beam energy. The increase of the transverse spot size at the collimators using nonlinear magnets is a potential solution to guarantee the survival of the collimators. In this paper we present an alternative nonlinear optics based on a skew sextupole pair for energy collimation. Performance simulation results are also presented.

  16. Energy transfer in double plate system dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica (Stevanovic) Hedrih

    2008-01-01

    The study of energy transfer between coupled subsystems in a hybrid system is very important for applications. This paper presents an analytical analysis of energy transfer between plates of a visco-elastically connected double-plate system in free transversal vibrations. The analytical analysis shows that the visco-elastic connection between plates is responsible for the appearance of two-frequency regime in the time function, which corresponds to one eigen amplitude function of one mode, and also that time functions of different vibration modes are uncoupled, but energy transfer between plates in one eigen mode appears. It was shown for each shape of vibrations. Series of the two Lyapunov exponents corresponding to the one eigen amplitude mode are expressed by using the energy of the corresponding eigen amplitude time component.

  17. Energy bursts in vibrated shallow granular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, N.; Risso, D.; Soto, R.; Cordero, P.

    2011-03-01

    In a mixture of two species of inelastic spheres of equal size but different mass, placed in a vertically vibrated shallow box (large horizontal dimensions and height comparable to the grains' size), there is spontaneous segregation. Once the system is at least partly segregated energy bursts recurrently take place: the horizontal kinetic energy of the heavy particles, that normally is small, suddenly increases an order of magnitude. An explanation of these events is provided based on the existence of a fixed point for an isolated particle bouncing with only vertical motion between the top and bottom plates. Energy bursts occur when clusters of heavy particles start a chain reaction of collisions that transfer vertical energy to horizontal energy producing an expansion of the cluster.

  18. Main concerns of CFTC about sustainable development applied to energy; Preoccupations essentielles de la CFTC sur le developpement durable applique a l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffitte, O.

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the French national debate on energies, this paper presents the main recommendations of the trade union for chemistry, mining, textile industry and energy industry of the French syndicate CFTC about the application of the sustainable development principles to the energy domain: the energy right for everyone, the importance of individual and collective liabilities in the domain of energy production and consumption, the necessity of an urgent legislative evolution at the European level, a sustainable policy of energy production, the problem of the energy consumption in transportation systems, the problem of security and safety in energy industries, the industrial strategy of companies in the energy sector. (J.S.)

  19. System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zarnikau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

  20. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Hawaiian Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-23

    NREL and the Hawaiian Electric Companies are collaborating with the solar and inverter industries to implement advanced inverters, allowing greater solar photovoltaic (PV) penetrations that will support the State of Hawaii's goal to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2045. Advanced inverters will help maintain stable grid operations by riding through grid disturbances when the PV output is needed, operating autonomously to smooth voltage fluctuations, and coordinating the start-up and reconnection of PV systems and other distributed energy resources.