WorldWideScience

Sample records for applying advanced molecular

  1. Advances in Applied Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  2. Advances in multimodal molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auletta, Luigi; Gramanzini, Matteo; Gargiulo, Sara; Albanese, Sandra; Salvatore, Marco; Greco, Adelaide

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical molecular imaging is an emerging field. Improving the ability of scientists to study the molecular basis of human pathology in animals is of the utmost importance for future advances in all fields of human medicine. Moreover, the possibility of developing new imaging techniques or of implementing old ones adapted to the clinic is a significant area. Cardiology, neurology, immunology and oncology have all been studied with preclinical molecular imaging. The functional techniques of photoacoustic imaging (PAI), fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in association with each other or with the anatomic reference provided by computed tomography (CT) as well as with anatomic and functional information provided by magnetic resonance (MR) have all been proficiently applied to animal models of human disease. All the above-mentioned imaging techniques have shown their ability to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in animal models of disease. The clinical translatability of most of the techniques motivates the ongoing study of their possible fields of application. The ability to combine two or more techniques allows obtaining as much information as possible on the molecular processes involved in pathologies, reducing the number of animals necessary in each experiment. Merging molecular probes compatible with various imaging technique will further expand the capability to achieve the best results.

  3. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  4. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  5. Molecular Advancements in Forensic Odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu Rs, A; Rose, D

    2015-05-11

    Forensic odontology explores the field of human identification through dental tissues in cases where there is destruction of body tissues in criminal investigations and mass disasters. Forensic odontology involves dentists participating in legal and criminal issues. Parameters such as age and gender identification are important in identifying the person or persons. Over the last two decades, the molecular aspect of forensic sciences has increased, and these molecular techniques now provide a novel approach to forensic odontology. Molecular advancements in science like DNA analysis has extended the range of forensic dentistry as teeth possess the character of resistance toward physical or chemical aggressions. Teeth provide the abundant space for DNA, and hence teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The present paper focusses on molecular advancements in the field of forensic odontology.

  6. International Conference on Advances in Applied Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hammami, Mohamed; Masmoudi, Afif

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume presents some recent theoretical advances in mathematics and its applications in various areas of science and technology.   Written by internationally recognized scientists and researchers, the chapters in this book are based on talks given at the International Conference on Advances in Applied Mathematics (ICAAM), which took place December 16-19, 2013, in Hammamet, Tunisia.  Topics discussed at the conference included spectral theory, operator theory, optimization, numerical analysis, ordinary and partial differential equations, dynamical systems, control theory, probability, and statistics.  These proceedings aim to foster and develop further growth in all areas of applied mathematics.

  7. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidi Habib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT and functional or metabolic (PET information provided in a "one-stop shop" and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed.

  8. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  9. Molecular modeling: An open invitation for applied mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2013-10-01

    Molecular modeling methods provide a very wide range of challenges for innovative mathematical and computational techniques, where often high dimensionality, large sets of data, and complicated interrelations imply a multitude of iterative approximations. The physical and chemical basis of these methodologies involves quantum mechanics with several non-intuitive aspects, where classical interpretation and classical analogies are often misleading or outright wrong. Hence, instead of the everyday, common sense approaches which work so well in engineering, in molecular modeling one often needs to rely on rather abstract mathematical constraints and conditions, again emphasizing the high level of reliance on applied mathematics. Yet, the interdisciplinary aspects of the field of molecular modeling also generates some inertia and perhaps too conservative reliance on tried and tested methodologies, that is at least partially caused by the less than up-to-date involvement in the newest developments in applied mathematics. It is expected that as more applied mathematicians take up the challenge of employing the latest advances of their field in molecular modeling, important breakthroughs may follow. In this presentation some of the current challenges of molecular modeling are discussed.

  10. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, established in 1965, continues its tradition of excellence with Volume 32, published in honor of Founding Editor Sir David Bates upon his retirement as editorof the series. This volume presents reviews of topics related to the applications of atomic and molecular physics to atmospheric physics and astrophysics.

  11. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumburg, Kjeld

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of molecular engineering is the `property directed' synthesis of large molecules and molecular assemblies. Synthetic expertise has advanced to a state which allows the assembly of supramolecules containing thousands of atoms using a `construction kit' of molecular building blocks. Expansion in the field is driven by the appearance of new building blocks and by an improved understanding of the rules for joining them in the design of nanometer-sized devices. Another aspect is the transition from supramolecules to materials. At present no single molecule (however large) has been demonstrated to function as a device, but this appears to be only a matter of time. In all of this research, which has a strongly multidisciplinary character, both existing and yet to be developed analytical techniques are and will remain indispensable. All this and more is discussed in Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials, which provides a masterly and up to date summary of one of the most challenging researc...

  12. Recent Advances in Nanotechnology Applied to Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxiang Cui

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been great progress the application of nanomaterials in biosensors. The importance of these to the fundamental development of biosensors has been recognized. In particular, nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots have been being actively investigated for their applications in biosensors, which have become a new interdisciplinary frontier between biological detection and material science. Here we review some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore the application prospects, and discuss the issues, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing nanomaterial-based biosensors and improving their applications in disease diagnosis and food safety examination.

  13. Healthcare, molecular tools and applied genome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, M

    2000-11-01

    Biotechnology 2000 offered a rare opportunity for scientists from academia and industry to present and discuss data in fields as diverse as environmental biotechnology and applied genome research. The healthcare section of the meeting encompassed a number of gene therapy delivery systems that are successfully treating genetic disorders. Beta-thalassemia is being corrected in mice by continous erythropoeitin delivery from engineered muscles cells, and from naked DNA electrotransfer into muscles, as described by Dr JM Heard (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). Dr Reszka (Max-Delbrueck-Centrum fuer Molekulare Medizin, Berlin, Germany), meanwhile, described a treatment for liver metastasis in the form of a drug carrier emolization system, DCES (Max-Delbrueck-Centrum fuer Molekulare Medizin), composed of surface modified liposomes and a substance for chemo-occlusion, which drastically reduces the blood supply to the tumor and promotes apoptosis, necrosis and antiangiogenesis. In the molecular tools section, Willem Stemmer (Maxygen Inc, Redwood City, CA, USA) gave an insight into the importance that techniques, such as molecular breeding (DNA shuffling), have in the evolution of molecules with improved function, over a range of fields including pharmaceuticals, vaccines, agriculture and chemicals. Technologies, such as ribosome display, which can incorporate the evolution and the specific enrichment of proteins/peptides in cycles of selection, could play an enormous role in the production of novel therapeutics and diagnostics in future years, as explained by Andreas Plückthun (Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland). Applied genome research offered technologies, such as the 'in vitro expression cloning', described by Dr Zwick (Promega Corp, Madison, WI, USA), are providing a functional analysis for the overwhelming flow of data emerging from high-throughput sequencing of genomes and from high-density gene expression microarrays (DNA chips). The

  14. Overview of recent advances in molecular cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zhongjie

    2006-01-01

    Molecular cardiology is a new and fast-growing area of cardiovascular medicine that aims to apply molecular biology techniques for the mechanistic investigation, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. As an emerging discipline, it has changed conceptual thinking of cardiovascular development, disease etiology and pathophysiology. Although molecular cardiology is still at a very early stage, it has opened a promising avenue for understanding and controlling cardiovascul...

  15. Signature molecular descriptor : advanced applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr. (Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN)

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify novel and non-intuitive chemical structures with optimal predicted properties for a given application. We demonstrate this in three studies: green solvent design, glucocorticoid receptor ligand design and the design of inhibitors for Factor XIa. In many areas of engineering, compounds are designed and/or modified in incremental ways which rely upon heuristics or institutional knowledge. Often multiple experiments are performed and the optimal compound is identified in this brute-force fashion. Perhaps a traditional chemical scaffold is identified and movement of a substituent group around a ring constitutes the whole of the design process. Also notably, a chemical being evaluated in one area might demonstrate properties very attractive in another area and serendipity was the mechanism for solution. In contrast to such approaches, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) looks to encompass both experimental and heuristic-based knowledge into a strategy that will design a molecule on a computer to meet a given target. Depending on the algorithm employed, the molecule which is designed might be quite novel (re: no CAS registration number) and/or non-intuitive relative to what is known about the problem at hand. While CAMD is a fairly recent strategy (dating to the early 1980s), it contains a variety of bottlenecks and limitations which have prevented the technique from garnering more attention in the academic, governmental and industrial institutions. A main reason for this is how the molecules are described in the computer. This step can control how models are developed for the properties of interest on a given problem as well as how to go from an output of the algorithm to an actual chemical structure. This report

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Diercksen, Geerd

    1992-01-01

    This volume records the lectures given at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics held in Bad Windsheim, Germany, from 22nd July until 2nd. August, 1991. This NATO Advanced Study Institute sought to bridge the quite considerable gap which exist between the presentation of molecular electronic structure theory found in contemporary monographs such as, for example, McWeeny's Methods 0/ Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Academic Press, London, 1989) or Wilson's Electron correlation in moleeules (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984) and the realization of the sophisticated computational algorithms required for their practical application. It sought to underline the relation between the electronic structure problem and the study of nuc1ear motion. Software for performing molecular electronic structure calculations is now being applied in an increasingly wide range of fields in both the academic and the commercial sectors. Numerous applications are reported in areas as diverse as catalysi...

  17. Applying Virtual Realitzy to Molecular Graphics System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChangNoYoon; MyungHwanChi; 等

    1996-01-01

    Mlecular graphics can be thought of as a window to the computer through which the chemist expresses ideas for computational evaluation and receives results in an understandable form.Furthermore,with beautiful graphic images it can give out the realistic molecular model like a real thing in real world.Molecule has various properties including volume,electronic,van der waals forces,etc.These properties are very important to understand the molecular world.So if the virtual reality tools are used,then the imaginary world can be studied intuitively by touching and feeling a tremendous amount of data.Computational chemistry generates such amount of molecular property data through supercomputing with molecular simulation experiment.One of the objects to investigate the molecular world is to understand the intermolecular interaction such as drug-receptor interaction.Another thing is to measure the geometrical data in molecular architecture.Virtual reality system provides the easiest way to meet these objects.This kind of simple system changes a numerical data set,which is very difficults to deal with,into a visible and understandable data set.Recently two functions of such a system were improved to get an insight into biomolecular interaction.The first one is a real time force generation during navigation in macromolecular environment.An cylindrical arrow shows the magnitude and direction of molecular force.The second one is to see a molecular vibration such as a concerted motion of the binding site in protein molecule.So one can understand th molecular shape change for drugreceptor docking procedure.But some problems which are difficult to solve still remain.

  18. Integrating Advanced Molecular Technologies into Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Marta; MacCannell, Duncan R; Khabbaz, Rima F

    2017-03-01

    Advances in laboratory and information technologies are transforming public health microbiology. High-throughput genome sequencing and bioinformatics are enhancing our ability to investigate and control outbreaks, detect emerging infectious diseases, develop vaccines, and combat antimicrobial resistance, all with increased accuracy, timeliness, and efficiency. The Advanced Molecular Detection (AMD) initiative has allowed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide leadership and coordination in integrating new technologies into routine practice throughout the U.S. public health laboratory system. Collaboration and partnerships are the key to navigating this transition and to leveraging the next generation of methods and tools most effectively for public health.

  19. Scanning probe methods applied to molecular electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Pavliček, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Scanning probe methods on insulating films offer a rich toolbox to study electronic, structural and spin properties of individual molecules. This work discusses three issues in the field of molecular and organic electronics. A scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) head to be operated in high magnetic fields has been designed and built up. The STM head is very compact and rigid relying on a robust coarse approach mechanism. This will facilitate investigations of the spin properties of individ...

  20. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Vectorization of Advanced Methods for Molecular Electronic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    That there have been remarkable advances in the field of molecular electronic structure during the last decade is clear not only to those working in the field but also to anyone else who has used quantum chemical results to guide their own investiga­ tions. The progress in calculating the electronic structures of molecules has occurred through the truly ingenious theoretical and methodological developments that have made computationally tractable the underlying physics of electron distributions around a collection of nuclei. At the same time there has been consider­ able benefit from the great advances in computer technology. The growing sophistication, declining costs and increasing accessibi­ lity of computers have let theorists apply their methods to prob­ lems in virtually all areas of molecular science. Consequently, each year witnesses calculations on larger molecules than in the year before and calculations with greater accuracy and more com­ plete information on molecular properties. We can surel...

  1. Local control theory applied to molecular photoassociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquetand, Philipp; Engel, Volker

    2007-08-28

    Local control theory (LCT) is employed to achieve molecular photoassociation with shaped laser pulses. Within LCT, the control fields are constructed from the response of the system to the perturbation which makes them accessible to a straightforward interpretation. This is shown regarding the ground-state collision of H+F and H+I atoms. Different objectives are defined, which aim at the formation of vibrational cold or hot associated molecules, respectively. Results are presented for s-wave scattering, where the rotational degree of freedom is ignored and also for full scale calculations including rotations, in order to describe more realistic conditions.

  2. Applying molecular epidemiology in pediatric leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    Molecular epidemiology is the study of genetic and environmental risk for disease, with much effort centered on cancer. Childhood leukemia occurs in nearly a third of all patients newly diagnosed with pediatric cancer. only a small percentage of these new cases of childhood leukemia are associated with high penetrant hereditary cancer syndromes. Childhood leukemia, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been associated with a dysregulated immune system due to delayed infectious exposure at a young age. Identical twins with childhood leukemia suggest that acute lymphoblastic leukemia begins in utero and that the concordant presentation is due to a shared preleukemia subclone via placental transfer. Investigation of single nucleotide polymorphisms within candidate genes find that leukemia risk may be attributed to population-based polymorphisms affecting folate metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, immunity, and B-cell development. More recently, genome-wide association studies for leukemia risk has led investigators to genes associated with B-cell development. When describing leukemia predisposition due to hereditary cancer syndromes, the following 6 categories become apparent on the basis of biology and clinical presentation: (1) genetic instability/DNA repair syndromes, (2) cell cycle/differentiation syndromes, (3) bone marrow failure syndromes, (4) telomere maintenance syndromes, (5) immunodeficiency syndromes, and (6) transcription factor syndromes and pure familial leukemia. understanding the molecular epidemiology of childhood leukemia can affect the treatment and tumor surveillance strategies for these high risk patients and their family members.

  3. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R; Arimondo, Ennio

    2006-01-01

    Volume 54 of the Advances Series contains ten contributions, covering a diversity of subject areas in atomic, molecular and optical physics. The article by Regal and Jin reviews the properties of a Fermi degenerate gas of cold potassium atoms in the crossover regime between the Bose-Einstein condensation of molecules and the condensation of fermionic atom pairs. The transition between the two regions can be probed by varying an external magnetic field. Sherson, Julsgaard and Polzik explore the manner in which light and atoms can be entangled, with applications to quantum information processing

  4. Advances in molecular vibrations and collision dynamics molecular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bacic, Zatko

    1998-01-01

    This volume focuses on molecular clusters, bound by van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds. Twelve chapters review a wide range of recent theoretical and experimental advances in the areas of cluster vibrations, spectroscopy, and reaction dynamics. The authors are leading experts, who have made significant contributions to these topics.The first chapter describes exciting results and new insights in the solvent effects on the short-time photo fragmentation dynamics of small molecules, obtained by combining heteroclusters with femtosecond laser excitation. The second is on theoretical work on effects of single solvent (argon) atom on the photodissociation dynamics of the solute H2O molecule. The next two chapters cover experimental and theoretical aspects of the energetics and vibrations of small clusters. Chapter 5 describes diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations and non additive three-body potential terms in molecular clusters. The next six chapters deal with hydrogen-bonded clusters, refle...

  5. [New concepts in molecular biology applied to traslational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual, Lourdes

    2013-06-01

    This chapter intends to introduce the new concepts that have been established in molecular biology over the last years and are being applied in translational research. The chapter is divided in four big blocks, which treat the molecular biology concepts and techniques in relation to DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites, respectively. Moreover, we give examples of translational application of these new methodologies described.

  6. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  7. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  8. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-02-28

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  9. Advances in molecular diagnosis of toxigenic Fusarium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulé, G.; Gonzalez-Jaen, M.T.; Hornok, L.; Nicholson, P.; Waalwijk, C.

    2005-01-01

    The development of advanced molecular diagnosis for the critical toxigenic Fusarium species is considered in this review. The specific topics discussed are (1) isolation of mating type genes of Gibberella complex, (2) molecular detection of Fusarium-producing fumonisins, (3) molecular detection of F

  10. Recent advances in click chemistry applied to dendrimer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneault, Mathieu; Wafer, Caroline; Morin, Jean-François

    2015-05-20

    Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the "click chemistry" concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field.

  11. Recent Advances in Click Chemistry Applied to Dendrimer Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Arseneault

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the “click chemistry” concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field.

  12. Molecular self-assembly advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dequan, Alex Li

    2012-01-01

    In the past several decades, molecular self-assembly has emerged as one of the main themes in chemistry, biology, and materials science. This book compiles and details cutting-edge research in molecular assemblies ranging from self-organized peptide nanostructures and DNA-chromophore foldamers to supramolecular systems and metal-directed assemblies, even to nanocrystal superparticles and self-assembled microdevices

  13. Advances in Time Estimation Methods for Molecular Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Hedges, S Blair

    2016-04-01

    Molecular dating has become central to placing a temporal dimension on the tree of life. Methods for estimating divergence times have been developed for over 50 years, beginning with the proposal of molecular clock in 1962. We categorize the chronological development of these methods into four generations based on the timing of their origin. In the first generation approaches (1960s-1980s), a strict molecular clock was assumed to date divergences. In the second generation approaches (1990s), the equality of evolutionary rates between species was first tested and then a strict molecular clock applied to estimate divergence times. The third generation approaches (since ∼2000) account for differences in evolutionary rates across the tree by using a statistical model, obviating the need to assume a clock or to test the equality of evolutionary rates among species. Bayesian methods in the third generation require a specific or uniform prior on the speciation-process and enable the inclusion of uncertainty in clock calibrations. The fourth generation approaches (since 2012) allow rates to vary from branch to branch, but do not need prior selection of a statistical model to describe the rate variation or the specification of speciation model. With high accuracy, comparable to Bayesian approaches, and speeds that are orders of magnitude faster, fourth generation methods are able to produce reliable timetrees of thousands of species using genome scale data. We found that early time estimates from second generation studies are similar to those of third and fourth generation studies, indicating that methodological advances have not fundamentally altered the timetree of life, but rather have facilitated time estimation by enabling the inclusion of more species. Nonetheless, we feel an urgent need for testing the accuracy and precision of third and fourth generation methods, including their robustness to misspecification of priors in the analysis of large phylogenies and data

  14. Advances of molecular imaging in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Galovic, M.; Koepp, M.

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a neuroimaging method that offers insights into the molecular functioning of a human brain. It has been widely used to study metabolic and neurotransmitter abnormalities in people with epilepsy. This article reviews the development of several PET radioligands and their application in studying the molecular mechanisms of epilepsy. Over the last decade, tracers binding to serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors have been used to delineate the loc...

  15. Advances of Molecular Imaging in Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Galovic, Marian; Koepp, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a neuroimaging method that offers insights into the molecular functioning of a human brain. It has been widely used to study metabolic and neurotransmitter abnormalities in people with epilepsy. This article reviews the development of several PET radioligands and their application in studying the molecular mechanisms of epilepsy. Over the last decade, tracers binding to serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors have been used to delineate the loc...

  16. Evolving molecularly targeted therapies for advanced-stage thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Keith C; Ryder, Mabel

    2016-07-01

    Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and two agents (sorafenib and lenvatinib) for the treatment of radioactive- iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in both the USA and in the EU. The effects of these and other therapies on overall survival and quality of life among patients with thyroid cancer, however, remain to be more-clearly defined. When applied early in the disease course, intensive multimodality therapy seems to improve the survival outcomes of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), but salvage therapies for ATC are of uncertain benefit. Additional innovative, rationally designed therapeutic strategies are under active development both for patients with DTC and for patients with ATC, with multiple phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials currently ongoing. Continued effort is being made to identify further signalling pathways with potential therapeutic relevance in thyroid cancers, as well as to elaborate on the complex interactions between signalling pathways, with the intention of translating these discoveries into effective and personalized therapies. Herein, we summarize the progress made in molecular medicine for advanced-stage thyroid cancers of different histotypes, analyse how these developments have altered - and might further refine - patient care, and identify open questions for future research.

  17. Molecular advances to treat cancer of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah-Shaykh, H M; Zhao, L J; Mickey, B; Kafrouni, A I

    2000-06-01

    Malignant primary and metastatic brain tumours continue to be associated with poor prognosis. Nevertheless, recent advances in molecular medicine, specifically in the strategies of gene therapy, targeting tumour cells, anti-angiogenesis and immunotherapy, have created novel tools that may be of therapeutic value. To date, gene therapy trials have not yet demonstrated clinical efficacy because of inherent defects in vector design. Despite this, advances in adenoviral technology, namely the helper-dependent adenoviral constructs (gutless) and the uncovering of brain parenchymal cells as effective and necessary targets for antitumour benefits of adenoviral-mediated gene transfer, suggest that developments in vector design may be approaching the point of clinical utility. Targeting tumour cells refers to strategies that destroy malignant but spare normal cells. A new assortment of oncolytic viruses have emerged, capable of specific lysis of cancer tissue while sparing normal cells and propagating until they reach the tumour borders. Furthermore, peptides have been transformed into bullets that specifically seek and destroy cancer cells. The concept of tumour angiogenesis has been challenged by new but still very controversial findings that tumour cells themselves may form blood channels. These results may lead to the redirecting of the molecular targets toward anti-angiogenesis in some tumours including glioblastoma multiform. Unfortunately, our knowledge regarding the immunological ignorance of the tumour is still limited. Even so, newly discovered molecules have shed light on novel pathways leading to the escape of the tumour from the immune system. Finally, significant limitations in our current experimental tumour models may soon be overcome by firstly, the development of models of reproducible organ-specific tumours in non-inbred animals and secondly applying genomics to individualize therapy for a particular tumour in a specific patient.

  18. Microspectroscopy as applied to the study of wood molecular structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fackler, Karin; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2013-01-01

    -induced dimensional changes, decay resistance or mechanical properties. It is, however, important to choose the right technique for the purpose at hand and to apply it in a suitable way if any new insights are to be gained. This review presents and compares three different microspectroscopic techniques: infrared......Microspectroscopy gives access to spatially resolved information on the molecular structure and chemical composition of a material. For a highly heterogeneous and anisotropic material like wood, such information is essential when assessing structure/property relationships such as moisture...

  19. Bio-inspired algorithms applied to molecular docking simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlé, G; de Azevedo, W F

    2011-01-01

    Nature as a source of inspiration has been shown to have a great beneficial impact on the development of new computational methodologies. In this scenario, analyses of the interactions between a protein target and a ligand can be simulated by biologically inspired algorithms (BIAs). These algorithms mimic biological systems to create new paradigms for computation, such as neural networks, evolutionary computing, and swarm intelligence. This review provides a description of the main concepts behind BIAs applied to molecular docking simulations. Special attention is devoted to evolutionary algorithms, guided-directed evolutionary algorithms, and Lamarckian genetic algorithms. Recent applications of these methodologies to protein targets identified in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome are described.

  20. Advanced molecular devices based on light-driven molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jiawen

    2015-01-01

    Nature has provided a large collection of molecular machines and devices that are among the most amazing nanostructures on this planet. These machines are able to operate complex biological processes which are of great importance in our organisms. Inspired by these natural devices, artificial molecu

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Low Temperature Molecular Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Molecular spectroscopy has achieved rapid and significant progress in recent years, the low temperature techniques in particular having proved very useful for the study of reactive species, phase transitions, molecular clusters and crystals, superconductors and semiconductors, biochemical systems, astrophysical problems, etc. The widening range of applications has been accompanied by significant improvements in experimental methods, and low temperature molecular spectroscopy has been revealed as the best technique, in many cases, to establish the connection between experiment and theoretical calculations. This, in turn, has led to a rapidly increasing ability to predict molecular spectroscopic properties. The combination of an advanced tutorial standpoint with an emphasis on recent advances and new perspectives in both experimental and theoretical molecular spectroscopy contained in this book offers the reader insight into a wide range of techniques, particular emphasis being given to supersonic jet and matri...

  2. Advances of Molecular Imaging in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galovic, Marian; Koepp, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a neuroimaging method that offers insights into the molecular functioning of a human brain. It has been widely used to study metabolic and neurotransmitter abnormalities in people with epilepsy. This article reviews the development of several PET radioligands and their application in studying the molecular mechanisms of epilepsy. Over the last decade, tracers binding to serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors have been used to delineate the location of the epileptic focus. PET studies have examined the role of opioids, cannabinoids, acetylcholine, and dopamine in modulating neuronal hyperexcitability and seizure termination. In vivo analyses of drug transporters, e.g., P-glycoprotein, have increased our understanding of pharmacoresistance that could inform new therapeutic strategies. Finally, PET experiments targeting neuroinflammation and glutamate receptors might guide the development of novel biomarkers of epileptogenesis.

  3. Applying CLIPS to control of molecular beam epitaxy processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeau, Arthur A.; Bensaoula, Abdelhak; Jamison, Keith D.; Horton, Charles; Ignatiev, Alex; Glover, John R.

    1990-01-01

    A key element of U.S. industrial competitiveness in the 1990's will be the exploitation of advanced technologies which involve low-volume, high-profit manufacturing. The demands of such manufacture limit participation to a few major entities in the U.S. and elsewhere, and offset the lower manufacturing costs of other countries which have, for example, captured much of the consumer electronics market. One such technology is thin-film epitaxy, a technology which encompasses several techniques such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE), and Vapor-Phase Epitaxy (VPE). Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is a technology for creating a variety of electronic and electro-optical materials. Compared to standard microelectronic production techniques (including gaseous diffusion, ion implantation, and chemical vapor deposition), MBE is much more exact, though much slower. Although newer than the standard technologies, MBE is the technology of choice for fabrication of ultraprecise materials for cutting-edge microelectronic devices and for research into the properties of new materials.

  4. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Advances in Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common soft tissue malignancy in childhood and adolescence. The two major histological subtypes of RMS are alveolar RMS, driven by the fusion protein PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR, and embryonic RMS, which is usually genetically heterogeneous. The prognosis of RMS has improved in the past several decades due to multidisciplinary care. However, in recent years, the treatment of patients with metastatic or refractory RMS has reached a plateau. Thus, to improve the survival rate of RMS patients and their overall well-being, further understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of RMS and identification of novel therapeutic targets are imperative. In this review, we describe the most recent discoveries in the molecular and cellular biology of RMS, including alterations in oncogenic pathways, miRNA (miR, in vivo models, stem cells, and important signal transduction cascades implicated in the development and progression of RMS. Furthermore, we discuss novel potential targeted therapies that may improve the current treatment of RMS.

  5. Advances in molecular genetic systems in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning-Ward, Tania F; Gilson, Paul R; Crabb, Brendan S

    2015-06-01

    Robust tools for analysing gene function in Plasmodium parasites, which are the causative agents of malaria, are being developed at an accelerating rate. Two decades after genetic technologies for use in Plasmodium spp. were first described, a range of genetic tools are now available. These include conditional systems that can regulate gene expression at the genome, transcriptional or protein level, as well as more sophisticated tools for gene editing that use piggyBac transposases, integrases, zinc-finger nucleases or the CRISPR-Cas9 system. In this Review, we discuss the molecular genetic systems that are currently available for use in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, and evaluate the advantages and limitations of these tools. We examine the insights that have been gained into the function of genes that are important during the blood stages of the parasites, which may help to guide the development and improvement of drug therapies and vaccines.

  6. Bioceramics for osteogenesis, molecular and cellular advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkiran, Hande

    2012-01-01

    The remarkable need for bone tissue replacement in clinical situations, its limited availability and some major drawbacks of autologous (from the patient) and allogeneic (from a donor) bone grafts are driving researchers to search for alternative approaches for bone repair. In order to develop an appropriate bone substitute, one should understand bone structure and properties and its growth, which will guide researchers to select the optimal conditions for tissue culture and implantation. It's well accepted that bioceramics are excellent candidates as bone replacement with osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction capacity. Therefore, the molecular and cellular interactions that take place at the surface of bioceramics and their relevance in osteogenesis excites many researchers to delve deeper into this line of research.

  7. Advanced imaging of colorectal cancer: From anatomy to molecular imaging

    OpenAIRE

    García-Figueiras, Roberto; Baleato-González, Sandra; Padhani, Anwar R.; Marhuenda, Ana; Luna, Antonio; Alcalá, Lidia; Carballo-Castro, Ana; Álvarez-Castro, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Imaging techniques play a key role in the management of patients with colorectal cancer. The introduction of new advanced anatomical, functional, and molecular imaging techniques may improve the assessment of diagnosis, prognosis, planning therapy, and assessment of response to treatment of these patients. Functional and molecular imaging techniques in clinical practice may allow the assessment of tumour-specific characteristics and tumour heterogeneity. This paper will review recent...

  8. Recent Advances on Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes (CMSMs) and Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Margot A. Llosa Tanco; Pacheco Tanaka, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieve membranes (CMSMs) are an important alternative for gas separation because of their ease of manufacture, high selectivity due to molecular sieve separation, and high permeance. The integration of separation by membranes and reaction in only one unit lead to a high degree of process integration/intensification, with associated benefits of increased energy, production efficiencies and reduced reactor or catalyst volume. This review focuses on recent advances in carbon mole...

  9. Recent Advances on Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes (CMSMs and Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot A. Llosa Tanco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon molecular sieve membranes (CMSMs are an important alternative for gas separation because of their ease of manufacture, high selectivity due to molecular sieve separation, and high permeance. The integration of separation by membranes and reaction in only one unit lead to a high degree of process integration/intensification, with associated benefits of increased energy, production efficiencies and reduced reactor or catalyst volume. This review focuses on recent advances in carbon molecular sieve membranes and their applications in membrane reactors.

  10. New Strategies on Molecular Biology Applied to Microbial Systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÖFLING José F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematics is the study of diversity of the organisms and their relationships comprising classification, nomenclature and identification. The term classification or taxonomy means the arrangement of the organisms in groups (rate and the nomenclature is the attribution of correct international scientific names to organisms and identification is the inclusion of unknown strains in groups derived from classification. Therefore, classification for a stable nomenclature and a perfect identification are required previously. The beginning of the new bacterial systematics era can be remembered by the introduction and application of new taxonomic concepts and techniques, from the 50?s and 60?s. Important progress were achieved using numerical taxonomy and molecular taxonomy. Molecular taxonomy, brought into effect after the emergence of the Molecular Biology resources, provided knowledge that comprises systematics of bacteria, in which occurs great evolutionary interest, or where is observed the necessity of eliminating any environmental interference. When you study the composition and disposition of nucleotides in certain portions of the genetic material, you study searching their genome, much less susceptible to environmental alterations than proteins, codified based on it. In the molecular taxonomy, you can research both DNA and RNA, and the main techniques that have been used in the systematics comprise the build of restriction maps, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA-RNA hybridization, sequencing of DNA sequencing of sub-units 16S and 23S of rRNA, RAPD, RFLP, PFGE etc. Techniques such as base sequencing, though they are extremely sensible and greatly precise, are relatively onerous and impracticable to the great majority of the bacterial taxonomy laboratories. Several specialized techniques have been applied to taxonomic studies of microorganisms. In the last years, these have included preliminary electrophoretic analysis of soluble proteins and isoenzymes

  11. New trends in atomic and molecular physics advanced technological applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The field of Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMP) has reached significant advances in high–precision experimental measurement techniques. The area covers a wide spectrum ranging from conventional to new emerging multi-disciplinary areas like physics of highly charged ions (HCI), molecular physics, optical science, ultrafast laser technology etc. This book includes the important topics of atomic structure, physics of atomic collision, photoexcitation, photoionization processes, Laser cooling and trapping, Bose Einstein condensation and advanced technology applications of AMP in the fields of astronomy , astrophysics , fusion, biology and nanotechnology. This book is useful for researchers, professors, graduate, post graduate and PhD students dealing with atomic and molecular physics. The book has a wide scope with applications in neighbouring fields like plasma physics, astrophysics, cold collisions, nanotechnology and future fusion energy sources like ITER (international Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) To...

  12. Economic impact of applying advanced technologies to transport airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, A. J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Various technologies have been studied which could have application to the design of future transport airplanes. These technologies include the use of supercritical aerodynamics, composite materials, and active control systems, together with advanced engine designs that provide lower noise and pollutant levels. The economic impact of each technology is shown for a typical fleet of 195-passenger, transcontinental commercial transports cruising at both 0.9M and 0.98M. Comparisons are made with conventional transports cruising at 0.82M. Effects of combining the technologies are discussed. An R & D program aimed at bringing the technologies to fruition is outlined.

  13. Advances of Bioinformatics Tools Applied in Virus Epitopes Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Chen; Simon Rayner; Kang-hong Hu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the in silico epitopes prediction tools have facilitated the progress of vaccines development significantly and many have been applied to predict epitopes in viruses successfully. Herein, a general overview of different tools currently available, including T cell and B cell epitopes prediction tools, is presented. And the principles of different prediction algorithms are reviewed briefly. Finally, several examples are present to illustrate the application of the prediction tools.

  14. Nonstandard Analysis Applied to Advanced Undergraduate Mathematics - Infinitesimal Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    This is a Research and Instructional Development Project from the U. S. Naval Academy. In this monograph, the basic methods of nonstandard analysis for n-dimensional Euclidean spaces are presented. Specific rules are deveoped and these methods and rules are applied to rigorous integral and differential modeling. The topics include Robinson infinitesimals, limited and infinite numbers; convergence theory, continuity, *-transfer, internal definition, hyprefinite summation, Riemann-Stieltjes int...

  15. Advances in molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Ling-yan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dystonias are heterogeneous hyperkinetic movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which result in twisting, repetitive movements and abnormal postures. In recent years, there was a great advance in molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia. This paper will review the clinical characteristics and molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia, including early-onset generalized torsion dystonia (DYT1, whispering dysphonia (DYT4, dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5, mixed-type dystonia (DYT6, paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (DYT10, myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (DYT11, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12, adult-onset cervical dystonia (DYT23, craniocervical dystonia (DYT24 and primary torsion dystonia (DYT25.

  16. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fundamental and Applied Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Maksimenko, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the most relevant and recent results in the study of “Nanoelectromagnetics”, a recently born fascinating research discipline, whose popularity is fast arising with the intensive penetration of nanotechnology in the world of electronics applications. Studying nanoelectromagnetics means describing the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and quantum mechanical low-dimensional systems: this requires a full interdisciplinary approach, the reason why this book hosts contributions from the fields of fundamental and applied electromagnetics, of chemistry and technology of nanostructures and nanocomposites, of physics of nano-structures systems, etc. The book is aimed at providing the reader with the state of the art in Nanoelectromagnetics, from theoretical modelling to experimental characterization, from design to synthesis, from DC to microwave and terahertz applications, from the study of fundamental material properties to the analysis of complex systems and devices, from commercia...

  17. Advanced Drug Delivery Systems - a Synthetic and Biological Applied Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lise Nørkjær

    Specific delivery of drugs to diseased sites in the body is a major topic in the development of drug delivery system today. Especially, the field of cancer treatment needs improved drug delivery systems as the strong dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy today often present a barrier...... unloading of the encapsulated drug have been tried optimized in a variety of ways. Many propose the use of small molecules, such as vitamins and peptides, for active targeting of the liposomes to overexpressed receptors on the cancerous tissue. Once located close to the diseased site a trigger mechanism...... for releasing the drug from the liposome interior is often needed. Several approaches have been suggested to work as release mechanisms such a pH changes, the presence of enzymes or external applied stimulus as heat or light. Chapter two deals with the synthesis of the functionalized phospholipids, which...

  18. Advanced methods for image registration applied to JET videos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunescu, Teddy, E-mail: teddy.craciunescu@jet.uk [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy); Gelfusa, Michela [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Tiseanu, Ion; Zoita, Vasile [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Arnoux, Gilles [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Development of an image registration method for JET IR and fast visible cameras. • Method based on SIFT descriptors and coherent point drift points set registration technique. • Method able to deal with extremely noisy images and very low luminosity images. • Computation time compatible with the inter-shot analysis. - Abstract: The last years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital cameras on JET. They are routinely applied for imaging in the IR and visible spectral regions. One of the main technical difficulties in interpreting the data of camera based diagnostics is the presence of movements of the field of view. Small movements occur due to machine shaking during normal pulses while large ones may arise during disruptions. Some cameras show a correlation of image movement with change of magnetic field strength. For deriving unaltered information from the videos and for allowing correct interpretation an image registration method, based on highly distinctive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors and on the coherent point drift (CPD) points set registration technique, has been developed. The algorithm incorporates a complex procedure for rejecting outliers. The method has been applied for vibrations correction to videos collected by the JET wide angle infrared camera and for the correction of spurious rotations in the case of the JET fast visible camera (which is equipped with an image intensifier). The method has proved to be able to deal with the images provided by this camera frequently characterized by low contrast and a high level of blurring and noise.

  19. AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

    2003-02-27

    WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment

  20. Recent Advances in the Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, Lori E. [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Allan, Alison L., E-mail: alison.allan@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON N6C 2R5 (Canada)

    2014-03-13

    Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were first observed over a century ago, lack of sensitive methodology precluded detailed study of these cells until recently. However, technological advances have now facilitated the identification, enumeration, and characterization of CTCs using a variety of methods. The majority of evidence supporting the use of CTCs in clinical decision-making has been related to enumeration using the CellSearch{sup ®} system and correlation with prognosis. Growing evidence also suggests that CTC monitoring can provide an early indication of patient treatment response based on comparison of CTC levels before and after therapy. However, perhaps the greatest potential that CTCs hold for oncology lies at the level of molecular characterization. Clinical treatment decisions may be more effective if they are based on molecular characteristics of metastatic cells rather than on those of the primary tumor alone. Molecular characterization of CTCs (which can be repeatedly isolated in a minimally invasive fashion) provides the opportunity for a “real-time liquid biopsy” that allows assessment of genetic drift, investigation of molecular disease evolution, and identification of actionable genomic characteristics. This review focuses on recent advances in this area, including approaches involving immunophenotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex RT-PCR, microarray, and genomic sequencing.

  1. Recent Advances in the Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. Lowes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs were first observed over a century ago, lack of sensitive methodology precluded detailed study of these cells until recently. However, technological advances have now facilitated the identification, enumeration, and characterization of CTCs using a variety of methods. The majority of evidence supporting the use of CTCs in clinical decision-making has been related to enumeration using the CellSearch® system and correlation with prognosis. Growing evidence also suggests that CTC monitoring can provide an early indication of patient treatment response based on comparison of CTC levels before and after therapy. However, perhaps the greatest potential that CTCs hold for oncology lies at the level of molecular characterization. Clinical treatment decisions may be more effective if they are based on molecular characteristics of metastatic cells rather than on those of the primary tumor alone. Molecular characterization of CTCs (which can be repeatedly isolated in a minimally invasive fashion provides the opportunity for a “real-time liquid biopsy” that allows assessment of genetic drift, investigation of molecular disease evolution, and identification of actionable genomic characteristics. This review focuses on recent advances in this area, including approaches involving immunophenotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, multiplex RT-PCR, microarray, and genomic sequencing.

  2. An ecological and conservation perspective on advances in the applied virology of zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegrift, Kurt J; Wale, Nina; Epstein, Jonathan H

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to describe how modern advances in our knowledge of viruses and viral evolution can be applied to the fields of disease ecology and conservation. We review recent progress in virology and provide examples of how it is informing both empirical research in field ecology and applied conservation. We include a discussion of needed breakthroughs and ways to bridge communication gaps between the field and the lab. In an effort to foster this interdisciplinary effort, we have also included a table that lists the definitions of key terms. The importance of understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir hosts is emphasized as a tool to both assess risk factors for spillover and to test hypotheses related to treatment and/or intervention strategies. In conclusion, we highlight the need for smart surveillance, viral discovery efforts and predictive modeling. A shift towards a predictive approach is necessary in today's globalized society because, as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic demonstrated, identification post-emergence is often too late to prevent global spread. Integrating molecular virology and ecological techniques will allow for earlier recognition of potentially dangerous pathogens, ideally before they jump from wildlife reservoirs into human or livestock populations and cause serious public health or conservation issues.

  3. Microspectroscopy as applied to the study of wood molecular structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fackler, Karin; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2013-01-01

    Microspectroscopy gives access to spatially resolved information on the molecular structure and chemical composition of a material. For a highly heterogeneous and anisotropic material like wood, such information is essential when assessing structure/property relationships such as moisture...

  4. Continuous Molecular Fields Approach Applied to Structure-Activity Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Baskin, Igor I

    2013-01-01

    The Method of Continuous Molecular Fields is a universal approach to predict various properties of chemical compounds, in which molecules are represented by means of continuous fields (such as electrostatic, steric, electron density functions, etc). The essence of the proposed approach consists in performing statistical analysis of functional molecular data by means of joint application of kernel machine learning methods and special kernels which compare molecules by computing overlap integrals of their molecular fields. This approach is an alternative to traditional methods of building 3D structure-activity and structure-property models based on the use of fixed sets of molecular descriptors. The methodology of the approach is described in this chapter, followed by its application to building regression 3D-QSAR models and conducting virtual screening based on one-class classification models. The main directions of the further development of this approach are outlined at the end of the chapter.

  5. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops.

  6. Molecularly targeted therapy for advanced hepatocellularcarcinoma - a drug development crisis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fastest growing causeof cancer related death globally. Sorafenib, a multitargetedkinase inhibitor, is the only drug proven toimprove outcomes in patients with advanced diseaseoffering modest survival benefit. Although comprehensivegenomic mapping has improved understanding of thegenetic aberrations in hepatocellular cancer (HCC), thisknowledge has not yet impacted clinical care. The lastfew years have seen the failure of several first and secondline phase Ⅲ clinical trials of novel molecularly targetedtherapies, warranting a change in the way new therapiesare investigated in HCC. Potential reasons for thesefailures include clinical and molecular heterogeneity, trialdesign and a lack of biomarkers. This review discussesthe current crisis in HCC drug development and how weshould learn from recent trial failures to develop a moreeffective personalised treatment paradigm for patientswith HCC.

  7. Advances in the cellular and molecular biology of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, Stuart; Bicknell, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Capillaries have been recognized for over a century as one of the most important components in regulating tissue oxygen transport, and their formation or angiogenesis a pivotal element of tissue remodelling during development and adaptation. Clinical interest stems from observations that both excessive and inadequate vascular growth plays a major role in human diseases, and novel developments in treatments for cancer and eye disease increasingly rely on anti-angiogenic therapies. Although the discovery of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) provided the first clue for specificity of signalling in endothelial cell activation, understanding the integrative response that drives angiogenesis requires a much broader perspective. The Advances in the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Angiogenesis meeting brought together researchers at the forefront of this rapidly moving field to provide an update on current understanding, and the most recent insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of vascular growth. The plenary lecture highlighted the integrative nature of the angiogenic process, whereas invited contributions from basic and clinician scientists described fundamental mechanisms and disease-associated issues of blood vessel formation, grouped under a number of themes to aid discussion. These articles will appeal to academic, clinical and pharmaceutical scientists interested in the molecular and cellular basis of angiogenesis, their modulation or dysfunction in human diseases, and application of these findings towards translational medicine.

  8. Advances in molecular design and synthesis of regioregular polythiophenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Itaru; McCullough, Richard D

    2008-09-01

    Regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s (rrP3ATs) are an important class of pi-conjugated polymers that can be used in plastic electronic devices such as solar cells and field-effect transistors. rrP3ATs can be ordered in three dimensions: conformational ordering along the backbone, pi-stacking of flat polymer chains, and lamellar stacking between chains. All of these features lead to the excellent electrical properties of these materials. Creative molecular design and advanced synthesis are critical in controlling the properties of the materials as well as their device performance. This Account reports the advances in molecular design of new functional polythiophenes as well as the associated polymerization methods. Many functionalized regioregular polythiophenes have been designed and synthesized and show fascinating properties such as high conductivity, mobility, chemosensitivity, liquid crystallinity, or chirality. The methods for the synthesis of rrP3ATs are also applicable to other functional side chains. Di- and triblock copolymers consisting of rrP3AT and polyacrylate or polystyrene have also been successfully synthesized, which can facilitate the assembly of the polythiophene segments. The synthesis of rrP3ATs has evolved into a simple and economical system in which the synthesis can be carried out quickly at room temperature and is thus suitable for large-scale manufacturing. Intensive study has revealed that the regioregular polymerization of 3-alkylthiophenes proceeds by a chain-growth mechanism and can be made into a living system. This feature enables precise control of the molecular weight and facile end-group functionalization of the polymer chains, leading to tailor-made regioregular polythiophenes for specific applications. In addition, researchers have recently designed and synthesized regiosymmetric polythiophenesthese are regioregular but not coupled in a head-to-tail fashionby various methods. These reports indicate that these regiosymmetric

  9. Molecularly targeted therapy for advanced hepatocellularcarcinoma - a drug development crisis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the current status of neoadjuvantradiation approaches in the treatment of pancreatic cancer,including a description of modern radiation techniques,and an overview on the literature regarding neoadjuvantradio- or radiochemotherapeutic strategies both forresectable and irresectable pancreatic cancer. Neoadjuvantchemoradiation for locally-advanced, primarily non- orborderline resectable pancreas cancer results in secondaryresectability in a substantial proportion of patients withconsecutively markedly improved overall prognosisand should be considered as possible alternative inpretreatment multidisciplinary evaluations. In resectablepancreatic cancer, outstanding results in terms ofresponse, local control and overall survival have beenobserved with neoadjuvant radio- or radiochemotherapy inseveral phase Ⅰ/Ⅱ trials, which justify further evaluationof this strategy. Further investigation of neoadjuvantchemoradiation strategies should be performed preferentiallyin randomized trials in order to improvecomparability of the current results with other treatmentmodalities. This should include the evaluation of optimalsequencing with newer and more potent systemicinduction therapy approaches. Advances in patientselection based on new molecular markers might be ofcrucial interest in this context. Finally modern externalbeam radiation techniques (intensity-modulated radiationtherapy, image-guided radiation therapy and stereotacticbody radiation therapy), new radiation qualities (protons,heavy ions) or combinations with alternative boostingtechniques widen the therapeutic window and contributeto the reduction of toxicity.

  10. Advances in Molecular Serotyping and Subtyping of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina M. Fratamico

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available E. coli plays an important role as a member of the gut microbiota; however, pathogenic strains also exist, including various diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli that cause illness outside of the GI-tract. E. coli have traditionally been serotyped using antisera against the ca. 186 O-antigens and 53 H-flagellar antigens. Phenotypic methods, including bacteriophage typing and O- and H- serotyping for differentiating and characterizing E. coli have been used for many years; however, these methods are generally time consuming and not always accurate. Advances in next generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to develop genetic-based subtyping and molecular serotyping methods for E. coli, which are more discriminatory compared to phenotypic typing methods. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing (WGS of E. coli is replacing established subtyping methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, providing a major advancement in the ability to investigate food-borne disease outbreaks and for trace-back to sources. A variety of sequence analysis tools and bioinformatic pipelines are being developed to analyze the vast amount of data generated by WGS and to obtain specific information such as O- and H-group determination and the presence of virulence genes and other genetic markers.

  11. An Ecological and Conservation Perspective on Advances in the Applied Virology of Zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Jonathan H.; Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Nina Wale

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to describe how modern advances in our knowledge of viruses and viral evolution can be applied to the fields of disease ecology and conservation. We review recent progress in virology and provide examples of how it is informing both empirical research in field ecology and applied conservation. We include a discussion of needed breakthroughs and ways to bridge communication gaps between the field and the lab. In an effort to foster this interdisciplinary effort, w...

  12. Advances and applications of molecular cloning in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mehraj, Vikram; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2014-10-01

    Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines. Culture-based methods in polymicrobial infection have many limitation, which has been overcome by cloning techniques and provide gold standard technique. Recombinant antigens produced by cloning technique are now being used for screening of HIV, HCV, HBV, CMV, Treponema pallidum, and other clinical infectious agents. Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis B, cholera, influenza A, and other diseases also use recombinant antigens which have replaced the use of live vaccines and thus reduce the risk for adverse effects. Gene probes developed by gene cloning have many applications including in early diagnosis of hereditary diseases, forensic investigations, and routine diagnosis. Industrial application of this technology produces new antibiotics in the form of antimicrobial peptides and recombinant cytokines that can be used as therapeutic agents.

  13. [Advances of molecular targeted therapy in squamous cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Shucai

    2013-12-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4)-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lung cancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.

  14. Advancing Molecular Therapies through In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton McCaffrey

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective development of therapeutics that target the molecular basis of disease is dependent on testing new therapeutic moieties and delivery strategies in animal models of human disease. Accelerating the analyses of these models and improving their predictive value through whole animal imaging methods, which provide data in real time and are sensitive to the subtle changes, are crucial for rapid advancement of these approaches. Modalities based on optics are rapid, sensitive, and accessible methods for in vivo analyses with relatively low instrumentation costs. In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI is one of these optically based imaging methods that enable rapid in vivo analyses of a variety of cellular and molecular events with extreme sensitivity. BLI is based on the use of light-emitting enzymes as internal biological light sources that can be detected externally as biological indicators. BLI has been used to test spatio-temporal expression patterns of both target and therapeutic genes in living laboratory animals where the contextual influences of whole biological systems are preserved. BLI has also been used to analyze gene delivery, immune cell therapies, and the in vivo efficacy of inhibitory RNAs. New tools for BLI are being developed that will offer greater flexibility in detection and analyses. BLI can be used to accelerate the evaluation of experimental therapeutic strategies and whole body imaging offers the opportunity of revealing the effects of novel approaches on key steps in disease processes.

  15. Advances of Molecular Targeted Therapy in Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lungadenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2 gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lungcancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.

  16. Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: Current tools and future advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S

    2016-04-01

    Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future.

  17. Advances in molecular marker techniques and their applications in plant sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Milee; Shrivastava, Neeta; Padh, Harish

    2008-04-01

    Detection and analysis of genetic variation can help us to understand the molecular basis of various biological phenomena in plants. Since the entire plant kingdom cannot be covered under sequencing projects, molecular markers and their correlation to phenotypes provide us with requisite landmarks for elucidation of genetic variation. Genetic or DNA based marker techniques such as RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA), SSR (simple sequence repeats) and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) are routinely being used in ecological, evolutionary, taxonomical, phylogenic and genetic studies of plant sciences. These techniques are well established and their advantages as well as limitations have been realized. In recent years, a new class of advanced techniques has emerged, primarily derived from combination of earlier basic techniques. Advanced marker techniques tend to amalgamate advantageous features of several basic techniques. The newer methods also incorporate modifications in the methodology of basic techniques to increase the sensitivity and resolution to detect genetic discontinuity and distinctiveness. The advanced marker techniques also utilize newer class of DNA elements such as retrotransposons, mitochondrial and chloroplast based microsatellites, thereby revealing genetic variation through increased genome coverage. Techniques such as RAPD and AFLP are also being applied to cDNA-based templates to study patterns of gene expression and uncover the genetic basis of biological responses. The review details account of techniques used in identification of markers and their applicability in plant sciences.

  18. Cysticercosis/taeniasis: recent advances in serological and molecular diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, H; Sato, M O; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Nakaya, K; Mamuti, W; Craig, P S; Margono, S S; Ito, A

    2003-01-01

    Serodiagnosis by immunoblot, using recombinant chimeric T. solium antigen and native glycoprotein antigens, has been applied for neurocysticercosis cases. Specific antibodies against both antigens were detected in serum samples from NCC patients involving multiple cysts in the brain, whereas it was not always easy to detect specific antibodies in NCC cases with a solitary cyst or calcified lesion(s). On the other hand, the diagnosis for human taeniasis or worm carriers has been routinely performed by stool examination. In this study, multiplex PCR has been established to differentiate taeniasis using Taenia mitochondrial DNA in fecal samples from worm carriers. Furthermore, the molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by base excision sequence scanning thymine-base analysis has also been introduced. This method provides four thymine-base peak profiles unique for Asian and American/African genotypes of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica. By comparing thymine base peak profiles, it is possible to differentiate human taeniid cestodes without DNA sequencing. The approaches are powerful tools for the routine diagnosis of taeniasis and the molecular identification of taeniid cestodes.

  19. Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

    2000-01-12

    Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

  20. Advances in understanding the molecular mechanism of pancreatic cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Xing Du; Zi-Wen Liu; Lei You; Wen-Ming Wu; Yu-Pei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is usually diagnosed at the late-stage and therefore, has widespread metastasis and a very high mortality rate. The mechanisms underlying PC metastasis are not well understood. Recent advances in genomic sequencing have identiifed groups of gene mutations that affect PC metastasis, but studies elucidating their roles are lacking. The present review was to investigate the molecu-lar mechanisms of PC metastasis. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles on PC metastasis were searched in MEDLINE via PubMed prior to April 2015. The search was limited in English publications. RESULTS: PC metastatic cascades are multi-factorial events including both intrinsic and extrinsic elements. This review highlights the most important genetic alterations and other mechanisms that account for PC invasion and metastasis, with particular regard to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, inlfammation, stress response, and circulating tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of relevant gene functions and signaling pathways are needed to establish the gene regula-tory network and to deifne the pivotal modulators. Another promising area of study is the genotyping and phenotyping of circulating tumor cells, which could lead to a new era of per-sonalized therapy by identifying speciifc markers and targets.

  1. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 3

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 3 covers reviews that are directly related to the two devices which are the epitome of applied solid state science - the transistor and the laser. The book discusses the physics of multilayer-gate IGFET memories; the application of the transient charge technique in drift velocity; and trapping in semiconductors and in materials used in xerography, nuclear particle detectors, and space-charge-limited devices; as well as thin film transistors. The text describes the manipulation of laser beams in solids and discusses

  2. Advances in using MRI probes and sensors for in vivo cell tracking as applied to regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Srivastava

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of molecular and cellular imaging allows molecules and cells to be visualized in vivo non-invasively. It has uses not only as a research tool but in clinical settings as well, for example in monitoring cell-based regenerative therapies, in which cells are transplanted to replace degenerating or damaged tissues, or to restore a physiological function. The success of such cell-based therapies depends on several critical issues, including the route and accuracy of cell transplantation, the fate of cells after transplantation, and the interaction of engrafted cells with the host microenvironment. To assess these issues, it is necessary to monitor transplanted cells non-invasively in real-time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a tool uniquely suited to this task, given its ability to image deep inside tissue with high temporal resolution and sensitivity. Extraordinary efforts have recently been made to improve cellular MRI as applied to regenerative medicine, by developing more advanced contrast agents for use as probes and sensors. These advances enable the non-invasive monitoring of cell fate and, more recently, that of the different cellular functions of living cells, such as their enzymatic activity and gene expression, as well as their time point of cell death. We present here a review of recent advancements in the development of these probes and sensors, and of their functioning, applications and limitations.

  3. Editorial: Advances in Health Education Applying E-Learning, Simulations and Distance Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre W. Kushniruk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the KM&EL international journal is dedicated to coverage of novel advances in health professional education applying e-Learning, simulations and distance education technologies. Modern healthcare is beginning to be transformed through the emergence of new information technologies and rapid advances in health informatics. Advances such as electronic health record systems (EHRs, clinical decision support systems and other advanced information systems such as public health surveillance systems are rapidly being deployed worldwide. The education of health professionals such as medical, nursing and allied health professionals will require an improved understanding of these technologies and how they will transform their healthcare practice. However, currently there is a lack of integration of knowledge and skills related to such technology in health professional education. In this issue of the journal we present articles that describe a set of novel approaches to integrating essential health information technology into the education of health professionals, as well as the use of advanced information technologies and e-Learning approaches for improving health professional education. The approaches range from use of simulations to development of novel Web-based platforms for allowing students to interact with the technologies and healthcare practices that are rapidly changing healthcare.

  4. Genética molecular: avanços e problemas Molecular genetics: advances and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi S. Garcia

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz a discussão sobre genética molecular em saúde ao campo da saúde pública. Com a revolução produzida pela chegada da engenharia genética, é importante discutir alguns dos avanços e problemas desta tecnologia para a sociedade. Está na hora de se fazer uma avaliação clara e bem informada acerca do que já se conseguiu e do que ainda podemos conseguir através desta tecnologia. A sociedade precisa compreender as implicações éticas e práticas de uma tecnologia capaz de produzir drogas milagrosas, dagnósticos modernos e a cura de todas as doenças. Alguns pontos particularmente delicados pertinentes às questões sociais ligadas à biologia molecular e ao projeto genoma humano são discutidos.This article is an attempt to draw the discussion on molecular genetics in health into the public health domain. Now that the genetic engineering revolution has arrived, it is important to point out the advances and problems this technology poses for society. It is time for a clear, informed assessment of what we have already achieved and may soon achieve using this technology. Clearly, society needs to understand the ethical and practical implications of a technology which can produce miracle drugs and modern diagnoses and cure virtually every disease. Important points from sensitive social issues raised by molecular biology and the human genome project are discussed.

  5. Técnicas moleculares aplicadas à microbiologia de alimentos = Molecular techniques applied to food microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ávila Gandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da década de 80, as técnicas moleculares começaram a ser utilizadas como uma alternativa aos métodos fenotípicos, tradicionalmente, utilizados em microbiologia de alimentos. Foi acelerada esta substituição com advento da descoberta da reação em cadeia da polimerase (polymerase chain reaction – PCR. Este artigo tem por objetivo revisar as principais técnicas moleculares utilizadas como ferramentas na microbiologia de alimentos, desde as, inicialmente, desenvolvidas, como a análise do perfil plasmidial, até as mais contemporâneas como o PCR em tempo real, discutindo as características, vantagens e desvantagens destas técnicas, avaliando a potencialidade destas para suprir as limitações das técnicas tradicionais.Beginning in the 1980s, molecular techniques became an alternative to the traditionally used phenotypic methods in food microbiology. With the advent of the polymerase chain reaction technique, this substitution was speed up. This article had as objective to review the main molecular techniques used as tools in food microbiology, from plasmidial profile analysis to contemporary techniques such as the real-time PCR. The characteristics, advantages anddisadvantages of these techniques are discussed, by evaluating the potential of these techniques to overcome the limitations of traditional techniques.

  6. Advances in the MQDT approach of electron/molecular cation reactive collisions: High precision extensive calculations for applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motapon O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the stepwise multichannel quantum defect theory approach of electron/molecular cation reactive collisions have been applied to perform computations of cross sections and rate coefficients for dissociative recombination and electron-impact ro-vibrational transitions of H2+, BeH+ and their deuterated isotopomers. At very low energy, rovibronic interactions play a significant role in the dynamics, whereas at high energy, the dissociative excitation strongly competes with all other reactive processes.

  7. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED TO THE MODERN LOGISTICS OF MILITARY SYSTEMS/EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile ŞERBĂNESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations that achieve cyberpower will command influence in global affairs economically, culturally, militarily, and politically in the decades ahead. Military cyberpower is the application of the domain of cyberspace to operational concepts to accomplish military objectives and missions, and influence operations, as well as warfighting. Infotronics Technologies intertwine advanced information and electronics systems intelligence and enable autonomous business functions and objectives through the use of internet and other tether-free technologies (i.e. wireless, web,…. The modern logistics of military systems / equipment imply core technologies such as Watchdog Agent for Predictive Prognostics, Web-enabled Smart D2B (device to business, Platform and Tools for Data Transformation, Optimization, and Synchronization, Applied Wireless Technologies and Logistics Infotronics Agent (LIA. The hereby article argues that traceability, predictability and diagnosticability through advanced technologies will lead the armed forces to the life cycle logistics approach for interoperability and optimal cost of military systems / equipment.

  8. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Geometrical Derivatives of Energy Surfaces and Molecular Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Jack

    1986-01-01

    The development and computational implementation of analytical expres­ sions for the low-order derivatives of electronic energy surfaces and other molecular properties has undergone rapid growth in recent years. It is now fairly routine for chemists to make use of energy gradient information in locating and identifying stable geometries and transition states. The use of second analytical derivative (Hessian or curvature) expressions is not yet routine, and third and higher energy derivatives as well as property (e.g., dipole moment, polarizability) derivatives are just beginning to be applied to chemical problems. This NATO Advanced Research Workshop focused on analyzing the re­ lative merits of various strategies for deriving the requisite analyti­ cal expressions, for computing necessary integral derivatives and wave­ function parameter derivatives, and for efficiently coding these expres­ sions on conventional scalar machines and vector-oriented computers. The participant list contained many scientist...

  9. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 6

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 6 covers the application of composites in electronic systems. The book discusses different types of composite-composite materials consisting of finely dispersed mixtures of metals and insulators; composite devices in which two distinct semiconductor devices are combined in one package; and composite glass fibers with the core and cladding differing in their optical properties. The text describes articles dealing with properties that can be achieved in versatile materials; light-emitting diodes and photodetectors th

  10. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 2

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 2 covers topics about complex oxide materials such as the garnets, which dominate the field of magnetoelasticity and are among the most important laser hosts, and sodalite, which is one of the classic photochromic materials. The book discusses the physics of the interactions of electromagnetic, elastic, and spin waves in single crystal magnetic insulators. The text then describes the mechanism on which inorganic photochromic materials are based, as observed in a variety of materials in single crystal, powder, and gl

  11. Correlation between electron-irradiation defects and applied stress in graphene: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, Shogo; Yamamoto, Masaya; Kawata, Hiroaki; Hirai, Yoshihiko; Yasuda, Masaaki, E-mail: yasuda@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Tada, Kazuhiro [Department of Electrical and Control Systems Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, Toyama 939-8630 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the correlation between electron irradiation defects and applied stress in graphene. The electron irradiation effect is introduced by the binary collision model in the MD simulation. By applying a tensile stress to graphene, the number of adatom-vacancy (AV) and Stone–Wales (SW) defects increase under electron irradiation, while the number of single-vacancy defects is not noticeably affected by the applied stress. Both the activation and formation energies of an AV defect and the activation energy of an SW defect decrease when a tensile stress is applied to graphene. Applying tensile stress also relaxes the compression stress associated with SW defect formation. These effects induced by the applied stress cause the increase in AV and SW defect formation under electron irradiation.

  12. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology. This report describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help ...

  13. Advances Towards Synthetic Machines at the Molecular and Nanoscale Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Konstas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of increasingly smaller machines to the nanometer scale can be achieved by either a “top-down” or “bottom-up” approach. While the former is reaching its limits of resolution, the latter is showing promise for the assembly of molecular components, in a comparable approach to natural systems, to produce functioning ensembles in a controlled and predetermined manner. In this review we focus on recent progress in molecular systems that act as molecular machine prototypes such as switches, motors, vehicles and logic operators.

  14. Clinical Advances in Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Philip, Philip A.; Seema Sethi; Shadan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis is currently undergoing a paradigm shift with the incorporation of molecular biomarkers as part of routine diagnostic panel. The molecular alteration ranges from those involving the DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding endogenous single-stranded RNAs that critically regulates the development, invasion and metastasis of cancers. They are altered in cancers and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers for cancer...

  15. [Advance in molecular genetic research on primary congenital glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiulan; Liu, Haotian; Zhang, Dingding

    2016-04-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is one of the major diseases causing blindness in children, but its pathogenesis has remained unclear. Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCG. Molecular genetics of candidate genes such as CYP1B1, MYOC, LTBP2 and FOXC1 has so far been explored, but no disease-causing gene has been identified. Molecular genetic research on PCG including candidate gene screening and research strategies are reviewed here.

  16. Recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Zieger, Karsten; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2007-01-01

    individually contributed to the management of the disease. However, the development of high-throughput techniques for simultaneous assessment of a large number of markers has allowed classification of tumors into clinically relevant molecular subgroups beyond those possible by pathological classification. Here......, we review the recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers....

  17. Advances in studies of the tribological behavior of molecular deposition films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yuqi; Zhang Siwei; Wang Deguo; Gao Manglai

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the advances in studies on tribology of molecular deposition (MD) films is presented here to summarize the studies of nanofrictional properties, adhesion, wear and mechanical behavior, as well as the molecular dynamics simulation of nanotribological properties of the film in the last decade. Some key research topics which need to be investigate further are addressed.

  18. Advances in Molecular Imaging of Locally Delivered Targeted Therapeutics for Central Nervous System Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Tosi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the recent advances in the development of chemotherapeutics, the morbidity and mortality of many cancers has decreased significantly. However, compared to oncology in general, the field of neuro-oncology has lagged behind. While new molecularly targeted chemotherapeutics have emerged, the impermeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB renders systemic delivery of these clinical agents suboptimal. To circumvent the BBB, novel routes of administration are being applied in the clinic, ranging from intra-arterial infusion and direct infusion into the target tissue (convection enhanced delivery (CED to the use of focused ultrasound to temporarily disrupt the BBB. However, the current system depends on a “wait-and-see” approach, whereby drug delivery is deemed successful only when a specific clinical outcome is observed. The shortcomings of this approach are evident, as a failed delivery that needs immediate refinement cannot be observed and corrected. In response to this problem, new theranostic agents, compounds with both imaging and therapeutic potential, are being developed, paving the way for improved and monitored delivery to central nervous system (CNS malignancies. In this review, we focus on the advances and the challenges to improve early cancer detection, selection of targeted therapy, and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, brought forth by the development of these new agents.

  19. Advancing Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas through Targeted Molecular Therapies: The Acromegaly & Cushing Disease Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Anthony Mooney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current treatment of pituitary adenomas requires a balance of conservative management, surgical resection, and in select tumor types, molecular therapy. Acromegaly treatment is an evolving field where our understanding of molecular targets and drug therapies has improved treatment options for patients with excess growth hormone levels. We highlight the use of molecular therapies in this disease process and advances in this field, which may represent a paradigm shift for the future of pituitary adenoma treatment.

  20. Advancing Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas through Targeted Molecular Therapies: The Acromegaly and Cushing Disease Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Michael A.; Simon, Elias D.; Little, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    The current treatment of pituitary adenomas requires a balance of conservative management, surgical resection, and in select tumor types, molecular therapy. Acromegaly treatment is an evolving field where our understanding of molecular targets and drug therapies has improved treatment options for patients with excess growth hormone levels. We highlight the use of molecular therapies in this disease process and advances in this field, which may represent a paradigm shift for the future of pituitary adenoma treatment. PMID:27517036

  1. Improving human forensics through advances in genetics, genomics and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Manfred; de Knijff, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Forensic DNA profiling currently allows the identification of persons already known to investigating authorities. Recent advances have produced new types of genetic markers with the potential to overcome some important limitations of current DNA profiling methods. Moreover, other developments are enabling completely new kinds of forensically relevant information to be extracted from biological samples. These include new molecular approaches for finding individuals previously unknown to investigators, and new molecular methods to support links between forensic sample donors and criminal acts. Such advances in genetics, genomics and molecular biology are likely to improve human forensic case work in the near future.

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows bridges the gap between the fluid dynamics and molecular physics communities, emphasizing the role played by elementary processes in hypersonic flows. In particular, the work is primarily dedicated to filling the gap between microscopic and macroscopic treatments of the source terms to be inserted in the fluid dynamics codes. The first part of the book describes the molecular dynamics of elementary processes both in the gas phase and in the interaction with surfaces by using quantum mechanical and phenomenological approaches. A second group of contributions describes thermodynamics and transport properties of air components, with special attention to the transport of internal energy. A series of papers is devoted to the experimental and theoretical study of the flow of partially ionized gases. Subsequent contributions treat modern computational techniques for 3-D hypersonic flow. Non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics are then described, together with the coupling of vibra...

  3. Applicable advances in the molecular pathology of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Melissa; Motomura, Kazuya; Ohka, Fumiharu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Natsume, Atsushi

    2015-07-01

    Comprising more than 80% of malignant brain tumors, glioma has proven to be a daunting cause of mortality in a vast majority of the human population. Progressive and extensive research on malignant glioma has substantially enhanced our understanding of glioma cell biology and molecular pathology. Subtypes of glioma such as astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma are currently grouped together into one pathological class, where they show many differences in histology and molecular etiology. This indicates that it may be beneficial to consider a new and radical subclassification. Thus, we summarize recent developments in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) subtypes, immunohistochemical analyses useful for diagnoses and the biological evaluation and therapeutic implications of gliomas in this review.

  4. Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis. (KRM)

  5. Cocoa phytochemicals: recent advances in molecular mechanisms on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Jaekyoon; Shim, Jaesung; Lee, Chang Yong; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports on cocoa are appealing in that a food commonly consumed for pure pleasure might also bring tangible benefits for human health. Cocoa consumption is correlated with reduced health risks of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer, and the health-promoting effects of cocoa are mediated by cocoa-driven phytochemicals. Cocoa is rich in procyanidins, theobromine, (-)-epicatechin, catechins, and caffeine. Among the phytochemicals present in consumed cocoa, theobromine is most available in human plasma, followed by caffeine, (-)-epicatechin, catechin, and procyanidins. It has been reported that cocoa phytochemicals specifically modulate or interact with specific molecular targets linked to the pathogenesis of chronic human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, diabetes, and skin aging. This review summarizes comprehensive recent findings on the beneficial actions of cocoa-driven phytochemicals in molecular mechanisms of human health.

  6. Advances in tomography: probing the molecular architecture of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Karen; Mader, Asaf; Zwerger, Monika; Elia, Natalie; Medalia, Ohad

    2012-11-01

    Visualizing the dynamic molecular architecture of cells is instrumental for answering fundamental questions in cellular and structural biology. Although modern microscopy techniques, including fluorescence and conventional electron microscopy, have allowed us to gain insights into the molecular organization of cells, they are limited in their ability to visualize multicomponent complexes in their native environment. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) allows cells, and the macromolecular assemblies contained within, to be reconstructed in situ, at a resolution of 2-6 nm. By combining cryo-ET with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy approaches, it should be possible to localize proteins with high precision inside cells and so elucidate a more realistic view of cellular processes. Thus, cryo-ET may bridge the resolution gap between cellular and structural biology.

  7. Recent advances in molecular biology of gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧树东; 冉志华

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a major health care problem and the second most common fatal cancer worldwide. In the last decade, better insight has been gained into the molecular basis underlying the neoplasitc transformation of stomach. The dramatic variation in the incidence of gastric cancer in different geographical areas and from one generation to the next have led to the hypothesis that the incidence of gastric cancer is determined largely by environmental rather than genetic factors.

  8. Molecular diagnosis of endemic and invasive mycoses: advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Beatriz L

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of endemic and invasive fungal disease remains challenging. Molecular techniques for identification of fungi now play a significant and growing role in clinical mycology and offer distinct advantages as they are faster, more sensitive and more specific. The aim of this mini-review is to provide an overview of the state of the art of molecular diagnosis of endemic and invasive fungal diseases, and to emphasize the challenges and current need for standardization of the different methods. The European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI) has made significant progress in developing a standard for Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), but recognizes that the process will not be finished until clinical utility has been established in formal and extensive clinical trials. Similar efforts should be implemented for the diagnosis of the other mycoses in order to fully validate the current methods or reinforce the need to design new ones. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  9. Molecular and structural advances in tissue factor-dependent coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhofer, D; Banner, D W

    1997-11-01

    The tissue factor:factor VIIa (TF-F.VIIa) complex is considered the physiological initiator of blood coagulation. Besides its role in normal hemostasis, this enzyme complex has been found to play an important role in various thrombotic disorders and thus has become an attractive target for the development of new anticoagulants. Recently, significant progress has been made in regard to structural and molecular aspects of TF-VIIa-initiated coagulation. A rather complete picture on how tissue factor binds to factor VIIa has emerged and is discussed in detail in this review. Also, the combined data of the TF-F.VIIa crystal structure, of naturally occurring F.VII variants, and of mutagenesis studies provide a framework to discuss molecular aspects of the tissue factor-mediated enhancement of F.VIIa catalytic efficiency and the recognition of macromolecular substrates. F.VIIa as a member of the serine protease family has an active site homologous to other coagulation factors. The release of the coordinates of the crystal structures of F.X and F.IX, together with the earlier determined thrombin structure, now allows a detailed comparison of these active centers with respect to the development of specific and potent active site inhibitors. This structural and molecular information about the TF-F.VIIa complex and other coagulation enzymes adds to our understanding of blood coagulation and should further the development of new classes of anticoagulants. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:316-324). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  10. Archaeal Diversity in Biofilm Technologies Applied to Treat Urban and Industrial Wastewater: Recent Advances and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús González-López

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment (WWT frequently relies on biofilms for the removal of anthropogenic contaminants. The use of inert carrier materials to support biofilm development is often required, although under certain operating conditions microorganisms yield structures called granules, dense aggregates of self-immobilized cells with the characteristics of biofilms maintained in suspension. Molecular techniques have been successfully applied in recent years to identify the prokaryotic communities inhabiting biofilms in WWT plants. Although methanogenic Archaea are widely acknowledged as key players for the degradation of organic matter in anaerobic bioreactors, other biotechnological functions fulfilled by Archaea are less explored, and research on their significance and potential for WWT is largely needed. In addition, the occurrence of biofilms in WWT plants can sometimes be a source of operational problems. This is the case for membrane bioreactors (MBR, an advanced technology that combines conventional biological treatment with membrane filtration, which is strongly limited by biofouling, defined as the undesirable accumulation of microbial biofilms and other materials on membrane surfaces. The prevalence and spatial distribution of archaeal communities in biofilm-based WWT as well as their role in biofouling are reviewed here, in order to illustrate the significance of this prokaryotic cellular lineage in engineered environments devoted to WWT.

  11. Clinical impact of extensive molecular profiling in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Sophie; Grellety, Thomas; Toulmonde, Maud; Auzanneau, Céline; Khalifa, Emmanuel; Laizet, Yec'han; Tran, Kevin; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Floquet, Anne; Garbay, Delphine; Robert, Jacques; Hostein, Isabelle; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Italiano, Antoine

    2017-02-08

    Previous precision medicine studies have investigated conventional molecular techniques and/or limited sets of gene alterations. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the next-generation sequencing of the largest panel of genes used to date in tumour tissue and blood in the context of institutional molecular screening programmes. DNA analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing using a panel of 426 cancer-related genes and by comparative genomic hybridization from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archived tumour samples when available or from fresh tumour samples. Five hundred sixty-eight patients were enrolled. The median number of prior lines of treatment was 2 (range 0-9). The most common primary tumour types were lung (16.9%), colorectal (14.4%), breast (10.6%), ovarian (10.2%) and sarcoma (10.2%). The median patient age was 63 years (range 19-88). A total of 292 patients (51.4%) presented with at least one actionable genetic alteration. The 20 genes most frequently altered were TP53, CDKN2A, KRAS, PTEN, PI3KCA, RB1, APC, ERBB2, MYC, EGFR, CDKN2B, ARID1A, SMAD4, FGFR1, MDM2, BRAF, ATM, CCNE1, FGFR3 and FRS2. One hundred fifty-nine patients (28%) were included in early phase trials. The treatment was matched with a tumour profile in 86 cases (15%). The two main reasons for non-inclusion were non-progressive disease (31.5%) and general status deterioration (25%). Twenty-eight percent of patients presented with a growth modulation index (time to progression under the early phase trial treatment/time to progression of the previous line of treatment) >1.3.Extensive molecular profiling using high-throughput techniques allows for the identification of actionable mutations in the majority of cases and is associated with substantial clinical benefit in up to one in four patients.

  12. Enhanced Molecular Dynamics Sampling Methods Applied to Existing and Novel Polypeptide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayre, Natha Robert

    This thesis consists of the application of certain advanced physics-based theoretical-computational approaches to the exploration of the structure and dynamics of polypeptides --- the key chemical constituents of proteins, a class of biologically essential molecules. Improved statistical-mechanical sampling methods and advanced computational methods were combined in studies that informed both theory and experiment. Part of this work was devoted to the development of improved sampling capabilities simultaneously on three fronts: (1) the ubiquitous use of generalized-ensemble techniques to broadly explore molecular energy landscapes, (2) efficient approximative multi-scale integration techniques for molecular dynamics, and (3) the deployment of novel parallel computational facilities capable of order-of-magnitude speed-ups in the evaluation of biomolecular models. Herein, biophysical experiments inform molecular-mechanical theory and vice versa. In one study, the known folding stability of a small beta-hairpin peptide was compared with the same from simulations using variant model parameterizations, while the more accurate of these latter enabled insight into mechanisms for stability. In another study, the observed stability of a native left-handed beta-helical peptide segment verified the accuracy of two refined parameter sets, while further simulations on diverse sequences suggest mechanisms for the folding behavior of the beta-helical motif. Furthermore, the sequences that were chosen for this latter study open up exciting avenues for more systematic theoretical study of homopolypeptides such as polyglutamine; variants of prion protein and other amyloidogenic sequences; and heuristically-designed super-stable beta-helical sequences. Indeed, the relative stability analysis presented herein is general to any structure or sequence, and could be extended to the study of other rare or novel folding motifs beyond the beta-helix.

  13. Recent advances in molecular biology of parasitic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Gouri Rani; Stark, Damien; Rashid, Harunor; Ellis, John T

    2014-01-01

    The numerous protozoa that can inhabit the human gastro-intestinal tract are known, yet little is understood of the viruses which infect these protozoa. The discovery, morphologic details, purification methods of virus-like particles, genome and proteome of the parasitic viruses, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the Eimeria sp. are described in this review. The protozoan viruses share many common features: most of them are RNA or double-stranded RNA viruses, ranging between 5 and 8 kilobases, and are spherical or icosahedral in shape with an average diameter of 30-40 nm. These viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa which they infect, and may be important to investigate from a clinical perspective. The viruses may be used as specific genetic transfection vectors for the parasites and may represent a research tool. This review provides an overview on recent advances in the field of protozoan viruses.

  14. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YUE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  15. Recent Advances in Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity Mechanisms and Its Molecular Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobin Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a sympathomimetic amine that belongs to phenethylamine and amphetamine class of psychoactive drugs, which are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic, and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, METH produces persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin release in nerve terminals, gliosis, and apoptosis. This review summarized the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excessive dopamine, ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction, protein nitration, endoplasmic reticulum stress, p53 expression, inflammatory molecular, D3 receptor, microtubule deacetylation, and HIV-1 Tat protein that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. In addition, the feasible therapeutic strategies according to recent studies were also summarized ranging from drug and protein to gene level.

  16. Molecular targeted therapy in the treatment of advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarakulasinghe, Nesaretnam Barr; van Zanwijk, Nico; Soo, Ross A

    2015-04-01

    Historically, patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with chemotherapy alone, but a therapeutic plateau has been reached. Advances in the understanding of molecular genetics have led to the recognition of multiple molecularly distinct subsets of NSCLC. This in turn has led to the development of rationally directed molecular targeted therapy, leading to improved clinical outcomes. Tumour genotyping for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangement has meant chemotherapy is no longer given automatically as first-line treatment but reserved for when patients do not have a 'druggable' driver oncogene. In this review, we will address the current status of clinically relevant driver mutations and emerging new molecular subsets in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and the role of targeted therapy and mechanisms of acquired resistance to targeted therapy.

  17. Molecular field technology applied to virtual screening and finding the bioactive conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseright, Tim; Mackey Phd, Mark; Rose Phd, Sally; Vinter Phd, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Virtual screening is being applied to reduce the high-throughput screening bottleneck in many pharmaceutical companies and to reduce compound wastage. Cresset's ligand-based virtual screening technology using molecular fields can facilitate rapid identification of novel chemotypes from biologically testing only 200 - 1000 compounds. Four molecular fields calculated using the interaction of different probe atoms with the ligand are sufficient to describe how a ligand binds to its protein. Compounds with similar fields to known active ligands are predicted to have a high probability of showing similar activity. As binding is related to field similarity, this property has been exploited further to predict the bioactive conformation of small sets of structurally diverse active ligands starting from the two-dimensional structures alone without knowledge of the target site structure.

  18. Recent advances in molecular techniques to study microbial communities in food-associated matrices and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justé, A; Thomma, B P H J; Lievens, B

    2008-09-01

    In the last two decades major changes have occurred in how microbial ecologists study microbial communities. Limitations associated with traditional culture-based methods have pushed for the development of culture-independent techniques, which are primarily based on the analysis of nucleic acids. These methods are now increasingly applied in food microbiology as well. This review presents an overview of current community profiling techniques with their (potential) applications in food and food-related ecosystems. We critically assessed both the power and limitations of these techniques and present recent advances in the field of food microbiology attained by their application. It is unlikely that a single approach will be universally applicable for analyzing microbial communities in unknown matrices. However, when screening samples for well-defined species or functions, techniques such as DNA arrays and real-time PCR have the potential to overtake current culture-based methods. Most importantly, molecular methods will allow us to surpass our current culturing limitations, thus revealing the extent and importance of the 'non-culturable' microbial flora that occurs in food matrices and production.

  19. A perfect time to harness advanced molecular technologies to explore the fundamental biology of Toxocara species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Robin B

    2013-04-15

    Toxocarosis is of major canine health and socioeconomic importance worldwide. Although many studies have given insights into toxocarosis, to date, there has been limited exploration of the molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology and ecology of Toxocara species as well as parasite-host interactions using '-omic' technologies. The present article gives a background on Toxocara species and toxocarosis, describes molecular tools for specific identification and genetic analysis, and provides a prospective view of the benefits that advanced molecular technologies will have towards better understanding the parasites and disease. Tackling key biological questions employing a 'systems biology' approach should lead to new and improved strategies for the treatment, diagnosis and control of toxocarosis.

  20. 78 FR 59927 - Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... results and lessons learned from the prototypes/case studies for use of molecular, computational, and... advances in biology can inform risk assessment; (2) identify which of the information resources and... Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other...

  1. From Uniplex to Multiplex Molecular Profiling in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileana, Ecaterina E; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Izzo, Julie G

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Understanding the molecular biology of survival and proliferation of cancer cells led to a new molecular classification of lung cancer and the development of targeted therapies with promising results. With the advances of image-guided biopsy techniques, tumor samples are becoming smaller, and the molecular testing techniques have to overcome the challenge of integrating the characterization of a panel of abnormalities including gene mutations, copy-number changes, and fusions in a reduced number of assays using only a small amount of genetic material. This article reviews the current knowledge about the most frequent actionable molecular abnormalities in non-small cell lung carcinoma, the new approaches of molecular analysis, and the implications of these findings in the context of clinical practice.

  2. Advanced Nanostructured Molecular Sieves for Energy Efficient Industrial Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunhao Li, Michael Beaver

    2012-01-18

    Due to the very small relative volatility difference between propane and propylene, current propane/propylene separation by distillation requires very tall distillation towers (150-250 theoretical plates) and large reflux ratios (up to 15), which is considered to be the most energy consuming large-scale separation process. Adsorptive separation processes are widely considered to be more energy-efficient alternatives to distillation. However, slow diffusion kinetics/mass transport rate through the adsorbent bed often limits the performance of such processes, so further improvements are possible if intra-particle mass transfer rates can be improved. Rive Technology, Inc. is developing and commercializing its proprietary mesoporous zeolite technology for catalysis and separation. With well-controlled intracrystalline mesoporosity, diffusion kinetics through such mesoporous zeolite based catalysts is much improved relative to conventional zeolites, leading to significantly better product selectivity. This 'proof-of-principle' project (DE-EE0003470) is intended to demonstrate that Rive mesoporous zeolite technology can be extended and applied in adsorptive propane/propylene separation and lead to significant energy saving compared to the current distillation process. In this project, the mesoporous zeolite Y synthesis technology was successfully extended to X and A zeolites that are more relevant to adsorbent applications. Mesoporosity was introduced to zeolite X and A for the first time while maintaining adequate adsorption capacity. Zeolite adsorbents were tested for liquid phase separation performance using a pulse flow test unit and the test results show that the separation selectivity of the mesoporous zeolite adsorbent is much closer to optimal for a Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) separation process and the enhanced mesoporosity lead to >100% increase of overall mass transport rate for propane and propylene. These improvements will significantly improve the

  3. Advanced geospatial technologies applied to gravel-bed river mapping and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Graeme Richard

    Mapping and modeling of river channels is essential in defining the Channel Migration Zone (CMZ). CMZ delineation is necessary to mitigate hazards, create opportunities to protect riparian habitat, predict channel response to changing land cover and disturbances, and design more environmentally-aligned engineering structures. This provides a compelling challenge to the GIScientist because of the need to understand fluvial process dynamics in space and time, and the narrow, elongated, and sinuous geometry of fluvial systems which complicates data collection, management and modeling of digital data describing these. This requires creation, management and correlation of a vast array of data of varying density and quality. Research presented here develops and applies advanced geospatial data, technologies, and modeling to CMZ mapping of a dynamic gravel-bed river in the state of Washington, USA. Chapter 2 demonstrates how new, object-based image processing techniques enhance river mapping accuracies and data modeling opportunities by incorporating the spatial characteristics and relationships of hydrogeomorphic objects into the classification process, by fusing high resolution DEMs with image data, and by accounting for uncertainty. In chapter 3, development and assimilation of a high resolution topographic LiDAR-based DEM with a one-dimensional hydraulic model enables the avulsion hazard of a reach of the Naches River in the state of Washington to be determined for multiple flow and channel-change scenarios. The DEM is used to optimize performance of the 1D hydraulic model HEC-RAS, post-processed output of which facilitates calculation of spatially explicit shear stress (tau0) and specific stream power per unit bed area (o). In Chapter 4 a new data intensive GIS-based framework for delineating CMZs is implemented and assessed. The approach incorporates historical maps, field-survey data, and LiDAR derived data products as well as a system design that provides a

  4. Molecular-targeted therapy for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Giovanna; Libra, Massimo; Panebianco, Vincenzo; Russo, Alessia Erika; Vitale, Felice Vito; Colina, Paolo; D'Angelo, Alessandro; Rossello, Rosalba; Ferraù, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in men and women. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents close to 90% of all lung cancers. When diagnosed, >50% of patients are >65 years old. Through an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in lung oncogenesis, molecular-targeted approaches have become an essential element for the treatment of patients with NSCLC. As the toxicity profiles of the techniques are definitely more favorable compared with chemotherapy, they are particularly attractive for use in elderly patients, who are potentially more susceptible to the toxicity of systemic oncological therapies. However, studies on the activity of molecular-targeted agents in this aged patient setting are much more limited compared with those in their younger counterparts. In the present review, the literature on molecular-targeted therapy for elderly patients with advanced NSCLC is discussed. It is concluded that bevacizumab should be reserved only for highly select elderly patients with advanced NSCLC when the clinician deems it useful in the face of acceptable toxicities. In elderly patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive NSCLC, erlotinib and gefitinib appear to repeat the same favorable performance as that documented on a larger scale in the overall population of patients with activating mutations. A good toxicity profile is also confirmed for active molecules on different pathways, such as crizotinib.

  5. Electrochemical microfluidic chip based on molecular imprinting technique applied for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Min; Tian, Liping; Sun, Shiguo; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Feilang; Li, Yingchun

    2017-05-15

    In this work, a novel electrochemical detection platform was established by integrating molecularly imprinting technique with microfluidic chip and applied for trace measurement of three therapeutic drugs. The chip foundation is acrylic panel with designed grooves. In the detection cell of the chip, a Pt wire is used as the counter electrode and reference electrode, and a Au-Ag alloy microwire (NPAMW) with 3D nanoporous surface modified with electro-polymerized molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film as the working electrode. Detailed characterization of the chip and the working electrode was performed, and the properties were explored by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two methods, respectively based on electrochemical catalysis and MIP/gate effect were employed for detecting warfarin sodium by using the prepared chip. The linearity of electrochemical catalysis method was in the range of 5×10(-6)-4×10(-4)M, which fails to meet clinical testing demand. By contrast, the linearity of gate effect was 2×10(-11)-4×10(-9)M with remarkably low detection limit of 8×10(-12)M (S/N=3), which is able to satisfy clinical assay. Then the system was applied for 24-h monitoring of drug concentration in plasma after administration of warfarin sodium in rabbit, and the corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. In addition, the microfluidic chip was successfully adopted to analyze cyclophosphamide and carbamazepine, implying its good versatile ability. It is expected that this novel electrochemical microfluidic chip can act as a promising format for point-of-care testing via monitoring different analytes sensitively and conveniently.

  6. Rotational spectra of N$_2^+$: An advanced undergraduate laboratory in atomic and molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bayram, S B; Arndt, P T

    2015-01-01

    We describe an inexpensive instructional experiment that demonstrates the rotational energy levels of diatomic nitrogen, using the emission band spectrum of molecular nitrogen ionized by various processes in a commercial AC capillary discharge tube. The simple setup and analytical procedure is introduced as part of a sequence of educational experiments employed by a course of advanced atomic and molecular spectroscopy, where the study of rotational spectra is combined with the analysis of vibrational characteristics for a multifaceted picture of the quantum states of diatomic molecules.

  7. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE PREPARATION OF MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERS VIA CONTROLLED RADICAL POLYMERIZATION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imprinting technique is a simple and efficient method for the preparation of polymer materials (i.e., molecularly imprinted polymers, MIPs) with tailor-made recognition sites for certain target molecules. The resulting MIPs have proven to be versatile synthetic receptors due to their high specific recognition ability, favorable mechanical, thermal and chemical stability, and ease of preparation. Recent years have witnessed significant progress in the synthesis and applications of MIPs. This review focus on the recent developments and advances in the preparation of MIPs via various controlled radical polymerization techniques.

  8. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE PREPARATION OF MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERS VIA CONTROLLED RADICAL POLYMERIZATION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; ZHANG Huiqi

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imprinting technique is a simple and efficient method for the preparation of polymer materials (i.e., molecularly imprinted polymers, MIPs) with tailor-made recognition sites for certain target molecules.The resulting MIPs have proven to be versatile synthetic receptors due to their high specific recognition ability, favorable mechanical, thermal and chemical stability, and ease of preparation.Recent years have witnessed signifwant progress in the synthesis and applications of MIPs.This review focus on the recent developments and advances in the preparation of MIPs via various controlled radical polymerization techniques.

  9. Using Advanced Computing in Applied Dynamics: From the Dynamics of Granular Material to the Motion of the Mars Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    USING ADVANCED COMPUTING IN APPLIED DYNAMICS: FROM THE DYNAMICS OF GRANULAR MATERIAL TO THE MOTION OF THE MARS ROVER Dan Negrut NVIDIA CUDA ...for public release. #24389 12 Lab’s Research Heterogeneous Cluster • More than 50,000 GPU scalar processors • More than 1,200 CPU cores • Fast...emerging hardware” : • GPUs and clusters of CPUs • “open engineering problems” : • Fluid-solid interaction, vehicle mobility, soil modeling

  10. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Electronic Structure of Polymers and Molecular Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ladik, János

    1975-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Electronic Structure of Polymers and Molecular Crystals" was held at the Facultes Universi­ taires de Namur (F.U.N.) from September 1st till September 14th, 1974. We wish to express our appreciation to the NATO Scientific Affairs Division whose generous support made this Institute possible and to the Facultes Universitaires de Namur and the Societe Chimique de Belgique which provided fellowships and travel grants to a number of students. This volume contains the main lectures about the basic principles of the field and about different recent developments of the theory of the electronic structure of polymers and molecular crystals. The school started with the presentation of the basic SCF-LCAO theory of the electronic structure of periodic polymers and molecular crystals (contributions by Ladik, Andre & Delhalle) showing how a combination of quantum chemical and solid state physical methods can provide band structures for these systems. The numerical aspects of these ...

  11. Applying a one-dimensional PDR model to the Taurus molecular cloud and its atomic envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Heiner, J S

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we test our previously published one-dimensional PDR model for deriving total hydrogen volume densities from HI column density measurements in extragalactic regions by applying it to the Taurus molecular cloud, where its predictions can be compared to available data. Also, we make the first direct detailed comparison of our model to CO(1-0) and far-infrared emission. Using an incident UV flux G0 of 4.25 ({\\chi} = 5) throughout the main body of the cloud, we derive total hydrogen volume densities of \\approx 430 cm-3, consistent with the extensive literature available on Taurus. The distribution of the volume densities shows a log-normal shape with a hint of a power-law shape on the high density end. We convert our volume densities to H2 column densities assuming a cloud depth of 5 parsec and compare these column densities to observed CO emission. We find a slope equivalent to a CO conversion factor relation that is on the low end of reported values for this factor in the literature (0.9 x...

  12. Applying universal scaling laws to identify the best molecular design paradigms for second-order nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Moreno, Javier; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    We apply scaling and the theory of the fundamental limits of the second-order molecular susceptibility to identify material classes with ultralarge nonlinear-optical response. Size effects are removed by normalizing all nonlinearities to get intrinsic values so that the scaling behavior of a series of molecular homologues can be determined. Several new figures of merit are proposed that quantify the desirable properties for molecules that can be designed by adding a sequence of repeat units, and used in the assessment of the data. Three molecular classes are found. They are characterized by sub-scaling, nominal scaling, or super-scaling. Super-scaling homologues most efficiently take advantage of increased size. We apply our approach to data currently available in the literature to identify the best super-scaling molecular paradigms with the aim of identifying desirable traits of new materials.

  13. Applying universal scaling laws to identify the best molecular design paradigms for third-order nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Moreno, Javier; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The scaling of the fundamental limits of the second hyperpolarizability is used to define the intrinsic second hyperpolarizability, which aids in identifying material classes with ultralarge nonlinear-optical response per unit of molecular size. The intrinsic nonlinear response is a size-independent metric that we apply to comparing classes of molecular homologues, which are made by adding repeat units to extend their lengths. Several new figures of merit are proposed that quantify not only the intrinsic nonlinear response, but also how the second hyperpolarizability increases with size within a molecular class. Scaling types can be classified into sub-scaling, nominal scaling that follows the theory of limits, and super-scaling behavior. Super-scaling homologues that have large intrinsic nonlinearity are the most promising because they efficiently take advantage of increased size. We apply our approach to data in the literature to identify the best super-scaling molecular paradigms and articulate the importa...

  14. Molecular targeted therapy of advanced gastric cancer%进展期胃癌分子靶向治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王润洁; 石晓燕; 黄薇; 刘超英

    2012-01-01

    Efficacy of chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer is unsatisfactory. Molecular targeted therapies have emerged as a novel approach to the treatment of advanced gastric cancer in recent years.These therapeutic strategies include targeting EGFR signal transduction pathway,anti-angiogenesis therapy,multi-target molecular targeted drugs. Targeted drugs such as trastuzumab,cetuximab,bevacizumab,apatinib,sorafenib sunitinib,lapatinib and everolimus which are targeting HER2,EGFR,VEGF and mTOR pathway,are applied in the comprehensive treatment of advanced gastric cancer,and their therapeutic effects are encouraging.%进展期胃癌化疗效果不佳.分子靶向治疗是近年来进展期胃癌综合治疗的新手段.目前这些策略主要包括针对表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)通道的靶向治疗、针对血管内皮生长因子通道的靶向治疗、口服小分子靶向药物等.近期有关HER2、EGFR、VEGF、mTOR信号通路的靶向药物曲妥珠单抗、西妥昔单抗、贝伐单抗、阿帕替尼、索拉非尼、舒尼替尼、拉帕替尼、RAD001 (everolimus)等综合治疗进展期胃癌的报道结果令人鼓舞.

  15. Advances in Rosetta structure prediction for difficult molecular-replacement problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMaio, Frank, E-mail: dimaio@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, UW Box 357350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Modeling advances using Rosetta structure prediction to aid in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems are discussed. Recent work has shown the effectiveness of structure-prediction methods in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems. The Rosetta protein structure modeling suite can aid in the solution of difficult molecular-replacement problems using templates from 15 to 25% sequence identity; Rosetta refinement guided by noisy density has consistently led to solved structures where other methods fail. In this paper, an overview of the use of Rosetta for these difficult molecular-replacement problems is provided and new modeling developments that further improve model quality are described. Several variations to the method are introduced that significantly reduce the time needed to generate a model and the sampling required to improve the starting template. The improvements are benchmarked on a set of nine difficult cases and it is shown that this improved method obtains consistently better models in less running time. Finally, strategies for best using Rosetta to solve difficult molecular-replacement problems are presented and future directions for the role of structure-prediction methods in crystallography are discussed.

  16. Recent advances on host plants and expression cassettes' structure and function in plant molecular pharming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhzoum, Abdullah; Benyammi, Roukia; Moustafa, Khaled; Trémouillaux-Guiller, Jocelyne

    2014-04-01

    Plant molecular pharming is a promising system to produce important recombinant proteins such as therapeutic antibodies, pharmaceuticals, enzymes, growth factors, and vaccines. The system provides an interesting alternative method to the direct extraction of proteins from inappropriate source material while offering the possibility to overcome problems related to product safety and source availability. Multiple factors including plant hosts, genes of interest, expression vector cassettes, and extraction and purification techniques play important roles in the plant molecular pharming. Plant species, as a biosynthesis platform, are a crucial factor in achieving high yields of recombinant protein in plant. The choice of recombinant gene and its expression strategy is also of great importance in ensuring a high amount of the recombinant proteins. Many studies have been conducted to improve expression, accumulation, and purification of the recombinant protein from molecular pharming systems. Re-engineered vectors and expression cassettes are also pivotal tools in enhancing gene expression at the transcription and translation level, and increasing protein accumulation, stability, retention and targeting of specific organelles. In this review, we report recent advances and strategies of plant molecular pharming while focusing on the choice of plant hosts and the role of some molecular pharming elements and approaches: promoters, codon optimization, signal sequences, and peptides used for upstream design, purification and downstream processing.

  17. Modeling of Broadband Liners Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with an increase in bypass ratio and incorporation of advanced fan designs. Therefore, while the attenuation of fan tones remains a major factor in engine nacelle acoustic liner design, the simultaneous reduction of broadband fan noise levels has received increased interest. As such, a previous investigation focused on improvements to an established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) rig as a demonstrator. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom liner designs were carried through design, fabrication, and testing. This paper addresses a number of areas for further research identified in the initial assessment of the ANCF study. Specifically, incident source specification and uncertainty in some aspects of the predicted liner impedances are addressed. This information is incorporated in updated predictions of the liner performance and comparisons with measurement are greatly improved. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of various liner designs. This study also provides further confidence in the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  18. Choroid plexus papillomas: advances in molecular biology and understanding of tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C; Bloch, Orin; Sun, Matthew Z; Kaur, Gurvinder; Auguste, Kurtis I; Tihan, Tarik; Parsa, Andrew T

    2013-03-01

    Choroid plexus papillomas are rare, benign tumors originating from the choroid plexus. Although generally found within the ventricular system, they can arise ectopically in the brain parenchyma or disseminate throughout the neuraxis. We sought to review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and oncogenic pathways associated with this disease. A comprehensive PubMed literature review was conducted to identify manuscripts discussing the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of choroid plexus papillomas. Articles concerning diagnosis, treatment, and long-term patient outcomes were also reviewed. The introduction of atypical choroid plexus papilloma as a distinct entity has increased the need for accurate histopathologic diagnosis. Advances in immunohistochemical staining have improved our ability to differentiate choroid plexus papillomas from other intracranial tumors or metastatic lesions using combinations of key markers and mitotic indices. Recent findings have implicated Notch3 signaling, the transcription factor TWIST1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand pathway in choroid plexus papilloma tumorigenesis. A combination of commonly occurring chromosomal duplications and deletions has also been identified. Surgical resection remains the standard of care, although chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be considered for recurrent or metastatic lesions. While generally considered benign, these tumors possess a complex biology that sheds insight into other choroid plexus tumors, particularly malignant choroid plexus carcinomas. Improving our understanding of the molecular biology, genetics, and oncogenic pathways associated with this tumor will allow for the development of targeted therapies and improved outcomes for patients with this disease.

  19. Molecular and therapeutic advances in the diagnosis and management of malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowery, Aoife J

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting tumors derived from chromaffin cells originating in the neural crest. These tumors represent a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because the diagnosis of malignancy is frequently made in retrospect by the development of metastatic or recurrent disease. Complete surgical resection offers the only potential for cure; however, recurrence can occur even after apparently successful resection of the primary tumor. The prognosis for malignant disease is poor because traditional treatment modalities have been limited. The last decade has witnessed exciting discoveries in the study of PCCs and PGLs; advances in molecular genetics have uncovered hereditary and germline mutations of at least 10 genes that contribute to the development of these tumors, and increasing knowledge of genotype-phenotype interactions has facilitated more accurate determination of malignant potential. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for malignant transformation in these tumors has opened avenues of investigation into targeted therapeutics that show promising results. There have also been significant advances in functional and radiological imaging and in the surgical approach to adrenalectomy, which remains the mainstay of treatment for PCC. In this review, we discuss the currently available diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with malignant PCCs and PGLs and detail the molecular rationale and clinical evidence for novel and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  20. Advanced Electron Holography Applied to Electromagnetic Field Study in Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Park, Hyun Soon

    2016-11-17

    Advances and applications of electron holography to the study of electromagnetic fields in various functional materials are presented. In particular, the development of split-illumination electron holography, which introduces a biprism in the illumination system of a holography electron microscope, enables highly accurate observations of electromagnetic fields and the expansion of the observable area. First, the charge distributions on insulating materials were studied by using split-illumination electron holography and including a mask in the illumination system. Second, the three-dimensional spin configurations of skyrmion lattices in a helimagnet were visualized by using a high-voltage holography electron microscope. Third, the pinning of the magnetic flux lines in a high-temperature superconductor YBa2 Cu3 O7-y was analyzed by combining electron holography and scanning ion microscopy. Finally, the dynamic accumulation and collective motions of electrons around insulating biomaterial surfaces were observed by utilizing the amplitude reconstruction processes of electron holography.

  1. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omelyan, Igor, E-mail: omelyan@ualberta.ca, E-mail: omelyan@icmp.lviv.ua [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, Lviv 79011 (Ukraine); Kovalenko, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.kovalenko@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada)

    2013-12-28

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics

  2. [Recent advances of studies on abnormal HOX gene in myelodysplastic syndromes and its molecular mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin-Yan; Shao, Zong-Hong

    2015-02-01

    HOX gene encodes a group of homeodomain transcription factors which are highly conserved. The caudal-type homeobox (CDX) , ten-eleven translocation (TET) genes and polycomb group (PcG) , trithorax group (TrxG) proteins act as upstream regulators of HOX genes that manipulate the targeted gene expression through genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The abnormal expression of HOX genes and their fusions contribute to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) pathogenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation and NUP98-HOX translocation serve as molecular mediators of dysfunction in MDS which can be used for the evaluation of biology and therapy. This article provides an overview of recent advances of studies on HOX gene and its abnormal molecular mechanisms, as well as potential correlation with MDS.

  3. [Advancement in the research of early detection of bacterial nucleic acid in molecular diagnosis of sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Ren, Hui; Peng, Dai-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Early diagnosis of sepsis helps make effective clinical decisions and improve the survival rate of patients with severe infection. However, the timely and accurate diagnosis of sepsis is still a great challenge in clinic. In order to settle the very problem, the scientists in the world have made a lot of exploration and research in the field of rapid molecular identification of pathogens. Nowadays, the nucleic acid detection of sepsis is mainly composed of 3 types of methodological strategies, either based on positive blood culture, single colonies, or directly on blood specimens. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of advances in the research of early detection of bacterial nucleic acid as molecular diagnosis of sepsis.

  4. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Time-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics : Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lathouwers, L

    1992-01-01

    From March 30th to April 3rd, 1992, a NATO Advanced Research workshop entitled "Time Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Experiment" was held at Snowbird, Utah. The organizing committee consisted of J. BROECKHOVE (Antwerp, Belgium), L. CEDERBAUM (Heidelberg, Germany), L. LATHOUWERS (Antwerp, Belgium), N. OHRN (Gainesville, Florida) and J. SIMONS (Salt Lake City, Utah). Fifty-two participants from eleven different countries attended the meeting at which thirty-three talks and one poster session were held. Twenty-eight participants submitted contributions to the proceedings of the meeting, which are reproduced in this volume. The workshop brought together experts in different areas 0 f molecular quantum dynamics, all adhering to the time dependent approach. The aim was to discuss and compare methods and applications. The ~amiliarityo~ the aUdience with the concepts o~ time dependent approaches greatly facilitated topical discussions and probing towards new applications. A broad area of subject matt...

  5. Advanced transformational analysis applied to e-beam proximity effect correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch, Eytan; Coifman, Ronald R.; Ma, Jimmy T.; Peckerar, Martin C.; Rokhlin, Vladimir

    1993-06-01

    In this paper we address the problem of dose correction in the data bases consistent with ultra- large-scale integration. It is shown that recent advances in transformation theory provide a natural platform on which to build these dose correctors. Specifically, transformation approaches making use of compactly supported, smooth basis functions are shown to be particularly suitable. This is a natural result of the evolution of mathematically based correctors currently in use. Previous work in Parikh, MacDonald and others employed global transform method to determine the values of 'corrected' dose. In most cases, the mathematical inversion is essentially ill posed, in other words, the exact pattern desired cannot be obtained using a finite Gaussian sum. In this paper a set of smooth basis elements of compact support are employed. The mathematically smooth form of the basis makes it easy to match doses at boundaries without Gibbs phenomenon. Thus the transform field can be partitioned for optimum speed. Consequently, while most transformation complexities are of order N6 (the inversion of an N2 X N2 matrix) where N2 is the number of grid points characterizing the database, we developed an algorithm of complexity N2 log N. A method of dose field bias is employed to stem the requests for negative dose. The heart of the numerical process is essentially based on an adapted fast non-uniform-grid Fourier Transform combined with proper filtering and geometric localization methods. Several examples are given.

  6. Advanced oxidation processes applied to tannery wastewater containing Direct Black 38-Elimination and degradation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Ticiane Pokrywiecki [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: sauer@enq.ufsc.br; Casaril, Leonardo [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: leonardocasaril@ufsc.grad.br; Oberziner, Andre Luiz Bertoldi [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: andreoberzine@hotmail.com; Jose, Humberto Jorge [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: humberto@enq.ufsc.br; Moreira, Regina de Fatima Peralta Muniz [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: regina@enq.ufsc.br

    2006-07-31

    The application of advanced oxidation processes (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/UV) to treat tannery wastewater was investigated. The experiments were performed in batch and continuous UV reactors, using TiO{sub 2} as a catalyst. The effect of the hydrogen peroxide concentration on the degradation kinetics was evaluated in the concentration range 0-1800 mg L{sup -1}. We observed that the degradation rate increased as the hydrogen peroxide increased, but excessive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration was detrimental because it acted as a hydroxyl radical scavenger since it can compete for the active sites of the TiO{sub 2}. In the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV treatment, the COD removal reached around 60% in 4 h of reaction, indicating that the principal pollutants were chemically degraded as demonstrated by the results for BOD, COD, nitrate, ammonium and analysis of the absorbance at 254 nm. Artemia salina toxicity testing performed in parallel showed an increase in toxicity after AOP treatment of the tannery wastewater.

  7. Are molecular haplotypes worth the time and expense? A cost-effective method for applying molecular haplotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Levenstien

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Because current molecular haplotyping methods are expensive and not amenable to automation, many researchers rely on statistical methods to infer haplotype pairs from multilocus genotypes, and subsequently treat these inferred haplotype pairs as observations. These procedures are prone to haplotype misclassification. We examine the effect of these misclassification errors on the false-positive rate and power for two association tests. These tests include the standard likelihood ratio test (LRTstd and a likelihood ratio test that employs a double-sampling approach to allow for the misclassification inherent in the haplotype inference procedure (LRTae. We aim to determine the cost-benefit relationship of increasing the proportion of individuals with molecular haplotype measurements in addition to genotypes to raise the power gain of the LRTae over the LRTstd. This analysis should provide a guideline for determining the minimum number of molecular haplotypes required for desired power. Our simulations under the null hypothesis of equal haplotype frequencies in cases and controls indicate that (1 for each statistic, permutation methods maintain the correct type I error; (2 specific multilocus genotypes that are misclassified as the incorrect haplotype pair are consistently misclassified throughout each entire dataset; and (3 our simulations under the alternative hypothesis showed a significant power gain for the LRTae over the LRTstd for a subset of the parameter settings. Permutation methods should be used exclusively to determine significance for each statistic. For fixed cost, the power gain of the LRTae over the LRTstd varied depending on the relative costs of genotyping, molecular haplotyping, and phenotyping. The LRTae showed the greatest benefit over the LRTstd when the cost of phenotyping was very high relative to the cost of genotyping. This situation is likely to occur in a replication study as opposed to a whole-genome association study.

  8. Diffusion Monte Carlo applied to weak interactions - hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking in (bio-)molecular model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M.; Ireta, J.; Scheffler, M.; Filippi, C.

    2006-03-01

    Dispersion (Van der Waals) forces are important in many molecular phenomena such as self-assembly of molecular crystals or peptide folding. Calculating this nonlocal correlation effect requires accurate electronic structure methods. Usual density-functional theory with generalized gradient functionals (GGA-DFT) fails unless empirical corrections are added that still need extensive validation. Quantum chemical methods like MP2 and coupled cluster are more accurate, yet limited to rather small systems by their unfavorable computational scaling. Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) can provide accurate molecular total energies and remains feasible also for larger systems. Here we apply the fixed-node DMC method to (bio-)molecular model systems where dispersion forces are significant: (dimethyl-) formamide and benzene dimers, and adenine-thymine DNA base pairs. Our DMC binding energies agree well with data from coupled cluster (CCSD(T)), in particular for stacked geometries where GGA-DFT fails qualitatively and MP2 predicts too strong binding.

  9. Personalized Medicine applied to Forensic Sciences: new advances and perspectives for a tailored forensic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Anna Maria; Borro, Marina; Gentile, Giovanna; Russa, Raffaele La; Simmaco, Maurizio; Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2017-02-07

    Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy". Emerging fields of interest in forensic pathology are represented by diagnosis and detection of predisposing conditions to fatal thromboembolic and hypertensive events, determination of genetic variants related to sudden death, such as congenital long QT syndromes, demonstration of lesions vitality, identification of biological matrices and species diagnosis of a forensic trace on crime scenes without destruction of the DNA. The aim of this paper is to describe the state-of-art in the application of personalized medicine in forensic sciences, to understand the possibilities of integration in routine investigation of these procedures with classical post-mortem studies and to underline the importance of these new updates in medical examiners' armamentarium in determining cause of death or contributing factors to death.

  10. Raman spectroscopy as an advanced structural nanoprobe for conjugated molecular semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sebastian; Razzell Hollis, Joseph; Kim, Ji-Seon

    2017-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful and important characterisation tool for probing molecular semiconducting materials. The useful optoelectronic properties of these materials arise from the delocalised π-electron density in the conjugated core of the molecule, which also results in large Raman scattering cross-sections and a strong coupling between its electronic states and vibrational modes. For this reason, Raman spectroscopy offers a unique insight into the properties of molecular semiconductors, including: chemical structure, molecular conformation, molecular orientation, and fundamental photo- and electro-chemical processes—all of which are critically important to the performance of a wide range of optical and electronic organic semiconductor devices. Experimentally, Raman spectroscopy is non-intrusive, non-destructive, and requires no special sample preparation, and so is suitable for a wide range of in situ measurements, which are particularly relevant to issues of thermal and photochemical stability. Here we review the development of the family of Raman spectroscopic techniques, which have been applied to the study of conjugated molecular semiconductors. We consider the suitability of each technique for particular circumstances, and the unique insights it can offer, with a particular focus on the significance of these measurements for the continuing development of stable, high performance organic electronic devices.

  11. Advanced lasers laser physics and technology for applied and fundamental science

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhoivanov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Presenting a blend of applied and fundamental research in highly interdisciplinary subjects of rapidly developing areas, this book contains contributions on the frontiers and hot topics of laser physics, laser technology and laser engineering, and covers a wide range of laser topics, from all-optical signal processing and chaotic optical communication to production of superwicking surfaces, correction of extremely high-power beams, and generation of ultrabroadband spectra. It presents both review-type contributions and well researched and documented case studies, and is intended for graduate students, young scientist, and emeritus scientist working/studying in laser physics, optoelectronics, optics, photonics, and adjacent areas. The book contains both experimental and theoretical studies, as well as combinations of these two, which is known to be a most useful and interesting form of reporting scientific results, allowing students to really learn from each contribution. The book contains over 130 illustratio...

  12. A review on molecular topology: applying graph theory to drug discovery and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó, José María; Gálvez, Jorge; Villar, Vincent M.

    2009-07-01

    Molecular topology is an application of graph theory and statistics in fields like chemistry, biology, and pharmacology, in which the molecular structure matters. Its scope is the topological characterization of molecules by means of numerical invariants, called topological indices, which are the main ingredients of the molecular topological models. These are statistical models that are instrumental in the discovery of new applications of naturally occurring molecules, as well as in the design of synthetic molecules with specific chemical, biological, or pharmacological properties. In this review, we focus on pharmacology, which is a novel field of application of molecular topology. Besides summarizing some recent developments, we also seek to bring closer this interesting biomedical application of mathematics to an interdisciplinary readership.

  13. Advanced examination techniques applied to the qualification of critical welds for the ITER correction coils

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Libeyre, Paul; Marcinek, Dawid Jaroslaw; Piguiet, Aline; Cécillon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The ITER correction coils (CCs) consist of three sets of six coils located in between the toroidal (TF) and poloidal field (PF) magnets. The CCs rely on a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC), whose supercritical cooling at 4.5 K is provided by helium inlets and outlets. The assembly of the nozzles to the stainless steel conductor conduit includes fillet welds requiring full penetration through the thickness of the nozzle. Static and cyclic stresses have to be sustained by the inlet welds during operation. The entire volume of helium inlet and outlet welds, that are submitted to the most stringent quality levels of imperfections according to standards in force, is virtually uninspectable with sufficient resolution by conventional or computed radiography or by Ultrasonic Testing. On the other hand, X-ray computed tomography (CT) was successfully applied to inspect the full weld volume of several dozens of helium inlet qualification samples. The extensive use of CT techniques allowed a significant progress in the ...

  14. Molecular Profiling-Selected Therapy for Treatment of Advanced Pancreaticobiliary Cancer: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Epelbaum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This multicenter cohort study assessed the impact of molecular profiling (MP on advanced pancreaticobiliary cancer (PBC. The study included 30 patients treated with MP-guided therapy after failing ≥1 therapy for advanced PBC. Treatment was considered as having benefit for the patient if the ratio between the longest progression-free survival (PFS on MP-guided therapy and the PFS on the last therapy before MP was ≥1.3. The null hypothesis was that ≤15% of patients gain such benefit. Overall, ≥1 actionable (i.e., predictive of response to specific therapies biomarker was identified/patient. Immunohistochemistry (the most commonly used method for guiding treatment decisions identified 1–6 (median: 4 actionable biomarkers per patient. After MP, patients received 1–4 (median: 1 regimens/patient (most commonly, FOLFIRI/XELIRI. In a decision-impact analysis, of the 27 patients for whom treatment decisions before MP were available, 74.1% experienced a treatment decision change in the first line after MP. Twenty-four patients were evaluable for clinical outcome analysis; in 37.5%, the PFS ratio was ≥1.3. In one-sided exact binomial test versus the null hypothesis, P = 0.0015; therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrated the feasibility, clinical decision impact, and potential clinical benefits of MP-guided therapy in advanced PBC.

  15. Different response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for different molecular subtypes in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huafeng Kang; Zhijun Dai; Xiaobin Ma; Xing Bao; Shuai Lin; Hongbing Ma; Xiaoxu Liu; Xijing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining on the response rate for patients with locally advanced breast cancer received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: One hundred and seven breast cancer patients admitted from 2007 to 2011 who received 4 cycles of docetaxel/epirubicin-combined (TE) neoadjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed, the patients were classified into 4 subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER-2 and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) according to different combination patterns of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER-2) expression defined by IHC method. The correlation between response rate and the molecular subtypes were analyzed. Results: The pathological complete response (PCR), clinical complete response (CCR), clinical partial response (CPR), and clinical stable disease (CSD) rate of whole group was 15.89% (17/107), 22.43% (24/107), 63.55% (68/107), 14.02% (15/107), respectively, and the overall response rate (ORR) was 85.98% (92/107). The PCR rate and ORR of luminal A, luminal B, HER-2 and TNBC subtypes was 4.76% and 73.81%; 16.67% and 83.33%;17.65% and 100.00%; 30.00% and 96.67%, respectively. The PCR and ORR rate of HER-2/TNBC subtypes was higher than that of luminal A/B subtypes (P = 0.019, P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Different molecular subtypes display different response rate for patients with locally advanced breast cancer received neoadjuvant TE chemotherapy, HER-2/TNBC subtypes have a higher PCR and ORR rate than that of luminal A/B subtypes.

  16. Advances in the Development of Molecularly Targeted Agents in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, Saoirse O; Collins, Dearbhaile C; Sundar, Raghav; Popat, Sanjay; Yap, Timothy A

    2017-04-04

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a significant global health challenge and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The traditional 'one-size-fits-all' treatment approach has now evolved into one that involves personalized strategies based on histological and molecular subtypes. The molecular era has revolutionized the treatment of patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 gene aberrations. In the appropriately selected population, anti-tumor agents against these molecular targets can significantly improve progression-free survival. However, the emergence of acquired resistance is inevitable. Novel potent compounds with much improved and rational selectivity profiles, such as third-generation EGFR T790M resistance mutation-specific inhibitors, have been developed and added to the NSCLC armamentarium. To date, attempts to overcome resistance bypass pathways through downstream signaling blockade has had limited success. Furthermore, the majority of patients still do not harbor known driver genetic or epigenetic alterations and/or have no new available treatment options, with chemotherapy remaining their standard of care. Several potentially actionable driver aberrations have recently been identified, with the early clinical development of multiple inhibitors against these promising targets currently in progress. The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors has led to significant benefit for advanced NSCLC patients with durable responses observed. Further interrogation of the underlying biology of NSCLC, coupled with modern clinical trial designs, is now required to develop novel targeted therapeutics rationally matched with predictive biomarkers of response, so as to further advance NSCLC therapeutics through the next decade.

  17. Molecular Correlates and Recent Advancements in the Diagnosis and Screening of FMR1-Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhu-Shree Rajan-Babu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common monogenic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Molecular diagnostic testing of FXS and related disorders (fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS relies on a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Southern blot (SB for the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 CGG-repeat expansion and methylation analyses. Recent advancements in PCR-based technologies have enabled the characterization of the complete spectrum of CGG-repeat mutation, with or without methylation assessment, and, as a result, have reduced our reliance on the labor- and time-intensive SB, which is the gold standard FXS diagnostic test. The newer and more robust triplet-primed PCR or TP-PCR assays allow the mapping of AGG interruptions and enable the predictive analysis of the risks of unstable CGG expansion during mother-to-child transmission. In this review, we have summarized the correlation between several molecular elements, including CGG-repeat size, methylation, mosaicism and skewed X-chromosome inactivation, and the extent of clinical involvement in patients with FMR1-related disorders, and reviewed key developments in PCR-based methodologies for the molecular diagnosis of FXS, FXTAS and FXPOI, and large-scale (CGGn expansion screening in newborns, women of reproductive age and high-risk populations.

  18. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  19. Advances of Molecular Imaging for Monitoring the Anatomical and Functional Architecture of the Olfactory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xintong; Bi, Anyao; Gao, Quansheng; Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Kunzhu; Liu, Zhiguo; Gao, Tang; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-01-20

    The olfactory system of organisms serves as a genetically and anatomically model for studying how sensory input can be translated into behavior output. Some neurologic diseases are considered to be related to olfactory disturbance, especially Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and so forth. However, it is still unclear how the olfactory system affects disease generation processes and olfaction delivery processes. Molecular imaging, a modern multidisciplinary technology, can provide valid tools for the early detection and characterization of diseases, evaluation of treatment, and study of biological processes in living subjects, since molecular imaging applies specific molecular probes as a novel approach to produce special data to study biological processes in cellular and subcellular levels. Recently, molecular imaging plays a key role in studying the activation of olfactory system, thus it could help to prevent or delay some diseases. Herein, we present a comprehensive review on the research progress of the imaging probes for visualizing olfactory system, which is classified on different imaging modalities, including PET, MRI, and optical imaging. Additionally, the probes' design, sensing mechanism, and biological application are discussed. Finally, we provide an outlook for future studies in this field.

  20. Proceedings of the 3. international symposium on applied microbiology and molecular biology in oil systems: ISMOS 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijen, Gijs van; Caffrey, Sean M. [Genome Alberta (Canada); Lund Skovhus, Torben [DTI Oil and Gas (Denmark); Whitby, Corinne [University of Essex (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    The 3rd international symposium on applied microbiology and molecular biology in oil systems was held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, from June 13th to June 15th, 2011. This conference, organized by ISMOS TSC, gathered experts to discuss the application of microbial and molecular biology in the hydrocarbon sector. The conference was attended by key players from the oil and gas industry and provided them with the opportunity to learn about some of the latest technologies in areas such as the application of molecular microbiological methods for oil field systems, biodegradation of hydrocarbons in oil production, biofuels and downstream petroleum microbiology and challenges in biofuels and oil sands developments, and to network with their peers and share their expertise. 17 of the 31 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  1. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A Review on the Pathogenesis, Prevalence and Advance Molecular Identification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. Vibrio parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2 to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the Vibrio parahemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.

  2. Recent Advances in the Use of Statistical Mechanics to Establish Molecular Thermodynamic Models for Electrolyte Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李以圭

    2004-01-01

    Based on statistical mechanics,a review of recent theoretical studies of real electrolyte solutions is presented from three aspects,namely,molecular simulation,mean spherical approximation (MSA),and perturbation theory.Recent advances in studies of three kinds of electrostatic potentials of mean force,three kinds of internal energies (ion-ion,ion-dipole,and dipole-dipole interactions),and three kinds of electrolyte models (primitive,non-primitive,and solvent primitive models) are introduced.The advantages and disadvantages between primitive and non-primitive models,and between MSA and perturbation theory are discussed.Some new equations of state (EOSs) based on MSA and perturbation theory for real electrolyte solutions are introduced.The one-Yukawa EOS and the two-Yukawa EOS for charged colloid systems are presented.

  3. Advances in the field of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaly, Robert A; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2010-03-01

    Interest in understanding prokaryotic biotransformation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs) has continued to grow and the scientific literature shows that studies in this field are originating from research groups from many different locations throughout the world. In the last 10 years, research in regard to HMW PAH biodegradation by bacteria has been further advanced through the documentation of new isolates that represent diverse bacterial types that have been isolated from different environments and that possess different metabolic capabilities. This has occurred in addition to the continuation of in-depth comprehensive characterizations of previously isolated organisms, such as Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1. New metabolites derived from prokaryotic biodegradation of four- and five-ring PAHs have been characterized, our knowledge of the enzymes involved in these transformations has been advanced and HMW PAH biodegradation pathways have been further developed, expanded upon and refined. At the same time, investigation of prokaryotic consortia has furthered our understanding of the capabilities of microorganisms functioning as communities during HMW PAH biodegradation.

  4. Advanced contrast nanoagents for photoacoustic molecular imaging, cytometry, blood test and photothermal theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Zerda, Adam; Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2011-01-01

    Various nanoparticles have raised significant interest over the past decades for their unique physical and optical properties and biological utilities. Here we summarize the vast applications of advanced nanoparticles with a focus on carbon nanotube (CNT)-based or CNT-catalyzed contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging, cytometry and theranostics applications based on the photothermal (PT) effect. We briefly review the safety and potential toxicity of the PA/PT contrast nanoagents, while showing how the physical properties as well as multiple biological coatings change their toxicity profiles and contrasts. We provide general guidelines needed for the validation of a new molecular imaging agent in living subjects, and exemplify these guidelines with single-walled CNTs targeted to α(v) β(3) , an integrin associated with tumor angiogenesis, and golden carbon nanotubes targeted to LYVE-1, endothelial lymphatic receptors. An extensive review of the potential applications of advanced contrast agents is provided, including imaging of static targets such as tumor angiogenesis receptors, in vivo cytometry of dynamic targets such as circulating tumor cells and nanoparticles in blood, lymph, bones and plants, methods to enhance the PA and PT effects with transient and stationary bubble conjugates, PT/PA Raman imaging and multispectral histology. Finally, theranostic applications are reviewed, including the nanophotothermolysis of individual tumor cells and bacteria with clustered nanoparticles, nanothrombolysis of blood clots, detection and purging metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes, spectral hole burning and multiplex therapy with ultrasharp rainbow nanoparticles.

  5. Advanced Characterization of Molecular Interactions in TALSPEAK-like Separations Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Guelis, Artem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Combining unit operations in advanced aqueous reprocessing schemes brings obvious process compactness advantages, but at the same time greater complexity in process design and operation. Unraveling these interactions requires increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and unique approaches for adequate analysis and characterization that probe molecular scale interactions. Conventional slope analysis methods of solvent extraction are too indirect to provide much insight into such interactions. This project proposed the development and verification of several analytical tools based on studies of TALSPEAK-like aqueous processes. As such, the chemistry of trivalent fission product lanthanides, americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium and uranium figure prominently in these studies. As the project was executed, the primary focus fell upon the chemistry or trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The intent of the investigation was to compare and contrast the results from these various complementary techniques/studies to provide a stronger basis for predicting the performance of extractant/diluent mixtures as media for metal ion separations. As many/most of these techniques require the presence of metal ions at elevated concentrations, it was expected that these studies would take this investigation into the realm of patterns of supramolecular organization of metal complexes and extractants in concentrated aqueous/organic media. We expected to advance knowledge of the processes that enable and limit solvent extraction reactions as a result of the application of fundamental chemical principles to explaining interactions in complex media.

  6. Current advances in molecular, biochemical, and computational modeling analysis of microalgal triacylglycerol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, Sangram K; Carbonaro, Nicole; Park, Rudolph; Miller, Stephen M; Thorpe, Ian; Li, Yantao

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are highly reduced energy storage molecules ideal for biodiesel production. Microalgal TAG biosynthesis has been studied extensively in recent years, both at the molecular level and systems level through experimental studies and computational modeling. However, discussions of the strategies and products of the experimental and modeling approaches are rarely integrated and summarized together in a way that promotes collaboration among modelers and biologists in this field. In this review, we outline advances toward understanding the cellular and molecular factors regulating TAG biosynthesis in unicellular microalgae with an emphasis on recent studies on rate-limiting steps in fatty acid and TAG synthesis, while also highlighting new insights obtained from the integration of multi-omics datasets with mathematical models. Computational methodologies such as kinetic modeling, metabolic flux analysis, and new variants of flux balance analysis are explained in detail. We discuss how these methods have been used to simulate algae growth and lipid metabolism in response to changing culture conditions and how they have been used in conjunction with experimental validations. Since emerging evidence indicates that TAG synthesis in microalgae operates through coordinated crosstalk between multiple pathways in diverse subcellular destinations including the endoplasmic reticulum and plastids, we discuss new experimental studies and models that incorporate these findings for discovering key regulatory checkpoints. Finally, we describe tools for genetic manipulation of microalgae and their potential for future rational algal strain design. This comprehensive review explores the potential synergistic impact of pathway analysis, computational approaches, and molecular genetic manipulation strategies on improving TAG production in microalgae.

  7. A new plug-in software architecture applied for a portable molecular structure browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Y; Asai, K

    1997-01-01

    A new software configuration method using plug-in style components was established for the tool with the incremental development of software used in protein structural study. Our memory database provides the interface of data and functions among plug-in modules and its host program. A molecular structure browser program was developed together with several plug-in modules on our programming library that maintains graphics portability and user interfaces. This plug-in software architecture is generally useful for large-scale software development and for prototyping parts of the system.

  8. Advanced computational biology methods identify molecular switches for malignancy in an EGF mouse model of liver cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stegmaier

    Full Text Available The molecular causes by which the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase induces malignant transformation are largely unknown. To better understand EGFs' transforming capacity whole genome scans were applied to a transgenic mouse model of liver cancer and subjected to advanced methods of computational analysis to construct de novo gene regulatory networks based on a combination of sequence analysis and entrained graph-topological algorithms. Here we identified transcription factors, processes, key nodes and molecules to connect as yet unknown interacting partners at the level of protein-DNA interaction. Many of those could be confirmed by electromobility band shift assay at recognition sites of gene specific promoters and by western blotting of nuclear proteins. A novel cellular regulatory circuitry could therefore be proposed that connects cell cycle regulated genes with components of the EGF signaling pathway. Promoter analysis of differentially expressed genes suggested the majority of regulated transcription factors to display specificity to either the pre-tumor or the tumor state. Subsequent search for signal transduction key nodes upstream of the identified transcription factors and their targets suggested the insulin-like growth factor pathway to render the tumor cells independent of EGF receptor activity. Notably, expression of IGF2 in addition to many components of this pathway was highly upregulated in tumors. Together, we propose a switch in autocrine signaling to foster tumor growth that was initially triggered by EGF and demonstrate the knowledge gain form promoter analysis combined with upstream key node identification.

  9. Estimating reaction constants by ab initio molecular modeling: a study on the oxidation of phenol to catechol and hydroquinone in advanced oxidation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular modeling is growing as a research tool in Chemical Engineering studies, as can be seen by a simple research on the latest publications in the field. Molecular investigations retrieve information on properties often accessible only by expensive and time-consuming experimental techniques, such as those involved in the study of radical-based chain reactions. In this work, different quantum chemical techniques were used to study phenol oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in Advanced Oxidation Processes used for wastewater treatment. The results obtained by applying a DFT-based model showed good agreement with experimental values available, as well as qualitative insights into the mechanism of the overall reaction chain. Solvation models were also tried, but were found to be limited for this reaction system within the considered theoretical level without further parameterization.

  10. Collective Molecular Superrotation: A Model for Extremely Flexible Molecules Applied to Protonated Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedt, Hanno; Jensen, Per; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    The concept of molecular structure is traditionally considered to be virtually fundamental. However, it breaks down in extremely flexible molecules, whose dynamics are governed by large-amplitude motions. For the dynamics of molecules with free internal rotations, we therefore propose a five-dimensional rigid rotor model, with states characterized by two generalized angular momentum quantum numbers and a rotational constant B . The quantum numbers characterize a 5D angular-momentum vector, super-j , which describes collective rotations that involve both the internal and the overall rotation. This model predicts the lowest energy states of the prototypical, extremely flexible molecule, CH5+ . Both energies and symmetries compare very favorably to recent experimental results. The respective assignment to the new quantum numbers indicates the validity of our concept of collective rotations in extremely flexible molecules.

  11. Applying flexible molecular docking to simulate protein retention behavior in hydrophobic interaction chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Peng; TIAN; FeiFei; LI; ZhiLiang

    2007-01-01

    Interaction between proteins and stationary phase in hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) is differentiated into two thermodynamic processes involving direct nonbonding/conformation interaction and surface hydrophobic effect of proteins, hence quantitatively giving rise to a binary linear relation between HIC retention time (RT) at concentrated salting liquid and ligand-protein binding free energy. Then, possible binding manners for 27 proteins of known crystal structures with hydrophobic ligands are simulated and analyzed via ICM flexible molecular docking and genetic algorithm, with results greatly consistent with experimental values. By investigation, it is confirmed local hydrophobic effects of proteins and nonbinding/conformation interaction between ligand and protein both notably influence HIC chromatogram retention behaviors, mainly focusing on exposed portions on the protein surface.

  12. A Quantitative Feasibility Study on Potential Safety Improvement Effects of Advanced Safety Features in APR-1400 when Applied to OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ualikhan Zhiyenbayev [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dae Wook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to test the feasibility of the applications using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Particularly, three of those advanced safety features are selected as follows: 1. Providing an additional Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG); 2. Increasing the capacity of Class 1E batteries; 3. Placing a Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) inside containment, i.e., change from RWST to IRWST. The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR-1400) adopts several advanced safety features compared to its predecessor, the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR-1000), which includes an additional Emergency Diesel Generator, increase in battery capacity, in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST), and so on. Considering the remarkable advantages of these safety features in safety improvement and the design similarities between APR-1400 and OPR-1000, it is feasible to apply key advanced safety features of APR-1400 to OPR-1000 to enhance the safety. The selected safety features are incorporated into OPR-1000 PSA model using the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS) for PSA and CDFs are re-evaluated for each application and combination of three applications. Based on current results, it is concluded that three of key advanced safety features of APR-1400 can be effectively applied to OPR-1000, resulting in considerable safety improvement. In aggregate, three advanced safety features, which are an additional EDG, increased battery capacity and IRWST, can reduce the CDF of OPR-1000 by more than 15% when applied altogether.

  13. Support for NATO Advanced Study Institute on molecular ecology of aquatic microbes, August 28--September 9, 1994. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint, I.

    1995-06-16

    This is a summary paper for a NATO Advanced Study Institute sponsored meeting entitled `The Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes` held in Luccia, Italy from August 28 to September 9, 1994. A full reference book for the proceedings is to be published later.

  14. Current Molecular Targeted Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Therapeutic Mechanism, Clinical Trials, and Practical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaichun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great progress in the treatment of gastric cancer, it is still the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Patients often miss the opportunity for a surgical cure, because the cancer has already developed into advanced cancer when identified. Compared to best supportive care, chemotherapy can improve quality of life and prolong survival time, but the overall survival is often short. Due to the molecular study of gastric cancer, new molecular targeted drugs have entered the clinical use. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, can significantly improve survival in advanced gastric cancer patients with HER2 overexpression. Second-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer with ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, has been proved to provide a beneficial effect. The VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, apatinib, can improve the survival of advanced gastric cancer patients after second-line chemotherapy failure. Unfortunately, none of the EGFR targeting antibodies (cetuximab or panitumumab, VEGF targeting monoclonal antibodies (bevacizumab, mTOR inhibitor (everolimus, or HGF/MET pathway targeting drugs has a significant survival benefit. Many other clinical trials based on molecular markers are underway. This review will summarize targeted therapies for advanced gastric cancer.

  15. Application of advanced cytometric and molecular technologies to minimal residual disease monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James F.; He, Feng; Reece, Lisa M.

    2000-04-01

    Minimal residual disease monitoring presents a number of theoretical and practical challenges. Recently it has been possible to meet some of these challenges by combining a number of new advanced biotechnologies. To monitor the number of residual tumor cells requires complex cocktails of molecular probes that collectively provide sensitivities of detection on the order of one residual tumor cell per million total cells. Ultra-high-speed, multi parameter flow cytometry is capable of analyzing cells at rates in excess of 100,000 cells/sec. Residual tumor selection marker cocktails can be optimized by use of receiver operating characteristic analysis. New data minimizing techniques when combined with multi variate statistical or neural network classifications of tumor cells can more accurately predict residual tumor cell frequencies. The combination of these techniques can, under at least some circumstances, detect frequencies of tumor cells as low as one cell in a million with an accuracy of over 98 percent correct classification. Detection of mutations in tumor suppressor genes requires insolation of these rare tumor cells and single-cell DNA sequencing. Rare residual tumor cells can be isolated at single cell level by high-resolution single-cell cell sorting. Molecular characterization of tumor suppressor gene mutations can be accomplished using a combination of single- cell polymerase chain reaction amplification of specific gene sequences followed by TA cloning techniques and DNA sequencing. Mutations as small as a single base pair in a tumor suppressor gene of a single sorted tumor cell have been detected using these methods. Using new amplification procedures and DNA micro arrays it should be possible to extend the capabilities shown in this paper to screening of multiple DNA mutations in tumor suppressor and other genes on small numbers of sorted metastatic tumor cells.

  16. cAMP biosensors applied in molecular pharmacological studies of G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Vedel, Line; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2013-01-01

    end-point assays for quantifying GPCR-mediated changes in intracellular cAMP levels exist. More recently, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP biosensors that can quantify intracellular cAMP levels in real time have been developed. These FRET-based cAMP biosensors have been used...... primarily in single cell FRET microscopy to monitor and visualize changes in cAMP upon GPCR activation. Here, a similar cAMP biosensor with a more efficient mCerulean/mCitrine FRET pair is described for use in the 384-well plate format. After cloning and expression in HEK293 cells, the biosensor...... is characterized in the 384-well plate format and used for measuring the signaling of the G(s)-coupled ß(2)-adrenergic receptor. The procedures described may be applied for other FRET-based biosensors in terms of characterization and conversion to the 384-well plate format....

  17. pKa values in proteins determined by electrostatics applied to molecular dynamics trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tim; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2015-06-09

    For a benchmark set of 194 measured pKa values in 13 proteins, electrostatic energy computations are performed in which pKa values are computed by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In contrast to the previous approach of Karlsberg(+) (KB(+)) that essentially used protein crystal structures with variations in their side chain conformations, the present approach (KB2(+)MD) uses protein conformations from four molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 10 ns each. These MD simulations are performed with different specific but fixed protonation patterns, selected to sample the conformational space for the different protonation patterns faithfully. The root-mean-square deviation between computed and measured pKa values (pKa RMSD) is shown to be reduced from 1.17 pH units using KB(+) to 0.96 pH units using KB2(+)MD. The pKa RMSD can be further reduced to 0.79 pH units, if each conformation is energy-minimized with a dielectric constant of εmin = 4 prior to calculating the electrostatic energy. The electrostatic energy expressions upon which the computations are based have been reformulated such that they do not involve terms that mix protein and solvent environment contributions and no thermodynamic cycle is needed. As a consequence, conformations of the titratable residues can be treated independently in the protein and solvent environments. In addition, the energy terms used here avoid the so-called intrinsic pKa and can therefore be interpreted without reference to arbitrary protonation states and conformations.

  18. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy: recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Baker, Aida; Rouleau, Guy A

    2007-02-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset disorder characterized by progressive eyelid drooping, swallowing difficulties and proximal limb weakness. OPMD is caused by a small expansion of a short polyalanine tract in the poly (A) binding protein nuclear 1 protein (PABPN1). The mechanism by which the polyalanine expansion mutation in PABPN1 causes disease is unclear. PABPN1 is a nuclear multi-functional protein which is involved in pre-mRNA polyadenylation, transcription regulation, and mRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport. The distinct pathological hallmark of OPMD is the presence of filamentous intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in patient's skeletal muscle cells. The exact relationship between mutant PABPN1 intranuclear aggregates and pathology is not clear. OPMD is a unique disease sharing common pathogenic features with other polyalanine disorders, as well as with polyglutamine and dystrophic disorders. This chapter aims to review the rapidly growing body of knowledge concerning OPMD. First, we outline the background of OPMD. Second, we compare OPMD with other trinucleotide repeat disorders. Third, we discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying OPMD pathogenesis. Finally, we review recent therapeutic strategies for OPMD.

  19. [Research advances in molecular epidemiology and vaccines of Coxsackievirus A16].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Peng; Tan, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Wen-Bo

    2014-07-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) have mainly been caused by Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and Enterovirus A 71 (EV-A71), which circulated alternatively or together in the affected area. CVA16 has caused numerous outbreaks and epidemics in multiple countries and geographical regions, and has become an important public health problem. Based on an analysis of the complete VP1 coding region, all CVA16 strains can be divided into genotypes A, B1, and B2. Furthermore, genotype B1 can be divided into subgenotypes B1a, B1b, and B1c. After 2000, no reports of genotype B2 virus strains have been reported. All of the CVA16 strains reported in mainland China have belonged to subgenotypes B1a and B1b. Most CVA16-associated infections cause only mild symptoms; however, some CVA16 infections can lead to severe complications and even death. Vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to control the transmission and infection rate of this virus. A number of research groups are studying various vaccine types, including inactivated vaccines, genetic engineering vaccines, and DNA vaccines, amongst others. In this review, an overview is provided of the research advances in molecular epidemiology and vaccines of CVA16.

  20. Recent advances and perspectives in molecular epidemiology of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    Cysticercosis caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium is spreading all over the world through globalization and is one of the most neglected, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) or neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In the present study, the reason why T. solium cysticercosis has been neglected is discussed at first, and followed with an overview on the most recent advances and perspectives in molecular approaches for epidemiology of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, since although taeniasis does not constitute recognized zoonoses, transmission and complete development are dependent on human definitive hosts. Main topics are discussions on (1) the two, Asian and Afro/American, genotypes of T. solium, (2) comparative analysis of mitochondrial (haploid) and nuclear (diploid) genes, and (3) the presence of hybrids of these two genotypes which indicates out-crossing of two genotypes in hermaphrodite tapeworms in Madagascar. Additional topics are on (4) the usefulness of phylogeographic analyses to discuss where the infection was acquired from, and (5) miscellaneous unsolved topics around these genetic diversity of T. solium.

  1. Recent advance in the molecular genetics of Wilson disease and hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tingxia; Li, Xiaojin; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xinyan; Ou, Xiaojuan; Huang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic liver diseases such as Wilson disease (WD) and hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) possess complicated pathogenesis and typical hereditary characteristics with the hallmarks of a deficiency in metal metabolism. Mutations in genes encoding ATPase, Cu + transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B) and hemochromatosis (HFE) or several non-HFE genes are considered to be causative for WD and HH, respectively. Although the identification of novel mutations in ATP7B for WD and HFE or the non-HFE genes for HH has increased, especially with the application of whole genome sequencing technology in recent years, the biological function of the identified mutations, as well as genotype-phenotype correlations remain to be explored. Further analysis of the causative gene mutation would be critical to clarify the mechanisms underlying specific disease phenotypes. In this review, we therefore summarize the recent advances in the molecular genetics of WD and HH including the updated mutation spectrums and the correlation between genotype and phenotype, with an emphasis on biological functional studies of the individual mutations identified in WD and HH. The weakness of the current functional studies and analysis for the clinical association of the individual mutation was also discussed. These works are essential for the understanding of the association between genotypes and phenotypes of these inherited metabolic liver diseases.

  2. Inherited pancreatic endocrine tumor syndromes: advances in molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis, management and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert T.; Berna, Marc J.; Bingham, David B; Norton, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) can occur in as part of four inherited disorders including: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), neurofibromatosis 1(NF-1) [von Recklinghausen’s disease] and the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The relative frequency with which patients with these disorders develop PETs is MEN1>VHL>NF-1>TSC. Over the last few years there have been major advances in the understanding of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of these disorders as well in the localization, medical and surgical treatment of the PETs in these patients. The study of the PETs in these disorders has not only provided insights into the possible pathogenesis of sporadic PETs, but have also presented a number of unique management and treatment issues, some of which are applicable to patients with sporadic PETs. Therefore the study of PETs in these uncommon disorders has provided valuable insights that in many cases are applicable to the general group of patients with sporadic PETs. In this article these areas are briefly reviewed as well as the current state of knowledge of the PETs in these disorders and the controversies that exist in their management are briefly summarized and discussed. PMID:18798544

  3. [Advances of study on prognostic factors of molecular biology in acute myeloid leukemia with normal cytogenetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tian-Jie; Xu, Xiao-Ping

    2010-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a group of diseases with a conspicuous heterogeneity. Following the development of cytogenetics, multiple reproducible chromosome aberrations have been discovered in AML, many of which not only are diagnostic markers for specific AML subtypes but also significant prognostic factors for determining complete remission (CR), relapse risk, and overall survival (OS). However, with the foundation of available chromosome analysis, a large group of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, 40% to 49% of adults and 25% of children had not been found abnormality of chromosome karyotype under microscope. These so-called cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients have usually been classified in an intermediate-risk prognostic category. Nevertheless, the outcome of the CN-AML patients are varied in clinical studies, likely because there exist diverse gene mutations in these patients according to recent researches. Those mutations at the molecular level, on basis of which AML could be further classified, are significantly associated with CN-AML patients and offer potential targets for specific therapeutic studies. The review focuses on research advances abroad in this field including gene mutations suggesting bad prognosis such as FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene mutation, Baalc gene and ETS-related gene hyperexpression, Wilms' tumor gene mutation and other gene mutations as well as gene mutations suggesting good prognosis such as nucleophosmin gene mutation, mixed lineage leukemia-partial tandem duplication, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α gene mutation.

  4. Biomarker, Molecular, and Technologic Advances in Urologic Pathology, Oncology, and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Carla L; Harik, Lara R; Cohen, Cynthia; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2017-04-01

    Urologic pathology is evolving rapidly. Emerging trends include the expanded diagnostic utility of biomarkers and molecular testing, as well as adapting to the plethora of technical advances occurring in genitourinary oncology, surgical practice, and imaging. We illustrate those trends by highlighting our approach to the diagnostic workup of a few selected disease entities that pathologists may encounter, including newly recognized subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and prostate cancer, some of which harbor a distinctive chromosomal translocation, gene loss, or mutation. We illustrate applications of immunohistochemistry for differential diagnosis of needle core renal biopsies, intraductal carcinoma of the prostate, and amyloidosis and cite encouraging results from early studies using targeted gene expression panels to predict recurrence after prostate cancer surgery. At our institution, pathologists are working closely with urologic surgeons and interventional radiologists to explore the use of intraoperative frozen sections for margins and nerve sparing during robotic prostatectomy, to pioneer minimally invasive videoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy, and to refine image-guided needle core biopsies and cryotherapy of prostate cancer as well as blue-light/fluorescence cystoscopy. This collaborative, multidisciplinary approach enhances clinical management and research, and optimizes the care of patients with urologic disorders.

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Lower-Dimensional Systems and Molecular Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Peter; Papavassiliou, George

    1990-01-01

    This volume represents the written account of the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Lower-Dimensional Systems and Molecular Electronics" held at Hotel Spetses, Spetses Island, Greece from 12 June to 23 June 1989. The goal of the Institute was to demonstrate the breadth of chemical and physical knowledge that has been acquired in the last 20 years in inorganic and organic crystals, polymers, and thin films, which exhibit phenomena of reduced dimensionality. The interest in these systems started in the late 1960's with lower-dimensional inorganic conductors, in the early 1970's with quasi-one-dimensional crystalline organic conductors. which by 1979 led to the first organic superconductors, and, in 1977, to the fITSt conducting polymers. The study of monolayer films (Langmuir-Blodgett films) had progressed since the 1930's, but reached a great upsurge in . the early 1980's. The pursuit of non-linear optical phenomena became increasingly popular in the early 1980's, as the attention turned from inorganic crystals t...

  6. Optimisation of algorithm control parameters in cultural differential evolution applied to molecular crystallography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maryjane TREMAYNE; Samantha Y. CHONG; Duncan BELL

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary search and optimisation algorithms have been used successfully in many areas of materials science and chemistry. In recent years, these techniques have been applied to, and revolutionised the study of crystal structures from powder diffraction data. In this paper we present the application of a hybrid global optimisation technique,cultural differential evolution (CDE), to crystal structure determination from powder diffraction data. The combination of the principles of social evolution and biological evolution,through the pruning of the parameter search space shows significant improvement in the efficiency of the calculations over traditional dictates of biological evolution alone. Resuits are presented in which a range of algorithm control parameters, i.e., population size, mutation and recombination rates, extent of culture-based pruning are used to assess the performance of this hybrid technique. The effects of these control parameters on the speed and efficiency of the optimisation calculations are discussed, and the potential advantages of the CDE approach demonstrated through an average 40% improvement in terms of speed of convergence of the calculations presented, and a maximum gain of 68% with larger population size.

  7. Synchrotron-based and globar-sourced molecular (micro)spectroscopy contributions to advances in new hulless barley (with structure alteration) research on molecular structure, molecular nutrition, and nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-01-02

    This paper aimed to review synchrotron-based and globar-sourced molecular infrared (micro)spectroscopy contributions to advances in new hulless barley (with structure alteration) research on molecular structure, molecular nutrition, and nutrient delivery in ruminants. It reviewed recent progress in barley varieties, its utilization for animal and human, inherent structure features and chemical make-up, evaluation and research methodology, breeding progress, rumen degradation, and intestinal digestion. The emphasis of this review was focused on the effect of alteration of carbohydrate traits of newly developed hulless barley on molecular structure changes and nutrient delivery and quantification of the relationship between molecular structure features and changes and truly absorbed nutrient supply to ruminants. This review provides an insight into how inherent structure changes on a molecular basis affect nutrient utilization and availability in ruminants.

  8. Advances in Molecular Ecology of Marine Mammals.%海兽分子生态学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光; 任文华; 周开亚

    2001-01-01

    The molecular techniques applied in the molecular ecology of marine mammals mainly include sequencing of mtDNA control region,DNA fingerprinting,mtDNA RFLP,and alloyzme.These techniques have been used to document population structure and genetic diversity,social structure and migration behavior,individual identification and population size estimate,as well as food habitat analysis,etc.

  9. Computational physics and applied mathematics capability review June 8-10, 2010 (Advance materials to committee members)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory will review its Computational Physics and Applied Mathematics (CPAM) capabilities in 2010. The goals of capability reviews are to assess the quality of science, technology, and engineering (STE) performed by the capability, evaluate the integration of this capability across the Laboratory and within the scientific community, examine the relevance of this capability to the Laboratory's programs, and provide advice on the current and future directions of this capability. This is the first such review for CPAM, which has a long and unique history at the laboratory, starting from the inception of the Laboratory in 1943. The CPAM capability covers an extremely broad technical area at Los Alamos, encompassing a wide array of disciplines, research topics, and organizations. A vast array of technical disciplines and activities are included in this capability, from general numerical modeling, to coupled mUlti-physics simulations, to detailed domain science activities in mathematics, methods, and algorithms. The CPAM capability involves over 12 different technical divisions and a majority of our programmatic and scientific activities. To make this large scope tractable, the CPAM capability is broken into the following six technical 'themes.' These themes represent technical slices through the CP AM capability and collect critical core competencies of the Laboratory, each of which contributes to the capability (and each of which is divided into multiple additional elements in the detailed descriptions of the themes in subsequent sections): (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics - This theme speaks to the vast array of scientific capabilities for the simulation of fluids under shocks, low-speed flow, and turbulent conditions - which are key, historical, and fundamental strengths of the laboratory; (2) Partial Differential Equations - The technical scope of this theme is the applied mathematics and numerical solution of partial

  10. Prognostic significance and molecular mechanism of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 in resistance to neoadjuvant radiotherapy of locally advanced rectal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mechanism of radioresistance in rectal carcinoma remains largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate the predictive role of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 (ABCC4 in locally advanced rectal carcinoma and explore possible molecular mechanisms by which ABCC4 confers the resistance to neoadjuvant radiotherapy. METHODS: The expression of ABCC4 and P53 mutant in biopsy tissue specimens from 121 locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients was examined using immunohistochemistry. The factors contributing to 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. Lentivirus-mediated small hairpin RNA was applied to inhibit ABCC4 expression in colorectal carcinoma cell line RKO, and investigate the radiosensitivity in xenograft model. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentration and cell cycle distribution following irradiation were detected. RESULTS: High expression of ABCC4 and p53 mutant in pretreated tumors, poor pathological response, and high final tumor staging were significant factors independently predicted an unfavorable prognosis of locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients after neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Down-regulation of ABCC4 expression significantly enhanced irradiation-induced suppression of tumor growth in xenograft model. Furthermore, down-regulation of ABCC4 expression enhanced intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and noticeable deficiency of G1-S phase checkpoint in cell cycle following irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that ABCC4 serves as a novel predictive biomarker that is responsible for the radioresistance and predicts a poor prognosis for locally advanced rectal carcinoma after neoadjuvant radiotherapy.

  11. Treatment algorithm in 2014 for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: therapy selection by tumour histology and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manegold, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The availability of antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies, small molecules and newer cytotoxics such as pemetrexed, the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib as well as the anti-angiogenic bevacizumab and the ALK-inhibitor crizotinib has recently changes the treatment algorithm of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Decision making in 2014 is characterized by customizing therapy, by selecting a specific therapeutic regimen based on the histotype and the genotype of the tumour. This refers to first-line induction therapy and maintenance therapy as well, but also to subsequent lines of therapy since anti-neoplastic drugs and regimens used upfront clinically influence the selection of agents/regimes considered for second-/third-line treatment. Consequently, therapy customization through tumour histology and molecular markers has significantly influenced the work of pathologists around the globe and the process of obtaining an extended therapeutically relevant tumour diagnosis. Not only histological sub-typing became standard but molecular information is also considered of increasing importance for treatment selection. Routine molecular testing in certified laboratories must be established, and the diagnostic process should ideally be performed under the guidance of evidence based recommendation. The process of investigating and implementing medical targeting in lung cancer therefore, requires advanced diagnostic techniques and expertise and because of its large dimension is costly and influenced by the limitation of financial and clinical resources.

  12. Irradiation with X-rays phase-advances the molecular clockwork in liver, adrenal gland and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mareike Hildegard; Rödel, Franz; Rüb, Udo; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-02-01

    The circadian clock of man and mammals shows a hierarchic organization. The master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), controls peripheral oscillators distributed throughout the body. Rhythm generation depends on molecular clockworks based on transcriptional/translational interaction of clock genes. Numerous studies have shown that the clockwork in peripheral oscillators is capable to maintain circadian rhythms for several cycles in vitro, i.e. in the absence of signals from the SCN. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of irradiation with X-rays on the clockwork of liver, adrenal and pancreas. To this end organotypic slice cultures of liver (OLSC) and organotypic explant cultures of adrenal glands (OAEC) and pancreas (OPEC) were prepared from transgenic mPer2(luc) mice which express luciferase under the control of the promoter of an important clock gene, Per2, and allow to study the dynamics of the molecular clockwork by bioluminometry. The preparations were cultured in a membrane-based liquid-air interface culturing system and irradiated with X-rays at doses of 10 Gy and 50 Gy or left untreated. Bioluminometric real-time recordings show a stable oscillation of all OLSC, OAEC and OPEC for up to 12 days in vitro. Oscillations persist after irradiation with X-rays. However, a dose of 50 Gy caused a phase advance in the rhythm of the OLSC by 5 h, in the OPEC by 7 h and in the OAEC by 6 h. Our study shows that X-rays affect the molecular clockwork in liver, pancreas and adrenal leading to phase advances. Our results confirm and extend previous studies showing a phase-advancing effect of X-rays at the level of the whole animal and single cells.

  13. Molecular-targeted therapy for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Antonelli,Giovanna; Libra, Massimo; PANEBIANCO, VINCENZO; Russo,Alessia Erika; Vitale, Felice Vito; COLINA, PAOLO; D'Angelo,Alessandro; ROSSELLO, ROSALBA; Ferraù, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in men and women. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents close to 90% of all lung cancers. When diagnosed, >50% of patients are >65 years old. Through an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in lung oncogenesis, molecular-targeted approaches have become an essential element for the treatment of patients with NSCLC. As the toxicity profiles of the techniques are definitely more favorable compared wit...

  14. Computer Simulation Techniques for Molecular Structure of Coal for Advanced Coal Conversion Technology; Sekitan kodo henkan no tameno bunshikozo shimyureshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanohashi, Toshimasa [Energy Resources Dept., Tokyo (Japan). Fundamental Research Div.; Nakamura, Kazuo [Osaka Gas Corp., Osaka (Japan). Fundamental Research Laboratories; Iino, Masashi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan), Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1999-02-25

    Coal has complex chemical structure consisting of various bond types and the details are still not well understood. Recently, in addition to improvements of analytical techniques, molecular modeling and simulation techniques by using powerful computers and software have greatly developed and it has become possible to apply them to complex structure such as coal. Knowledge of coal's molecular structure is important for the understanding of various coal properties and reactivities under several conditions. In this paper, a new tool, i.e., molecular modeling technique of coal's macromolecular structure and dynamic simulation of coal properties, is introduced and the future applications of this technique will be outlined. (author)

  15. The molecular gas content of the advanced S+E merger NGC 4441 - Evidence for an extended decoupled nuclear disc?

    CERN Document Server

    Juette, E; Hüttemeister, S

    2009-01-01

    Mergers between a spiral and an elliptical (S+E mergers) are poorly studied so far despite the importance for galaxy evolution. NGC4441 is a nearby candidate for an advanced remnant of such a merger, showing typical tidal structures like an optical tail and two shells as well as two HI tails. The study of the molecular gas content gives clues on the impact of the recent merger event on the star formation. Simulations of S+E mergers predict contradictory scenarios concerning the strength and the extent of an induced starburst. Thus, observations of the amount and the distribution of the molecular gas, the raw material of star formation, are needed to understand the influence of the merger on the star formation history. 12CO and 13CO (1-0) and (2-1) observations were obtained using the Onsala Space Observatory 20m and IRAM 30m telescope as well as the Plateau de Bure interferometer. These data allow us to carry out a basic analysis of the molecular gas properties such as estimates of the molecular gas mass, its...

  16. Comprehensive Peptide Ion Structure Studies Using Ion Mobility Techniques: Part 1. An Advanced Protocol for Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Collision Cross-Section Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Tafreshian, Amirmahdi; J. Valentine, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Collision cross-section (CCS) measurements with a linear drift tube have been utilized to study the gas-phase conformers of a model peptide (acetyl-PAAAAKAAAAKAAAAKAAAAK). Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been conducted to derive an advanced protocol for the generation of a comprehensive pool of in-silico structures; both higher energy and more thermodynamically stable structures are included to provide an unbiased sampling of conformational space. MD simulations at 300 K are applied to the in-silico structures to more accurately describe the gas-phase transport properties of the ion conformers including their dynamics. Different methods used previously for trajectory method (TM) CCS calculation employing the Mobcal software [1] are evaluated. A new method for accurate CCS calculation is proposed based on clustering and data mining techniques. CCS values are calculated for all in-silico structures, and those with matching CCS values are chosen as candidate structures. With this approach, more than 300 candidate structures with significant structural variation are produced; although no final gas-phase structure is proposed here, in a second installment of this work, gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange data will be utilized as a second criterion to select among these structures as well as to propose relative populations for these ion conformers. Here the need to increase conformer diversity and accurate CCS calculation is demonstrated and the advanced methods are discussed.

  17. Determination of the acute toxicities of physicochemical pretreatment and advanced oxidation processes applied to dairy effluents on activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivrioğlu, Özge; Yonar, Taner

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the acute toxicities of raw, physicochemical pre-treated, ozonated, and Fenton reagent applied samples of dairy wastewater toward activated sludge microorganisms, evaluated using the International Organization for Standardization's respiration inhibition test (ISO 8192), are presented. Five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) was measured to determine the biodegradability of physicochemical treatment, ozonation, Fenton oxidation or no treatment (raw samples) of dairy wastewater. Chemical pretreatment positively affected biodegradability, and the inhibition exhibited by activated sludge was removed to a considerable degree. Ozonation and the Fenton process exhibited good chemical oxygen demand removal (61%) and removal of toxins. Low sludge production was observed for the Fenton process applied to dairy effluents. We did not determine the inhibitory effect of the Fenton-process on the activated sludge mixture. The pollutant-removal efficiencies of the applied processes and their associated operating costs were determined.

  18. Advancing the Interdisciplinary Collaborative Health Team Model: Applying Democratic Professionalism, Implementation Science, and Therapeutic Alliance to Enact Social Justice Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This essay reframes the interdisciplinary collaborative health team model by proposing the application of 3 foundational pillars-democratic professionalism, implementation science, and therapeutic alliance to advance this practice. The aim was to address challenges to the model, enhance their functional capacity, and explicate and enact social justice practices to affect individual health outcomes while simultaneously addressing health inequities. The pillars are described and examples from the author's dissertation research illustrate how the pillars were used to bring about action. Related theories, models, and frameworks that have negotiation, capacity building, collaboration, and knowledge/task/power sharing as central concepts are presented under each of the pillars.

  19. Reactive molecular dynamics of the initial oxidation stages of Ni111 in pure water: effect of an applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assowe, O; Politano, O; Vignal, V; Arnoux, P; Diawara, B; Verners, O; van Duin, A C T

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion processes occurring in aqueous solutions are critically dependent upon the interaction between the metal electrode and the solvent. In this work, the interaction of a nickel substrate with water molecules has been investigated using reactive force field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics simulations. This approach was originally developed by van Duin and co-workers to study hydrocarbon chemistry and the catalytic properties of organic compounds. To our knowledge, this method has not previously been used to study the corrosion of nickel. In this work, we studied the interaction of 480 molecules of water (ρ = 0.99 g·cm(-3)) with Ni(111) surfaces at 300 K. The results showed that a water "bilayer" was adsorbed on the nickel surface. In the absence of an applied electric field, no dissociation of water was observed. However, the nickel atoms at the surface were charged positively, whereas the first water layer was charged negatively, indicating the formation of an electric double layer. To study the corrosion of nickel in pure water, we introduced an external electric field between the metal and the solution. The electric field intensity varied between 10 and 20 MeV/cm. The presence of this electric field led to oxidation of the metal surface. The structural and morphological differences associated with the growth of this oxide film in the presence of the electric field were evaluated. The simulated atomic trajectories were used to analyze the atomic displacement during the reactive process. The growth of the oxide scale on the nickel surface was primarily due to the movement of anions toward the interior of the metal substrate and the migration of nickel toward the free surface. We found that increasing the electric field intensity sped up the corrosion of nickel. The results also showed that the oxide film thickness increased linearly with increasing electric field intensity.

  20. REVIEW - Advances on molecular studies of the interaction soybean - Asian rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguida Maria Alves Pereira Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective management practices are essential for controlling rust outbreaks. The main control methodused is the application of fungicides, which increases substantially the cost of production and is harmful to theenvironment. Prevention is still the best way to avoid more significant losses in soybean yields. Alternatives,such as planting resistant varieties to the fungus, are also important. The use of resistant or tolerant varietiesis the most promising method for controlling Asian soybean rust. Recently, five dominant genes resistant to soybean rust were described: Rpp1, Rpp2, Rpp3, Rpp4 and Rpp5. However, little is known about the molecular interaction among soybean plant and soybean rust and on the molecular pathway triggered by pathogen recognition. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in defense responses is of primary importance for planning strategies to control stress and, consequently, to increase plant adaptation to limiting conditions

  1. Advances on molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera (bats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunpeng, Liang; Li, Yu

    2015-01-01

    As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encountered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution.

  2. [Molecular biology of renal cancer: bases for genetic directed therapy in advanced disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto Rey, José Pablo; Cillán Narvaez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    There has been expansion of therapeutic options in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma due to a better knowledge of the molecular biology of kidney cancers. There are different tumors grouped under the term renal cell carcinoma, being clear cell cancer the most frequent and accounting for 80% of kidney tumors. Mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau gene can be identified in up to 80% of sporadic clear cell cancer, linking a genetically inheritable disease where vascular tumors are frequent, with renal cell cancer. Other histologic types present specific alterations in molecular pathways, like c-MET in papillary type I tumors, and Fumarase Hydratase in papillary type II tumors. Identification of the molecular alteration for a specific tumor may offer an opportunity for treatment selection based on biomarkers, and, in the future, for developing an engineering designed genetic treatment.

  3. Advances in Surface Molecular Imprinting%表面分子印迹研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仰云峰; 车爱馥; 吴健; 徐志康

    2007-01-01

      为了拓展分子印迹聚合物(Molecularly Imprinted Polymers, MIP)的应用领域,表面分子印迹作为一种新的方法,受到了极大的关注。本文首先分析了MIP传统制备方法存在的问题;然后依据印迹位点所处位置的不同,分类综述了表面分子印迹的各种方法。%  To extend molecularly imprinted polymer(MIP) to new application areas, surface molecular imprinting as a novel approach has received significant attention. Problems existing in the conventional method of synthesis of MIP are firstly estimated in this review. A variety of different strategies for surface imprinting are discussed according to imprinted sites locating at different regions.

  4. Cross-Cultural Dimensions of Applied, Critical, and Transformational Leadership: Women Principals Advancing Social Justice and Educational Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Lorri J.; Jean-Marie, Gaëtane

    2014-01-01

    This study, based on the qualitatively rendered experiences and perceptions of educational leaders from historically underserved backgrounds in the US, argues that identity impacts leadership practice. To make this point, researchers build upon an emergent theoretical framework for applied critical leadership from the theories and traditions of…

  5. A brief summary of major advances in cotton functional genomics and molecular breeding studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cotton fibers, commonly known as cotton lint, are single-celled trichomes derived from epidermal layers of cotton ovules. Despite of its importance in word trade, the molecular mechanisms of cotton fiber production is still poorly understood. Through transcriptome profiling, functional genomics, proteomics, metabolomics approaches as well as marker-assisted molecular breeding, scientists in China have made significant contributions in cotton research. Here, we briefly summarize major progresses made in Chinese laboratories, and discuss future directions and perspectives relative to the development of this unique crop plant.

  6. Molecular Imaging : Computer Reconstruction and Practice - Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Imaging from Physical Principles to Computer Reconstruction and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2008-01-01

    This volume collects the lectures presented at the ninth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2006 and is dedicated to nuclear physics applications in molecular imaging. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of image reconstruction processing and management and illustrate the role of digital imaging in clinical practice. Medical computing and image reconstruction are introduced by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, relevant quality aspects, clinical performance and recent advancements in the field. Several stages of the imaging process are specifically addressed, e.g. optimisation of data acquisition and storage, distributed computing, physiology and detector modelling, computer algorithms for image reconstruction and measurement in tomography applications, for both clinical and biomedical research applications. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehen...

  7. Research Advances: Nanoscale Molecular Tweezers; Cinnamon as Pesticide?; Recently Identified Dietary Sources of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2004-12-01

    This Report from Other Journals surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include reports that receptors have been designed to act as molecular tweezers; cinnamon has potential in the fight against mosquitoes; and high levels of antioxidants are found in some surprising foods. See Featured Molecules .

  8. Liminality in cultural transition: applying ID-EA to advance a concept into theory-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Martha B; Reed, Pamela G

    2015-01-01

    As global migration increases worldwide, nursing interventions are needed to address the effects of migration on health. The concept of liminality emerged as a pivotal concept in the situation-specific theory of well-being in refugee women experiencing cultural transition. As a relatively new concept in the discipline of nursing, liminality is explored using a method, called ID-EA, which we developed to advance a theoretical concept for application to nursing practice. Liminality in the context of cultural transition is further developed using the five steps of inquiry of the ID-EA method. The five steps are as follows: (1) inductive inquiry: qualitative research, (2) deductive inquiry: literature review, (3) synthesis of inductive and deductive inquiry, (4) evaluation inquiry, and (5) application-to-practice inquiry. The overall goal of this particular work was to develop situation-specific, theory-based interventions that facilitate cultural transitions for immigrants and refugees.

  9. A Demonstration of Advanced Safety Analysis Tools and Methods Applied to Large Break LOCA and Fuel Analysis for PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Laboratory; Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Laboratory; Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently proposing a rulemaking designated as 10 CFR 50.46c to revise the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA)/emergency core cooling system acceptance criteria to include the effects of higher burnup on fuel/cladding performance. We propose a demonstration problem of a representative four-loop PWR plant to study the impact of this new rule in the US nuclear fleet. Within the scope of evaluation for the 10 CFR 50.46c rule, aspects of safety, operations, and economics are considered in the industry application demonstration presented in this paper. An advanced safety analysis approach is used, by integrating the probabilistic element with deterministic methods for LOCA analysis, a novel approach to solving these types of multi-physics, multi-scale problems.

  10. 浅议应用型本科高校高等数学的教学改革%Discussions on Advanced Math Teaching Reform of Discussion on Advanced Math Teaching Reform of Applied Undergraduate Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王修建; 赵建中; 江瑜

    2012-01-01

    目前高等数学因照搬传统教学模式与应用型本科高校学生的培养产生了诸多不适应,在多年教学实践的基础上,指出了高等数学教学过程中所存在的一些问题,提出为了培养应用型人才,高等数学教学改革的一些方法,力求改革具有针对性和适用性,使高等数学教学真正的适用于培养出高素质的应用型人才。%Nowdays,there are many differences between the cultivating of application-orientated talents in applied undergraduate universities and Advanced Mathematics teaching which follows the traditional teaching mode.On the basis of practice on math teaching for so many years,we point out some existing problems in advanced mathematics teaching,offer some methods for advanced mathematics teaching reform,and make the teaching reform practical and applicable as possible as we can,so that we can really cultivate application-orientated talents through the teaching of Advanced Mathematics.

  11. Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzeng Min

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanide-doped upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs, which can be excited by near-infrared (NIR laser irradiation to emit multiplex light, have been proven to be very useful for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging studies. In comparison with the conventionally used down-conversion fluorescence imaging strategies, the NIR light excited luminescence of UCNPs displays high photostability, low cytotoxicity, little background auto-fluorescence, which allows for deep tissue penetration, making them attractive as contrast agents for biomedical imaging applications. In this review, we will mainly focus on the latest development of a new type of lanthanide-doped UCNP material and its main applications for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging and we will also discuss the challenges and future perspectives.

  12. How recent advances in molecular tests could impact the diagnosis of pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, David R

    2016-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic tests have been the single major development in pneumonia diagnostics over recent years. Nucleic acid detection tests (NATs) have greatly improved the ability to detect respiratory viruses and bacterial pathogens that do not normally colonize the respiratory tract. In contrast, NATs do not yet have an established role for diagnosing pneumonia caused by bacteria that commonly colonize the nasopharynx due to difficulties discriminating between pathogens and coincidental carriage strains. New approaches are needed to distinguish infection from colonization, such as through use of quantitative methods and identification of discriminating cut-off levels. The recent realization that the lung microbiome exists has provided new insights into the pathogenesis of pneumonia involving the interaction between multiple microorganisms. New developments in molecular diagnostics must account for this new paradigm.

  13. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanism of chloroplast photorelocation movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2014-04-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that have evolved unique systems to adapt fluctuating environmental light conditions. In addition to well-known movement responses such as phototropism, stomatal opening, and nastic leaf movements, chloroplast photorelocation movement is one of the essential cellular responses to optimize photosynthetic ability and avoid photodamage. For these adaptations, chloroplasts accumulate at the areas of cells illuminated with low light (called accumulation response), while they scatter from the area illuminated with strong light (called avoidance response). Plant-specific photoreceptors (phototropin, phytochrome, and/or neochrome) mediate these dynamic directional movements in response to incident light position and intensity. Several factors involved in the mechanisms underlying the processes from light perception to actin-based movements have also been identified through molecular genetic approach. This review aims to discuss recent findings in the field relating to how chloroplasts move at molecular levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Dynamic and ultrastructure of bioenergetic membranes and their components.

  14. Complex Reaction Environments and Competing Reaction Mechanisms in Zeolite Catalysis: Insights from Advanced Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wispelaere, Kristof; Ensing, Bernd; Ghysels, An; Meijer, Evert Jan; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2015-06-22

    The methanol-to-olefin process is a showcase example of complex zeolite-catalyzed chemistry. At real operating conditions, many factors affect the reactivity, such as framework flexibility, adsorption of various guest molecules, and competitive reaction pathways. In this study, the strength of first principle molecular dynamics techniques to capture this complexity is shown by means of two case studies. Firstly, the adsorption behavior of methanol and water in H-SAPO-34 at 350 °C is investigated. Hereby an important degree of framework flexibility and proton mobility was observed. Secondly, the methylation of benzene by methanol through a competitive direct and stepwise pathway in the AFI topology was studied. Both case studies clearly show that a first-principle molecular dynamics approach enables unprecedented insights into zeolite-catalyzed reactions at the nanometer scale to be obtained.

  15. Recent advances in developing molecular tools for targeted genome engineering of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kwang-il

    2015-01-01

    Various biological molecules naturally existing in diversified species including fungi, bacteria, and bacteriophage have functionalities for DNA binding and processing. The biological molecules have been recently actively engineered for use in customized genome editing of mammalian cells as the molecule-encoding DNA sequence information and the underlying mechanisms how the molecules work are unveiled. Excitingly, multiple novel methods based on the newly constructed artificial molecular tools have enabled modifications of specific endogenous genetic elements in the genome context at efficiencies that are much higher than that of the conventional homologous recombination based methods. This minireview introduces the most recently spotlighted molecular genome engineering tools with their key features and ongoing modifications for better performance. Such ongoing efforts have mainly focused on the removal of the inherent DNA sequence recognition rigidity from the original molecular platforms, the addition of newly tailored targeting functions into the engineered molecules, and the enhancement of their targeting specificity. Effective targeted genome engineering of mammalian cells will enable not only sophisticated genetic studies in the context of the genome, but also widely-applicable universal therapeutics based on the pinpointing and correction of the disease-causing genetic elements within the genome in the near future.

  16. Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning (NLP/ML): Applying Advances in Biomedicine to the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Myers, S.; Palmer, M.; Jenkins, C. J.; Thessen, A.; Martin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Semantics underlie many of the tools and services available from and on the web. From improving search results to enabling data mashups and other forms of interoperability, semantic technologies have proven themselves. But creating semantic resources, especially re-usable semantic resources, is extremely time consuming and labor intensive. Why? Because it is not just a matter of technology but also of obtaining rough consensus if not full agreement amongst community members on the meaning and order of things. One way to develop these resources in a more automated way would be to use NLP/ML techniques to extract the required resources from large corpora of subject-specific text such as peer-reviewed papers where presumably a rough consensus has been achieved at least about the basics of the particular discipline involved. While not generally applied to Earth Sciences, considerable resources have been spent in other fields such as medicine on these types of techniques with some success. The NSF-funded ClearEarth project is applying the techniques developed for biomedicine to the cryosphere, geology, and biology in order to spur faster development of the semantic resources needed in these fields. The first area being addressed by the project is the cryosphere, specifically sea ice nomenclature where an existing set of sea ice ontologies are being used as the "Gold Standard" against which to test and validate the NLP/ML techniques. The processes being used, lessons learned and early results will be described.

  17. Development of experimental apparatus for evaluating corrosion resistance of cladding materials applied for advanced power reactor. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inohara, Yasuto; Ioka, Ikuo; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Tachibana, Katsumi; Suzuki, Tomio; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kuroda, Yuji; Miyamoto, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    On the development of cladding materials for advanced power reactors, it is important to clarify long performance and to control the compatibility to high temperature water at heat conducting surfaces under heavy irradiation. On the present study, the high temperature water loop with an autoclave was made for examining the corrosion behavior up to the super critical water range and for developing the simulation testing technique under irradiation in the hot cell. The loop is applicable to immersion tests in the temperature and pressure ranges up to 450degC and 25 MPa that are covered the surface temperature range of fuel claddings. One of the characteristics of this apparatus is a pair of sapphire windows of autoclave for in-situ observations, and a phase transition from water to super critical water conditions was clearly verified through these windows. In this apparatus, it is possible to control the temperature, pressure and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) within a fluctuations of few % on three phases, namely, water, steam and super critical water. (author)

  18. Recent advances in nanobiotechnology and high-throughput molecular techniques for systems biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung-Sam; Ahn, Eun Hyun; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2013-12-01

    Nanotechnology-based tools are beginning to emerge as promising platforms for quantitative high-throughput analysis of live cells and tissues. Despite unprecedented progress made over the last decade, a challenge still lies in integrating emerging nanotechnology-based tools into macroscopic biomedical apparatuses for practical purposes in biomedical sciences. In this review, we discuss the recent advances and limitations in the analysis and control of mechanical, biochemical, fluidic, and optical interactions in the interface areas of nanotechnologybased materials and living cells in both in vitro and in vivo settings.

  19. Performance evaluation of different solar advanced oxidation processes applied to the treatment of a real textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Diego R; Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    The performance of different solar-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as TiO2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, and Fe(2+)/H2O2/UV-visible in the treatment of a real textile effluent using a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), was investigated. The influence of the main photo-Fenton reaction variables such as iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+) L(-1)), pH (2.4-4.5), temperature (10-50 °C), and irradiance (22-68 WUV m(-2)) was evaluated in a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation. The real textile wastewater presented a beige color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (8.1), moderate organic content (dissolved organic carbon (DOC) = 129 mg C L(-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 496 mg O2 L(-1)), and high conductivity mainly associated to the high concentration of chloride (1.1 g Cl(-) L(-1)), sulfate (0.4 g SO 4 (2 -) L(- 1)), and sodium (1.2 g Na(+) L(-1)) ions. Although all the processes tested contributed to complete decolorization and effective mineralization, the most efficient process was the solar photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 70 % mineralization (DOCfinal = 41 mg C L(-1); CODfinal UV energy dose of 3.5 kJUV L(-1) (t 30 W = 22.4 min; [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and consuming 18.5 mM of H2O2.

  20. Elevating the Horizon: Emerging Molecular and Genomic Targets in the Treatment of Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Metin; Davarpanah, Nicole N; Qin, Rui; Powles, Thomas; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Apolo, Andrea B

    2015-10-01

    Despite recent advances in the identification of genomic alterations that lead to urothelial oncogenesis in vitro, patients with advanced urothelial carcinomas continue to have poor clinical outcomes. In the present review, we focus on targeted therapies that have yielded the most promising results alone or combined with traditional chemotherapy, including the antiangiogenesis agent bevacizumab, the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 antibody trastuzumab, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib. We also describe ongoing and developing clinical trials that use innovative approaches, including dose-dense scheduling of singular chemotherapy combinations, prospective screening of tumor tissues for mutational targets and biomarkers to predict chemosensitivity before the determination of the therapeutic regimen, and novel agents that target proteins in the immune checkpoint regulation pathway (programmed cell death protein 1 [PD-1] and anti-PD-ligand 1) that have shown significant potential in preclinical models and early clinical trials. New agents and targeted therapies, alone or combined with traditional chemotherapy, will only be validated through accrual to developing clinical trials that aim to translate these therapies into individualized treatments and improved survival rates in urothelial carcinoma.

  1. Genetics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: advances and pitfalls in molecular diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Fernandes, Alexandra R

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary disease of the cardiac muscle that occurs mainly due to mutations (>1,400 variants) in genes encoding for the cardiac sarcomere. HCM, the most common familial form of cardiomyopathy, affecting one in every 500 people in the general population, is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, and presents variable expressivity and age-related penetrance. Due to the morphological and pathological heterogeneity of the disease, the appearance and progression of symptoms is not straightforward. Most HCM patients are asymptomatic, but up to 25% develop significant symptoms, including chest pain and sudden cardiac death. Sudden cardiac death is a dramatic event, since it occurs without warning and mainly in younger people, including trained athletes. Molecular diagnosis of HCM is of the outmost importance, since it may allow detection of subjects carrying mutations on HCM-associated genes before development of clinical symptoms of HCM. However, due to the genetic heterogeneity of HCM, molecular diagnosis is difficult. Currently, there are mainly four techniques used for molecular diagnosis of HCM, including Sanger sequencing, high resolution melting, mutation detection using DNA arrays, and next-generation sequencing techniques. Application of these methods has proven successful for identification of mutations on HCM-related genes. This review summarizes the features of these technologies, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, current therapeutics for HCM patients are correlated with clinically observed phenotypes and are based on the alleviation of symptoms. This is mainly due to insufficient knowledge on the mechanisms involved in the onset of HCM. Tissue engineering alongside regenerative medicine coupled with nanotherapeutics may allow fulfillment of those gaps, together with screening of novel therapeutic drugs and target delivery systems.

  2. Recent advances in the molecular pharmacology of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, R D; Perez, D M; Piascik, M T

    1996-08-01

    This review is intended to discuss recent developments in the molecular pharmacology of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor (alpha 1-AR) subtypes. After a brief historical development, we will focus on the more contemporary issues having to do with this receptor family. Emphasis will be put on recent data regarding the cloning, nomenclature, signalling mechanisms, and genomic organization of the alpha 1-AR subtypes. We will also highlight recent mutational studies that identify key amino acid residues involved in ligand binding, as well as the role of the alpha 1-AR subtypes in regulating physiologic processes.

  3. Advances in Human Mitochondrial Diseases Molecular Genetic Analysis of Pathogenic mtDNA Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E; King, M P

    1997-01-01

    The mitochondrial diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that have been defined by specific morphological alterations in muscle and by deficits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The morphological hallmarks of these diseases include ragged-red fibers (an extensive proliferation of mitochondria in muscle fibers) and abnormal paracrystalline inclusions and membrane structures in mitochondria. The identification of pathogenic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has resulted in a genetic classification of mitochondrial diseases. Investigations are being conducted to understand the molecular basis for the biochemical and morphological alterations of mitochondria associated with mtDNA mutations. © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:16-24).

  4. Advanced electric-field scanning probe lithography on molecular resist using active cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Marcus; Aydogan, Cemal; Lipowicz, Hubert-Seweryn; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Lenk, Steve; Ahmad, Ahmad; Angelov, Tihomir; Reum, Alexander; Ishchuk, Valentyn; Atanasov, Ivaylo; Krivoshapkina, Yana; Hofer, Manuel; Holz, Mathias; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2015-03-01

    The routine "on demand" fabrication of features smaller than 10 nm opens up new possibilities for the realization of many novel nanoelectronic, NEMS, optical and bio-nanotechnology-based devices. Based on the thermally actuated, piezoresistive cantilever technology we have developed a first prototype of a scanning probe lithography (SPL) platform able to image, inspect, align and pattern features down to single digit nano regime. The direct, mask-less patterning of molecular resists using active scanning probes represents a promising path circumventing the problems in today's radiation-based lithography. Here, we present examples of practical applications of the previously published electric field based, current-controlled scanning probe lithography on molecular glass resist calixarene by using the developed tabletop SPL system. We demonstrate the application of a step-and-repeat scanning probe lithography scheme including optical as well as AFM based alignment and navigation. In addition, sequential read-write cycle patterning combining positive and negative tone lithography is shown. We are presenting patterning over larger areas (80 x 80 μm) and feature the practical applicability of the lithographic processes.

  5. Advances on plant-pathogen interactions from molecular toward systems biology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraud, Rémi; Dubiella, Ullrich; Barbacci, Adelin; Genin, Stéphane; Raffaele, Sylvain; Roby, Dominique

    2016-11-21

    In the past 2 decades, progress in molecular analyses of the plant immune system has revealed key elements of a complex response network. Current paradigms depict the interaction of pathogen-secreted molecules with host target molecules leading to the activation of multiple plant response pathways. Further research will be required to fully understand how these responses are integrated in space and time, and exploit this knowledge in agriculture. In this review, we highlight systems biology as a promising approach to reveal properties of molecular plant-pathogen interactions and predict the outcome of such interactions. We first illustrate a few key concepts in plant immunity with a network and systems biology perspective. Next, we present some basic principles of systems biology and show how they allow integrating multiomics data and predict cell phenotypes. We identify challenges for systems biology of plant-pathogen interactions, including the reconstruction of multiscale mechanistic models and the connection of host and pathogen models. Finally, we outline studies on resistance durability through the robustness of immune system networks, the identification of trade-offs between immunity and growth and in silico plant-pathogen co-evolution as exciting perspectives in the field. We conclude that the development of sophisticated models of plant diseases incorporating plant, pathogen and climate properties represent a major challenge for agriculture in the future.

  6. Advanced Structural Determination of Diterpene Esters Using Molecular Modeling and NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Gallard, Jean-François; Dumontet, Vincent; Roussi, Fanny; Costa, Jean; Iorga, Bogdan I; Paolini, Julien; Litaudon, Marc

    2015-10-23

    Three new jatrophane esters (1-3) were isolated from Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. semiperfoliata, including an unprecedented macrocyclic jatrophane ester bearing a hemiketal substructure, named jatrohemiketal (3). The chemical structures of compounds 1-3 and their relative configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 3 was determined unambiguously through an original strategy combining NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Conformational search calculations were performed for the four possible diastereomers 3a-3d differing in their C-6 and C-9 stereocenters, and the lowest energy conformer was used as input structure for geometry optimization. The prediction of NMR parameters ((1)H and (13)C chemical shifts and (1)H-(1)H coupling constants) by density functional theory (DFT) calculations allowed identifying the most plausible diastereomer. Finally, the stereostructure of 3 was solved by comparison of the structural features obtained by molecular modeling for 3a-3d with NMR-derived data (the values of dihedral angles deduced from the vicinal proton-proton coupling constants ((3)JHH) and interproton distances determined by ROESY). The methodology described herein provides an efficient way to solve or confirm structural elucidation of new macrocyclic diterpene esters, in particular when no crystal structure is available.

  7. Recent advances in small molecular, non-polymeric organic hole transporting materials for solid-state DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh-Tuan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Issue from thin-film technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells have become one of the most promising technologies in the field of renewable energies. Their success is not only due to their low weight, the possibility of making large flexible surfaces, but also to their photovoltaic efficiency which are found to be more and more significant (>12% with a liquid electrolyte, >7% with a solid organic hole conductor. This short review highlights recent advances in the characteristics and use of low-molecular-weight glass-forming organic materials as hole transporters in all solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials must feature specific physical and chemical properties that will ensure both the operation of a photovoltaic cell and the easy implementation. This review is an english extended version based on our recent article published in Matériaux & Techniques 101, 102 (2013.

  8. Flow cytometry in environmental microbiology: a rapid approach for the isolation of single cells for advanced molecular biology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Belinda C; Winsley, Tristrom J; Bergquist, Peter L; Van Dorst, Josie

    2012-01-01

    The isolation and subsequent characterization of microbial cells from within environmental samples is a difficult process. Flow cytometry and cell sorting, when combined with the application of fluorescent probes, have the capability for the detection and separation of diverse microbial populations from within complex mixtures. The isolation of single cells allows for downstream investigations towards system-level characterization of unknown Bacterial Phyla to occur. We describe here the combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and cell sorting for the detection and isolation of Candidate Division TM7 bacteria from an enriched soil sample. The result is the isolation of rare cells suitable for advanced molecular analysis including whole genome amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing.

  9. Discovery of non-peptide small molecular CXCR4 antagonists as anti-HIV agents: Recent advances and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Kang, Dongwei; Huang, Boshi; Liu, Na; Zhao, Fabao; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-05-23

    CXCR4 plays vital roles in HIV-1 life cycle for it's essential in mediating the interaction of host and virus and completing the entry process in the lifecycle of HIV-1 infection. Compared with some traditional targets, CXCR4 provides a novel and less mutated drug target in the battle against AIDS. Its antagonists have no cross resistance with other antagonists. Great achievements have been made recent years and a number of small molecular CXCR4 antagonists with diversity scaffolds have been discovered. In this review, recent advances in the discovery of CXCR4 antagonists with special attentions on their evolution and structure-activity relationships of representative CXCR4 antagonists are described. Moreover, some classical medicinal chemistry strategies and novel methodologies are also introduced.

  10. Recent advances in the structural molecular biology of Ets transcription factors: interactions, interfaces and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher D O; Newman, Joseph A; Gileadi, Opher

    2014-02-01

    The Ets family of eukaryotic transcription factors is based around the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain. Although their DNA-binding selectivity is biochemically and structurally well characterized, structures of homodimeric and ternary complexes point to Ets domains functioning as versatile protein-interaction modules. In the present paper, we review the progress made over the last decade to elucidate the structural mechanisms involved in modulation of DNA binding and protein partner selection during dimerization. We see that Ets domains, although conserved around a core architecture, have evolved to utilize a variety of interaction surfaces and binding mechanisms, reflecting Ets domains as dynamic interfaces for both DNA and protein interaction. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in drug development for inhibition of Ets factors, and the roles structural biology can play in their future.

  11. Molecular Mechanism Responsible for Fibronectin-controlled Alterations in Matrix Stiffness in Advanced Chronic Liver Fibrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Ayumi; Sakai, Keiko; Moriya, Kei; Sasaki, Takako; Keene, Douglas R; Akhtar, Riaz; Miyazono, Takayoshi; Yasumura, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Morishita, Shin; Sakai, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening. However, the functional contribution of tissue stiffening to noncancer pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Fibronectin (Fn) is an ECM glycoprotein substantially expressed during tissue repair. Here we show in advanced chronic liver fibrogenesis using a mouse model lacking Fn that, unexpectedly, Fn-null livers lead to more extensive liver cirrhosis, which is accompanied by increased liver matrix stiffness and deteriorated hepatic functions. Furthermore, Fn-null livers exhibit more myofibroblast phenotypes and accumulate highly disorganized/diffuse collagenous ECM networks composed of thinner and significantly increased number of collagen fibrils during advanced chronic liver damage. Mechanistically, mutant livers show elevated local TGF-β activity and lysyl oxidase expressions. A significant amount of active lysyl oxidase is released in Fn-null hepatic stellate cells in response to TGF-β1 through canonical and noncanonical Smad such as PI3 kinase-mediated pathways. TGF-β1-induced collagen fibril stiffness in Fn-null hepatic stellate cells is significantly higher compared with wild-type cells. Inhibition of lysyl oxidase significantly reduces collagen fibril stiffness, and treatment of Fn recovers collagen fibril stiffness to wild-type levels. Thus, our findings indicate an indispensable role for Fn in chronic liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in negatively regulating TGF-β bioavailability, which in turn modulates ECM remodeling and stiffening and consequently preserves adult organ functions. Furthermore, this regulatory mechanism by Fn could be translated for a potential therapeutic target in a broader variety of chronic fibrotic diseases.

  12. Advanced research technology for discovery of new effective compounds from Chinese herbal medicine and their molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xi; Xu, Su Wei; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han

    2016-09-01

    Traditional biotechnology has been utilized by human civilization for long in wide aspects of our daily life, such as wine and vinegar production, which can generate new phytochemicals from natural products using micro-organism. Today, with advanced biotechnology, diverse applications and advantages have been exhibited not only in bringing benefits to increase the diversity and composition of herbal phytochemicals, but also helping to elucidate the treatment mechanism and accelerate new drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Applications on phytochemical biotechnologies and microbial biotechnologies have been promoted to enhance phytochemical diversity. Cell labeling and imaging technology and -omics technology have been utilized to elucidate CHM treatment mechanism. Application of computational methods, such as chemoinformatics and bioinformatics provide new insights on direct target of CHM. Overall, these technologies provide efficient ways to overcome the bottleneck of CHM, such as helping to increase the phytochemical diversity, match their molecular targets and elucidate the treatment mechanism. Potentially, new oriented herbal phytochemicals and their corresponding drug targets can be identified. In perspective, tighter integration of multi-disciplinary biotechnology and computational technology will be the cornerstone to accelerate new arena formation, advancement and revolution in the fields of CHM and world pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Advances in Localization and Molecular Markers of Wheat Leaf Rust Resistance Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-xiang; LIU Da-qun

    2004-01-01

    Genetic resistance is the most economical method of reducing yield losses caused by wheat leaf rust. To identify the leaf rust resistance genes in commonly used parental germplasm and released cultivars become very important for utilizing the genetic resistance tc wheat leaf rust fully. Up to date, about 90 leaf rust resistance genes have been found,of which 51 genes have been located and mapped to special chromosomes, and 56 genes have been designated officially according to the standards set forth in the Catalogue of Gene Symbols for wheat. Twenty-four wheat leaf rust resistance genes have been developed for their molecular markers. It is very important to isolate, characterize, and map leaf rust resistance genes due to the resistance losses of the genes caused by the pathogen continuously.

  14. Recent advances in protein kinase inhibition: current molecular scaffolds used for inhibitor synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, D R; Lydon, N B; Nunes, J J

    1999-07-01

    Early efforts to discover and develop protein kinase inhibitors have focused largely on a small group of oncology targets such as the EGFR and PKC enzymes. More recently, hundreds of protein kinases have been identified at the genetic level, many of which are now being assigned functions in a variety of signaling pathways. Additionally, mutagenesis and X-ray crystallographic studies have further defined common structural features associated with binding of the ATP cofactor within a conserved ATP binding cleft. These studies have also demonstrated significant differences in the ATP binding cleft between individual kinases, providing a molecular basis for understanding and exploiting inhibitor specificity. The current review will focus on recent developments in the field of ATP site-directed inhibitors with particular emphasis on the major scaffolds being derivatized to take advantage of variable regions of the active site.

  15. Current Advances in the Application of Raman Spectroscopy for Molecular Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Raquel Martins Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy provides a unique biochemical fingerprint capable of identifying and characterizing the structure of molecules, cells, and tissues. In cervical cancer, it is acknowledged as a promising biochemical tool due to its ability to detect premalignancy and early malignancy stages. This review summarizes the key research in the area and the evidence compiled is very encouraging for ongoing and further research. In addition to the diagnostic potential, promising results for HPV detection and monitoring treatment response suggest more than just a diagnosis prospective. A greater body of evidence is however necessary before Raman spectroscopy is fully validated for clinical use and larger comprehensive studies are required to fully establish the role of Raman spectroscopy in the molecular diagnostics of cervical cancer.

  16. Present Advances and Future Perspectives of Molecular Targeted Therapy for Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Atik Badshah; Li, Fangfei; Li, Min; He, Bing; He, Xiaojuan; Chen, Guofen; Guo, Baosheng; Li, Defang; Jiang, Feng; Dang, Lei; Zheng, Shaowei; Liang, Chao; Liu, Jin; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Biao; Lu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-04-06

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a bone cancer mostly occurring in pediatric population. Current treatment regime of surgery and intensive chemotherapy could cure about 60%-75% patients with primary osteosarcoma, however only 15% to 30% can be cured when pulmonary metastasis or relapse has taken place. Hence, novel precise OS-targeting therapies are being developed with the hope of addressing this issue. This review summarizes the current development of molecular mechanisms and targets for osteosarcoma. Therapies that target these mechanisms with updated information on clinical trials are also reviewed. Meanwhile, we further discuss novel therapeutic targets and OS-targeting drug delivery systems. In conclusion, a full insight in OS pathogenesis and OS-targeting strategies would help us explore novel targeted therapies for metastatic osteosarcoma.

  17. Recent advances in molecular and cell biology of testicular germ-cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Testicular germ-cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent solid malignant tumors in men 20-40 years of age and the most frequent cause of death from solid tumors in this age group. TGCTs comprise two major histologic groups: seminomas and nonseminomas germ-cell tumors (NSGCTs). NSGCTs can be further divided into embryonal, carcinoma, Teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma. Seminomas and NSGCTs present significant differences in clinical features, therapy, and prognosis, and both show characteristics of the primordial germ cells. Many discovered biomarkers including OCT3/4, SOX2, SOX17, HMGA1, Nek2, GPR30, Aurora-B, estrogen receptor β, and others have given further advantages to discriminate between histological subgroups and could represent useful novel molecular targets for antineoplastic strategies. More insight into the pathogenesis of TGCTs is likely to improve disease management not only to better treatment of these tumors but also to a better understanding of stem cells and oncogenesis.

  18. Advanced microscopic and histochemical techniques: diagnostic tools in the molecular era of myology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Meola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two centuries, myology (i.e. the basic and clinical science of muscle and muscle disease has passed through 3 stages of development: the classical period, the modern stage and the molecular era. The classical period spans the last part of nineteenth century and the earlier part of the twentieth century. During this time, several major muscle disease were clinically and pathologically characterized, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, myotonic dystrophy (DM and facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD. The modern stage in the second half of the twentieth century is characterized by the adaptation of histo and cytochemical techniques to the study of muscle biopsies. These tools improved the diagnostic accuracy and made possible the identification of new changes and structures (Engel and Cunningham, 1963; Scarlato, 1975.

  19. Pushing CT and MR Imaging to the Molecular Level for Studying the “Omics”: Current Challenges and Advancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ming Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, medical imaging has made the transition from anatomical imaging to functional and even molecular imaging. Such transition provides a great opportunity to begin the integration of imaging data and various levels of biological data. In particular, the integration of imaging data and multiomics data such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and pharmacogenomics may open new avenues for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. However, to promote imaging-omics integration, the practical challenge of imaging techniques should be addressed. In this paper, we describe key challenges in two imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and then review existing technological advancements. Despite the fact that CT and MRI have different principles of image formation, both imaging techniques can provide high-resolution anatomical images while playing a more and more important role in providing molecular information. Such imaging techniques that enable single modality to image both the detailed anatomy and function of tissues and organs of the body will be beneficial in the imaging-omics field.

  20. Detecting the dormant: a review of recent advances in molecular techniques for assessing the viability of bacterial endospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Bidyut R; La Duc, Myron T

    2013-09-01

    Due to their contribution to gastrointestinal and pulmonary disease, their ability to produce various deadly exotoxins, and their resistance to extreme temperature, pressure, radiation, and common chemical disinfecting agents, bacterial endospores of the Firmicutes phylum are a major concern for public and environmental health. In addition, the hardy and dormant nature of endospores renders them a particularly significant threat to the integrity of robotic extraterrestrial life-detection investigations. To prevent the contamination of critical surfaces with seemingly ubiquitous bacterial endospores, clean rooms maintained at exceedingly stringent cleanliness levels (i.e., fewer than 100,000 airborne particles per ft(3)) are used for surgical procedures, pharmaceutical processing and packaging, and fabrication and assembly of medical devices and spacecraft components. However, numerous spore-forming bacterial species have been reported to withstand typical clean room bioreduction strategies (e.g., UV lights, maintained humidity, paucity of available nutrients), which highlights the need for rapid and reliable molecular methods for detecting, enumerating, and monitoring the incidence of viable endospores. Robust means of evaluating and tracking spore burden not only provide much needed information pertaining to endospore ecophysiology in different environmental niches but also empower decontamination and bioreduction strategies aimed at sustaining the reliability and integrity of clean room environments. An overview of recent molecular advances in detecting and enumerating viable endospores, as well as the expanding phylogenetic diversity of pathogenic and clean room-associated spore-forming bacteria, ensues.

  1. Recent advances in the molecular genetics of resin biosynthesis and genetic engineering strategies to improve defenses in conifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGWei

    2003-01-01

    Since the first terpenoid synthase cDNA was obtained by the reverse genetic approach from grand fir, great pro-gress in the molecular genetics of terpenoid formation has been made with angiosperms and genes encoding a monoterpene synthase, a sesquiterpene synthase, and a diterpene synthase. Tree killing bark beetles and their vectored fungal pathogens are the most destructive agents of conifer forests worldwide. Conifers defend against attack by the constitutive and inducible production of oleoresin that accumulates at the wound site to kill invaders and both flush and seal the injury. Although toxic to the bark beetle and fungal pathogen, oleoresin also plays a central role in the chemical ecology of these boring insects. Re-cent advances in the molecular genetics of terpenoid biosynthesis provide evidence for the evolutionary origins of oleoresin and permit consideration of genetic engineering strategies to improve conifer defenses as a component of modern forest bio-technology. This review described enzymes of resin biosynthesis, structural feathers of genes genomic intron and exon or-ganization, pathway organization and evolution, resin production and accumulation, interactions between conifer and bark beetle, and engineering strategies to improve conifer defenses.

  2. 分子医学影像研究进展(上)%Overview of Advances in Molecular Imaging (Part1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素莹; 孟祥溪; 周坤; 谢肇恒; 丁翼晨; 杨昆; 任秋实

    2015-01-01

    分子医学影像技术应用影像学的方法对活体状态下的生物过程进行细胞和分子水平的定性与定量研究,极大地改变着我们对于生理作用机制、药物研发、疾病诊断与评估方面的认识角度和研究方法。本文综述了其核心技术的研究进展与应用分析,指出分子医学影像技术在生物医学工程研究和临床诊断中的重要性。%Objective The molecular imaging (MI) technique employed imaging methodologies to make qualitative and quantitative studies on the biological processes of living organisms at the cellular and molecular level. It had revolutionized the way we studied on the biological mechanism, drug R&D (Research and development) as well as diagnosis and evaluation of diseases. This paper reviewed the advances in studies on the core technique of MI and its applications, pointing out the importance of MI techniques in bio-medical studies and clinical diagnosis.

  3. Molecular advances in reporter genes: the need to witness the function of stem cells in failing heart in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Silvia; Recchia, Fabio A; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells possess the ability to terminally differentiate in cell phenotypes belonging to several different lineages. Over the last decade, transplant of adult stem cells into the injuried myocardium has been widely studied as a revolutionary approach to promote the non-pharmacological improvement or replacement of the lost function. In spite of the tantalizing perspectives and controversial results, several questions about the viability and biology of transplanted stem cells in the beating heart still remain unanswered, mostly because of the current technological limitations. Recent advances in bio- and nano-technology are allowing the development of molecular probes for imaging thus providing a better understanding of stem cells physiology and fate in vivo. Reporter gene based molecular imaging is a high-throughput and sensitive tool used to unscramble over time the mechanisms underlying cell-induced myocardial repair in vivo. To date, the employed reporter genes have been exogenous (proteins which are expressed after gene engineering), or endogenous (detected by tracer substrates). This review will highlight current and outstanding experimental investigations, which are developing new probes to monitor the fate of stem cells transplanted in failing myocardium in vivo.

  4. Molecular dynamics study of response of liquid N,N-dimethylformamide to externally applied electric field using a polarizable force field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weimin; Niu, Haitao; Lin, Tong; Wang, Xungai; Kong, Lingxue [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds VIC 3216 (Australia)

    2014-01-28

    The behavior of Liquid N,N-dimethylformamide subjected to a wide range of externally applied electric fields (from 0.001 V/nm to 1 V/nm) has been investigated through molecular dynamics simulation. To approach the objective the AMOEBA polarizable force field was extended to include the interaction of the external electric field with atomic partial charges and the contribution to the atomic polarization. The simulation results were evaluated with quantum mechanical calculations. The results from the present force field for the liquid at normal conditions were compared with the experimental and molecular dynamics results with non-polarizable and other polarizable force fields. The uniform external electric fields of higher than 0.01 V/nm have a significant effect on the structure of the liquid, which exhibits a variation in numerous properties, including molecular polarization, local cluster structure, rotation, alignment, energetics, and bulk thermodynamic and structural properties.

  5. 竹子分子生物学研究进展%Recent Advances in Bamboo Molecular Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜可以; 周明兵

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo species (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) possess a distinct life history characterized by a predominance of rhizome-dependent asexual reproduction and erratic lfowering at intervals of 1 year to 120 years. Some bamboo species are of notable economic, ecological and social signiifcance throughout the World. Considerable progress has been made in bamboo research in the past few years. The advances in bamboo molecular biology since 2003 were reviewed, including the development and application of modern molecular tools in the taxonomy; the cloning and characterization of key genes involved in the critical biological processes of bamboo, such as rhizome bud development, rapid growth, flowering and stress-tolerance; the accomplishment of bamboo genome and transcriptome sequencing projects; and the establishment of genetic transformation systems. The progresses in bamboo molecular biology research provide new insights into further biological studies in Bamboo.%对2003年以来的竹子分子生物学研究进展进行了综述,包括现代分子手段在竹子分类学研究中的开发与应用,鞭芽发育、快速生长、开花、抗逆等相关的重要功能基因研究,基因组测序和转录组测序,遗传转化体系的建立等。这些为今后竹子生物学的研究提供了依据。

  6. Molecular perspectives and recent advances in microbial remediation of persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jaya; Das, Surajit

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition and pollution stress stimulate genetic adaptation in microorganisms and assist in evolution of diverse metabolic pathways for their survival on several complex organic compounds. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are highly lipophilic in nature and cause adverse effects to the environment and human health by biomagnification through the food chain. Diverse microorganisms, harboring numerous plasmids and catabolic genes, acclimatize to these environmentally unfavorable conditions by gene duplication, mutational drift, hypermutation, and recombination. Genetic aspects of some major POP catabolic genes such as biphenyl dioxygenase (bph), DDT 2,3-dioxygenase, and angular dioxygenase assist in degradation of biphenyl, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxins/furans, respectively. Microbial metagenome constitutes the largest genetic reservoir with miscellaneous enzymatic activities implicated in degradation. To tap the metabolic potential of microorganisms, recent techniques like sequence and function-based screening and substrate-induced gene expression are proficient in tracing out novel catabolic genes from the entire metagenome for utilization in enhanced biodegradation. The major endeavor of today's scientific world is to characterize the exact genetic mechanisms of microbes for bioremediation of these toxic compounds by excavating into the uncultured plethora. This review entails the effect of POPs on the environment and involvement of microbial catabolic genes for their removal with the advanced techniques of bioremediation.

  7. Contemporary molecular tools in microbial ecology and their application to advancing biotechnology

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Mamoon

    2015-09-25

    Novel methods in microbial ecology are revolutionizing our understanding of the structure and function of microbes in the environment, but concomitant advances in applications of these tools to biotechnology are mostly lagging behind. After more than a century of efforts to improve microbial culturing techniques, about 70–80% of microbial diversity – recently called the “microbial dark matter” – remains uncultured. In early attempts to identify and sample these so far uncultured taxonomic lineages, methods that amplify and sequence ribosomal RNA genes were extensively used. Recent developments in cell separation techniques, DNA amplification, and high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have now made the discovery of genes/genomes of uncultured microorganisms from different environments possible through the use of metagenomic techniques and single-cell genomics. When used synergistically, these metagenomic and single-cell techniques create a powerful tool to study microbial diversity. These genomics techniques have already been successfully exploited to identify sources for i) novel enzymes or natural products for biotechnology applications, ii) novel genes from extremophiles, and iii) whole genomes or operons from uncultured microbes. More can be done to utilize these tools more efficiently in biotechnology.

  8. Contemporary molecular tools in microbial ecology and their application to advancing biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamoon; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Novel methods in microbial ecology are revolutionizing our understanding of the structure and function of microbes in the environment, but concomitant advances in applications of these tools to biotechnology are mostly lagging behind. After more than a century of efforts to improve microbial culturing techniques, about 70-80% of microbial diversity - recently called the "microbial dark matter" - remains uncultured. In early attempts to identify and sample these so far uncultured taxonomic lineages, methods that amplify and sequence ribosomal RNA genes were extensively used. Recent developments in cell separation techniques, DNA amplification, and high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have now made the discovery of genes/genomes of uncultured microorganisms from different environments possible through the use of metagenomic techniques and single-cell genomics. When used synergistically, these metagenomic and single-cell techniques create a powerful tool to study microbial diversity. These genomics techniques have already been successfully exploited to identify sources for i) novel enzymes or natural products for biotechnology applications, ii) novel genes from extremophiles, and iii) whole genomes or operons from uncultured microbes. More can be done to utilize these tools more efficiently in biotechnology.

  9. ADVANCED MOLECULAR DESIGN OF BIOPOLYMERS FOR TRANSMUCOSAL AND INTRACELLULAR DELIVERY OF CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS AND BIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, William B.; Caldorera-Moore, Mary; Phillips, Margaret A.; Schoener, Cody; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogels have been instrumental in the development of polymeric systems for controlled release of therapeutic agents. These materials are attractive for transmucosal and intracellular drug delivery because of their facile synthesis, inherent biocompatibility, tunable physicochemical properties, and capacity to respond to various physiological stimuli. In this contribution, we outline a multifaceted hydrogel-based approach for expanding the range of therapeutics in oral formulations from classical small-molecule drugs to include proteins, chemotherapeutics, and nucleic acids. Through judicious materials selection and careful design of copolymer composition and molecular architecture, we can engineer systems capable of responding to distinct physiological cues, with tunable physicochemical properties that are optimized to load, protect, and deliver valuable macromolecular payloads to their intended site of action. These hydrogel carriers, including complexation hydrogels, tethered hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, nanoscale hydrogels, and hydrogels with decorated structures are investigated for their ability respond to changes in pH, to load and release insulin and fluorescein, and remain non-toxic to Caco-2 cells. Our results suggest these novel hydrogel networks have great potential for controlled delivery of proteins, chemotherapeutics, and nucleic acids. PMID:21699934

  10. Visceral Leishmaniasis: Advancements in vaccine development via classical and molecular approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit eJoshi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar, a vector-borne protozoan disease, shows endemicity in larger areas of the tropical, subtropical and the Mediterranean countries. WHO report suggested that nearly 500,000 new cases of VL occur annually, including 100,000 cases from India itself. Treatment with available anti-leishmanial drugs are not cost effective, with varied efficacies and higher relapse rate, which poses a major challenge to current kala-azar control program in Indian subcontinent. Therefore, a vaccine against VL is imperative and knowing the fact that recovered individuals developed lifelong immunity against re-infection, it is feasible. Vaccine development program, though time taking, has recently gained momentum with the emergence of omic era i.e. from genomics to immunomics. Classical as well as molecular methodologies has been overtaken with alternative strategies wherein proteomics based knowledge combined with computational techniques (immunoinformatics speed up the identification and detailed characterization of new antigens for potential vaccine candidates. This may eventually help in the designing of polyvalent synthetic and recombinant chimeric vaccines as an effective intervention measures to control the disease in endemic areas. This review focuses on such newer approaches being utilized for vaccine development against VL.

  11. Molecular advances in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 interaction with thrombin and tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, A; van Meijer, M; Horrevoets, A J; Pannekoek, H

    1997-02-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a glycoprotein that controls the activity of the key enzymes of the fibrinolytic system, the serine proteases tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Inhibition is accomplished by rapid formation of inactive, equimolar PAI-1/PA complexes. The physiological importance of PAI-1 for the fibrinolytic system has been underscored by the observation that in humans, a homozygous defect results in hemorrhagic episodes. In addition to its function in surveillance of the integrity of clots, PAI-1 efficiently inhibits the serine protease thrombin in vitro, provided that either the high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan heparin or the glycoprotein vitronectin is present. These cofactors accelerate the rate of thrombin inhibition by PAI-1 by more than two orders of magnitude. Inhibition of thrombin by PAI-1 proceeds according to a "suicide substrate mechanism," typified by a branched reaction pathway, leading either to stable PAI-1/thrombin complexes or to degradation of the inhibitor and recycling of enzyme. The cofactors heparin and vitronectin, although increasing inhibition through different mechanisms, essentially promote PAI-1 degradation by thrombin. In view of the multitude of functions attributed to thrombin, the authors propose that the relevance of thrombin inhibition by PAI-1 is to restrict its mitogenic activity, rather than to affect its coagulation function in plasma. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:47-51). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  12. Recent Advances in Photoinduced Electron Transfer Processes of Fullerene-Based Molecular Assemblies and Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Ito

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitized electron-transfer processes of fullerenes hybridized with electron donating or other electron accepting molecules have been surveyed in this review on the basis of the recent results reported mainly from our laboratories. Fullerenes act as photo-sensitizing electron acceptors with respect to a wide variety of electron donors; in addition, fullerenes in the ground state also act as good electron acceptors in the presence of light-absorbing electron donors such as porphyrins. With single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, the photoexcited fullerenes act as electron acceptor. In the case of triple fullerene/porphyrin/SWCNT architectures, the photoexcited porphyrins act as electron donors toward the fullerene and SWCNT. These mechanisms are rationalized with the molecular orbital considerations performed for these huge supramolecules. For the confirmation of the electron transfer processes, transient absorption methods have been used, in addition to time-resolved fluorescence spectral measurements. The kinetic data obtained in solution are found to be quite useful to predict the efficiencies of photovoltaic cells.

  13. Advanced sample preparation for the molecular quantification of Staphylococcus aureus in artificially and naturally contaminated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Walcher, Georg; Schelin, Jenny; Hein, Ingeborg; Norling, Börje; Rådström, Peter; Nicolau, Anca; Wagner, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Sample treatment is an essential element when using real-time PCR for quantification of pathogens directly on food samples. This study comparatively evaluated three different principles of sample treatment, i.e. immunomagnetic separation based on phage-derived cell wall binding molecules, matrix solubilization and flotation, in order to establish their suitability for quantifying low numbers of Staphylococcus aureus in milk. All three procedures succeeded to remove S. aureus from the milk matrix, either raw or pasteurized, and, as a result of the concentration of the target cells, minimized the effect of milk associated PCR inhibitors. Sample preparation based on immunomagnetic separation albeit of being user friendly, specific and rapid, failed to allow quantification of low and medium numbers (<10(4)CFU) of S. aureus. In a mastitic milk model cell wall binding domain (CBD)-based target cell extraction revealed results most closely matching those derived from culture-based quantification. Both matrix lysis and flotation allowed quantification of S. aureus at a level of 1-10 cells per ml. Both methods resulted in higher numbers of bacterial cell equivalents (bce) than plating could reveal. Since both methods harvest cells that have been subjected to either mechanical and chemical stresses before quantification, we concluded that the higher bce numbers resulted from a disaggregation of S. aureus clusters initially present in the inoculum. Conclusively, since likely each S. aureus cell of a toxigenic strain contributes to enterotoxin production, molecular quantification could provide an even more realistic impact assessment in outbreak investigations than plating does.

  14. Advances in molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenis, Dimitrios S; Kalogianni, Despina P; Glynou, Kyriaki; Ioannou, Penelope C; Christopoulos, Theodore K

    2008-10-01

    Progress in genetic engineering has led to the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) whose genomes have been altered by the integration of a novel sequence conferring a new trait. To allow consumers an informed choice, many countries require food products to be labeled if the GMO content exceeds a certain threshold. Consequently, the development of analytical methods for GMO screening and quantification is of great interest. Exponential amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains a central step in molecular methods of GMO detection and quantification. In order to meet the challenge posed by the continuously increasing number of GMOs, various multiplex assays have been developed for the simultaneous amplification and/or detection of several GMOs. Classical agarose gel electrophoresis is being replaced by capillary electrophoresis (CE) systems, including CE chips, for the rapid and automatable separation of amplified fragments. Microtiter well-based hybridization assays allow high-throughput analysis of many samples in a single plate. Microarrays have been introduced in GMO screening as a technique for the simultaneous multianalyte detection of amplified sequences. Various types of biosensors, including surface plasmon resonance sensors, quartz crystal microbalance piezoelectric sensors, thin-film optical sensors, dry-reagent dipstick-type sensors and electrochemical sensors were introduced in GMO screening because they offer simplicity and lower cost. GMO quantification is performed by real-time PCR (rt-QPCR) and competitive PCR. New endogenous reference genes have been validated. rt-QPCR is the most widely used approach. Multiplexing is another trend in this field. Strategies for high-throughput multiplex competitive quantitative PCR have been reported.

  15. Dispersing perylene diimide/SWCNT hybrids: structural insights at the molecular level and fabricating advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarfati, Yael; Strauss, Volker; Kuhri, Susanne; Krieg, Elisha; Weissman, Haim; Shimoni, Eyal; Baram, Jonathan; Guldi, Dirk M; Rybtchinski, Boris

    2015-06-17

    The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are advantageous for emerging applications. Yet, the CNT insolubility hampers their potential. Approaches based on covalent and noncovalent methodologies have been tested to realize stable dispersions of CNTs. Noncovalent approaches are of particular interest as they preserve the CNT's structures and properties. We report on hybrids, in which perylene diimide (PDI) amphiphiles are noncovalently immobilized onto single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The resulting hybrids were dispersed and exfoliated both in water and organic solvents in the presence of two different PDI derivatives, PP2b and PP3a. The dispersions were investigated using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), providing unique structural insights into the exfoliation. A helical arrangement of PP2b assemblies on SWCNTs dominates in aqueous dispersions, while a single layer of PP2b and PP3a was found on SWCNTs in organic dispersions. The dispersions were probed by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies, revealing appreciable charge redistribution in the ground state, and an efficient electron transfer from SWCNTs to PDIs in the excited state. We also fabricated hybrid materials from the PP2b/SWCNT dispersions. A supramolecular membrane was prepared from aqueous dispersions and used for size-selective separation of gold nanoparticles. Hybrid buckypaper films were prepared from the organic dispersions. In the latter, high conductivity results from enhanced electronic communication and favorable morphology within the hybrid material. Our findings shed light onto SWCNT/dispersant molecular interactions, and introduce a versatile approach toward universal solution processing of SWCNT-based materials.

  16. Estimation of the retention behaviour of s-triazine derivatives applying multiple regression analysis of selected molecular descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevrić Lidija R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of retention factors by correlation equations with physico-chemical properties can be of great helpl in chromatographic studies. The retention factors were experimentally measured by RP-HPTLC on impregnated silica gel with paraffin oil using two-component solvent systems. The relationships between solute retention and modifier concentration were described by Snyder’s linear equation. A quantitative structure-retention relationship was developed for a series of s-triazine compounds by the multiple linear regression (MLR analysis. The MLR procedure was used to model the relationships between the molecular descriptors and retention of s-triazine derivatives. The physicochemical molecular descriptors were calculated from the optimized structures. The physico-chemical properties were the lipophilicity (log P, connectivity indices (χ, total energy (Et, water solubility (log W, dissociation constant (pKa, molar refractivity (MR, and Gibbs energy (GibbsE of s-triazines. A high agreement between the experimental and predicted retention parameters was obtained when the dissociation constant and the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance were used as the molecular descriptors. The empirical equations may be successfully used for the prediction of the various chromatographic characteristics of substances, with a similar chemical structure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31055, br. 172012, br. 172013 i br. 172014

  17. Airline return-on-investment model for technology evaluation. [computer program to measure economic value of advanced technology applied to passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    This report presents the derivation, description, and operating instructions for a computer program (TEKVAL) which measures the economic value of advanced technology features applied to long range commercial passenger aircraft. The program consists of three modules; and airplane sizing routine, a direct operating cost routine, and an airline return-on-investment routine. These modules are linked such that they may be operated sequentially or individually, with one routine generating the input for the next or with the option of externally specifying the input for either of the economic routines. A very simple airplane sizing technique was previously developed, based on the Brequet range equation. For this program, that sizing technique has been greatly expanded and combined with the formerly separate DOC and ROI programs to produce TEKVAL.

  18. Education and training for advanced practice: Principles of course design and assessment applied to a 'stereotactic needle core biopsy of the breast' module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Anne-Marie [Division of Radiography, University of Bradford, Bradford BD5 0BB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.m.dixon@bradford.ac.uk

    2006-05-15

    In order to realise the promise of the NHS Plan, radiographers are extending their practice to encompass tasks previously undertaken by radiologists and advancing their practice by taking responsibility for clinical decision-making and autonomous membership of multidisciplinary healthcare teams. In partnership with clinical service providers Higher Education Institutes are devising programmes of study to support such professional development. This article reviews the design of a 20 credit post-graduate (M level) module in stereotactic needle core biopsy of the breast. Particular consideration is given to underpinning educational principles of course design and assessment and how these are applied in order that teaching, learning and assessment have academic rigour and clinical competence of successful students is assured.

  19. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  20. Model Channel Ion Currents in NaCl - SPC/E Solution with Applied-Field Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Crozier, P S; Rowley, R L; Busath, D D; Crozier, Paul S.; Henderson, Douglas; Rowley, Richard L.; Busath, David D.

    2001-01-01

    Using periodic boundary conditions and a constant applied field, we have simulated current flow through an 8.125 Angstrom internal diameter, rigid, atomistic channel with polar walls in a rigid membrane using explicit ions and SPC/E water. Channel and bath currents were computed from ten 10-ns trajectories for each of 10 different conditions of concentration and applied voltage. An electric field was applied uniformly throughout the system to all mobile atoms. On average, the resultant net electric field falls primarily across the membrane channel, as expected for two conductive baths separated by a membrane capacitance. The channel is rarely occupied by more than one ion. Current-voltage relations are concentration-dependent and superlinear at high concentrations.

  1. The species flocks of East African cichlid fishes: recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and population genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    With more than 3,000 species, the fish family Cichlidae is one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates. Cichlids occur in southern and central America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. The hotspot of their biodiversity is East Africa, where they form adaptive radiations composed of hundreds of endemic species in several lakes of various sizes and ages. The unparalleled species richness of East African cichlids has been something of a conundrum for evolutionary biologists and ecologists, since it has been in doubt whether these hundreds of species arose by allopatric speciation or whether it is necessary to invoke somewhat less traditional models of speciation, such as micro-allopatric, peripatric, or even sympatric speciation or evolution through sexual selection mediated by female choice. Ernst Mayr's analyses of these evolutionary uniquely diverse species assemblages have contributed to a more direct approach to this problem and have led to a deeper understanding of the patterns and processes that caused the formation of these huge groups of species. We review here recent molecular data on population differentiation and phylogenetics, which have helped to unravel, to some extent, the patterns and processes that led to the formation and ecological maintenance of cichlid species flocks. It is becoming apparent that sexually selected traits do play an important role in speciation in micro-allopatric or even sympatric settings. Species richness seems to be roughly correlated with the surface area, but not the age, of the lakes. We observe that the oldest lineages of a species flock of cichlids are often less species-rich and live in the open water or deepwater habitats. While the species flocks of the Lake Malawai and the Lake Victoria areas were shown to be monophyletic, the cichlid assemblage of Lake Tanganyika seems to consist of several independent species flocks. Cichlids emerge as an evolutionary model system in which many fundamental questions in

  2. Integration and control of metabolic systems: Pure and applied aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, P.T.H.; Kon, O.L.; Chung, M.C.M.; Hwang, P.L.H.; Leong, S.F.; Loke, K.H.; Thiyagarajah, P.

    1987-01-01

    This volume brings together recent findings in many growing areas of biochemical research including molecular mechanisms of disease, drug design, gene structure and function, chemical signaling, metabolic control mechanisms, neurochemistry, immunology, the molecular biology of plants, marine biochemistry, oncogenes, growth factors, membrane functions, novel enzymes, applied biochemistry, and molecular engineering. It also contains contributions on powerful research techniques such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis, automated DNA sequencing, photoaffinity labeling, recent advances in plant cell culture, and high performance liquid chromatography.

  3. Advanced glycation end-products reduce collagen molecular sliding to affect collagen fibril damage mechanisms but not stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gion Fessel

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGE contribute to age-related connective tissue damage and functional deficit. The documented association between AGE formation on collagens and the correlated progressive stiffening of tissues has widely been presumed causative, despite the lack of mechanistic understanding. The present study investigates precisely how AGEs affect mechanical function of the collagen fibril--the supramolecular functional load-bearing unit within most tissues. We employed synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and carefully controlled mechanical testing after introducing AGEs in explants of rat-tail tendon using the metabolite methylglyoxal (MGO. Mass spectrometry and collagen fluorescence verified substantial formation of AGEs by the treatment. Associated mechanical changes of the tissue (increased stiffness and failure strength, decreased stress relaxation were consistent with reports from the literature. SAXS analysis revealed clear changes in molecular deformation within MGO treated fibrils. Underlying the associated increase in tissue strength, we infer from the data that MGO modified collagen fibrils supported higher loads to failure by maintaining an intact quarter-staggered conformation to nearly twice the level of fibril strain in controls. This apparent increase in fibril failure resistance was characterized by reduced side-by-side sliding of collagen molecules within fibrils, reflecting lateral molecular interconnectivity by AGEs. Surprisingly, no change in maximum fibril modulus (2.5 GPa accompanied the changes in fibril failure behavior, strongly contradicting the widespread assumption that tissue stiffening in ageing and diabetes is directly related to AGE increased fibril stiffness. We conclude that AGEs can alter physiologically relevant failure behavior of collagen fibrils, but that tissue level changes in stiffness likely occur at higher levels of tissue architecture.

  4. Molecular biology applied to the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis Biologia molecular aplicada ao diagnóstico laboratorial de endoftalmite bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Martins Bispo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophthalmitis is a serious but uncommon intraocular infection which frequently results in vision loss. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy are associated with better visual outcome. Conventional microbiological methods are currently used for microbiological characterization of eyes with suspected endophthalmitis. However, the sensitivity of bacterial detection from aqueous and vitreous humor using microbiology techniques is poor, and time-consuming to confirm the results. The application of molecular methods enhances significantly laboratory confirmation of bacterial endophthalmitis, demanding a shorter time to draw a definitive result and thereby promoting the early initiation of a more specific therapy to limit the empirical or unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PCR-based techniques, including post-PCR methods such RFLP, DNA probe hybridization and DNA sequencing have been successfully used for the diagnostic elucidation of clinically suspected bacterial endophthalmitis cases, showing promising application in the routine practice of ocular microbiology laboratories.Endoftalmite bacteriana é uma infecção intraocular grave, mas de baixa frequência, podendo resultar em grande prejuízo visual. O diagnóstico precoce e a rápida instituição de terapia adequada estão associadas a um melhor prognóstico da doença. Os métodos microbiológicos convencionais são utilizados rotineiramente para caracterização microbiológica de olhos com suspeita de endoftalmite. No entanto, a sensibilidade de detecção bacteriana em amostras de humor aquoso e vítreo utilizando técnicas microbiológicas é baixa, além de demandar um maior tempo para a confirmação dos resultados. A utilização de métodos moleculares aumenta significativamente os casos de endoftalmite bacteriana confirmados laboratorialmente, com tempo menor para a liberação de um resultado definitivo, auxiliando assim a instituição precoce de uma terapia

  5. 薄荷属植物分子生物学研究进展%Research Advance in Molecular Biology of Plants in Mentha Genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海棠; 于盱; 刘艳; 梁呈元; 李维林

    2012-01-01

    The author reviewed the research advance in the molecular biology of plants in Menthe genus, including enzymatic genes related to volatile oil synthesis way, limonene synthase gene, molecular evolution and so on.%从薄荷属植物挥发油合成途径相关酶基因、柠檬烯合酶基因和分子进化等方面对薄荷属植物的分子生物学研究进行了综述.

  6. 进展期胃癌的分子靶向治疗%Molecular targeted therapy for advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪兵; 张义胜

    2014-01-01

    过去的二十年里,进展期胃癌患者通过治疗后可以改善生活质量及延长生存期,但是其治疗方法并没有获得显著进展。虽然胃癌的中位生存期大约在7~11个月,且存活超过2年的已经>10%,但是,对于进展期胃癌患者来说,其最合适的一线化疗方案一直存在争议,且大多数人对化疗仍持有偏见。最近,肿瘤生物学的显著进展促进了靶向致癌关键途径的新药物研究。在国际随机研究中,对进展期胃癌来说,多数分子靶向因子被证实有效,一种抗HER-2单克隆抗体(曲妥珠单抗)显示在抗HER-2阳性的进展期胃癌方面有抗肿瘤活性。然而,只有20%的HER-2阳性的进展期胃癌患者在此获益。因此,发展更有效的因子和鉴别预测及预后的标记物因子来选择哪些患者能从特定的化疗方案和靶向治疗中获益显得至关重要。本文就进展期胃癌的靶向治疗作一综述。%Although medical treatment has been shown to improve quality of life and prolong survival, no significant progress has been made in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) within the last two decades. Thus the optimum standard first-line chemotherapy regimen for AGC remains debatable: and most responses to chemotherapy are partial and of short duration; the median survival is approximately 7 to 11 months, and survival rate at 2 years is exceptionally>10%. Recently, remarkable progress in tumor biology has led to the development of new agents that target critical aspects of oncogenic pathways. For AGC, many molecular targeting agents have been evaluated in international randomized studies, and trastuzumab (an anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibody) has shown antitumor activity against HER-2-positive AGC. However, this benefit is limited to only 20% patients with AGC (patients with HER-2-positive AGC). Therefore, there remains a critical need for both the development of more effective agents and

  7. FBXW7 mutations in patients with advanced cancers: clinical and molecular characteristics and outcomes with mTOR inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis L Jardim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: FBXW7 is a tumor suppressor gene responsible for the degradation of several proto-oncogenes. Preclinical data suggest that FBXW7 mutations sensitize cells to mTOR inhibitors. Clinicopathologic characteristics of cancer patients with FBXW7 mutations and their responses to mTOR inhibitors remain unknown. METHODS: Using multiplex gene panels we evaluated how the FBXW7 mutation affected the cancer phenotype of patients referred to a phase I clinic starting January 2012. Whenever possible patients positive for FBXW7 mutation were treated with regimens containing an mTOR inhibitors and their outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: FBXW7 mutations were detected in 17 of 418 patients (4.0%. Among tumor types with more than 10 patients tested, FBXW7 mutations occurred in colorectal cancer (7/49; 14.3%, squamous cell cancer of head and neck (2/18; 11.1%, liver (1/13; 7.7%, and ovarian cancers (1/40; 2.5%. No one clinical, pathological or demographic feature was characteristic of the FBXW7-mutated patient population. The mutation occurred in isolation in only 2/17 (12% patients, and KRAS was frequently found as a concomitant mutation, especially in patients with colorectal cancer (6/7; 86%. Ten patients were treated on a protocol containing an mTOR inhibitor, with a median time to treatment failure of 2.8 months (range, 1.3-6.8. One patient with liver cancer (fibrolamellar subtype continues to have a prolonged stable disease for 6.8+ months. CONCLUSION: In patients with advanced cancers, somatic mutations in FBXW7 usually occur with other simultaneous molecular aberrations, which can contribute to limited therapeutic efficacy of mTOR inhibitors.

  8. Molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, N J

    2001-09-01

    In the past decade, clinical cytogenetics has undergone remarkable advancement as molecular biology techniques have been applied to conventional chromosome analysis. The limitations of conventional banding analysis in the accurate diagnosis and interpretation of certain chromosome abnormalities have largely been overcome by these new technologies, which include fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and multicolor FISH (M-FISH, SKY, and Rx-FISH). Clinical applications include diagnosis of microdeletion and microduplication syndromes, detection of subtelomeric rearrangements in idiopathic mental retardation, identification of marker and derivative chromosomes, prenatal diagnosis of trisomy syndromes, and gene rearrangements and gene amplification in tumors. Molecular cytogenetic methods have expanded the possibilities for precise genetic diagnoses, which are extremely important for clinical management of patients and appropriate counseling of their families.

  9. Advancing the education in molecular diagnostics: the IFCC-Initiative "Clinical Molecular Biology Curriculum" (C-CMBC); a ten-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianidou, Evi; Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Izuhara, Kenji; Cremonesi, Laura; Schroeder, Maria-Eugenia; Richter, Karin; Ferrari, Maurizio; Neumaier, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Molecular techniques are becoming commonplace in the diagnostic laboratory. Their applications influence all major phases of laboratory medicine including predisposition/genetic risk, primary diagnosis, therapy stratification and prognosis. Readily available laboratory hardware and wetware (i.e. consumables and reagents) foster rapid dissemination to countries that are just establishing molecular testing programs. Appropriate skill levels extending beyond the technical procedure are required for analytical and diagnostic proficiency that is mandatory in molecular genetic testing. An international committee (C-CMBC) of the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) was established to disseminate skills in molecular genetic testing in member countries embarking on the respective techniques. We report the ten-year experience with different teaching and workshop formats for beginners in molecular diagnostics.

  10. Advanced optical diagnostics applied to a multi-cylinder engine with gasoline direct injection; Weiterentwicklung der Visualisierungsmethodik am Beispiel eines Mehrzylindermotors mit Benzindirekteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, M.; Eberle, F.; Schaffner, P.; Quarg, J. [Opel Powertrain GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The development of modern combustion processes requires a more intensive use of simulation and optical measuring methods. When the combustion method of an engine concept has been determined and subsequently applied to one or more engines, the following development steps usually do not include the optical access. But in this phase of multicylinder engine development, too, an optical evaluation of the combustion processes provides important information. Especially regarding problems of time, the optical data can help to adopt the right solution and check it for its effect more easily. In this way the videoscopy offers a significant tool to optimize today's engines. The techniques of visualizing the Otto engine related combustion are continuously advanced. The resolution of quickacting CCD cameras has been improved considerably while at the same time reducing the exposure time. Both the injection and the mixture preparation can be investigated in detail under realistic conditions. Variations in the mixture preparation from cycle to cycle can also be represented. Today's state-of-the-art cameras with amplifier can visualize the optimum sootfree combustion without the necessity of an additional light. High-speed photomultiplier cameras can record single combustion cycles with a high resolution and thus enable the analysis. The endoscopic consideration of the combustion processes is no longer restricted to the visible range of the wavelength, but constitutes a visualization of the combustion in the ultraviolet range. The example of a four-cylinder engine with gasoline direct injection demonstrates the good applicability of the videoscopy. This technique can be employed quite easily to improve the understanding of the engine processes during the development phase. (orig.)

  11. Prospects for applying synthetic biology to toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendorff, James Bruce Yarnton H; Gillam, Elizabeth M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The 30 years since the inception of Chemical Research in Toxicology, game-changing advances in chemical and molecular biology, the fundamental disciplines underpinning molecular toxicology, have been made. While these have led to important advances in the study of mechanisms by which chemicals...... damage cells and systems, there has been less focus on applying these advances to prediction, detection, and mitigation of toxicity. Over the last ∼15 years, synthetic biology, the repurposing of biological "parts" in systems engineered for useful ends, has been explored in other areas of the biomedical...... and life sciences, for such applications as detecting metabolites, drug discovery and delivery, investigating disease mechanisms, improving medical treatment, and producing useful chemicals. These examples provide models for the application of synthetic biology to toxicology, which, for the most part, has...

  12. Using simple molecular orbital calculations to predict disease: fast DFT methods applied to enzymes implicated in PKU, Parkinson's disease and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofto, Laura; Hofto, Meghan; Cross, Jessica; Cafiero, Mauricio

    2007-09-01

    Many diseases can be traced to point mutations in the DNA coding for specific enzymes. These point mutations result in the change of one amino acid residue in the enzyme. We have developed a model using simple molecular orbital calculations which can be used to quantitatively determine the change in interaction between the enzyme's active site and necessary ligands upon mutation. We have applied this model to three hydroxylase proteins: phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and tryptophan hydroxylase, and we have obtained excellent correlation between our results and observed disease symptoms. Furthermore, we are able to use this agreement as a baseline to screen other mutations which may also cause onset of disease symptoms. Our focus is on systems where the binding is due largely to dispersion, which is much more difficult to model inexpensively than pure electrostatic interactions. Our calculations are run in parallel on a sixteen processor cluster of 64-bit Athlon processors.

  13. 青光眼的分子遗传学研究进展%Advances in molecular genetics of glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓敏

    2015-01-01

    青光眼是主要致盲眼病,青光眼性视神经退行性病变的特征表现为视网膜神经节细胞(RGCs)凋亡、视神经萎缩和视野缺损,眼压升高是青光眼视神经结构和功能损害主要的危险因素.原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)、慢性闭角型青光眼(CACG)以及剥脱性青光眼(XFG)是全球范围常见的青光眼类型.青光眼受遗传因素、环境因素的共同影响,其中遗传因素在几种主要类型的青光眼发病中均发挥重要作用.近年来,随着人类遗传学研究的快速发展和研究技术的不断提高,人们对青光眼的发病基础有了更多的认识,在青光眼发病相关的基因研究方面取得了较大的进步,一些致病基因及其致病机制相继被揭示.本文中对POAG、CACG、XFG及其他类型青光眼的分子遗传学研究进展进行综述.%Glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide.The major performances of glaucoma optic neuropathy are progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs),specific visual field defect and optic atrophy induced by elevated intraocular pressure.Glaucoma primarily includes primary open angle glaucoma (POAG),chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG).Recent studies showed that genetic factor and environmental factor participate in the pathogenesis of glaucoma,and the contributions of genetic factor to glaucoma are widely concerned,and some disease-causing gene and their pathogenic mechanisms are sequentially announced.A comprehensive discussion of the advances in molecular genetics of glaucoma is included in this paper.

  14. Localized orbital corrections applied to thermochemical errors in density functional theory: The role of basis set and application to molecular reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Dahlia A; Bochevarov, Arteum D; Friesner, Richard A

    2008-12-07

    This paper is a logical continuation of the 22 parameter, localized orbital correction (LOC) methodology that we developed in previous papers [R. A. Friesner et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 124107 (2006); E. H. Knoll and R. A. Friesner, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18787 (2006).] This methodology allows one to redress systematic density functional theory (DFT) errors, rooted in DFT's inherent inability to accurately describe nondynamical correlation. Variants of the LOC scheme, in conjunction with B3LYP (denoted as B3LYP-LOC), were previously applied to enthalpies of formation, ionization potentials, and electron affinities and showed impressive reduction in the errors. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that the B3LYP-LOC scheme is robust across different basis sets [6-31G( *), 6-311++G(3df,3pd), cc-pVTZ, and aug-cc-pVTZ] and reaction types (atomization reactions and molecular reactions). For example, for a test set of 70 molecular reactions, the LOC scheme reduces their mean unsigned error from 4.7 kcal/mol [obtained with B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd)] to 0.8 kcal/mol. We also verified whether the LOC methodology would be equally successful if applied to the promising M05-2X functional. We conclude that although M05-2X produces better reaction enthalpies than B3LYP, the LOC scheme does not combine nearly as successfully with M05-2X than with B3LYP. A brief analysis of another functional, M06-2X, reveals that it is more accurate than M05-2X but its combination with LOC still cannot compete in accuracy with B3LYP-LOC. Indeed, B3LYP-LOC remains the best method of computing reaction enthalpies.

  15. Advance Directives for End-of-Life Care and the Role of Health Education Specialists: Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Johnson, Maureen K.; Carter, Mary R.

    2011-01-01

    Quality end-of-life care is subjective and based on individual values and beliefs. An advance directive provides a legal means of communicating these values and beliefs, as well as preferences in regards to end-of-life care when an individual is no longer able to make his or her desires known. In many nations, advance directives are underused…

  16. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Kong

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCCis the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage to C (advanced stage in the gene expression omnibus (GEO database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs, including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection.

  17. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Kou, Yan-Bo; You, Hong-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)is the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage) to C (advanced stage) in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection. PMID:27454179

  18. An overview on the advanced oxidation processes applied for the treatment of water pollutants defined in the recently launched Directive 2013/39/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-02-01

    Environmental pollution is a recognized issue of major concern since a wide range of contaminants has been found in aquatic environment at ngL(-1) to μgL(-1) levels. In the year 2000, a strategy was defined to identify the priority substances concerning aquatic ecosystems, followed by the definition of environmental quality standards (EQS) in 2008. Recently it was launched the Directive 2013/39/EU that updates the water framework policy highlighting the need to develop new water treatment technologies to deal with such problem. This review summarizes the data published in the last decade regarding the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat priority compounds and certain other pollutants defined in this Directive, excluding the inorganic species (cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and their derivatives). The Directive 2013/39/EU includes several pesticides (aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dicofol, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlor, lindane, pentachlorophenol, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, atrazine, simazine, terbutryn, diuron, isoproturon, trifluralin, cypermethrin, alachlor), solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nonylphenol and octylphenol, as well as the three compounds included in the recommendation for the first watch list of substances (diclofenac, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2)). Some particular pesticides (aclonifen, bifenox, cybutryne, quinoxyfen), organotin compounds (tributyltin), dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, brominated diphenylethers, hexabromocyclododecanes and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate are also defined in this Directive, but studies dealing with AOPs are missing. AOPs are recognized tools to destroy recalcitrant compounds or, at least, to transform them into biodegradable species

  19. Long-term Survival of Personalized Surgical Treatment of Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Based on Molecular Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua ZHOU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Approximately 35%-40% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell Lung cancer have locally advanced disease. The average survival time of these patients only have 6-8 months with chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to explore and summarize the probability of detection of micrometastasis in peripheral blood for molecular staging, and for selection of indication of surgical treatment, and beneficiary of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant therapy in locally advanced lung cancer; to summarize the long-time survival result of personalized surgical treatment of 516 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer based on molecular staging methods. Methods CK19 mRNA expression of peripheral blood samples was detected in 516 lung cancer patients by RT-PCR before operation for molecular diagnosis of micrometastasis, personalized molecular staging, and for selection of indication of surgical treatment and the beneficiary of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer invaded heart, great vessels or both. The long-term survival result of personalized surgical treatment was retrospectively analyzed in 516 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer based on molecular staging methods. Results There were 322 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and 194 cases with adenocarcinoma in the series of 516 patients with locally advanced lung cancer involved heart, great vessels or both. There were 112 patients with IIIA disease and 404 cases with IIIB disease according to P-TNM staging. There were 97 patients with M-IIIA disease, 278 cases with M-IIIB disease and 141 cases with III disease according to our personalized molecular staging. Of the 516 patients, bronchoplastic procedures and pulmonary artery reconstruction was carried out in 256 cases; lobectomy combined with resection and reconstruction of partial left

  20. Impact of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes of sheep, and the role of advanced molecular tools for exploring epidemiology and drug resistance - an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Florian; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-05-27

    Parasitic nematodes (roundworms) of small ruminants and other livestock have major economic impacts worldwide. Despite the impact of the diseases caused by these nematodes and the discovery of new therapeutic agents (anthelmintics), there has been relatively limited progress in the development of practical molecular tools to study the epidemiology of these nematodes. Specific diagnosis underpins parasite control, and the detection and monitoring of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites, presently a major concern around the world. The purpose of the present article is to provide a concise account of the biology and knowledge of the epidemiology of the gastrointestinal nematodes (order Strongylida), from an Australian perspective, and to emphasize the importance of utilizing advanced molecular tools for the specific diagnosis of nematode infections for refined investigations of parasite epidemiology and drug resistance detection in combination with conventional methods. It also gives a perspective on the possibility of harnessing genetic, genomic and bioinformatic technologies to better understand parasites and control parasitic diseases.

  1. Introduction to special section of the Journal of Family Psychology, advances in mixed methods in family psychology: integrative and applied solutions for family science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Thomas S; Fiese, Barbara H

    2011-12-01

    Mixed methods in family psychology refer to the systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques to represent family processes and settings. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in study design, analytic strategies, and technological support (such as software) that allow for the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods and for making appropriate inferences from mixed methods. This special section of the Journal of Family Psychology illustrates how mixed methods may be used to advance knowledge in family science through identifying important cultural differences in family structure, beliefs, and practices, and revealing patterns of family relationships to generate new measurement paradigms and inform clinical practice. Guidance is offered to advance mixed methods research in family psychology through sound principles of peer review.

  2. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  3. Wettability behavior of water droplet on organic-polluted fused quartz surfaces of pillar-type nanostructures applying molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxuan; Chen, Wenyang; Xie, Yajing; Wang, Zhiguo; Qin, Jianbo

    2017-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) is applied to research the wettability behaviors of different scale of water clusters absorbed on organic-polluted fused quartz (FQ) surface and different surface structures. The wettability of water clusters is studied under the effect of organic pollutant. With the combined influence of pillar height and interval, the stair-step Wenzel-Cassie transition critical line is obtained by analyzing stable state of water clusters on different surface structures. The results also show that when interval of pillars and the height of pillars keep constant respectively, the changing rules are exactly the opposite and these are termed as the "waterfall" rules. The substrate models of water clusters at Cassie-Baxter state which are at the vicinity of critical line are chosen to analyze the relationship of HI (refers to the pillar height/interval) ratio and scale of water cluster. The study has found that there is a critical changing threshold in the wettability changing process. When the HI ratio keeps constant, the wettability decreases first and then increase as the size of cluster increases; on the contrary, when the size of cluster keeps constant, the wettability decreases and then increase with the decrease of HI ratio, but when the size of water cluster is close to the threshold the HI ratio has little effect on the wettability.

  4. Experimental and molecular docking studies on DNA binding interaction of adefovir dipivoxil: Advances toward treatment of hepatitis B virus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh

    The toxic interaction of adefovir dipivoxil with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove binding mode. The binding constant of UV-visible and the number of binding sites were 3.33 ± 0.2 × 104 L mol-1and 0.99, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA is exothermic (ΔH = 34.4 kJ mol-1; ΔS = 184.32 J mol-1 K-1). Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformational change of CT-DNA in the presence of adefovir dipivoxil, which verified the groove binding mode. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity. The molecular modeling results illustrated that adefovir strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -16.83 kJ mol-1. This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the toxic interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with bio macromolecules, which contributes to clarify the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.

  5. Avances en nutrición molecular: nutrigenómica y/o nutrigenética Advances in molecular nutrition: nutrigenomics and/or nutrigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de las técnicas de la biología molecular y el éxito del Proyecto Genoma Humano ha abierto una nueva era tanto en Medicina como en Nutrición. Hasta la fecha, al menos, 1.000 genes humanos causantes de enfermedades han sido identificados y parcialmente caracterizados, el 97% de los cuales sabemos ahora que son causantes de enfermedades monogénicas. Sin embargo, otras patologías como la obesidad, enfermedad cardiovascular, diabetes, cáncer se deben a complejas interacciones entre diversos genes y factores ambientales. A pesar de los numerosos estudios de asociación, más de 600 publicados desde 2002, la base molecular de las enfermedades crónicas es todavía incierta. La información sobre polimorfismos de nucleótidos y mapas de haplotipos son recursos adicionales para identificar genes involucrados en enfermedades. El desarrollo genómico se aproxima, sin embargo, no se conocen con precisión algunos componentes de la dieta y sus mecanismos, que influyen de forma importante en la expresión de la información genética y en las alteraciones patológicas. La industria alimentaria tiene la oportunidad de utilizar los componentes bioactivos de los alimentos para mejorar la salud y evitar las enfermedades teniendo en cuenta la constitución genética de los consumidores. Esta nueva era de la nutrición molecular "interacciones genes-nutrientes" puede crecer en diversas direcciones, aunque hay dos esenciales. De una parte, el estudio de la influencia de los nutrientes sobre la expresión de genes (nutrigenómica y de otra conocer la influencia de las variaciones genéticas en la respuesta del organismo a los nutrientes (nutrigenética.The application of molecular biology techniques and the success of the Human Genome Project have opened a new era for both Medicine and Nutrition. To date, at least 1,000 human genes causing disease have been identified and partially characterized, 97% of which we now know that are the cause of

  6. 低分子肝素联合化疗治疗晚期乳腺癌%Low molecular heparin combined chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽丽; 刘力新; 张秀娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of low molecular heparin in combined with chemotherapy on blood clots markers D dimmers and fibrinogen in advanced breast cancer. Methods: Total of 42 patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomly divided into two groups, patients in group A received pachtaxel plus cisplatin; patients in group B received regimen TP combined with low molecular heparin 5000U subcutaneously injected ql2 hours per day, for 5 days. Group B: low molecular heparin and TP scheme chemotherapy group, on the base of drug in group A combined with low molecular heparin 5000U subcutaneous injection 12 hours 1 times, for five days. Results: There was no significant difference in low molecular heparin group D-dimers before and after chemotherapy. Level of fibrinogen after chemotherapy was significantly lower than the level before chemotherapy( P 0. 05 ). There was on significant differences in adverse reactions between 2 groups. Conclusion: The application of low molecular heparin combined chemotherapy can improve high pour - point state in advanced breast cancer without obvious adverse reactions.%目的:观察低分子肝素联合化疗对晚期乳腺癌的疗效及对血栓标志物(D二聚体、纤维蛋白原)的影响.方法:42例晚期乳腺癌患者随机分成两组.A组:TP化疗组,应用紫杉醇135mg/m2第1天静脉滴注,顺铂70 mg/m2第2天静脉滴注.B组:低分子肝素联合TP方案化疗组,在A组用药的基础上加用低分子肝素5000U 皮下注射 12小时1次,共用5天.结果:低分子肝素组D二聚体化疗前后无明显变化(P>0.05),纤维蛋白原化疗后明显低于化疗前水平(P0.05).低分子肝素组治疗的不良反应较单纯化疗组统计学差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论:应用低分子肝素联合化疗能改善晚期乳腺癌高凝状态,无明显不良反应.

  7. Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products as a Molecular Mechanism for Aging as a Risk Factor in Osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Wenting-Wijk, M.J.G. van; Jacobs, K.M.G.; El, B. van; Roermund, P.M. van; Bank, R.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and disabling chronic conditions affecting the elderly. Its etiology is largely unknown, but age is the most prominent risk factor. The current study was designed to test whether accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which

  8. Theoretical modeling of large molecular systems. Advances in the local self consistent field method for mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monari, Antonio; Rivail, Jean-Louis; Assfeld, Xavier

    2013-02-19

    Molecular mechanics methods can efficiently compute the macroscopic properties of a large molecular system but cannot represent the electronic changes that occur during a chemical reaction or an electronic transition. Quantum mechanical methods can accurately simulate these processes, but they require considerably greater computational resources. Because electronic changes typically occur in a limited part of the system, such as the solute in a molecular solution or the substrate within the active site of enzymatic reactions, researchers can limit the quantum computation to this part of the system. Researchers take into account the influence of the surroundings by embedding this quantum computation into a calculation of the whole system described at the molecular mechanical level, a strategy known as the mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach. The accuracy of this embedding varies according to the types of interactions included, whether they are purely mechanical or classically electrostatic. This embedding can also introduce the induced polarization of the surroundings. The difficulty in QM/MM calculations comes from the splitting of the system into two parts, which requires severing the chemical bonds that link the quantum mechanical subsystem to the classical subsystem. Typically, researchers replace the quantoclassical atoms, those at the boundary between the subsystems, with a monovalent link atom. For example, researchers might add a hydrogen atom when a C-C bond is cut. This Account describes another approach, the Local Self Consistent Field (LSCF), which was developed in our laboratory. LSCF links the quantum mechanical portion of the molecule to the classical portion using a strictly localized bond orbital extracted from a small model molecule for each bond. In this scenario, the quantoclassical atom has an apparent nuclear charge of +1. To achieve correct bond lengths and force constants, we must take into account the inner shell of

  9. Molecular Genetics Techniques to Develop New Treatments for Brain Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Jacob; Fathallan-Shaykh, Hassan

    2006-09-22

    The objectives of this report are: (1) to devise novel molecular gene therapies for malignant brain tumors, (2) advance our understanding of the immune system in the central nervous system; and (3) apply genomics to find molecular probes to diagnose brain tumors, predict prognosis, biological behavior and their response to treatment.

  10. Advancing development of a limit reference point estimator for sea turtles, and evaluating methods for applying local management to highly migratory species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is developing tools for estimation of limit reference points for marine turtles. These tools are being applied initially to estimate a limit reference point...

  11. Tailored novolak resins for advanced photoresists by a two-step procedure: new insight into the molecular structure is achieved by coupling GPC and MALDI-TOF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, Freimut; Krueger, Ralph-Peter; Schulz, Guenter; Baehr, Guenther; Westerwelle, Ulrich; Gruetzner, Gabi

    2000-06-01

    Synthesis and structure of novolaks continue to be investigated due to their significant influence on the performance of photoresists. Previously a two-step procedure was reported which enables the manufacturer to vary the monomer composition and order in novolak molecules in a wide range which then allows for the tailoring of the resin properties. Recent reinvestigation of the molecular structure of these novolaks applying gel permeation chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has given very interesting new insight into the molecular structure of the two-step synthesis novolaks. Coupling of the two analytical methods provides a new powerful tool to get detailed information on the molecular architecture which cannot be deduced by other methods. Three species of novolak chains have been found. This analytical approach can generally be applied to explore the structure of novolaks made of monomers differing in their molar masses. Using the two- step novolaks high resolution positive and negative tone photoresists for MEMS applications and lift-off processes, respectively, with high alkaline and etch resistance can be produced.

  12. An Effective Hamiltonian Molecular Orbital-Valence Bond (MOVB) Approach for Chemical Reactions Applied to the Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction of Hydrosulfide Ion and Chloromethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lingchun; Mo, Yirong; Gao, Jiali

    2009-01-01

    An effective Hamiltonian mixed molecular orbital and valence bond (EH-MOVB) method is described to obtain an accurate potential energy surface for chemical reactions. Building upon previous results on the construction of diabatic and adiabatic potential surfaces using ab initio MOVB theory, we introduce a diabatic-coupling scaling factor to uniformly scale the ab initio off-diagonal matrix element H(12) such that the computed energy of reaction from the EH-MOVB method is in agreement with the target value. The scaling factor is very close to unity, resulting in minimal alteration of the potential energy surface of the original MOVB model. Furthermore, the relative energy between the reactant and product diabatic states in the EH-MOVB method can be improved to match the experimental energy of reaction. A key ingredient in the EH-MOVB theory is that the off-diagonal matrix elements are functions of all degrees of freedom of the system and the overlap matrix is explicitly evaluated. The EH-MOVB method has been applied to the nucleophilic substitution reaction between hydrosulfide and chloromethane to illustrate the methodology and the results were matched to reproduce the results from ab initio valence bond self-consistent valence bond (VBSCF) calculations. The diabatic coupling (the off-diagonal matrix element in the generalized secular equation) has small variations along the minimum energy reaction path in the EH-MOVB model, whereas it shows a maximum value at the transition state and has nearly zero values in the regions of the ion-dipole complexes from VBSCF calculations. The difference in the diabatic coupling stabilization is attributed to the large overlap integral in the computationally efficient MOVB method.

  13. Recent Advances in Molecular Technologies and Their Application in Pathogen Detection in Foods with Particular Reference to Yersinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause yersiniosis in humans and animals. Food has been suggested to be the main source of yersiniosis. It is critical for the researchers to be able to detect Yersinia or any other foodborne pathogen with increased sensitivity and specificity, as well as in real-time, in the case of a foodborne disease outbreak. Conventional detection methods are known to be labor intensive, time consuming, or expensive. On the other hand, more sensitive molecular-based detection methods like next generation sequencing, microarray, and many others are capable of providing faster results. DNA testing is now possible on a single molecule, and high-throughput analysis allows multiple detection reactions to be performed at once, thus allowing a range of characteristics to be rapidly and simultaneously determined. Despite better detection efficiencies, results derived using molecular biology methods can be affected by the various food matrixes. With the improvements in sample preparation, data analysis, and testing procedures, molecular detection techniques will likely continue to simplify and increase the speed of detection while simultaneously improving the sensitivity and specificity for tracking pathogens in food matrices.

  14. Molecular evolution of vertebrate neurotrophins: co-option of the highly conserved nerve growth factor gene into the advanced snake venom arsenalf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Sunagar

    Full Text Available Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence variations and follow the regime of negative selection, highlighting their extremely important conserved role in vertebrate homeostasis. However, in stark contrast, venom NGF secreted as part of the chemical arsenal of the venomous advanced snake family Elapidae (and to a lesser extent Viperidae have characteristics consistent with the typical accelerated molecular evolution of venom components. This includes a rapid rate of diversification under the significant influence of positive-selection, with the majority of positively-selected sites found in the secreted β-polypeptide chain (74% and on the molecular surface of the protein (92%, while the core structural and functional residues remain highly constrained. Such focal mutagenesis generates active residues on the toxin molecular surface, which are capable of interacting with novel biological targets in prey to induce a myriad of pharmacological effects. We propose that caenophidian NGFs could participate in prey-envenoming by causing a massive release of chemical mediators from mast cells to mount inflammatory reactions and increase vascular permeability, thereby aiding the spread of other toxins and/or by acting as proapoptotic factors. Despite their presence in reptilian venom having been known for over 60 years, this is the first evidence that venom-secreted NGF follows the molecular evolutionary pattern of other venom components, and thus likely participates in prey-envenomation.

  15. Development of an Interdisciplinary Experimental Series for the Laboratory Courses of Cell and Molecular Biology and Advance Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Montserrat Rabago; McAllister, Robert; Newkirk, Kiera; Basing, Alexander; Wang, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to education has become more important in the development of science and technology, which requires universities to have graduates with broad knowledge and skills and to apply these skills in solving real-world problems. An interdisciplinary experimental series has been developed for the laboratories in cell and…

  16. 急性髓性细胞白血病的分子遗传学研究进展%Advances in molecular genetics of acute myeloid leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙

    2013-01-01

    Genomics technology is widely applied in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at present.A large number of abnormal genes associated with AML have been found in succession.However,there are 40% to 49% patients who were the normal karyotype (NK) in AML.For this reason,it is very important to supplement the molecular genetics studies to assess the prognosis of NK-AML patients.Therefore,new genes have the great significance in improving the prognosis of AML classification and guiding the diagnosis and treatment of NK-AML patients.

  17. Advances in molecular identification of plant nematodes%植物线虫分子鉴定研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓侃; 廖金铃

    2015-01-01

    Plant nematodes can damage crops and trees.The accurate identification of plant nematodes is the basis for the control of plant nematode diseases.It is very challenging to identify plant nematode species only based on morphology,because plant nematodes are microscopic in size,and some morphological characters may have inter-specific overlapping or intraspecific variability.Molecular techniques provide a fast,accurate and reliable method for the detection and identification of plant nematodes.For promoting the deep study on molecular identification of plant nematodes,this paper summarized research progresses in and current research status on DNA extraction of plant nematodes,target sequences for identifying plant nematodes and the main molecular identification meth-ods for plant nematodes.%植物线虫可危害农作物和林木,对它们的准确鉴定是防治植物线虫病害的基础。由于植物线虫很小,而且在形态上种间常有覆盖,而种内有较大的变异,仅依据形态特征很难鉴定。分子鉴定技术给植物线虫的检测和鉴定提供了快速、精确、可靠的方法。文章综述了植物线虫分子的 DNA 提取、分子鉴定靶标序列的选择及分子鉴定方法等方面的研究进展及现状,以促进对植物线虫分子鉴定更深入的研究。

  18. Advanced solvent based methods for molecular characterization of soil organic matter by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Roscioli, Kristyn M.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Robinson, Errol W.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2015-05-19

    Soil organic matter (SOM) a complex, heterogeneous mixture of above and belowground plant litter and animal and microbial residues at various degrees of decomposition, is a key reservoir for carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in soil based ecosystems. A limited understanding of the molecular composition of SOM limits the ability to routinely decipher chemical processes within soil and predict accurately how terrestrial carbon fluxes will response to changing climatic conditions and land use. To elucidate the molecular-level structure of SOM, we selectively extracted a broad range of intact SOM compounds by a combination of different organic solvents from soils with a wide range of C content. Our use of Electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and a suite of solvents with varying polarity significantly expands the inventory of the types of organic molecules present in soils. Specifically, we found that hexane is selective for lipid-like compounds with very low O:C ratios; water was selective for carbohydrates with high O:C ratios; acetonitrile preferentially extracts lignin, condensed structures, and tannin poly phenolic compounds with O:C > 0.5; methanol has higher selectivity towards compounds characterized with low O:C < 0.5; and hexane, MeOH, ACN and water solvents increase the number and types of organic molecules extracted from soil for a broader range of chemically diverse soil types. Our study of SOM molecules by ESI-FTICR MS revealed new insight into the molecular-level complexity of organics contained in soils.

  19. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  20. Recent Advances in Nanoparticle-Based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer for Biosensing, Molecular Imaging and Drug Release Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Tzu Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET may be regarded as a “smart” technology in the design of fluorescence probes for biological sensing and imaging. Recently, a variety of nanoparticles that include quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, polymer, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and upconversion nanoparticles have been employed to modulate FRET. Researchers have developed a number of “visible” and “activatable” FRET probes sensitive to specific changes in the biological environment that are especially attractive from the biomedical point of view. This article reviews recent progress in bringing these nanoparticle-modulated energy transfer schemes to fruition for applications in biosensing, molecular imaging and drug delivery.

  1. Molecular Targeted Approaches for Advanced BRAF V600, N-RAS, c-KIT, and GNAQ Melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Ponti Giovanni; Pellacani Giovanni; Tomasi Aldo; Loschi Pietro; Luppi Gabriele; Gelsomino Fabio; Longo Caterina

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of a newly developed target therapy for metastatic melanomas poses the challenge to have a good molecular stratification of those patients who may benefit from this therapeutic option. Practically, BRAF mutation status (V600E) is commonly screened although other non-V600E mutations (i.e., K-R-M-D) could be found in some patients who respond to therapy equally to the patients harboring V600E mutations. Furthermore, other mutations, namely, N-RAS, KIT, and GNAQ, should be seque...

  2. An Applied Study of Implementation of the Advanced Decommissioning Costing Methodology for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik, Sweden with special emphasis to the application of the Omega code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofova, Kristina; Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The presented study is focused on an analysis of decommissioning costs for the Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (FA) facility in Studsvik prepared by SVAFO and a proposal of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology application. Therefore, this applied study concentrates particularly in the following areas: 1. Analysis of FA facility cost estimates prepared by SVAFO including description of FA facility in Studsvik, summarised input data, applied cost estimates methodology and summarised results from SVAFO study. 2. Discussion of results of the SVAFO analysis, proposals for enhanced cost estimating methodology and upgraded structure of inputs/outputs for decommissioning study for FA facility. 3. Review of costing methodologies with the special emphasis on the advanced costing methodology and cost calculation code OMEGA. 4. Discussion on implementation of the advanced costing methodology for FA facility in Studsvik together with: - identification of areas of implementation; - analyses of local decommissioning infrastructure; - adaptation of the data for the calculation database; - inventory database; and - implementation of the style of work with the computer code OMEGA.

  3. Advances in molecular biology of lung disease: aiming for precision therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Claire; Sethi, Tariq

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related mortality in the developed world, accounting for almost one-quarter of all cancer deaths. Traditional treatment algorithms have largely relied on histologic subtype and have comprised pragmatic chemotherapy regimens with limited efficacy. However, because our understanding of the molecular basis of disease in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has improved exponentially, it has become apparent that NSCLC can be radically subdivided, or molecularly characterized, based on recurrent driver mutations occurring in specific oncogenes. We know that the presence of such mutations leads to constitutive activation of aberrant signaling proteins that initiate, progress, and sustain tumorigenesis. This persistence of the malignant phenotype is referred to as "oncogene addiction." On this basis, a paradigm shift in treatment approach has occurred. Rational, targeted therapies have been developed, the first being tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which entered the clinical arena > 10 years ago. These were tremendously successful, significantly affecting the natural history of NSCLC and improving patient outcomes. However, the benefits of these drugs are somewhat limited by the emergence of adaptive resistance mechanisms, and efforts to tackle this phenomenon are ongoing. A better understanding of all types of oncogene-driven NSCLC and the occurrence of TKI resistance will help us to further develop second- and third-generation small molecule inhibitors and will expand our range of precision therapies for this disease.

  4. Recent advances in the understanding of brown spider venoms: From the biology of spiders to the molecular mechanisms of toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremski, Luiza Helena; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Meissner, Gabriel Otto; Wille, Ana Carolina Martins; Vuitika, Larissa; Dias-Lopes, Camila; Ullah, Anwar; de Moraes, Fábio Rogério; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Barbaro, Katia Cristina; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2014-06-01

    The Loxosceles genus spiders (the brown spiders) are encountered in all the continents, and the clinical manifestations following spider bites include skin necrosis with gravitational lesion spreading and occasional systemic manifestations, such as intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Brown spider venoms are complex mixtures of toxins especially enriched in three molecular families: the phospholipases D, astacin-like metalloproteases and Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) peptides. Other toxins with low level of expression also present in the venom include the serine proteases, serine protease inhibitors, hyaluronidases, allergen factors and translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP). The mechanisms by which the Loxosceles venoms act and exert their noxious effects are not fully understood. Except for the brown spider venom phospholipase D, which causes dermonecrosis, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, the pathological activities of the other venom toxins remain unclear. The objective of the present review is to provide insights into the brown spider venoms and loxoscelism based on recent results. These insights include the biology of brown spiders, the clinical features of loxoscelism and the diagnosis and therapy of brown spider bites. Regarding the brown spider venom, this review includes a description of the novel toxins revealed by molecular biology and proteomics techniques, the data regarding three-dimensional toxin structures, and the mechanism of action of these molecules. Finally, the biotechnological applications of the venom components, especially for those toxins reported as recombinant molecules, and the challenges for future study are discussed.

  5. The evolution of combined molecular targeted therapies to advance the therapeutic efficacy in melanoma: a highlight of vemurafenib and cobimetinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina TM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Theresa M Medina, Karl D Lewis Cutaneous Oncology Program, Division of Medical Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado – Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive, rapidly progressive disease which historically had very few effective treatment options. However, since 2011, the therapeutic landscape of melanoma has undergone a dramatic transformation with two distinct approaches and has catalyzed the successful advancement in the clinical field of immuno-oncology. In addition, the recognition of a key oncogenic driver mutation in melanoma, BRAF, stimulated the development of multiple potent kinase inhibitors which has also influenced the expansion and use of targeted agents in the practice of oncology. Vemurafenib, the initial BRAF inhibitor approved for the treatment of melanoma, was the first agent to demonstrate rapid clinical responses and significantly improved survival which was a clinical breakthrough in the treatment of melanoma. Although exciting and practice changing, the unparalleled responses with vemurafenib are usually not sustained. Further investigations delineated several mechanisms of acquired resistance which are most often mediated by the upregulation of the MAPK pathway. MEK inhibitors, another class of small-molecule inhibitors, were developed as an alternative agent to suppress the MAPK pathway downstream, independent from BRAF activation. Multiple studies have demonstrated the improvement in antitumor activity when MEK inhibitors are used in combination with BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This is a review of the investigations that led to the US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2015 of the combination of vemurafenib and cobimetinib, adding to the quickly growing armament for the treatment of advanced or metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600 mutation. Keywords: melanoma, vemurafenib, cobimetinib

  6. Introducing PROFESS 3.0: An advanced program for orbital-free density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mohan; Xia, Junchao; Huang, Chen; Dieterich, Johannes M.; Hung, Linda; Shin, Ilgyou; Carter, Emily A.

    2015-05-01

    Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) is a linear-scaling first-principles quantum mechanics method used to calculate the ground-state energy of a given system. Here we present a new version of PRinceton Orbital-Free Electronic Structure Software (PROFESS) with new features. First, PROFESS 3.0 provides a set of new kinetic energy density functionals (KEDFs) which are designed to model semiconductors or transition metals. Specifically, PROFESS 3.0 includes the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF [1], a density decomposition method with fixed localized electronic density [2], the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC) decomposition KEDF [3], and the Enhanced von Weizsäcker (EvW)-WGC KEDF [4]. Other major new functions are included, such as molecular dynamics with different statistical mechanical ensembles and spin-polarized density optimizers.

  7. Molecular Targeted Approaches for Advanced BRAF V600, N-RAS, c-KIT, and GNAQ Melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponti Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a newly developed target therapy for metastatic melanomas poses the challenge to have a good molecular stratification of those patients who may benefit from this therapeutic option. Practically, BRAF mutation status (V600E is commonly screened although other non-V600E mutations (i.e., K-R-M-D could be found in some patients who respond to therapy equally to the patients harboring V600E mutations. Furthermore, other mutations, namely, N-RAS, KIT, and GNAQ, should be sequenced according to distinct melanoma specific subtypes and clinical aspects. In our report, a practical flow chart is described along with our experience in this field.

  8. Molecular heterogeneity assessment by next-generation sequencing and response to gefitinib of EGFR mutant advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bria, Emilio; Pilotto, Sara; Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Novello, Silvia; Peretti, Umberto; Vavalà, Tiziana; Kinspergher, Stefania; Righi, Luisella; Santo, Antonio; Brunelli, Matteo; Corbo, Vincenzo; Giglioli, Eliana; Sperduti, Isabella; Milella, Michele; Chilosi, Marco; Scarpa, Aldo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-05-20

    Cancer molecular heterogeneity might explain the variable response of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinomas to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We assessed the mutational status of 22 cancer genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in poor, intermediate or good responders to first-line gefitinib. Clinical outcome was correlated with Additional Coexisting Mutations (ACMs) and the EGFR Proportion of Mutated Alleles (PMA). Thirteen ACMs were found in 10/17 patients: TP53 (n=6), KRAS (n=2), CTNNB1 (n=2), PIK3CA, SMAD4 and MET (n=1 each). TP53 mutations were exclusive of poor/intermediate responders (66.7% versus 0, p=0.009). Presence of ACMs significantly affected both PFS (median 3.0 versus 12.3 months, p=0.03) and survival (3.6 months versus not reached, p=0.03). TP53 mutation was the strongest negative modifier (median PFS 4.0 versus 14.0 months). Higher EGFR PMA was present in good versus poor/intermediate responders. Median PFS and survival were longer in patients with EGFR PMA ≥0.36 (12.0 versus 4.0 months, p=0.31; not reached versus 18.0 months, p=0.59). Patients with an EGFR PMA ≥0.36 and no ACMs fared significantly better (p=0.03), with a trend towards increased survival (p=0.06). Our exploratory data suggest that a quantitative (PMA) and qualitative (ACMs) molecular heterogeneity assessment using NGS might be useful for a better selection of patients.

  9. Molecular-targeted agents in treatment of advanced breast cancer%晚期乳腺癌分子靶向药物治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健; 王晓稼

    2008-01-01

    分子靶向药物已经被临床广泛使用,其疗效显著,不良反应轻微,主要有表皮生长因子(EGF)抑制剂、血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)抑制剂、小分子酪氨酸激酶抑制剂、单克隆抗体等.与多种化疗药物联合可以进一步提高疗效.%Molecular-targeted agents have had an extensive use in clinic.It has been the primary choice when treating advanced breast cancer due to its remarkable therapeutic efficacy and slightly adverse reaction. New drugs haye emerged such as inhibitors of epithelial grouth factor,inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor,tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,etc.Molecular-targeted agents combined with multi-drugs can further improve the therapeutic effect.

  10. 低分子量麦谷蛋白亚基研究进展%Advances in Low-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武晓蓓

    2011-01-01

    低分子量麦谷蛋白(LMW-GS)占总的小麦谷蛋白的40%,是小麦品质改良的主要目标之一.就LMW-GS的分类、LMW-GS编码基因染色体位点及结构特点、LMW-GS多肽链组成、Genbank注册的基因及分子标记的开发、不同LMW-GS对加工品质的影响等几个方面进行了系统论述,为低分子量麦谷蛋白亚基用于小麦品质改良提供了理论基础.%The low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) account for 40% of gross glutenins of wheat, usually used as a major indicator for wheat quality improvement. Here, I comprehensively reviewed the advances in LMW-GS from their classification, coding gene loci on chromosomes and structural features, polypeptide chains composition, gene sequences accessed in Genbank, molecular markers saturation level, and their impacts on wheat process quality, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the utilization of LMW-GS in genetic improvement of wheat quality.

  11. Advances in the Molecular Mechanisms and Prognostic Significance of EMT 
in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinchen CAO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT has an important role in the development of embryo, as well as that in the metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Recent researches have demonstrated that both morphological and phenotypic conversions emerge in cells undergoing EMT. As most of relevant studies were on other cancers, it is essential to uncover whether it is the similar mechanisms accounting for EMT in NSCLC. With the progress of the studies, EMT-related basic researches are gradually applied to predicting the prognosis of NSCLC. The aim of this article was to discuss the mechanisms related to EMT emerging in NSCLC.

  12. Efficacy and clinical/molecular predictors of erlotinib monotherapy for Chinese advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-jia; XIA Ying; REN Guan-jun; WANG Meng-zhao; ZENG Xuan; ZHANG Li

    2010-01-01

    Background A retrospective analysis of clinical data were conducted reviewing patients who were given erlotinib at Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) Hospital from May 2005 to December 2009. Relationships between clinical factors, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression, EGFR gene mutations, KRAS gene mutations and clinical outcomes were investigated in Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Patients with stage ⅢB/Ⅳ NSCLC who had not previously participated in erlotinib related clinical trials were enrolled into this study. All patients were given oral erlotinib 150 mg per day. Tumor samples of some patients were accessed with mutant-enriched polymerase chain reaction assay (EGFR, KRAS gene mutations) and multiplex branched DNA assay (EGFR mRNA expression).Results Seventy-nine patients were enrolled in this study, 23 patients had a partial response (PR), 36 patients had a stable disease (SD), 20 patients had a PD, with an objective response rate of 29.1%, and a disease control rate of 74.7%.Females (P=0.023), non-smokers (P=0.013), patients with a skin rash (P=0.047), and with highly differentiated tumors (P=0.037) were significantly correlated with the objective response rate. Patients with a lower ECOG PS (P=0.002),highly differentiated tumors (P=0.014), non-smokers (P=0.002), and patients with a skin rash (P <0.001) were significantly correlated with the disease control rate. The median progression-free survival was 35 weeks (95% CI: 13-57 weeks) and 1-year survival was 72.3%. Highly-differentiated tumors (P=0.027) and patients with a skin rash (P <0.001)were significantly correlated with PFS. Seventeen patients were tested for EGFR/KRAS gene mutations and EGFR mRNA expression. Progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with EGFR exon 19/21 mutations was 66 weeks, longer than patients with wild type EGFR exon 19/21 (P=0.018). No significant relationships were found between EGFR mRNA expression, EGFR

  13. Threaded molecular wires as building blocks for advanced polymer blends: WPLEDs, ultra-broadband optical amplifiers, multi color lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, Sergio; Mroz, Marta; Sforazzini, Giuseppe; Virgili, Tersilla; Meinardi, Franco; Paleari, Alberto; Anderson, Harry L.; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Cacialli, Franco

    2011-03-01

    The ability to produce semiconducting polymer blends with white emission spectra, large emission cross sections and broad optical gain is critical to their application in white PLEDs, lasers and broadband amplifiers. Cyclodextrin-encapsulation is an effective means of suppressing detrimental intermolecular interactions, and energy transfer (ET) channels in polymer blends, thus enabling fabrication of white-PLEDs. We show that all such properties combine into a high impact photonic application: ultra-broad optical gain and two-color lasing in a binary polyrotaxane blend. We study the ultrafast photophysics of a blend of a conventional and an encapsulated polyfluorene. The morphology is investigated by microRaman imaging, AFM, and fluorescence lifetime microscopy. We ascribe the ultra-broad optical gain (>850 meV), and the simultaneous ASE for both constituents, to the dual effect of reduced polaron formation and suppressed ET. Our results demonstrate that polyrotaxanes could realistically represent the building blocks for advanced polymer blends with highly controlled optical properties, for applications in solid state lightning, lasers and photovoltaic technologies.

  14. [Advances in molecular mechanisms of adaptive immunity mediated by type I-E CRISPR/Cas system--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongchang; Qiu, Juanping

    2016-01-01

    To better adapt to the environment, prokaryocyte can take up exogenous genes (from bacteriophages, plasmids or genomes of other species) through horizontal gene transfer. Accompanied by the acquisition of exogenous genes, prokaryocyte is challenged by the invasion of 'selfish genes'. Therefore, to protect against the risk of gene transfer, prokaryocyte needs to establish mechanisms for selectively taking up or degrading exogenous DNA. In recent years, researchers discovered an adaptive immunity, which is mediated by the small RNA guided DNA degradation, prevents the invasion of exogenous genes in prokaryocyte. During the immune process, partial DNA fragments are firstly integrated.to the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) located within the genome DNA, and then the mature CRISPR RNA transcript and the CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) form a complex CRISPR/Cas for degrading exogenous DNA. In this review, we will first briefly describe the CRISPR/Cas systems and then mainly focus on the recent advances of the function mechanism and the regulation mechanism of the type I-E CRISPR/Cas system in Escherichia coli.

  15. [Advances in molecular mechanisms of bacterial resistance caused by stress-induced transfer of resistance genes--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongchang; Wang, Bing; Zhu, Lihong

    2013-07-04

    The transfer of resistance gene is one of the most important causes of bacterial resistance. Recent studies reveal that stresses induce the transfer of antibiotic resistance gene through multiple mechanisms. DNA damage stresses trigger bacterial SOS response and induce the transfer of resistance gene mediated by conjugative DNA. Antibiotic stresses induce natural bacterial competence for transformation in some bacteria which lack the SOS system. In addition, our latest studies show that the general stress response regulator RpoS regulates a novel type of resistance gene transfer which is mediated by double-stranded plasmid DNA and occurs exclusively on the solid surface. In this review, we summarized recent advances in SOS dependent and independent stress-induced DNA transfer which is mediated by conjugation and transformation respectively, and the transfer of double-stranded plasmid DNA on the solid surface which is regulated by RpoS. We propose that future work should address how stresses activate the key regulators and how these regulators control the expression of gene transfer related genes. Answers to the above questions would pave the way for searching for candidate targets for controlling bacterial resistance resulted from the transfer of antibiotic genes.

  16. Motivational aftercare planning to better care: Applying the principles of advanced directives and motivational interviewing to discharge planning for people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Wyder, Marianne; Dietrich, Josie; Robinson, Gail; Siskind, Dan; Crompton, David

    2017-02-01

    Improving the input of people with mental illness into their recovery plans can potentially lead to better outcomes. In the present study, we evaluated the introduction of motivational aftercare planning (MAP) into the discharge planning of psychiatric inpatients. MAP is a manualized intervention combining motivational interviewing with advance directives. We measured changes in the level of patient input into discharge planning following training staff in the use of MAP. This included the following: (i) documentation of early relapse signs along with successful past responses; (ii) evidence of aftercare planning; and (iii) the use of the patients' own words in the plan. We used a ward-level controlled before-and-after design comparing one intervention ward with two control wards. We used anonymized recovery plans, with a goal of 50 plans per ward before and after the intervention, to look for evidence of patient input into care planning with a standardized checklist. There were also qualitative interviews with individuals discharged from the unit. We reviewed 100 intervention ward plans and 197 control ones (total n = 297). There were no significant differences in recovery plans from intervention and control wards at baseline. Following MAP training, the intervention ward improved significantly (e.g. identification of triggers increased from 52 to 94%, χ(2)  = 23.3, d.f. =1, P planning. MAP increased inpatient input into discharge planning and was valued by participants. The effect on subsequent health service use needs evaluation.

  17. Treating leachate with advanced oxidation: applying Fenton's reagent; Oxidaciones avanzadas para el tratamiento de lixiviado: aplicacion del Reactivo de Fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranonn Ruiz, I.; Sancho Seuma, L.

    2003-07-01

    The present study investigates the removal of refractory organics by Advanced Oxidation Process: Fenton's Reaction. A batch test protocol was designed to study the oxidation and coagulation in Fenton Reaction. The batch tests were conducted to determine the optimum conditions for the plant operation such as pH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage, FeSO{sub 4} dosage and contact time. It was found that the highest removal efficiencies of COD were with the oxidation at acid pH around 3 and the coagulation at basic pH around 8, few minutes of treatment time, the initial concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were in the range 68-1550 mg/l and the different dosages of FeSO{sub 4} were in the range 487-3038 mg/l. They were added in determinate proportions to get the highest efficiency of producing OH, DBO{sub 5}/DQO ratio was decreased from 0,3 to 0,1. Therefore Fenton's reaction process is a very effective means for a pretreatment or tertiary treatment of biological methods. (Author) 20 refs.

  18. The biogeography of kelps (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae): a global analysis with new insights from recent advances in molecular phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, John J.

    2010-12-01

    Despite their ecological and economic importance, no summary of kelp global biogeography has been produced for almost two decades. The circumscription of the order Laminariales and familial and generic relationships in the group have changed considerably recently, in the light of molecular data. A global summary and geographical analysis of kelp species and their distributions (112 species in 33 genera) is presented. These data are analysed and discussed from the perspective of the new consensus of relationships within the group, and likely evolutionary events. The putative ancestors of the kelps occur and are overwhelmingly most diverse, in the cooler waters of northern Japan. The biogeographical evidence suggests three main lines of subsequent evolution: (a) a diversification producing the four ‘derived’ families Alariaceae, Costariceae, Laminariaceae, and Lessoniaceae and most extant genera in the temperate northern Pacific, probably during the Miocene. (b) The evolution of an Arctic flora which invaded the North Atlantic following the opening of the Bering Strait ca. 5.5 Ma. (c) At least four separate crossings, by different genera, of tropical regions from Northern to Southern Hemisphere (and one in the opposite direction). The recorded impacts of man on these distributions have thus far been minimal, with the notable exceptions of Undaria pinnatifida and species of Saccharina (grown in aquaculture systems for human food). Most genera are monospecific, with many confined to either the western or eastern temperate North Pacific, whereas the distribution of the most species-rich genera ( Alaria, Laminaria, Saccharina) includes the Arctic, and they are widespread in the North Atlantic. This rapid species-level evolution is hypothesised to have been promoted by the relatively recent invasion of the Atlantic by these taxa. The crossing of the tropics has occurred in warm-temperate species some of which occur and are sometimes abundant, in deeper water in today

  19. Nano-design of quantum dot-based photocatalysts for hydrogen generation using advanced surface molecular chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation in a suspension system requires a sophisticated nano-device that combines a photon absorber with effective redox catalysts. This study demonstrates an innovative molecular linking strategy for fabricating photocatalytic materials that allow effective charge separation of excited carriers, followed by efficient hydrogen evolution. The method for the sequential replacement of ligands with appropriate molecules developed in this study tethers both quantum dots (QDs), as photosensitizers, and metal nanoparticles, as hydrogen evolution catalysts, to TiO2 surfaces in a controlled manner at the nano-level. Combining hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions on the surface, CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs and an Au-Pt alloy were attached to TiO2 without overlapping during the synthesis. The resultant nano-photocatalysts achieved substantially high-performance visible-light-driven photocatalysis for hydrogen evolution. All syntheses were conducted at room temperature and in ambient air, providing a promising route for fabricating visible-light-responsive photocatalysts.

  20. 毛囊分子调控机制%The research advance in the molecular regulation of hair follicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏立宁; 李华; 旭日干; 刘东军; 李雪峰

    2011-01-01

    毛囊是产生毛被的组织,具有周期性,经历生长期、衰退期和休止期三个时期,毛囊与皮脂腺组成毛囊皮脂隙单位.本文从分子层面分别对调控毛囊周期性变化、毛囊皮脂腺发育以及毛囊中影响毛被光泽度及毡结度的因子等给予了详细阐述,这些均为提高山羊绒产量和质最提供了重要思路.%Hair follicle (HF) is a tissue to produce hair, which continuously cycles through periods of intensive growth (Anagen), apoptosis-driven regression (Catagen), and resting (Telogen). The HF and sebaceous gland constitute the pilosebaceous unit of the skin. This paper described the factors for regulation of HF periodicity, sebaceous gland development as well as hair lustrousness and hair felting at molecular level. These can provide significant thoughts in enhancing the production and quality for cashmere.

  1. Ag/N-doped reduced graphene oxide incorporated with molecularly imprinted polymer: An advanced electrochemical sensing platform for salbutamol determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Xu, Zhifeng; Liu, Mengqin; Deng, Peihong; Tang, Siping; Jiang, Jianbo; Feng, Haibo; Qian, Dong; He, Lingzhi

    2017-04-15

    In this work, the metallic silver and non-metallic nitrogen co-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag-N-RGO) was first synthesized by a simple and cost-effective strategy, and then a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was formed in situ at the surface of the prepared composite via electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine in the presence of salbutamol as the template molecule. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that the bifunctional graphene-based composite shows improved catalytic performance than that of pristine graphene doped with one-component or none. The MIP sensor based on Ag-N-RGO owns high porous surface structure, resulting in the increased current response and enhanced recognition capacity than that of non-imprinted sensor. The outstanding performance of the developed sensor derives from the combined advantages of Ag-N-RGO with effective catalytic property and MIP with excellent selectivity. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical response of the developed sensor is linearly proportional to the concentration of salbutamol in the range of 0.03-20.00µmolL(-1) with a low detection limit of 7 nmol L(-1). The designed sensor has exhibited the multiple advantages such as low cost, simple manufacture, convenient use, excellent selectivity and good reproducibility. Finally, the proposed method has been extended for the determinations of salbutamol in human urine and pork samples, and the satisfactory recoveries between 98.9-105.3% are achieved.

  2. 分子靶向抗肿瘤药研究进展%Advances in Molecularly Targeted Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆文; 尤启冬; 周后元

    2013-01-01

    分子靶向抗肿瘤药业已成为恶性肿瘤治疗领域的一个主流研究方向.本综述从药物化学结合结构生物学、转化医学的视角切入,对已上市和处于后期临床的小分子蛋白激酶抑制剂进行系统梳理.重点阐述其中蕴含的药物发现策略、药物演化路径、作用机制和个体化治疗等内容.%Molecularly targeted cancer therapy has already become one of the most important areas in cancer research. From the point view of medicinal chemistry interwoven with structural biology and translational medicine, this perspective deals with small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors launched or in late-stage clinical development focusing on drug discovery strategy, drug evolution pathway, mechanism of action, and personalized therapy paradigm.

  3. The development of molecular biology and social advancement%分子生物学的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙华

    2005-01-01

    分子生物学(Molecular Biology)是一门现代生物学,一门带动整个生命科学的前沿学科,是生物化学与遗传学、微生物学、细胞学、生物物理学等学科相结合的基础上发展起来的崭新学科。“分子生物学”一词最早于1945年William Astbury首先在Harvey Lecture上应用的,由于它能从分子水平了解各种生命现象的根本原因,一开始就将研究对象主要集中于生物大分子——核酸(DNA和RNA)的研究,并已经成为现代生命科学的“共同语言”。

  4. Advances in the understanding of low molecular weight silicon formation and implications for control by AMC filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobert, Jürgen M.; Cate, Philip W.; Ruede, David J.; Wildgoose, Joseph R.; Miller, Charles M.; Gaudreau, John C.

    2010-03-01

    Trimethylsilanol (TMS) is a low molecular weight / low boiling point silicon-containing, airborne contaminant that has received increased interest over the past few years as an important cause for contamination of optical surfaces in lithography equipment. TMS is not captured well by carbon-based filters, and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), even though captured well, can be converted to TMS when using acidic filter media commonly used for ammonia removal. TMS and HMDSO co-exist in a chemical equilibrium, which is affected by the acidity and moisture of their environment. This publication shows that HMDSO is converted to TMS by acidic media at concentrations typically found in cleanroom environments. This is contrary to published results that show a re-combination of TMS to HMDSO on acid media. We also demonstrate that, based on its conversion to TMS, HMDSO is not a suitable test compound for hybrid chemical filter performance, as the apparent lifetime/capacity of the filter can be substantially skewed towards larger numbers when conversion to TMS is involved. We show lifetime test results with toluene and HMDSO on acidic and non-acidic filter media. Appropriately designed, asymmetric hybrid chemical filters significantly minimize or eliminate the conversion of HMDSO to TMS, thereby reducing the risk to scanner optical elements. Similarly, such filters can also prevent or reduce acid-sensitive reactions of other AMC when passing through filter systems.

  5. 中枢神经系统电离辐射效应的细胞和分子机制研究进展%Advanced in study of cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation effects on central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮; 王利利; 涂彧

    2008-01-01

    随着放射治疗的广泛应用,临床上的放射性损伤也逐渐受到重视.电离辐射对中枢神经系统细胞、分子的作用是一个复杂、渐进的过程,目前其确切机制尚不完全清楚.探讨电离辐射作用下神经元、神经胶质细胞、血管内皮细胞及血脑屏障的损伤和修复,以及分子水平改变的可能机制和神经保护策略的研究进展,以期为临床上防治放射性神经损伤提供有益的思路.%Along with radiation treatment extensively applied,radiation injury also is valued gradually.The effect of radiaton to the cellular and molecular of central nervous system(CNS)is a complicated and moderately advanced process and the mechanism is remains incompletely clear yet.Inquiring into the possible mechanism of the CNS including the injury and the restoration of neuron,neuroglia ceils,endotheliocyte cell and blood-brain barrier and the molecular level of change induced by radiation,so as to provide beneficial thought for preventing and curing radiation injury clinically.Some neumpmtective strategies are also addressed in the review.

  6. The first success of glass eel production in the world: basic biology on fish reproduction advances new applied technology in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Hirohiko; Tanaka, Hideki; Ohta, Hiromi; Unuma, Tatsuya; Nomura, Kazuharu

    2005-04-01

    The eel has long been esteemed as an important food fish in the world, especially in Japan, and has been used as an experimental fish for many fields of fish physiology. However, the decreases in eel resources have been a serious concern in recent years. The catches of glass eels as seedlings for aquaculture have shown a long-term decrease in both Europe and East Asia. To increase eel resources, the development of techniques for artificial induction of maturation and spawning and rearing their larvae have been eagerly desired. Recent progress of reproductive physiology of fish, especially mechanisms of oocyte maturation and ovulation in female and of spermatozoa maturation in male, facilitate to establish techniques for hormonal induction of maturation and spawning in sexually immature eels. With persistent effort to development of rearing techniques of larvae, we have first succeeded to produce glass eel. These applied techniques are may contribute to understand the basic reproductive physiology of the eel.

  7. A modified eco-efficiency framework and methodology for advancing the state of practice of sustainability analysis as applied to green infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Santosh R; Johnston, John M

    2017-03-17

    We propose a modified eco-efficiency (EE) framework and novel sustainability analysis methodology for green infrastructure (GI) practices used in water resource management. GI practices such as rainwater harvesting (RWH), rain gardens, porous pavements, and green roofs are emerging as viable strategies for climate change adaptation. The modified framework includes four economic, 11 environmental, and three social indicators. Using six indicators from the framework, at least one from each dimension of sustainability, we demonstrate the methodology to analyze RWH designs. We use life-cycle assessment and life-cycle cost assessment to calculate the sustainability indicators of 20 design configurations as Decision Management Objectives (DMOs). Five DMOs emerged as relatively more sustainable along the EE analysis Tradeoff Line, and we used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a widely applied statistical approach, to quantify the modified EE measures as DMO sustainability scores. We also addressed the subjectivity and sensitivity analysis requirements of sustainability analysis, and we evaluated the performance of 10 weighting schemes that included classical DEA, equal weights, National Institute of Standards and Technology's stakeholder panel, Eco-Indicator 99, Sustainable Society Foundation's Sustainable Society Index, and five derived schemes. We improved upon classical DEA by applying the weighting schemes to identify sustainability scores that ranged from 0.18 to 1.0, avoiding the non-uniqueness problem and revealing the least to most sustainable DMOs. Our methodology provides a more comprehensive view of water resource management and is generally applicable to GI and industrial, environmental, and engineered systems to explore the sustainability space of alternative design configurations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew J.; Willets, Katherine A.

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we survey recent advances in the field of molecular plasmonics beyond the traditional sensing modality. Molecular plasmonics is explored in the context of the complex interaction between plasmon resonances and molecules and the ability of molecules to support plasmons self-consistently. First, spectroscopic changes induced by the interaction between molecular and plasmonic resonances are discussed, followed by examples of how tuning molecular properties leads to active molecular plasmonic systems. Next, the role of the position and polarizability of a molecular adsorbate on surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals is examined experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we introduce recent research focused on using molecules as plasmonic materials. Each of these examples is intended to highlight the role of molecules as integral components in coupled molecule-plasmon systems, as well as to show the diversity of applications in molecular plasmonics.

  9. 表面肌电图在水中运动研究中的应用进展%Advance of Surface Electromyography Applied in Underwater Exercise (review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼; 王欣欣; 王颖鹏; 刘宏举

    2015-01-01

    Underwater exercise and hydrotherapy have rapidly developed in recent years. As an noninvasive and convenient tool, sur-face electromyography (sEMG) has been applied in underwater research. In favour of experiment procedure, underwater sEMG needs local-ized waterproof seal or whole-body waterproof suit, and are mainly detected by telemetry system. The muscle activity pattern of underwater exercise is different from on land exercise, the sMEG amplitude is correlated with motion velocity. Compound underwater motion analysis includes sEMG, video and foot pressure will be more effective assessment tool for underwater exercise and hydrotherapy research.%水中运动研究和水疗康复近年来得到快速发展。表面肌电图(sEMG)作为陆上运动研究的有力工具,逐渐被应用于水中运动的研究。水中sEMG的检测多采用无线传输技术,可局部覆盖防水层或穿干式防水衣隔水。水中运动的肌电活动模式与陆上运动不同,肌电幅值与运动速度密切相关。水中sEMG与水中视频分析、水中足底压力等方法的综合应用将是水中运动检测和水疗康复的发展方向。

  10. 小晶粒SAPO-34分子筛研究进展%Research advances in small crystal SAPO-34 molecular sieves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟平; 李飞; 薛云鹏; 郭磊

    2014-01-01

    SAPO-34分子筛被用作甲醇反应制低碳烯烃(乙烯、丙烯)(MTO)工艺的催化剂。然而,传统的SAPO-34分子筛催化剂容易失活,单程寿命较短。研究表明,降低SAPO-34分子筛粒径,可以有效地提高催化剂比表面积,减弱扩散的限制,增加催化剂的活性中心和抗积炭能力、加速反应热去除以及延长催化剂单程寿命。本文介绍了小晶粒SAPO-34分子筛具有的特性和制备小晶粒SAPO-34分子筛技术的研究进展,并提出研究开发建议。%SAPO-34 molecular sieves were used as the catalyst of the methanol to olefins (MTO) process, however, the conventional SAPO-34 catalysts were easy to loss activity and had a short single cycle life. It was found that reducing the crystalline size of SAPO-34 could improve the specific surface area, weaken the diffusion limit, increase the active sites, enhance the anti-carbon deposition ability, accelerate removing the heat of reaction and prolong the single cycle life. The characteristics and research advances of the small crystal SAPO-34 molecular sieves were presented, and some suggestions were given for developing these catalysts.

  11. Pharmacological Classification and Activity Evaluation of Furan and Thiophene Amide Derivatives Applying Semi-Empirical ab initio Molecular Modeling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Bober

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological and physicochemical classification of the furan and thiophene amide derivatives by multiple regression analysis and partial least square (PLS based on semi-empirical ab initio molecular modeling studies and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC retention data is proposed. Structural parameters obtained from the PCM (Polarizable Continuum Model method and the literature values of biological activity (antiproliferative for the A431 cells expressed as LD50 of the examined furan and thiophene derivatives was used to search for relationships. It was tested how variable molecular modeling conditions considered together, with or without HPLC retention data, allow evaluation of the structural recognition of furan and thiophene derivatives with respect to their pharmacological properties.

  12. [Effect of SL-1010 (sodium hyaluronate with high molecular weight) on experimental osteoarthritis induced by intra-articularly applied papain in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitoh, Y; Katsuramaki, T; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, M; Kitabayashi, N; Kataoka, M; Fujimori, S; Umemoto, J; Namba, K

    1992-07-01

    Sodium hyaluronate (HA) with a molecular weight of approximately 600,000-1,200,000 is reportedly effective against osteoarthritis (OA). However, since HA with higher molecular weight is expected to be more effective against OA, we investigated the effects of HA (SL-1010) newly produced by fermentation with a molecular weight of 1,800,000-2,100,000 on the experimental OA induced by intraarticular injection of papain, into the knee joint of the rabbit, in comparison with those of HA with a molecular weight of about 950,000 (HA-95). When 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6% papain (0.5ml) was injected into the knee joint of the animal twice with a 3-day interval, there were dose-dependent degenerative changes and a decrease in sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) in the articular cartilage with slight synovial inflammatory changes 6 weeks after the final injection of papain. In this OA model, intraarticular application of SL-1010 slightly reduced the degeneration of articular cartilage, compared with the injections of HA-95 or saline (control). SL-1010 also caused a significant recovery in the S-GAG level which was decreased in the cartilage of the OA model, compared with the control. In addition, SL-1010 inhibited the release of 35S-GAG from the cartilage obtained from normal and OA model joints. These results suggest that SL-1010 is effective in inhibiting the degeneration of cartilage in the OA model, probably due to the recovery of the S-GAG level by reducing the release of S-GAG from the cartilage.

  13. Periodic local Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory method applied to molecular crystals: study of solid NH3 and CO2 using extended basis sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Lorenzo; Usvyat, Denis; Schütz, Martin; Civalleri, Bartolomeo

    2010-04-07

    We have calculated the equilibrium geometry, formation energy, and bulk modulus of two molecular bulk crystals, NH(3) and CO(2), at the periodic post-Hartree-Fock correlated level. The dependence of the results on the basis set has been analyzed, by employing basis sets up to aug-cc-pVQZ quality. In the calculations, we used the periodic local Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (LMP2), implemented in the CRYSCOR program. Multipolar expansion techniques, as well as density fitting, are employed in this code to reduce the number of and to factorize the required electron repulsion integrals; as a consequence of that, the computational cost for the correlation part of the calculations is comparable to that of the Hartree-Fock. Auxiliary calculations performed on molecular dimers are also reported to verify the accuracy of the LMP2 approach and of the basis sets used. Furthermore, the effect of spin-component scaling has been investigated for the two crystals. One intention of the present paper is also to lay out and specify the computational setup, which is generally applicable for accurate CRYSCOR calculations on molecular crystals.

  14. 鸡传染性支气管炎病毒感染的分子机制%Advance in Molecular Mechanism of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙裴; 施雷; 魏建忠; 李郁; 王桂军

    2013-01-01

    Infection of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)is seriously harmful to the world poultry industry. IBV in chicken in vivo tissue tropism can be divided into 6 types:respiratory type,kidney type,addicted intestinal type,muscular type,glandular type and fallopian tube type.Pathological lesions of the body′s main organs caused by IBV strains of different tissue tropism have significant differences.What is the mo-lecular mechanism of IBV infection,its tissue and cellular tropism?It is not yet fully understood.In this paper,the brief advance in the relationship of IBV molecular variation and Changes in virulence,receptor-mediated cell IBV infections and IBV different characteristics due with different types of cells in vitro culti-vation,were reviewed to provide a reference for the future research of the molecular mechanism of IBV in-fection and tissue tropism.%鸡传染性支气管炎病毒(IBV)的感染严重危害世界养鸡业,IBV 在鸡体内的组织亲嗜性主要可分为呼吸型、肾型、嗜肠型、肌肉型、腺胃型和输卵管型等。不同组织亲嗜性的 IBV 毒株造成机体病理损伤主要部位有明显差异。IBV 感染及组织和细胞嗜性的分子机理到底如何,目前尚未完全弄清楚。论文对IBV 分子变异与毒力变化、细胞受体介导 IBV 感染及不同种类的体外细胞对 IBV 培养的不同特性等研究进展进行综述,旨在为 IBV 感染的组织亲嗜性及体外培养细胞感染的分子机制的研究提供参考。

  15. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops of semi-arid tropics using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Kudapa, Himabindu; Roorkiwal, Manish; Thudi, Mahendar; Pandey, Manish K; Saxena, Rachit K; Chamarthi, Siva K; Mohan, S Murali; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Upadhyaya, Hari; Gaur, Pooran M; Krishnamurthy, L; Saxena, K B; Nigam, Shyam N; Pande, Suresh

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), as compared to other crop species like cereals, has been very slow. With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput (HTP) genotyping methods, there is a shift in development of genomic resources including molecular markers in these crops. For instance, 2,000 to 3,000 novel simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers have been developed each for chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. Based on Sanger, 454/FLX and Illumina transcript reads, transcriptome assemblies have been developed for chickpea (44,845 transcript assembly contigs, or TACs) and pigeonpea (21,434 TACs). Illumina sequencing of some parental genotypes of mapping populations has resulted in the development of 120 million reads for chickpea and 128.9 million reads for pigeonpea. Alignment of these Illumina reads with respective transcriptome assemblies have provided more than 10,000 SNPs each in chickpea and pigeonpea. A variety of SNP genotyping platforms including GoldenGate, VeraCode and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays have been developed in chickpea and pigeonpea. By using above resources, the first-generation or comprehensive genetic maps have been developed in the three legume speciesmentioned above. Analysis of phenotyping data together with genotyping data has provided candidate markers for drought-tolerance-related root traits in chickpea, resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut and sterility mosaic disease (SMD) and fertility restoration in pigeonpea. Together with these traitassociated markers along with those already available, molecular breeding programmes have been initiated for enhancing drought tolerance, resistance

  16. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops of semi-arid tropics using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeev K Varshney; Himabindu Kudapa; Manish Roorkiwal; Mahendar Thudi; Manish K Pandey; Rachit K Saxena; Siva K Chamarthi; Murali Mohan S; Nalini Mallikarjuna; Hari Upadhyaya; Pooran M Gaur; L Krishnamurthy; K B Saxena; Shyam N Nigam; Suresh Pande

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), as compared to other crop species like cereals, has been very slow. With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput (HTP) genotyping methods, there is a shift in development of genomic resources including molecular markers in these crops. For instance, 2,000 to 3,000 novel simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers have been developed each for chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. Based on Sanger, 454/FLX and Illumina transcript reads, transcriptome assemblies have been developed for chickpea (44,845 transcript assembly contigs, or TACs) and pigeonpea (21,434 TACs). Illumina sequencing of some parental genotypes of mapping populations has resulted in the development of 120 million reads for chickpea and 128.9 million reads for pigeonpea. Alignment of these Illumina reads with respective transcriptome assemblies have provided > 10,000 SNPs each in chickpea and pigeonpea. A variety of SNP genotyping platforms including GoldenGate, VeraCode and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays have been developed in chickpea and pigeonpea. By using above resources, the first-generation or comprehensive genetic maps have been developed in the three legume speciesmentioned above. Analysis of phenotyping data together with genotyping data has provided candidate markers for drought-tolerance-related root traits in chickpea, resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut and sterility mosaic disease (SMD) and fertility restoration in pigeonpea. Together with these trait-associated markers along with those already available, molecular breeding programmes have been initiated for enhancing drought tolerance, resistance to

  17. 淀粉合酶的酶学与分子生物学研究进展%Recent Advances on Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Starch Synthase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 蒋德安; 翁晓燕

    2001-01-01

    淀粉合酶作为淀粉合成的关键酶之一,一直是淀粉研究的重要内容。这些研究多集中在对其同工型的研究,淀粉合酶的两类主要同工型分别为淀粉粒结合的淀粉合酶和可溶性淀粉合酶,这两类同工型的作用极为复杂。本文介绍了淀粉合酶同工型的酶学和分子生物学近年来的研究进展,同时也讨论了这些同工型的分类、相互关系及其在淀粉合成过程中的生理功能等内容。%Being one of the key enzymes in the pathway of starch biosynthesis,starch synthase is important contents of starch researches which often focus on the research of its isoforms.Starch synthase includes two major kinds of isoforms, granule-bound starch synthase and soluble starch synthase, whose physiological functions are very complicated.Based on the recent advances on enzymology and molecular biology of these isoforms of starch synthase, category,relationship and physiological functions of these isoforms in the starch biosynthesis are discussed.

  18. 沙盘在高级财务会计教学改革中的应用研究%Apply And Research of Sand Table in the Advanced Financial Accounting Teaching Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自广; 张卫丽

    2012-01-01

    The traditional advanced financial accounting teaching are the heavy theory,light practice,teachers still occupy the main position in class.Advanced financial accounting this course is actually a portal and enterprise combined with very close to the course,students are required to practice the application ability,it is necessary to sand into the classroom instruction,effectively stimulate the interest of students,to enable students to exercise better apply theory to practice.%传统的高级财务会计教学都是重理论,轻实践,教师仍然在课堂中占据主要地位。而高级财务会计这门课程实际上一门与企业结合非常密切的课程,要求学生的实践应用能力强,所以有必要将沙盘引入到课堂教学中,有效地激发学生的兴趣,使学生运动更好地将理论应用于实践。

  19. Advanced Filtering Techniques Applied to Spaceflight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft need accurate position and velocity estimates in order to control their orbits. Some missions require more accurate estimates than others, but nearly all...

  20. Advances in applied self-organizing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This book is the perfect introduction for anyone wanting to create sophisticated Windows 8 apps for the first time.Assuming only a basic knowledge of HTML and CSS we'll walk you through the development process using C# and VB. The book will familiarize you with the tools you'll need to use in order to make the most of Windows' stunning new features. You'll discover how to take advantage of the built-in functionality to create high quality user experiences.

  1. Advanced Filtering Techniques Applied to Spaceflight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IST-Rolla developed two nonlinear filters for spacecraft orbit determination during the Phase I contract. The theta-D filter and the cost based filter, CBF, were...

  2. 蚊虫抗药性分子机制研究进展%Advances in the molecular mechanisms of mosquito resistance to insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏美; 代玉华; 公茂庆

    2012-01-01

    蚊虫是重要的医学昆虫,可以通过叮咬传播疾病(例如疟疾、丝虫病、登革热等),其行为与人类生活息息相关.由于长久以来大量、广泛地使用杀虫剂,使蚊虫抗性日益严重.蚊虫的抗性机制主要有靶标抗性(包括神经轴突钠离子通道、乙酰胆碱酯酶和γ-氨基丁酸受体氯离子通道的突变)和代谢抗性(包括非特异性羧酸酯酶、细胞色素P450和谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶的活性增加)两方面.现对这些机制的研究进展进行综述,试图全面了解大量、广泛使用杀虫剂之后蚊虫抗性产生的分子机制.%Mosquitoes, which act as important medical insects, can transmit diseases such as malaria, fiariasis and dengue fever, etc. by bites, being harmful to humans. For a long period of time, due to the extensive use of chemical insecticides, the insecticide resistance in mosquitoes is becoming more and more serious. The mechanisms of resistance can be classified into two groups, knockdown resistance (such as saltations in sodium channel, Acetylcholinesterase and 7-aminobutyric acid) and metabolic resistance (such as augmentations in carboxylesterase, cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase). In this article, recent research advances in the resistance of mosquitoes to chemical insecticides are reviewed for better understanding of the molecular mechanism of mosquito resistance to the extensively used chemical insecticides.

  3. Measurement Frontiers in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Developments of molecular measurements and manipulations have long enabled forefront research in evolution, genetics, biological development and its dysfunction, and the impact of external factors on the behavior of cells. Measurement remains at the heart of exciting and challenging basic and applied problems in molecular and cell biology. Methods to precisely determine the identity and abundance of particular molecules amongst a complex mixture of similar and dissimilar types require the successful design and integration of multiple steps involving biochemical manipulations, separations, physical probing, and data processing. Accordingly, today's most powerful methods for characterizing life at the molecular level depend on coordinated advances in applied physics, biochemistry, chemistry, computer science, and engineering. This is well illustrated by recent approaches to the measurement of DNA, RNA, proteins, and intact cells. Such successes underlie well founded visions of how molecular biology can further assist in answering compelling scientific questions and in enabling the development of remarkable advances in human health. These visions, in turn, are motivating the interdisciplinary creation of even more comprehensive measurements. As a further and closely related consequence, they are motivating innovations in the conceptual and practical approaches to organizing and visualizing large, complex sets of interrelated experimental results and distilling from those data compelling, informative conclusions.

  4. Applied analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lanczos, Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    Basic text for graduate and advanced undergraduate deals with search for roots of algebraic equations encountered in vibration and flutter problems and in those of static and dynamic stability. Other topics devoted to matrices and eigenvalue problems, large-scale linear systems, harmonic analysis and data analysis, more.

  5. Advances in molecular tools for the use of Zygosaccharomyces bailii as host for biotechnological productions and construction of the first auxotrophic mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Laura; Branduardi, Paola; Passolunghi, Simone; Cattaneo, Davide; Riboldi, Luca; Frascotti, Gianni; Valli, Minoska; Porro, Danilo

    2010-11-01

    The nonconventional yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii has been proposed as a new host for biotechnological processes due to convenient properties such as its resistance to high sugar concentrations, relatively high temperatures and especially to acidic environments. We describe a series of new expression vectors specific for Z. bailii and the resulting improvements in production levels. By exploiting the sequences of the endogenous plasmid pSB2, 2microm-like multicopy vectors were obtained, giving a fivefold increase in production. A specific integrative vector was developed which led to 100% stability in the absence of selective pressure; a multiple-integration vector was constructed, based on an rRNA gene unit portion cloned and sequenced for this purpose, driving the insertion of up to 80 copies of the foreign construct. Moreover, we show the construction of the first stable auxotrophic mutant of Z. bailii, obtained by targeted gene deletion applied to ZbLEU2. The development of molecular tools for the Z. bailii manipulation has now reached a level that may be compatible with its industrial exploitation; the production of organic acids is a prominent field of application.

  6. Molecular-based rapid inventories of sympatric diversity: A comparison of DNA barcode clustering methods applied to geography-based vs clade-based sampling of amphibians

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrea Paz; Andrew J Crawford

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers offer a universal source of data for quantifying biodiversity. DNA barcoding uses a standardized genetic marker and a curated reference database to identify known species and to reveal cryptic diversity within well-sampled clades. Rapid biological inventories, e.g. rapid assessment programs (RAPs), unlike most barcoding campaigns, are focused on particular geographic localities rather than on clades. Because of the potentially sparse phylogenetic sampling, the addition of DNA barcoding to RAPs may present a greater challenge for the identification of named species or for revealing cryptic diversity. In this article we evaluate the use of DNA barcoding for quantifying lineage diversity within a single sampling site as compared to clade-based sampling, and present examples from amphibians. We compared algorithms for identifying DNA barcode clusters (e.g. species, cryptic species or Evolutionary Significant Units) using previously published DNA barcode data obtained from geography-based sampling at a site in Central Panama, and from clade-based sampling in Madagascar. We found that clustering algorithms based on genetic distance performed similarly on sympatric as well as clade-based barcode data, while a promising coalescent-based method performed poorly on sympatric data. The various clustering algorithms were also compared in terms of speed and software implementation. Although each method has its shortcomings in certain contexts, we recommend the use of the ABGD method, which not only performs fairly well under either sampling method, but does so in a few seconds and with a user-friendly Web interface.

  7. Molecular-based rapid inventories of sympatric diversity: a comparison of DNA barcode clustering methods applied to geography-based vs clade-based sampling of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Andrea; Crawford, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers offer a universal source of data for quantifying biodiversity. DNA barcoding uses a standardized genetic marker and a curated reference database to identify known species and to reveal cryptic diversity within wellsampled clades. Rapid biological inventories, e.g. rapid assessment programs (RAPs), unlike most barcoding campaigns, are focused on particular geographic localities rather than on clades. Because of the potentially sparse phylogenetic sampling, the addition of DNA barcoding to RAPs may present a greater challenge for the identification of named species or for revealing cryptic diversity. In this article we evaluate the use of DNA barcoding for quantifying lineage diversity within a single sampling site as compared to clade-based sampling, and present examples from amphibians. We compared algorithms for identifying DNA barcode clusters (e.g. species, cryptic species or Evolutionary Significant Units) using previously published DNA barcode data obtained from geography-based sampling at a site in Central Panama, and from clade-based sampling in Madagascar. We found that clustering algorithms based on genetic distance performed similarly on sympatric as well as clade-based barcode data, while a promising coalescent-based method performed poorly on sympatric data. The various clustering algorithms were also compared in terms of speed and software implementation. Although each method has its shortcomings in certain contexts, we recommend the use of the ABGD method, which not only performs fairly well under either sampling method, but does so in a few seconds and with a user-friendly Web interface.

  8. Modelagem molecular aplicada ao desenvolvimento de moléculas com atividade antioxidante visando ao uso cosmético Molecular modeling applied to the development of molecules with antioxidant activity for cosmetic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scotti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Várias hipóteses e constantes estudos são realizados com o intuito de elucidar o envelhecimento cutâneo. Para prevenir e contornar este processo torna-se necessário reforçar nossas defesas naturais antioxidantes endógenas. Diversas substâncias antioxidantes exógenas, como vitaminas, extratos vegetais, dentre outras, são utilizadas pela Cosmetologia nos produtos antienvelhecimento. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar de que forma a Modelagem Molecular pode ser uma ferramenta útil na pesquisa por novas substâncias cosméticas antioxidantes para combater o envelhecimento cutâneo.Some hypotheses and constants studies are made with intention to elucidate the aging process. To prevent and to attenuate the cutaneous aging it becomes necessary to strengthen our endogenous antioxidant natural defenses. Diverse exogenous antioxidant substances, as vitamins, vegetal extracts and others, have been used by the Cosmetology in antiaging products. The objective of this paper is to show how the Molecular Modeling can be an useful tool in the research for new antioxidant cosmetic substances to face the cutaneous aging.

  9. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  10. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  11. Vibrational Distribution of Hydrogen Molecular Ions in High-Energy Ionization Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-Hao; HE Chun-Long; CHEN Chao; LI Jia-Ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ A theoretical time-dependent wave-packet dynamics method is applied to calculate the distribution of vibrational states of hydrogen molecular ions produced in high-energy ionization processes of hydrogen molecules. The isotope effect is elucidated in agreement with the available experimental measurements. Our proposed method should be readily applied in other atomic and molecular processes considering great advances in electronic computation science and technology.

  12. 外排泵基因在志贺菌分子分类中的应用%Apply Multidrug Resistance Pump Genes for Molecular Taxonomy of Shigella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆瑞瑞; 张家洋; 鲜靖苹; 吴健

    2011-01-01

    Shigella is one of the most important pathogens responsible for infectious diarrhea, H24 is a clinical MDR of Shigella spp. In the process of classification of MDR Shigella spp. H24, we found that serotype and 16S rRNA classification have certain limitations, and H24 can not be identified only by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene. So we tried to classify Shigella spp. H24 via the sequence analysis of multiple drug-resistance pump genes emrE, cmr, ydhE and acrB. The results showed that genes of emrE, cmr, acrB and ydhE in bacteria are highly evolutionarily conserved and no gene lateral transfer is found among different bacteria. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene can not identify a Shigella spp. at genus level, while sequence analysis of ernrE and cmr incombination with the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene can identify a Shigella spp. to species. Thus, we firstly proposed that efflux pump gene can be taken as a molecular target for the rapid classification of Shigella and E. coli.%志贺菌属(Shigellae)是感染性腹泻的重要病原菌之一,志贺菌H24是临床多耐药株.在H24的分类过程中,发现血清分型和16S rRNA分类都有一定的局限性,16S rRNA不能直接把H24鉴定至种,通过分析H24外排泵基因emrE、cmr、ydhE、acrB基因序列信息,尝试利用外排泵的基因序列信息对志贺菌进行鉴定分类.结果表明,H24外排泵基因emrE、cmr、acrB和ydhE具有很强的进化保守性,未发现染色体上的外排泵基因在不同种属之间有明显的水平转移痕迹,对志贺菌仅用16S rRNA基因序列信息连属的分类都不能做到,但结合emrE和cmr的基因序列信息可直接将志贺菌鉴定到种,首次提出以外排泵基因为分子靶标对志贺菌和大肠杆菌进行快速分类的方法.

  13. 细菌自然转化的分子机制研究进展%Advances in the molecular mechanism of natural bacterial transformation-A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙东昌; 张衍梅; 施跃峰

    2012-01-01

    自然环境中,具备自然转化能力的细菌可以自发地从外界获取DNA,从而获得新的遗传性状.为能够自然地被转化,细菌需首先建立一个被称作感受态的生理状态并在此状态下表达DNA摄取和加工相关的基因.DNA摄取基因的表达产物可组装一个能将外源DNA摄入细胞质的蛋白复合物.在细胞质中,进入的DNA可同基因组DNA发生同源重组或建立成一个独立的质粒.一般DNA摄入细胞的过程可分为两个阶段,即从外部基质到细胞周质和跨细胞内膜的转运.近年来,包括作者在内的研究人员发现大肠杆菌中存在新的自然质粒转化模式.本文将首先综述近年来细菌自然转化的分子机制,随后简要介绍大肠杆菌中独特的自然质粒转化模式.%Naturally transformable bacteria are able to take up DNA to acquire new genetic traits in the environment. To be naturally transformed, bacteria need to establish a physiological state, called natural competence, in which DNA uptake and processing genes are expressed. DNA uptake proteins assemble a complex to pull exogenous DNA into the cytoplasm where it can recombine with the genome DNA or establish as a plasmid. In general, DNA uptake of bacteria could be divided into two stages; DNA is transported from the milieu to the periplasm at the first stage (for Gram-negative bacteria) and is translocated across the inner membrane at the second stage. Our work and other studies revealed new plasmid DNA transformation modes in Escherichia coli. Here, we first reviewed recent advances in the molecular mechanism of natural transformation and then described the distinctive plasmid transformation mode in E. coli.

  14. Advances of Molecular Targeted Therapy in Squamous Cell Lung Cancer%分子靶向治疗在肺鳞癌中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 张树才

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lungadenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4)-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamouscell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lungcancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.%肺鳞癌(squamous-cell lung cancer, SQCLC)是一种常见的肺癌病理类型,全世界每年约40余万人死于肺鳞癌,发病与吸烟密切相关。然而,研究表明,在肺腺癌中有明显疗效的靶向药物却无法让肺鳞癌患者获益,如人表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR)抑制剂、间变性淋巴瘤激酶(anaplastic lymphoma kinase, ALK)抑制剂等。通过大量基因组学研究表明,纤维母细胞生长因子受体1(fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, FGFR1)

  15. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Zaher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of caenophidian (advanced snakes using sequences from two mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S rRNA and one nuclear (c-mos gene (1681 total base pairs, and with 131 terminal taxa sampled from throughout all major caenophidian lineages but focussing on Neotropical xenodontines. Direct optimization parsimony analysis resulted in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree, which corroborates some clades identified in previous analyses and suggests new hypotheses for the composition and relationships of others. The major salient points of our analysis are: (1 placement of Acrochordus, Xenodermatids, and Pareatids as successive outgroups to all remaining caenophidians (including viperids, elapids, atractaspidids, and all other "colubrid" groups; (2 within the latter group, viperids and homalopsids are sucessive sister clades to all remaining snakes; (3 the following monophyletic clades within crown group caenophidians: Afro-Asian psammophiids (including Mimophis from Madagascar, Elapidae (including hydrophiines but excluding Homoroselaps, Pseudoxyrhophiinae, Colubrinae, Natricinae, Dipsadinae, and Xenodontinae. Homoroselaps is associated with atractaspidids. Our analysis suggests some taxonomic changes within xenodontines, including new taxonomy for Alsophis elegans, Liophis amarali, and further taxonomic changes within Xenodontini and the West Indian radiation of xenodontines. Based on our molecular analysis, we present a revised classification for caenophidians and provide morphological diagnoses for many of the included clades; we also highlight groups where much more work is needed. We name as new two higher taxonomic clades within Caenophidia, one new subfamily within Dipsadidae, and, within Xenodontinae five new tribes, six new genera and two resurrected genera. We synonymize Xenoxybelis and Pseudablabes with Philodryas; Erythrolamprus with Liophis; and Lystrophis and Waglerophis with Xenodon.Este trabalho

  16. Methods of applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Francis B

    1992-01-01

    This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.

  17. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  18. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pysz, M.A. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Gambhir, S.S. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Willmann, J.K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.ed [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  19. Applied Enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  20. Deposition Temperature Affected to Performance of Carbon Molecular Sieve Applied to CH4/N2 Separation%沉积温度对CH_4/N_2分离用碳分子筛性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卫果

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide technical parameters to prepare the carbon molecular sieve applied to CH4/N2 separation, the paper investigated carbon temperatures of 450, 500, 550, 600 and 650 ~C affected to the performance of the carbon molecular sieve applied to the CH4/N2 separation. The results showed that the adsorption volume and the balanced separation coefficient both would be increased with the carbon deposition temperature increased and then would be decreased in tendency. When the deposition temperature was at 550 ~C, the performance of the carbon molecular sieve would be optimum, the max adsorption volume of CH4 was 1.41 mmol/g and the balanced separation coefficient of CH4/N2 was 4.74. The adsorption/desorption isotherm of nitrogen showed that the carbon molecular sieve sample prepared under the such conditions was micropore mainly.%为给用于分离CH4/N2的碳分子筛制备提供技术参数,考察了碳沉积温度为450、500、550、600、650oС时,其对CH4/N2分离用碳分子筛性能的影响。结果表明:吸附容量和平衡分离系数均随着碳沉积温度的增加呈先增加后减小的趋势,沉积温度为550oС时碳分子筛性能最佳,CH4最大吸附容量达1.41mmol/g,CH4/N2平衡分离系数达4.74。氮气吸附/脱附等温线表明在此条件下制备的碳分子筛样品以微孔为主。

  1. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  2. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Widder, David V

    2012-01-01

    This classic text by a distinguished mathematician and former Professor of Mathematics at Harvard University, leads students familiar with elementary calculus into confronting and solving more theoretical problems of advanced calculus. In his preface to the first edition, Professor Widder also recommends various ways the book may be used as a text in both applied mathematics and engineering.Believing that clarity of exposition depends largely on precision of statement, the author has taken pains to state exactly what is to be proved in every case. Each section consists of definitions, theorem

  3. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  4. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  5. Molecular Epidemiology for Vector Research on Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Kato

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by the genus Leishmania transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. Surveillance of the prevalence of Leishmania and responsive vector species in endemic and surrounding areas is important for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease. Molecular biological methods are now widely applied to epidemiological studies of infectious diseases including leishmaniasis. These techniques are used to detect natural infections of sand fly vectors with Leishmania protozoa and are becoming powerful tools due to their sensitivity and specificity. Recently, genetic analyses have been performed on sand fly species and genotyping using PCR-RFLP has been applied to the sand fly taxonomy. In addition, a molecular mass screening method has been established that enables both sand fly species and natural leishmanial infections to be identified simultaneously in hundreds of sand flies with limited effort. This paper reviews recent advances in the study of sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis, using molecular biological approaches.

  6. Advances in coke formation rule of heavy oil at the molecular level%分子水平重油生焦规律研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中亚; 申海平; 范启明

    2016-01-01

    At the molecular level, advances of coke formation rule of heavy oil were reviewed.The relation between four components of heavy oil and coke formation was induced,so was the research in the coke formation of heavy oil model compounds.For group constituents of heavy oil,researches show that proper amounts of saturates lead to high-quality coke;the quality of coke gets worse with more rings;resins and asphaltenes coke easily and the quality of coke is bad;heteroatoms lead to bad coke,but hazard extent of heteroatoms is different.For heavy oil model compounds,researches show that thermal condensation of toluene is hard to react;from naphthalene to pyrene,the condensation difficulty becomes lower and lower;because of side chains,the quality of dimethylnaphthalene coke is worse than that of naphthalene;because of its special spatial configuration,1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene cokes easily and quality of the coke is pretty good;the worse the quality of heteroatom model compound coke,the worse the quality of aromatics with that kind of heteroatom model compounds.With the development of the ultra high resolution mass spectrometry technology,there are more possibilities that aromatics thermal condensation reaction mechanism will be explored further.%阐述了重油缩合生焦规律分子水平的研究进展,主要从重油中四组分的分子组成与生焦的关系以及重油模型化合物生焦的研究两方面进行了概述。研究表明,对于重油各族组分来说:适量的饱和分有助于提升生焦质量;芳香分环数越多生焦越明显,生焦质量越差;中、重胶质和沥青质易生焦,生焦质量差;杂原子会降低生焦质量,但各个杂原子的危害程度不同。而对于各个重油模型化合物来说:甲苯极难发生热缩合反应;萘、菲、蒽、芘的热缩合反应难度逐渐降低;二甲基萘由于侧链的作用,生焦质量比萘要差;1,2,4,5-四甲基苯由于其特殊的空间构型较易

  7. 高等应用型护理人才培养模式改革的探索与实践%Exploring and practice in reforming cultivating model of advanced applied nursing talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建章; 李如竹; 曾晓英; 徐宜兵; 滕艺萍

    2007-01-01

    本文介绍了对高职高专护理学专业学生的知识、能力、素质结构进行的整体改革,突出了以就业为导向的岗位能力和素质的培养,提出了"突出技能、加强人文、强化口语、体现特色"的高等应用型护理人才培养模式,以提高学生的动手能力、护患沟通能力、护理英语口语能力,体现鲜明的护理学专业和中医药院校特色,使培养的护理人才符合整体护理的要求,满足21世纪人们对健康的需求.%We aim to reform the structure of knowledge,capability and quality of the studnts in nursing program in higher vocational colleges.We give prominence to cultivate post-oriented ability and quality and establish a cultivating model of advanced applied nursing talents.The model strengthens skill training,humanities,spoken English and individual traits.Through the training strdents'competence of practice,communication and spoken English will be improved.Meanwhile,the characteristics of nursing program and traditional Chinese medical college will be embodied.In accordance with the requirements of holistic nursing,nursing talents will be cultivated to satisfy people's needs for health in the 21st century.

  8. Improvement of the controllability of mechanical pulping processes by applying advanced control systems and pulp quality meters. Hierteen ja hiokkeen valmistuksen hallinnan parantaminen kehittyneen automaatiojaerjestelmaen ja massan laatumittareiden avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietinen, P. (Yhtyneet Paperitehtaat Oy, Kajaani (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the controllability of the groundwood grinders and thermomechanical refiners in Kajaani paper mill by applying modern control and measuring techniques. The aim was to minimize the quality fluctuation in the mechanical pulp lines and to improve the energy efficiency of the mechanical pulping processes. A new control system was introduced in our stone groundwood mill (SGW). By means of this new advanced stone groundwood control and information system the controllability of the grinders improved markedly, and because of that the pulp strength properties improved by over 5 % and the quality variations decreased by 40 %. The energy consumption of the grinders increased by about 5 %, which was caused by the choice of a control strategy. The controllability of the pressurised groundwood grinders (PGW) was poor. After the grinders being repaired, the pulp strength properties improved by about 10 %. The control solutions developed for SGW plant were modified to meet the PGW requirements. An on-line freeness tester, is going to be used to measure the pit pulp quality. The results will be utilized when the old process computer is renewed. The most suitable on-line pulp quality analyzers for our thermomechanical plant were found by testing various equipment. Through minimizing the quality fluctuation of the mechanical pulp it is possible to save about 30-35 GWh (4 %) of energy in Kajaani annually. In addition it is possible to save another 2 - 4 % energy in TMP-refiners by a suitable control strategy without affecting the pulp quality. But energy savings bigger than that can only be reached by deteriorating the pulp quality.

  9. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  10. Advancement in the research of early detection of bacterial nucleic acid in molecular diagnosis of sepsis%脓毒症早期细菌核酸分子诊断研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇; 任辉; 彭代智

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of sepsis helps make effective clinical decisions and improve the survival rate of patients with severe infection.However,the timely and accurate diagnosis of sepsis is still a great challenge in clinic.In order to settle the very problem,the scientists in the world have made a lot of ex ploration and research in the field of rapid molecular identification of pathogens.Nowadays,the nucleic acid detection of sepsis is mainly composed of 3 types of methodological strategies,either based on positive blood culture,single colonies,or directly on blood specimens.This paper presents a comprehensive overview of advances in the research of early detection of bacterial nucleic acid as molecular diagnosis of sepsis.

  11. Magnitude of the benefit of progression-free survival as a potential surrogate marker in phase 3 trials assessing targeted agents in molecularly selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Hotta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In evaluation of the clinical benefit of a new targeted agent in a phase 3 trial enrolling molecularly selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, overall survival (OS as an endpoint seems to be of limited use because of a high level of treatment crossover for ethical reasons. A more efficient and useful indicator for assessing efficacy is needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 18 phase 3 trials in the literature investigating EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKIs or ALK-TKIs, now approved for use to treat NSCLC, compared with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy (eight trials were performed in molecularly selected patients and ten using an "all-comer" design. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify the best threshold by which to divide the groups. Although trials enrolling molecularly selected patients and all-comer trials had similar OS-hazard ratios (OS-HRs (0.99 vs. 1.04, the former exhibited greater progression-free survival-hazard ratios (PFS-HR (mean, 0.40 vs. 1.01; P<0.01. A PFS-HR of 0.60 successfully distinguished between the two types of trials (sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%. The odds ratio for overall response was higher in trials with molecularly selected patients than in all-comer trials (mean: 6.10 vs. 1.64; P<0.01. An odds ratio of 3.40 for response afforded a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 90%. CONCLUSION: The notably enhanced PFS benefit was quite specific to trials with molecularly selected patients. A PFS-HR cutoff of ∼0.6 may help detect clinical benefit of molecular targeted agents in which OS is of limited use, although desired threshold might differ in an individual trial.

  12. Interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seeds as energy feedstock and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation: current advanced molecular spectroscopic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Xin, Hangshu; Ban, Yajing; Zhang, Xuewei

    2014-05-07

    Recent advances in biofuel and bio-oil processing technology require huge supplies of energy feedstocks for processing. Very recently, new carinata seeds have been developed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bio-oil production. The processing results in a large amount of coproducts, which are carinata meal. To date, there is no systematic study on interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bioethanol processing and their processing coproducts (carinata meal). Molecular spectroscopy with synchrotron and globar sources is a rapid and noninvasive analytical technique and is able to investigate molecular structure conformation in relation to biopolymer functions and bioavailability. However, to date, these techniques are seldom used in biofuel and bioethanol processing in other research laboratories. This paper aims to provide research progress and updates with molecular spectroscopy on the energy feedstock (carinata seed) and coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bioethanol processing and show how to use these molecular techniques to study the interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in the energy feedstocks and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation.

  13. Molecular gastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, cooks have been applying recipes without looking for the mechanisms of the culinary transformations. A scientific discipline that explores these changes from raw ingredients to eating the final dish, is developing into its own field, termed molecular gastronomy. Here, one of the founders of the discipline discusses its aims and importance.

  14. Applied combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  15. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  16. Applied Chaos Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Mark

    1997-04-01

    The publication by Ott, Grebogi and Yorke(E. Ott, C. Grebogi and J. A. Yorke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1196 (1990).) of their theory of chaos control in 1990 led to an explosion of experimental work applying their theory to mechanical systems and electronic circuits, lasers and chemical reactors, and heart and brain tissue, to name only a few. In this talk the basics of chaos control as implemented in a simple mechanical system will be described, as well as extensions of the method to biological applications. Finally, current advances in the field, including the maintenance of chaos and the control of high dimensional chaos, will be discussed.

  17. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  18. New Advance of Studies on Molecularly Imprinted Solid-phase Extraction%分子印迹固相萃取技术研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祺文; 熊远福; 王锦; 文祝友; 熊海蓉; 胡红远

    2015-01-01

    随着人们对环境污染和食品安全的关注,分子印迹固相萃取技术在各领域的应用有了进一步发展.在介绍分子印迹固相萃取技术的基础上,对近年来分子印迹固相萃取技术在环境样品中农药残留的检测,食品及饲料中药物残留的检测,功能药物成分提纯及药物检测,水土环境中的其它污染物检测等4大方面的研究现状进行了综述. 同时,指出了分子印迹固相萃取技术目前存在的问题,探讨了分子印迹固相萃取技术未来的发展方向.%With attention to environmental pollution and food safety, molecular imprinted solid phase extraction technique in various fields has been further developed. Therefore, molecular imprinted solid phase extraction were briefly described in this article. Molecular imprinted solid phase extraction enrichment and detection of pesticide residues, drug residues in food and feed, other contaminants in water and soil, and also molecular imprinted solid phase extraction of drug testing and purification of functional pharmaceutical ingredient in recent years were reviewed. In this paper, the problem molecular imprinted solid phase extraction technique encountered in recent years was analyzed, and the trend of molecular imprinted solid phase extraction technique was also discussed.

  19. 合成多级孔分子筛的研究进展%Research advance in synthesis of hierarchical molecular sieves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓玲; 姜健准; 张明森

    2016-01-01

    Constructing hierarchical molecular sieves is an important method to enhance accessibility of molecular sieves and the research hotspot in catalytic field. A great number of synthetic methods for adjusting the pore structure of hierarchical molecular sieves were developed. The synthetic researches on hierarchical molecular sieves were reviewed from three different aspects as follows:demetalization,in-situ crystallization and recrystallization. Demetalization mainly included steaming treatment and chemical treatment. In-situ crystallization included hard template and soft template methods. Recrystallization was a method of synthesizing hierarchical molecular sieves,which was obtained by the alkali treatment of zeo-lite crystal under the existence of surfactants. In addition,the prospect of hierarchical molecular sieves was also outlined.%构建多级孔分子筛是提高分子筛扩散性能的重要手段,是目前催化领域研究的热点之一。多级孔分子筛的合成方法较多,从脱除骨架元素、原位合成和重结晶3个方面综述近年来多级孔分子筛的合成研究。脱除骨架元素主要有蒸汽处理和化学处理;原位合成法主要包括硬模板法和软模板法;重结晶是分子筛晶体经碱溶解后在表面活性剂条件下自组装形成多级孔分子筛,并对多级孔分子筛的发展前景进行展望。

  20. Advances in attosecond science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  1. High-permitivity cerium oxide prepared by molecular beam deposition as gate dielectric and passivation layer and applied to AlGaN/GaN power high electron mobility transistor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu Sheng; Liao, Jen Ting; Lin, Yueh Chin; Chien Liu, Shin; Lin, Tai Ming; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Chang, Edward Yi

    2016-05-01

    High-κ cerium oxide (CeO2) was applied to AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) as a gate insulator and a passivation layer by molecular beam deposition (MBD) for high-power applications. From capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement results, the dielectric constant of the CeO2 film was 25.2. The C-V curves showed clear accumulation and depletion behaviors with a small hysteresis (20 mV). Moreover, the interface trap density (D it) was calculated to be 5.5 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 at 150 °C. A CeO2 MOS-HEMT was fabricated and demonstrated a low subthreshold swing (SS) of 87 mV/decade, a high ON/OFF drain current ratio (I ON/I OFF) of 1.14 × 109, and a low gate leakage current density (J leakage) of 2.85 × 10-9 A cm-2 with an improved dynamic ON-resistance (R ON), which is about one order of magnitude lower than that of a conventional HEMT.

  2. Challenges and advances in systems biology analysis of Bacillus spore physiology; molecular differences between an extreme heat resistant spore forming Bacillus subtilis food isolate and a laboratory strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brul, Stanley; van Beilen, Johan; Caspers, Martien; O'Brien, Andrea; de Koster, Chris; Oomes, Suus; Smelt, Jan; Kort, Remco; Ter Beek, Alex

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial spore formers are prime organisms of concern in the food industry. Spores from the genus Bacillus are extremely stress resistant, most notably exemplified by high thermotolerance. This sometimes allows surviving spores to germinate and grow out to vegetative cells causing food spoilage and possible intoxication. Similar issues though more pending toward spore toxigenicity are observed for the anaerobic Clostridia. The paper indicates the nature of stress resistance and highlights contemporary molecular approaches to analyze the mechanistic basis of it in Bacilli. A molecular comparison between a laboratory strain and a food borne isolate, very similar at the genomic level to the laboratory strain but generating extremely heat resistant spores, is discussed. The approaches cover genome-wide genotyping, proteomics and genome-wide expression analyses studies. The analyses aim at gathering sufficient molecular information to be able to put together an initial framework for dynamic modelling of spore germination and outgrowth behaviour. Such emerging models should be developed both at the population and at the single spore level. Tools and challenges in achieving the latter are succinctly discussed.

  3. Advances on molecular diagnosis of human taenlasis%人体带绦虫病的分子生物学诊断进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 杨毅梅

    2009-01-01

    带绦虫病是我国重要的人兽共患病之一.目前其实验室诊断主要是根据形态学、免疫学、分子生物学等技术方法进行,由于分子生物学技术具有较高的敏感性和特异性,应用前景广阔,目前已经被广泛应用.该文介绍了带绦虫实验诊断中的DNA探针技术、PCR技术等分子生物学技术的应用情况.%Taeniasis is an important zoonoses in our country.At present,the laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on morphology,immunology and molecular biology.Molecular biology techniques,with high sensitivity,specificity and broad prospects have been in wide applications.This review introduced the application of several molecular biology methods,such as DNA probe and PCR technology etc..

  4. Understanding the Differences in Molecular Conformation of Carbohydrate and Protein in Endosperm Tissues of Grains with Different Biodegradation Kinetics Using Advanced Synchrotron Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P.; Block, H; Doiron, K

    2009-01-01

    Conventional 'wet' chemical analyses rely heavily on the use of harsh chemicals and derivatization, thereby altering native seed structures leaving them unable to detect any original inherent structures within an intact tissue sample. A synchrotron is a giant particle accelerator that turns electrons into light (million times brighter than sunlight) which can be used to study the structure of materials at the molecular level. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive and bioanalytical technique. This technique, taking advantage of the brightness of synchrotron light and a small effective source size, is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry within the microstructures of a biological tissue without the destruction of inherent structures at ultraspatial resolutions within cellular dimensions. This is in contrast to traditional 'wet' chemical methods, which, during processing for analysis, often result in the destruction of the intrinsic structures of feeds. To date there has been very little application of this technique to the study of plant seed tissue in relation to nutrient utilization. The objective of this study was to use novel synchrotron radiation-based technology (SR-FTIRM) to identify the differences in the molecular chemistry and conformation of carbohydrate and protein in various plant seed endosperms within intact tissues at cellular and subcellular level from grains with different biodegradation kinetics. Barley grain (cv. Harrington) with a high rate (31.3%/h) and extent (78%), corn grain (cv. Pioneer) with a low rate (9.6%/h) and extent of (57%), and wheat grain (cv. AC Barrie) with an intermediate rate (23%/h) and extent (72%) of ruminal DM degradation were selected for evaluation. SR-FTIRM evaluations were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven, NY). These results suggest

  5. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment.

  6. Applying statistics in behavioural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Applying Statistics in Behavioural Research is written for undergraduate students in the behavioural sciences, such as Psychology, Pedagogy, Sociology and Ethology. The topics range from basic techniques, like correlation and t-tests, to moderately advanced analyses, like multiple regression and MAN

  7. Understanding the differences in molecular conformation of carbohydrate and protein in endosperm tissues of grains with different biodegradation kinetics using advanced synchrotron technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P.; Block, H. C.; Doiron, K.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional "wet" chemical analyses rely heavily on the use of harsh chemicals and derivatization, thereby altering native seed structures leaving them unable to detect any original inherent structures within an intact tissue sample. A synchrotron is a giant particle accelerator that turns electrons into light (million times brighter than sunlight) which can be used to study the structure of materials at the molecular level. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive and bioanalytical technique. This technique, taking advantage of the brightness of synchrotron light and a small effective source size, is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry within the microstructures of a biological tissue without the destruction of inherent structures at ultraspatial resolutions within cellular dimensions. This is in contrast to traditional 'wet' chemical methods, which, during processing for analysis, often result in the destruction of the intrinsic structures of feeds. To date there has been very little application of this technique to the study of plant seed tissue in relation to nutrient utilization. The objective of this study was to use novel synchrotron radiation-based technology (SR-FTIRM) to identify the differences in the molecular chemistry and conformation of carbohydrate and protein in various plant seed endosperms within intact tissues at cellular and subcellular level from grains with different biodegradation kinetics. Barley grain (cv. Harrington) with a high rate (31.3%/h) and extent (78%), corn grain (cv. Pioneer) with a low rate (9.6%/h) and extent of (57%), and wheat grain (cv. AC Barrie) with an intermediate rate (23%/h) and extent (72%) of ruminal DM degradation were selected for evaluation. SR-FTIRM evaluations were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven, NY). The molecular structure spectral analysis

  8. Advances on the interaction between tea catechins and plasma proteins: structure-affinity relationship, influence on antioxidant activity, and molecular docking aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Shi, Yujun; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2013-05-01

    Tea materials are widely consumed beverages in the world and are a rich source of dietary polyphenols. Catechins found in tea show excellent antioxidant potential, which is beneficial for many diseases such as cancers and cardiovascular diseases. These Tea catechins can interact with plasma proteins to form soluble or insoluble complexes, which are responsible for their bioactivities in vivo. However, there is little review published recently which focused on tea catechins-plasma protein interaction (TcPI), despite numerous articles have appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trend in TcPI studies focusing on metabolism, structure-affinity relationship, influence on antioxidant activity, and molecular docking aspects.

  9. 肺癌分子分型与靶向治疗研究进展%Advances of Molecular Subtype and Targeted Therapy of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵岚; 宋正波; 张沂平; 苏丹

    2012-01-01

    随着肺癌发生、发展和预后相关分子机制研究的不断深入,肺癌靶向治疗取得了较大的进展,每一种分子分型的发现都会带来相应靶向药物的研究2004年表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor,EGFR)基因在非小细胞肺癌中的发现,为我们带来了EGFR突变高度敏感有效的酪氨酸激酶抑制剂(tyrosine kinase inhibitor,TKI) 2007年棘皮类微管相关样蛋白-4-间变型淋巴瘤激酶(EML4-ALK)融合基因的出现为肺癌的分子发展带来了新的有效靶点.目前多个肺癌分子靶点及其靶向药物正在研究中.本文旨在回顾并总结肺癌分子分型及其靶向治疗的研究进展.%The discovery of multiple molecular mechanisms underlying the development, progression, and prognosis of lung cancer, has created new opportunities for targeted therapy, fiach subtype is associated with molecular tests that define the subtype and drugs that may have potential therapeutic effect on lung cancer. In 2004, mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR) gene were discovered in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), especially in adenocarcinomas. And they are strongly associated with sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Moreover, in 2007 the existence of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene was discovered in NSCLC, and the same as EGFR-TKIs, ALK inhibitors are being found to be highly effective in lung cancers. At present, multiple molecular subtype of lung cancer and relevant targeted drugs are undering study. Here, we review the remarkable progress in molecular subtype of lung cancer and the related targeted therapy.

  10. A brief review of molecular information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    The idea that we could build molecular communications systems can be advanced by investigating how actual molecules from living organisms function. Information theory provides tools for such an investigation. This review describes how we can compute the average information in the DNA binding sites of any genetic control protein and how this can be extended to analyze its individual sites. A formula equivalent to Claude Shannon’s channel capacity can be applied to molecular systems and used to compute the efficiency of protein binding. This efficiency is often 70% and a brief explanation for that is given. The results imply that biological systems have evolved to function at channel capacity, which means that we should be able to build molecular communications that are just as robust as our macroscopic ones. PMID:22110566

  11. 头颈部鳞癌分子靶向治疗进展%Advancement of molecular targeted therapies in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正才

    2010-01-01

    Current reseach of molecular targeted therapies in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck(SCCHN) is particularly active.As epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) signaling pathway and angiogenesis play a key role in the growth of SCCHN,EGFR with its downstream effectors and molecular factors implicated in the angiogenesis process,such as vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors,represent the main targets of new therapeutic agents now.%当前分子靶向治疗头颈部鳞状细胞癌(SCCHN)的进展非常快.由于表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)信号传导和血管发生在SCCHN的生长中起关键作用,因此EGFR及其下游效应器与血管发生过程相关的分子及其受体就成为目前SCCHN分子靶向治疗的主要靶点.

  12. Advances in molecular chaperones regulating yeast prion [ PSI+] propagation%分子伴侣对酵母朊病毒[ PSI+]增殖影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林康伟; 连惠勇; 蔡澎

    2015-01-01

    The finding and research on yeast prion are of great values for biology and medical sciences.Research advances in molecular chaperones, especially in Hsp104p, Hsp70p and Hsp40p, regulating yeast prion [PSI+] propaga-tion,are reviewed.%酵母朊病毒( prion)的发现和研究在生物学和医学上有着极其重要的理论价值和实际应用价值。该文综述了分子伴侣对酵母prion[PSI+]增殖影响的研究进展,重点介绍了热休克蛋白Hsp104p、Hsp70p和Hsp40p在其中发挥的重要作用。

  13. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  14. Advanced microscopy of microbial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Regenberg, Birgitte; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Growing awareness of heterogeneity in cells of microbial populations has emphasized the importance of advanced microscopy for visualization and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell variation. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances in confocal...... for visualization of variation between cells in phenotypic traits such as gene expression....

  15. Free access to a running-wheel advances the phase of behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms and peripheral molecular clocks in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Yasumoto

    Full Text Available Behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms are controlled by endogenous oscillators in animals. Voluntary wheel-running in rodents is thought to be an appropriate model of aerobic exercise in humans. We evaluated the effects of chronic voluntary exercise on the circadian system by analyzing temporal profiles of feeding, core body temperature, plasma hormone concentrations and peripheral expression of clock and clock-controlled genes in mice housed under sedentary (SED conditions or given free access to a running-wheel (RW for four weeks. Voluntary wheel-running activity advanced the circadian phases of increases in body temperature, food intake and corticosterone secretion in the mice. The circadian expression of clock and clock-controlled genes was tissue- and gene-specifically affected in the RW mice. The temporal expression of E-box-dependent circadian clock genes such as Per1, Per2, Nr1d1 and Dbp were slightly, but significantly phase-advanced in the liver and white adipose tissue, but not in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Peak levels of Per1, Per2 and Nr1d1 expression were significantly increased in the skeletal muscle of RW mice. The circadian phase and levels of hepatic mRNA expression of the clock-controlled genes that are involved in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism significantly differed between SED and RW mice. These findings indicated that endogenous clock-governed voluntary wheel-running activity provides feedback to the central circadian clock that systemically governs behavioral and physiological rhythms.

  16. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents.

  17. Research advance on molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis with SPECT%肿瘤血管生成的SPECT分子显像研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓梅; 张芳; 黄建敏

    2015-01-01

    Tumor Angiogenesis is one of the key requirements of tumor growth and metastasis.Tumour-induced angiogenesis is a multistep process that controlled by growth factors,cellular receptors and adhesion molecules,such as vascular endothelial growth factor,ανβ3 integrin,extracellular matrix proteins,prostate-specific membrane antige.They have become a common molecular target which has a potential value in angiogenesis molecular imaging and therapy at present.It is an important subject of modern medical imaging in developing a new imaging method which can accurate noninvasive assessment of tumor angiogenesis and tumor anti-angiogenesis therapy effect.%肿瘤血管生成与肿瘤生长、转移有着密切的关系.肿瘤血管生成被各种蛋白分子调控,其中包括血管内皮生长因子、ανβ3整合素、细胞外基质蛋白、前列腺特异性膜抗原等.它们已成为肿瘤血管生成分子影像及靶向治疗研究领域的重要分子靶点.研究并利用这些蛋白分子准确无创地评估肿瘤新生血管及肿瘤抗血管生成治疗效果的成像方法,已成为现代医学影像学的一个重要课题.

  18. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  19. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  20. Research Advances of Mapping the Sorghum’s Resistance Genes to Disease and Inset by Molecular Markers%分子标记在高粱抗病虫基因定位上的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢慧清; 黄赛楠; 张云鹤; 李玥莹

    2012-01-01

      Sorghum ,belonging to gramineous crops ,is the world's fifth largest food crop .Besides resistances to drought and temperature ,sorghum has many other characteristics .The existence and occurrence of some pests and diseases impact on the quality and yield of sorghum seriously .With the rapid development of molecular markers ,it is gradually applied to the study of resistance genes to disease and insect in sorghum .In this review , mainly introduced several pests and diseases of sorghum ,and analyzed the research progress of molecular mark-ers applying to mapping the resistance genes to head smut and aphid in recent years .%  高粱属禾本科是世界第五大粮食作物。具有耐干旱和耐高温等特性。一些病虫害的存在和发生严重影响了高粱的质量和产量。随着分子标记的迅速发展,逐渐地被应用到高粱的抗病虫基因研究中。现主要介绍了几种高粱常见的病虫害,并且评述了近年来分子标记在抗丝黑穗病和抗蚜虫基因定位方面的研究进展。

  1. Advanced healthcare materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Advanced materials are attracting strong interest in the fundamental as well as applied sciences and are being extensively explored for their potential usage in a range of healthcare technological and biological applications. Advanced Healthcare Nanomaterials summarises the current status of knowledge in the fields of advanced materials for functional therapeutics, point-of-care diagnostics, translational materials, up and coming bio-engineering devices. The book highlights the key features which enable engineers to design stimuli-responsive smart nanoparticles, novel biomaterials, nan

  2. Advances in Research of Molecular Ecology of Carbon Fixation Microorganism%固碳微生物分子生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁红朝; 秦红灵; 刘守龙; 聂三安; 魏文学; 吴金水

    2011-01-01

    减缓大气"温室效应"是目前最重要且亟待解决的环境问题之一.自养微生物具有极强的环境适应性和不容忽视的固碳潜力,研究微生物固定CO2的分子生态机理对于缓解全球气候变暖具有重要科学意义.目前发现的5条主要生物固碳途径中,卡尔文循环是自养生物固定CO2的主要途径,其中核酮糖-1,5-二磷酸羧化酶/加氧酶(RubisCO)是卡尔文循环中的关键酶,因此RubisCO及其编码基因被许多学者用于不同生态环境中固碳微生物群落结构和多样性的研究.以前的研究主要集中在水生生态系统,揭示了不同水生生态系统中固碳微生物的群落特点及其对不同生境的响应规律.近几年,随着陆地生态系统固碳微生物分子生态学研究的深入,国外学者发现土壤中存在大量的固碳自养微生物,它们在土壤中所起的具体作用和贡献有待进一步研究和验证.至今,国内针对土壤固碳微生物分子生态学的研究还未见报道.论文对固定CO2的微生物种类、固定机理以及近年来关于微生物固定CO2的分子生态学的研究进行了分析和总结,讨论了固碳微生物分子生态学研究存在的主要问题和今后的发展方向,旨在为中国固碳微生物分子生态学研究提供参考.%Alleviating the global climate change is one of the most important environmental challenges human faced. Autotrophic microbes have a strong adaptability to environmental changes and potential to CO2 fixation, thus it is important for researchers to study on molecular mechanisms of CO2 fixation by autotrophic microbes. Most of the autotrophic microbes fix CO2 via Calvin cycle, although there are another four alternative pathways. The crucial reaction of this pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme ribulose-1, 5-bisphos-phatecarboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Therefore, the RubisCO and the encode gene can be used as functional gene markers to investigate the community and

  3. The Long-HER Study: Clinical and Molecular Analysis of Patients with HER2+ Advanced Breast Cancer Who Become Long-Term Survivors with Trastuzumab-Based Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Pozo, Angelo; Pérez Carrión, Ramón M.; Manso, Luis; Crespo, Carmen; Mendiola, Cesar; López-Vacas, Rocío; Berges-Soria, Julia; López, Isabel Álvarez; Margeli, Mireia; Calero, Juan L. Bayo; Farre, Xavier González; Santaballa, Ana; Ciruelos, Eva M.; Afonso, Ruth; Lao, Juan; Catalán, Gustavo; Gallego, José V. Álvarez; López, José Miramón; Bofill, Francisco J. Salvador; Borrego, Manuel Ruiz; Espinosa, Enrique; Vara, Juan A. Fresno; Zamora, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Background Trastuzumab improves survival outcomes in patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. The Long-Her study was designed to identify clinical and molecular markers that could differentiate long-term survivors from patients having early progression after trastuzumab treatment. Methods Data were collected from women with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab that experienced a response or stable disease during at least 3 years. Patients having a progression in the first year of therapy with trastuzumab were used as a control. Genes related with trastuzumab resistance were identified and investigated for network and gene functional interrelation. Models predicting poor response to trastuzumab were constructed and evaluated. Finally, a mutational status analysis of selected genes was performed in HER2 positive breast cancer samples. Results 103 patients were registered in the Long-HER study, of whom 71 had obtained a durable complete response. Median age was 58 years. Metastatic disease was diagnosed after a median of 24.7 months since primary diagnosis. Metastases were present in the liver (25%), lungs (25%), bones (23%) and soft tissues (23%), with 20% of patients having multiple locations of metastases. Median duration of response was 55 months. The molecular analysis included 35 patients from the group with complete response and 18 patients in a control poor-response group. Absence of trastuzumab as part of adjuvant therapy was the only clinical factor associated with long-term survival. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that PI3K pathway was associated with poor response to trastuzumab-based therapy: tumours in the control group usually had four or five alterations in this pathway, whereas tumours in the Long-HER group had two alterations at most. Conclusions Trastuzumab may provide a substantial long-term survival benefit in a selected group of patients. Whole genome expression analysis comparing long-term survivors vs. a

  4. The Long-HER study: clinical and molecular analysis of patients with HER2+ advanced breast cancer who become long-term survivors with trastuzumab-based therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gámez-Pozo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab improves survival outcomes in patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. The Long-Her study was designed to identify clinical and molecular markers that could differentiate long-term survivors from patients having early progression after trastuzumab treatment. METHODS: Data were collected from women with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab that experienced a response or stable disease during at least 3 years. Patients having a progression in the first year of therapy with trastuzumab were used as a control. Genes related with trastuzumab resistance were identified and investigated for network and gene functional interrelation. Models predicting poor response to trastuzumab were constructed and evaluated. Finally, a mutational status analysis of selected genes was performed in HER2 positive breast cancer samples. RESULTS: 103 patients were registered in the Long-HER study, of whom 71 had obtained a durable complete response. Median age was 58 years. Metastatic disease was diagnosed after a median of 24.7 months since primary diagnosis. Metastases were present in the liver (25%, lungs (25%, bones (23% and soft tissues (23%, with 20% of patients having multiple locations of metastases. Median duration of response was 55 months. The molecular analysis included 35 patients from the group with complete response and 18 patients in a control poor-response group. Absence of trastuzumab as part of adjuvant therapy was the only clinical factor associated with long-term survival. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that PI3K pathway was associated with poor response to trastuzumab-based therapy: tumours in the control group usually had four or five alterations in this pathway, whereas tumours in the Long-HER group had two alterations at most. CONCLUSIONS: Trastuzumab may provide a substantial long-term survival benefit in a selected group of patients. Whole genome expression analysis comparing long

  5. AdvancED CSS

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, J

    2009-01-01

    In this book you'll *Discover how to make use of CSS 2.1 alongside CSS3. *Use CSS generated content to automatically number arbitrary elements and expose attribute metadata. *Learn how to use CSS for print and mobile devices, as well as for presenting XML data.*Uncover the techniques used to organize, manage, and apply CSS to large-scale projects.*Learn how to optimize your CSS for better site performance. So you think you know CSS? Take your CSS skills to the next level and learn to write organized and optimized CSS that will improve the maintainability, performance, and appearance of your wo

  6. 人乳头瘤病毒分子生物学检测方法进展%Advances of molecular biotechnologies in human papillomavirus detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张姝; 倪红霞; 许国章

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is closely connected with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.Early detection,especially genotype testing of HPV,is important for early warning,prevention and therapy of cervical cancer.With rapid development of molecular biotechnologies,several assays in HPV detection are widely used.In this paper,the application and progress of nucleic acid hybridization,PCR and gene chip technology are reviewed.%人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染与宫颈癌发生密切相关,HPV的早期检测尤其是分型检测对预警宫颈细胞癌变倾向,以及对宫颈癌的预防、早期发现和治疗极为关键.随着分子生物学技术的快速发展,核酸杂交法、PCR法以及基因芯片等技术在HPV检测中广泛应用,此文主要对这些检测方法的研究及应用进展进行综述.

  7. Advance in molecular biology of porcine parvovirus%猪细小病毒分子生物学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 袁海霞; 傅衍

    2011-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus is one of the most important pathogens responsible for reproductive failure. Sequences among different strains are highly conserved. However, PPV2 ( 2001) and PHoV ( Porcine Hokovirus , 2008) found in the latest years are quite different from PPV. Review about the genomic structure, molecular research and culturing information among PPV, PPV2 and PHoV was made for further study.%猪细小病毒(porcine parvovirus,PPV)是引起母猪繁殖障碍的主要病原之一,研究发现该病毒在进化史上相对保守,对宿主专一性高,但近年来相继发现的PPV2和PPV香港株(Porcine HoKovirus,PHoV)与PPV差异较大,对PPV、PPV2和PHoV的基因组结构、分子进化研究、复制培养现状及其蛋白表达方面研究进行了简单综述,为猪细小病毒多样性研究提供参考.

  8. Advance in Molecular Genetics on Spinocerebellar Ataxia%脊髓小脑性共济失调的分子遗传学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春格; 谢秋幼; 李洵桦

    2008-01-01

    脊髓小脑性共济失调是一类单基因常染色体显性遗传病,不同的基因突变将导致不同的遗传亚型.随着分子遗传学技术的飞速发展,目前已经获得基因定位的有近30种亚型,多数是由于三核苷酸重复序列异常扩增引起.其中部分亚型的致病基因已被克隆.本文主要就新近发现的几种亚型作简要综述.%Spinocerebellar ataxia is a group of autosomal dominant and heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease. Different genetic mutation may cause different subtypes of spinocerbellar ataxia. Up to now, with the rapid development of molecular genetic study, nearly 30 mutated genes associated with various subtypes of spinocerebella ataxias have been located and some of them have been identified. Most of the mutated genes are caused by the abnormal expansion of trinucleotide. In this review, the clinical and genetic features of the recently identified spinocerebellar ataxias will be described.

  9. Research Advance on Molecular Regulation Mechanism of Leaf Senescence in Rice%水稻叶片衰老分子机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春德; 张迎信; 刘群恩; 余宁; 朱爱科; 程式华; 曹立勇

    2015-01-01

    Senescence plays an important role in the rice yields. We conducted a series of research on senescence mechanism. It contributes to study the anti-aging technology, and has guiding significance for rice breeding. Based on the previous research in rice leaf senescence, this article aimed at to investigate the molecular mechanism of rice leaf senescence, and provided a reference for rice breeding.%水稻的衰老对产量和品质影响很大,有关衰老机理的研究,有助于我们研究延缓水稻衰老的具体技术,对选育高产水稻品种具有重要的指导意义。各国科学家经过多年的努力,在水稻叶片衰老分子机制的研究中取得了一些初步的进展。本文对近年来前人在水稻叶片衰老相关突变体及基因克隆等方面的成果进行综述,探讨了水稻叶片衰老的分子调控机制,以期为水稻高产育种提供相应的参考。

  10. Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-06-06

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p < 10{sup -53}) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Expression of the Matrix Metalloproteases 2, 14, 24, and 25 and Tissue Inhibitor 3 as Potential Molecular Markers in Advanced Human Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During progression of gastric cancer (GC, degradation of the extracellular matrix is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs: changes in the expression of these have been related to unfavorable prognosis in GC. Objective. To analyze the expression of certain MMPs and TIMPs in chronic superficial gastritis (SG and GC. Methods. The expression of MMPs and TIMPs was determined using qRT-PCR; the expression was classified, using threshold cycle (CT values, as very high (CT≤25, high (CT=26–30, moderate (CT=31–35, low (CT=36–39, or not detected (CT=40. Strength of association was estimated between the proteins, which were detected by Western blot, and the risk of developing GC. Results. We found a high expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP14, TIMP1, and TIMP3; moderate one of MMP9 and MMP25, and low one of MMP13 and MMP24 in both tissues. In absolute mRNA levels, significant differences were found in expression of MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25, which are overexpressed in GC compared with SG. The presence of the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 was associated with the risk of developing GC. Conclusions. We consider that MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25 and the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 could be candidates for prognostic molecular markers in GC.

  12. Advanced analysis of a cryptochrome mutation's effects on the robustness and phase of molecular cycles in isolated peripheral tissues of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Jeffrey C

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we reported effects of the cryb mutation on circadian rhythms in period and timeless gene expression within isolated peripheral Drosophila tissues. We relied on luciferase activity driven by the respective regulatory genomic elements to provide real-time reporting of cycling gene expression. Subsequently, we developed a tool kit for the analysis of behavioral and molecular cycles. Here, we use these tools to analyze our earlier results as well as additional data obtained using the same experimental designs. Results Isolated antennal pairs, heads, bodies, wings and forelegs were evaluated under light-dark cycles. In these conditions, the cryb mutation significantly decreases the number of rhythmic specimens in each case except the wing. Moreover, among those specimens with detectable rhythmicity, mutant rhythms are significantly weaker than cry+ controls. In addition, cryb alters the phase of period gene expression in these tissues. Furthermore, peak phase of luciferase-reported period and timeless expression within cry+ samples is indistinguishable in some tissues, yet significantly different in others. We also analyze rhythms produced by antennal pairs in constant conditions. Conclusions These analyses further show that circadian clock mechanisms in Drosophila may vary in a tissue-specific manner, including how the cry gene regulates circadian gene expression.

  13. Expression of the Matrix Metalloproteases 2, 14, 24, and 25 and Tissue Inhibitor 3 as Potential Molecular Markers in Advanced Human Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Sol; Sampieri, Clara Luz; Ochoa-Lara, Mariana; León-Córdoba, Kenneth; Remes-Troche, José María

    2014-01-01

    Background. During progression of gastric cancer (GC), degradation of the extracellular matrix is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs): changes in the expression of these have been related to unfavorable prognosis in GC. Objective. To analyze the expression of certain MMPs and TIMPs in chronic superficial gastritis (SG) and GC. Methods. The expression of MMPs and TIMPs was determined using qRT-PCR; the expression was classified, using threshold cycle (CT) values, as very high (CT ≤ 25), high (CT = 26–30), moderate (CT = 31–35), low (CT = 36–39), or not detected (CT = 40). Strength of association was estimated between the proteins, which were detected by Western blot, and the risk of developing GC. Results. We found a high expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP14, TIMP1, and TIMP3; moderate one of MMP9 and MMP25, and low one of MMP13 and MMP24 in both tissues. In absolute mRNA levels, significant differences were found in expression of MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25, which are overexpressed in GC compared with SG. The presence of the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 was associated with the risk of developing GC. Conclusions. We consider that MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25 and the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 could be candidates for prognostic molecular markers in GC. PMID:24669030

  14. Possibilities of working thick brown coal seams in the Stara Jama mine of Zenica mines by sublevel working methods applying self-advancing Westfalia-Luenen powered supports, type B. S. 2. 1 and I. B. S. 2. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijelic, V.; Ivkovic, M.; Slijepcevic, S.; Krizan, D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the properties of 9 exploitable coal seams of Zenica colliery. Two of them have been intensively exploited over many years. It outlines the development of working methods from room and pillar up to fully mechanized longwall mining. As final result of the efforts made in order to improve the productivity of longwall mining a modified type of Westfalia-Luenen self-advancing powered support is described. The results achieved with this support are shown in a table. (9 refs.) (In Serbo-Croatian).

  15. BRAF Mutation Testing in Cell-Free DNA from the Plasma of Patients with Advanced Cancers Using a Rapid, Automated Molecular Diagnostics System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janku, Filip; Huang, Helen J; Claes, Bart; Falchook, Gerald S; Fu, Siqing; Hong, David; Ramzanali, Nishma M; Nitti, Giovanni; Cabrilo, Goran; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M; Naing, Aung; Piha-Paul, Sarina A; Wheler, Jennifer J; Karp, Daniel D; Holley, Veronica R; Zinner, Ralph G; Subbiah, Vivek; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Kopetz, Scott; Overman, Michael J; Kee, Bryan K; Patel, Sapna; Devogelaere, Benoit; Sablon, Erwin; Maertens, Geert; Mills, Gordon B; Kurzrock, Razelle; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2016-06-01

    Cell-free (cf) DNA from plasma offers an easily obtainable material for BRAF mutation analysis for diagnostics and response monitoring. In this study, plasma-derived cfDNA samples from patients with progressing advanced cancers or malignant histiocytosis with known BRAF(V600) status from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors were tested using a prototype version of the Idylla BRAF Mutation Test, a fully integrated real-time PCR-based test with turnaround time about 90 minutes. Of 160 patients, BRAF(V600) mutations were detected in 62 (39%) archival FFPE tumor samples and 47 (29%) plasma cfDNA samples. The two methods had overall agreement in 141 patients [88%; κ, 0.74; SE, 0.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-0.85]. Idylla had a sensitivity of 73% (95% CI, 0.60-0.83) and specificity of 98% (95% CI, 0.93-1.00). A higher percentage, but not concentration, of BRAF(V600) cfDNA in the wild-type background (>2% vs. ≤ 2%) was associated with shorter overall survival (OS; P = 0.005) and in patients with BRAF mutations in the tissue, who were receiving BRAF/MEK inhibitors, shorter time to treatment failure (TTF; P = 0.001). Longitudinal monitoring demonstrated that decreasing levels of BRAF(V600) cfDNA were associated with longer TTF (P = 0.045). In conclusion, testing for BRAF(V600) mutations in plasma cfDNA using the Idylla BRAF Mutation Test has acceptable concordance with standard testing of tumor tissue. A higher percentage of mutant BRAF(V600) in cfDNA corresponded with shorter OS and in patients receiving BRAF/MEK inhibitors also with shorter TTF. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1397-404. ©2016 AACR.

  16. Applied Impact Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Applied impact physics research is based on the capability to examine impact processes for a wide range of impact conditions with respect to velocity as well as mass and shape of the projectile. For this reason, Fraunhofer EMI operates a large variety of launchers that address velocities up to ordnance velocities as single stage powder gun but which can also be operated as two-stage light gas guns achieving the regime of low earth orbital velocity. Thereby for projectile masses of up to 100 g hypervelocity impact phenomena up to 7.8 km/s can be addressed. Advanced optical diagnostic techniques like microsecond video are used as commercial systems but - since impact phenomena are mostly related with debris or dust - specialized diagnostics are developed in-house like x-ray cinematography and x-ray tomography. Selected topics of the field of applied impact physics will be presented like the interesting behavior of long rods penetrating low-density materials or experimental findings at hypervelocity for this class of materials as well as new x-ray diagnositic techniques.

  17. 13th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    EUCAS is a worldwide forum for scientists and engineers, and provides an ideal platform to share knowledge and the most recent advances in all areas of applied superconductivity: from large-scale applications to miniature electronics devices, with a traditional focus on advanced materials and conductors. The broad scope is at the same time a challenge and an opportunity to foster novel, inter-disciplinary approaches and promote cross-fertilization among the various fields of applied superconductivity.

  18. Advances in molecular genetics of Hirschsprung disease%先天性巨结肠症分子基因学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙至(综述); 徐伟珏(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Hirschsprung′s disease( HD) ,caused by the dysplasia of enteric neural crest cells during em-bryonic stage,is a multifactorial disorder with several genes or gene signaling pathways involved in its pathogen-esis. To date,at least 11 genes have been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of HD. The abnormal expression or interaction of these genes may lead to the displasia of neural crest cells,which may result in HD. Current knowledge of the molecular genetics underlying HD based on human and animal studies are reviewed.%先天性巨结肠症是由多种因素导致胚胎期肠神经嵴细胞发育异常而引起的一种小儿外科常见病,多个基因或基因信号通路参与其病理发生过程。迄今为止,人们发现了至少11个与先天性巨结肠症发生相关的易患基因,这些基因的表达异常或相互作用异常可导致神经嵴细胞发育异常,引起先天性巨结肠症。该文就易患基因及其在先天性巨结肠症发生中的作用进行综述。

  19. Research Advances in Molecular Biology of Premature Rupture of Membranes%胎膜早破的分子生物学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万丽娟

    2012-01-01

    Premature rupture of membranes is a common complication of obstetric , which may cause serious harms to the maternal and child. To ascertain the cause can contribute to a theoretical basis for the mechanisms of premature rupture of membranes, and is a practical guidance for early diagnosis and correct handling of the situation. Therefore, to study its causes and give proper treatment can greatly reduce the harm to the maternal and child, lower perinatal morbidity and mortality and is conducive to the delivery process. However, the complex causes are still not completely clear so far, and here is to make a review' on the causes on molecular level.%胎膜早破是产科一种常见的并发症,对母婴可造成很大伤害.明确病因有助于对胎膜早破的发生机制提供理论依据,对临床早期诊断、正确处理胎膜早破有实际指导意义.从病因出发,适时治疗可大大减少对母婴的危害,降低围生儿的发病率及病死率,有利于产妇的分娩.胎膜早破的病因复杂,至今仍未完全明确.现着重从分子水平对胎膜早破的病因予以综述.

  20. Advances in medical decision support systems for diagnosis of acute graft-versus-host disease: molecular and computational intelligence joint approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maurizio FIASCH(E); Maria CUZZOLA; Giuseppe IRRERA; Pasquale IACOPINO; Francesco Carlo MORABITO

    2011-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a serious systemic complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) causing considerable morbidity and mortality.Acute GVHD occurs when alloreactive donor-derived T cells recognize host-recipient antigens as foreign.These trigger a complex multiphase process that ultimately results in apoptotic injury in target organs.The early events leading to GVHD seem to occur very soon,presumably within hours from the graft infusion.Therefore,when the first signs of aGVHD clinically manifest,the disease has been ongoing for several days at the cellular level,and the inflammatory cytokine cascade is fully activated.So,it comes as no surprise that progress in treatment based on clinical diagnosis of aGVHD has been limited in the past 30 years.It is likely that a pre-emptive strategy using systemic high-dose corticosteroids as early as possible could improve the outcome of aGVHD.Due to the deleterious effects of such treatment particularly in terms of infection risk posed by systemic steroid administration in a population that is already immune-suppressed,it is critical to identify biomarker signatures for approaching this very complex task.Some research groups have begun addressing this issue through molecular and proteomic analyses,combining these approaches with computational intelligence techniques,with the specific aim of facilitating the identification of diagnostic biomarkers in aGVHD.In this review,we focus on the aGVHD scenario and on the more recent state-of-the-art.We also attempt to give an overview of the classical and novel techniques proposed as medical decision support system for the diagnosis of GVHD.

  1. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer%RGD分子影像在肺癌的研究现状与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳宁; 袁双虎; 杨国仁

    2014-01-01

    肺癌是国内外最常见、死亡率最高的恶性肿瘤之一。持续的新生血管生成是恶性肿瘤的特征,是肿瘤增殖、浸润、复发和转移的基础,也是目前肺癌生物学治疗热点之一。肿瘤血管生成过程中,整合素的作用至关重要。精氨酸-甘氨酸-天冬氨酸(Arg-Gly-Asp, RGD)肽能特异地与整合素结合,应用放射性核素标记的RGD分子探针,可使肿瘤血管显像,能反映肿瘤血管的变化。本文对近年来国内外RGD肽的肺癌显像研究进展进行综述。%Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides could combine with integrins speciif-cally, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to relfect its changes. hTe lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  2. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  3. 剥脱综合征的分子遗传学研究进展%Advances in molecular genetics of exfoliation syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷燕

    2015-01-01

    剥脱综合征(XFS)是一种与年龄相关、多基因遗传的全球性眼病,是继发性青光眼常见的原因之一.XFS的发病与遗传和环境因素有关,其确切的致病原因、病理机制尚不完全清楚.本文对近年来XFS的分子遗传学方面的研究进展进行总结,从赖氨酰氧化酶样1(LOXL1)基因、簇蛋白(CLU)基因、接触素有关蛋白2(CNTNAP2)基因、载脂蛋白E(ApoE)基因、基质金属蛋白酶(MMPs)基因、谷胱甘肽转移酶(GST)基因、转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)基因、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)基因等可能参与XFS的发生和发展方面逐一阐述,在分子遗传学水平加深对XFS的认识.%Exfoliation syndrome (XFS),one of the most common causes of glaucoma,represents an age related,complex,multifactorial and late-onset disease worldwide.The etiopathogenesis involves both genetic and environmental factor.However,the exact etiopathogenesis of XFS is still unclear.The purpose of this review was to discuss the recent research progress of the molecular genetics of XFS.Some candidate genes linked to XFS include lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene,clusterin (CLU) gene,contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene,apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene,matrix metallo proteinases (MMPs) gene,glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene,transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene,tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a) gene and so on.These genes may be modifying genes for the development of XFS.

  4. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  5. Assessment of statistical methods applied in the research papers of Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging%《中华核医学与分子影像杂志》论著中统计学方法应用状况与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳; 韩耀风; 方亚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the correctness of statistical methods applied in the research papers of Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (CJNMMI) and to provide suggestions for further improving.Methods Papers were obtained from CJNMMI by multi-stage sampling method between 2007 and 2011 according to the number of journals and articles each year.The statistical methods were reviewed in the aspects of statistical design,description,inference and expression.Results A total of 116 papers were collected.For the statistical design,99.1% (115/116) used the control group and all were applied properly.The methods of randomization and blinding were used in 16.4% (19/116) and 8.6% (10/116) of papers,respectively,with 6 and 3 papers applied incorrectly.Statistical description was used in all papers with an accurate rate over 90.0%.The index for statistical description mainly included relative number,mean and standard deviation.The frequency for the usage of statistical tables was 45.7% (53/116) and all were applied correctly.In 71.6% (83/116) of papers,statistical inference methods were used,including t test,x2 test and analysis of variance.The overall incorrect rate was 29.7% (27/91),with 27.8% (5/18),25.5% (12/47) and 24.0% (6/25) for analysis of variance,t test and x2 test,respectively.The frequency for the usage of advanced statistical inference methods was 20.5% (17/83) and all were applied correctly.For the statistical expression,98.0% of papers provided the sample size and statistics.The incorrect rate of statistical expression was 60.3% (70/116) and majority of the mistakes was the lack of basis for determining the sample size.Conclusions The overall correctness of statistical methods applied in the papers of CJNMMI was good,especially in statistical design,statistical description and advanced statistical inference methods.However,quality application skills need to be improved in areas such as methods of randomization

  6. New advances in virtual reality technology applied in medical education%虚拟现实技术在医学教育应用中的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李森; 张力; 卞亚红; 罗虹; 陈晨

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of virtual reality technology and medical education and advantages of virtual reality technology in medical education. Then it introduces the advances in virtual learning theories, research achievements of virtual learning evaluation, and research on virtual learning effectiveness assessment. Finally, it introduces some new cases of application of virtual reality technology in medical education.%在分析虚拟现实技术和医学教育特点,以及虚拟现实技术在医学教育中优势的基础上,介绍了虚拟学习理论进展、虚拟学习评价的研究成果、虚拟学习效果检验研究以及医学虚拟学习系统新案例.

  7. Concept and advances of applied bioremediation for organic pollutants in soil and water%土壤与水体有机污染的生物修复及其应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆仁; 刘秀梅; 崔岩山; 董艺婷

    2001-01-01

    系统论述了土壤、水有机污染物的主要来源、特点、有机污染生物修复的概念、应用范围、成功实例与研究进展等,特别是对于泄漏石油污染的生物成功降解方法、效果,土壤中易爆炸物如TNT、废水中有机污染物的有效降解等,评价了生物修复所具有的突出优势。对有机、无机污染物降解过程中植物、微生物筛选、基因修饰、分子克隆与转基因植物方面近年来所取得的惊人成果与突破性进展,无疑正激励着人们开拓更大的应用范围。预计不久的将来,更多具有环境净化与生物修复功能的商业性综合技术与高效性工程生物将投入应用。%Major sources and characteristics of organic pollutants in soil and water were systematically reviewed. It deals with the concept, application and advances of bioremediation.The success in biodegradation of petroleum spill, some hazardous pollutants, waste water treatment and other striking results in the field and laboratory were described. The advances in screening, gene modification and genetic engineering etc. have obtained some successful approaches. As more progress made in this area, it is estimated that integrated techniques with more effective engineered plants or microbes will meet peoples' requirement in the future.

  8. Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, William M

    2007-03-01

    Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (OTCBB: ACTC) is a biotechnology company applying novel human embryonic stem cell technologies in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We believe that regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the field by enabling scientists to produce human cells of any kind for use in a wide array of therapies.

  9. Applications of molecular replacement to G protein-coupled receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Manglik, Aashish; Kobilka, Brian K., E-mail: kobilka@stanford.edu [Stanford University, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Weis, William I., E-mail: kobilka@stanford.edu [Stanford University, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford University, Fairchild Building, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The use of molecular replacement in solving the structures of G protein-coupled receptors is discussed, with specific examples being described in detail. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large class of integral membrane proteins involved in regulating virtually every aspect of human physiology. Despite their profound importance in human health and disease, structural information regarding GPCRs has been extremely limited until recently. With the advent of a variety of new biochemical and crystallographic techniques, the structural biology of GPCRs has advanced rapidly, offering key molecular insights into GPCR activation and signal transduction. To date, almost all GPCR structures have been solved using molecular-replacement techniques. Here, the unique aspects of molecular replacement as applied to individual GPCRs and to signaling complexes of these important proteins are discussed.

  10. 原发性开角型青光眼的基因学研究进展%Advances in molecular genetic study of primary open angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德贵

    2013-01-01

    原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)是一组威胁和损害视神经视觉功能,与病理性眼压升高有关的临床眼病,其全球范围内的致盲率仅次于白内障.近几年来,遗传学的研究方法在眼科基础研究中应用较多,主要有家系连锁分析、全基因组关联分析、病例对照相关研究等,通过这些方法已发现多个相关基因.目前已发现报道超过20个染色体位点与POAG相关,较为公认的有MYOC、OPTN、WDR36.然而这3个基因的突变能解释的POAG仅占不到10%.只有一小部分POAG病例遵循孟德尔遗传规律,更多的是由多个基因共同作用所导致.就目前较为明确的POAG相关基因位点,尤其是已确认的MYOC、OPTN、WDR36,以及最新发现的CAVI/CAV24个相关致病基因的定位、结构、功能和突变等方面进行综述,希望能揭示研究相关的一些规律,为POAG进一步的遗传研究提供理论参考.%Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a group of disorders characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) associated with optic nerve degeneration and visual field damage.With the application of molecular biology in ophthalmology,at least 20 chromosome loci have been identified to be linked to POAG.Only 3 causative genes were identified from these loci,i.e.myocilin (MYOC),optineurin (OPTN) and WD repeat domain 36 (WDR36),which altogether account for less than 10% of POAG.Only a portion of POAG Complies with Mendelian inheritance,and a considerable fraction results from a large number of variants in multiple genes,each contributing less effects.The main technological approaches include family linkage analysis,genome-wide scan,casecontrol association study,etc.Association studies found at least 16 genes to be related to POAG,but reports on glaucoma-causing effects of these genes are conflicting.In this article,we reviewed the POAG related genes,especially the four well known causative genes of MYOC,OPTN,WDR36,and CA V1/CA V2,in terms of

  11. 分子分型技术在乳酸菌鉴定及多态性研究中的应用%Advances in Molecular Approaches and Their Applications in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宁; 张建新; 樊明涛; 王静; 李子龙; 魏新元

    2012-01-01

    分子分型技术迅速发展与革新已在乳酸菌鉴定及多态性研究方面得到广泛应用。研究发现,遗传变异是产生乳酸菌多态性的根本原因,对遗传变异的检测与分析有助于人们从分子层面理解乳酸菌的各种生物学现象;分子分型及其与表型特性的相关性为我们解释遗传变异提供了丰富的材料。基于基因或DNA基础的分子分型技术(如16SrRNA,RAPD,PCR-PFLP,AFLP等)常被用于乳酸菌的分类鉴定、多态性分析、生态学研究及进化研究等。近几年,随着分子生物学技术的进步,这些常规的分型技术体系逐渐得到发展和完善,它们的优缺点及应用范围也被人们所掌握。本研究概述了几种常用于乳酸菌分类鉴定及多态性研究的分子分型技术(16SrRNA,16S-23SrRNA,RAPD,PCR-PFLP,PFGE,AFLP,rep-PCR),并对这些技术的原理、方法、优缺点及其近几年在乳酸菌研究中的应用进行了介绍。%Recent years have seen an explosion in the development and application of molecular tools on identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria. Research shows that genetic variation is the root cause of genetic diversity. Detection and analysis of genetic variation can help us understand the molecular basis of various biological phenomena in lactic acid bacteria. Since the entire lactic acid bacteria kingdom cannot be covered under sequencing projects, molecular markers and their correlation to phenotypes provide us with requisite landmarks for elucidation of genetic variation. Genetic or DNA based marker techniques such as 16S rRNA, 16S-23 S rRNA, RAPD, PCR-PFLP, AFLP and rep-PCR are routinely being used in evolutionary, taxonomical, phylogenic and genetic studies of lactic acid bacteria. With the advancement of molecular biology, these molecular techniques have been well established and their advantages as well as limitations have been realized. Hence, the aim

  12. 骨髓增生异常综合征预后的分子机制的研究进展%Recent Advances of Molecular Mechanisms Influencing Prognosis of Myelodysplastic Syndrome——Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭娟; 常春康; 李晓

    2012-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome ( MDS) is clonal disorder of hematopoiesis characterized by inefficient hematopoiesis, peripheral blood cytopenias, aberrant differentiation, and risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Although specific karyotypic abnormalities have been found to link to MDS for decades, more recent findings have demonstrated the importance of mutations within individual genes. The recent molecular abnormalities found in MDS include following gene mutartion such as TET2, TP53, RUNX1, ASXL1, IDH1/IDH2, EZH2 and RAS. In this review, the recent advances of prognostic molecular markers of MDS and their biological and clinical significance are summarized.%骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)是血液系统的克隆性疾病,具有无效造血、异常分化、外周血细胞减少以及向急性髓系白血病转化等待征.特异的染色体核型异常与MDS的关系已经确立了几十年,近年来更多的研究表明了个体基因突变的重要性.MDS最新的分子异常包括下基因的突变:TET2、TP53、RUNX1、ASXL1、IDH1/IDH2、EZH2、RAS等.本综述介绍了MDS目前最新的分子标记及其在疾病生物学和临床实践中的重要性.

  13. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  14. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  15. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  16. 适于水溶液体系的分子印迹聚合物研究进展%Recent Advances in the Development of Water-Compatible Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会旗; 李晨溪

    2013-01-01

    分子印迹技术是一种简便易行的合成人工受体的新方法.由其制备的分子印迹聚合物不仅对模板分子具有优良的亲和性与专一选择性,而且还具有制备容易、稳定性高、成本低等优点,因而在众多领域显示出巨大的应用前景.分子印迹研究的目标是制备具有与天然生物受体(如抗体)的亲和性与选择性可媲美的分子印迹聚合物,并在实际应用中最终取代生物受体.而如何制备适于水溶液体系的分子印迹聚合物是目前该研究领域中的一个挑战性的难题.本文对近年来分子印迹聚合物水相识别体系的研究现状进行了综述,并重点介绍了本课题组在该领域的研究进展.%The molecular imprinting technique can be defined as the formation of specific nano-sized cavities by means of the facile template-directed synthesis. The resulting molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are characterized by their high affinity and specificity, easy preparation) and good thermal and chemical stability, which makes them highly promising in many potential applications, including their use for separation and isolation purposes, as antibody mimics (biomimetic assays and sensors) , as enzyme mimics, in organic synthesis, in drug delivery, and in biomedicine. The ultimate goal of the molecular imprinting research is to prepare MIPs with an affinity and a selectivity approaching those of the biological receptors such as antibodies and eventually replace them in real applications. Among various problems associated with the presently developed MIPs, the facile and efficient preparation of MIPs applicable in aqueous solutions remains a challenging task. This paper presents a review of the recent progress in the development of such advanced water-compatible MIPs, with an emphasis on our strategies to solve this problem.

  17. Molecular topology applied to the discovery of 1-benzyl-2-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3-(3-phenylpropanoyl)-2H-pyrrole-5-one as a non-ligand-binding-pocket antiandrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Laura; Gálvez-Llompart, Maria; Gálvez, Jorge; Blanco, Fernando; Rubio-Martinez, Jaime; Fayne, Darren; Lloyd, David G

    2014-10-27

    We report the discovery of 1-benzyl-2-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3-(3-phenylpropanoyl)-2H-pyrrole-5-one as a novel non-ligand binding pocket (non-LBP) antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR) through the application of molecular topology techniques. This compound, validated through time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence polarization biological assays, provides the basis for lead optimization and structure-activity relationship analysis of a new series of non-LBP AR antagonists. Induced-fit docking and molecular dynamics studies have been performed to establish a consistent hypothesis for the interaction of the new active molecule on the AR surface.

  18. Advances in molecular imaging of prostate cancer targeting prostate specific membrane antigen with small molecular radionuclide probes%以核素标记前列腺特异性膜抗原小分子抑制剂为探针的前列腺癌分子影像研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡四龙(综述); 许晓平; 章英剑(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Prostate speciifc membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed in normal prostate epithelial cells and strongly up regulated in initial and advanced prostate carcinoma. Therefore, PSMA is an attractive molecular target for the detection of primary and metastatic lesions. It plays an important role in the diagnosis, staging, prognostic evaluation and targeted treatment in prostate carcinoma patients. This review will summarize the progress of small molecular radionuclide probes, which targeted PSMA, for visualizing prostate cancer.%前列腺特异性膜抗原(PSMA)高表达于前列腺癌及其转移灶中,可作为生物分子靶点,在前列腺癌的早期诊断、分期、复发检测、预后判断及靶向治疗中具有重要价值。本文重点综述以核素标记PSMA小分子抑制剂为探针的前列腺癌分子影像研究进展。

  19. 心肌缺血性疾病基因治疗及分子影像监测进展%Advances in gene therapy of myocardial ischemia and the monitoring with molecular imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国鹏; 张永学

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are harmful for people. Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of cardiovascular diseases, together with some studies of the gene therapy on cardiovascular disorders, have offered possibilities for new treatments. Gene therapies have demonstrated potential usefulness in treating myocardial isehemia. Therefore, the monitoring of the expression of therapy geue and therapeutic efficacy has become an important issue.%心血管疾病是严重危害人类健康的疾病,目前已成为导致死亡的主要疾病之一.随着对心血管病发病的分子机制的研究进展,以及心血管病基因治疗的实验研究,基因治疗已成为心肌缺血治疗具有前景的有效方法,其中有些已经进入临床试验以验证其可行性和有效性.而如何在活体内无创性监测治疗基因的表达及其治疗效果也成为当今亟待解决的课题.

  20. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  1. The Studying Advances of Applying Value of Dynamic Changes of Fragmented QRS for the Patients with Myocardial Infarction%碎裂QRS波群变化对心肌梗死诊治价值的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童雨田; 王怀新(综述); 胡奉环(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Fragmented QRS(fQRS) wave has been recently advanced,which is an important index of electrocardiography . It has a simply and widely-used character. Fragmented QRS wave and mostly occurres in the patients with coronary heart disease,especially in acute myocardial infarction( AMI) . In recent years, it has been observed that when fQRS occurred or resoluted or dynamicly changed,which has a some value for the diagnosis of AMI. Meanwhile,it has a positive value for detecting myocardial perfusion degrees,and eval-uating the effect of primary percutaneous coronary intervention,and predicting degrees of culprit lesions in coronary heart disease. Besides,it has a obvious significance for appraising the risk of recurrent cardiac events and assessing prognosis in patients with AMI.%碎裂QRS波( fQRS 波)是近年来提出的一项心电学指标,具有简单、用途广泛等特点。fQRS波常见于冠状动脉硬化性心脏病患者,尤其是急性心肌梗死( AMI)患者。 fQRS波出现和消失及动态变化对AMI的诊断、心肌灌注情况判断、直接介入治疗效果的判断、冠状动脉病变程度的预测、风险评估和预后判断等都有一定价值。

  2. 以焦粉为原料制备空分制氮用碳分子筛的研究%Study on the preparation of carbon molecular sieve made with coke fines applied in air-nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春来

    2009-01-01

    以焦粉为原料,煤焦油、环氧树脂为粘结剂,采取先浸渍再碳化的方法制备空分制氮用的碳分子筛(Carbon molecular sieve,CMS).实验结果表明:当用煤焦油与树脂为粘结剂,粘结剂的含量为20%,碳化温度为700℃,恒温时间为30 min,浸渍时间为30 min时制备的碳分子筛的空分性能最佳,可使空气中的氮气含量达到90%.%The carbon molecular sieve was prepared with coke powder; epoxy resin and coal tar match the compound binder. Taking charring before dipping as method of their pretreatment to prepare the Carbon molecu-lar sieve, the results showed that: When using coal tar and resin as binder, the binder content is 20%, the carbonation temperature is 700 ℃, thermostats time is for 30 min, dipping time is for 30 rnin, carbon molec-ular sieve for the air separation is the best, the nitrogen content in the air can reach to 90 percent.

  3. Ovarian cancer:a molecularly insidious disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delia Mezzanzanica

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of theChinese Journal of Cancer, European, American, and Chinese experts review the current management and future perspectives of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the leading cause of gynecological cancer deaths. Although major advances have been made in understanding the cellular and molecular biology of this highly heterogeneous malignancy, the survival rate of women with EOC has changed little since the introduction of platinum-based treatment as a front-line therapy. The papers describe the progress in deciphering the molecular complexity of this disease and the newly available molecular-driven therapies, which have been applied by shifting trial designs toward restricting eligibility to specific subgroups of patients rather than testing agents in unselected populations. These new trial designs provide potential opportunities for improved efficacy in targeted populations. Given the molecular complexity of this disease, patient survival may be increased by searching for new molecular prognostic/predictive signatures as well as by translating the recent insight of microRNA involvement in EOC progression into new, targeted therapies. Particular attention has been given to the issue of fertility sparing for women affected by curable diseases.

  4. Ovarian cancer: a molecularly insidious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzanzanica, Delia

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer, European, American, and Chinese experts review the current management and future perspectives of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the leading cause of gynecological cancer deaths. Although major advances have been made in understanding the cellular and molecular biology of this highly heterogeneous malignancy, the survival rate of women with EOC has changed little since the introduction of platinum-based treatment as a front-line therapy. The papers describe the progress in deciphering the molecular complexity of this disease and the newly available molecular-driven therapies, which have been applied by shifting trial designs toward restricting eligibility to specific subgroups of patients rather than testing agents in unselected populations. These new trial designs provide potential opportunities for improved efficacy in targeted populations. Given the molecular complexity of this disease, patient survival may be increased by searching for new molecular prognostic/predictive signatures as well as by translating the recent insight of microRNA involvement in EOC progression into new, targeted therapies. Particular attention has been given to the issue of fertility sparing for women affected by curable diseases.

  5. Quality Assurance Program for Molecular Medicine Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sabzavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular diagnostic methods have played and continuing to have a critical role in clinical laboratories in recent years. Therefore, standardization is an evolutionary process that needs to be upgrade with increasing scientific knowledge, improvement of the instruments and techniques. The aim of this study was to design a quality assurance program in order to have similar conditions for all medical laboratories engaging with molecular tests.Methods: We had to design a plan for all four elements; required space conditions, equipments, training, and basic guidelines. Necessary guidelines was prepared and confirmed by the launched specific committee at the Health Reference Laboratory.Results: Several workshops were also held for medical laboratories directors and staffs, quality control manager of molecular companies, directors and nominees from universities. Accreditation of equipments and molecular material was followed parallel with rest of program. Now we are going to accredit medical laboratories and to evaluate the success of the program.Conclusion: Accreditation of medical laboratory will be succeeding if its basic elements are provided in advance. Professional practice guidelines, holding training and performing accreditation the molecular materials and equipments ensured us that laboratories are aware of best practices, proper interpretation, limitations of techniques, and technical issues. Now, active external auditing can improve the applied laboratory conditions toward the defined standard level.

  6. Molecular ecological network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs through Random Matrix Theory (RMT-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological

  7. 高级分子建模和模拟技术在细胞信号传导和通信的蛋白质结构预测的研究%Advanced molecular modeling and simulation technology in cell signal transduction and communication research of protein structure prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮红

    2015-01-01

    . These computational techniques have been intensively exploited to discover pharmaceutical targets and to develop novel therapeutics agents. With the fast development in computer science, it is clear that further advance of biomedical science will continue to rely heavily on the development of advanced molecular modeling and simulation methods. The overall goal of the Dr. Weihong Zhang's current research is to develop advanced molecular modeling and simulation techniques, with the focus on their application to structure prediction, dynamics analysis and functional designs of proteins that are involved in cell signaling and communications.Three-dimensional structures as well as the dynamics of proteins closely relate to biological functions. They are the most fundamental key information in basic biomedical science and drug development. For example, detail structural and dynamical knowledge of drug targets such as HIV proteases is an essential step toward discovering new cures for diseases like AIDS that can potentially improve the health and life of millions of people. Cell signaling is a complex process that controls basic cell activities and actions. The errors in cell signaling pathways are responsible for diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. My research apply molecular modeling techniques to study two types of cell signaling proteins, specifically, intrinsically disordered proteins, and G-protein coupled receptors.

  8. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...

  9. Applying evolutionary genetics to developmental toxicology and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Maxwell C K; Procter, Andrew C; Goldstone, Jared V; Foox, Jonathan; DeSalle, Robert; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Siddall, Mark E; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R

    2017-03-04

    Evolutionary thinking continues to challenge our views on health and disease. Yet, there is a communication gap between evolutionary biologists and toxicologists in recognizing the connections among developmental pathways, high-throughput screening, and birth defects in humans. To increase our capability in identifying potential developmental toxicants in humans, we propose to apply evolutionary genetics to improve the experimental design and data interpretation with various in vitro and whole-organism models. We review five molecular systems of stress response and update 18 consensual cell-cell signaling pathways that are the hallmark for early development, organogenesis, and differentiation; and revisit the principles of teratology in light of recent advances in high-throughput screening, big data techniques, and systems toxicology. Multiscale systems modeling plays an integral role in the evolutionary approach to cross-species extrapolation. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative bioinformatics are both valuable tools in identifying and validating the molecular initiating events that account for adverse developmental outcomes in humans. The discordance of susceptibility between test species and humans (ontogeny) reflects their differences in evolutionary history (phylogeny). This synthesis not only can lead to novel applications in developmental toxicity and risk assessment, but also can pave the way for applying an evo-devo perspective to the study of developmental origins of health and disease.

  10. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  11. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  12. Modeling of molecular properties

    CERN Document Server

    Comba, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Molecular modeling encompasses applied theoretical approaches and computational techniques to model structures and properties of molecular compounds and materials in order to predict and / or interpret their properties. The modeling covered in this book ranges from methods for small chemical to large biological molecules and materials. With its comprehensive coverage of important research fields in molecular and materials science, this is a must-have for all organic, inorganic and biochemists as well as materials scientists interested in applied theoretical and computational chemistry. The 28

  13. Advances of Microfluidic Technologies Applied in Bio-analytical Chemistry%微流控技术在生命分析化学中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张逢; 高丹; 梁琼麟

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with with macro analysis system, microfluidic analysis system has many advantages such as small sample and reagent consumption, mass and heat transfer efficiently, good biocompatibility, high-throughput parallel analysis, functional unit integration, miniaturization, and automation control and so on. It has been applied in the analytical chemical, especially in life analytical chemistry. In this review, we mainly focused on the progress of cell analysis related microfluidic technologies during the past five years, such as material and fabrication, surface modification and droplet techniques. Then we briefly summarized the applications of microfluidic techniques on drug screening and cell analysis.%微流控分析系统与宏观条件下的分析体系相比,具有样品和试剂消耗小、传质传热效率高、生物相容性较好、高通量并行分析、功能单元集成化、微型化及自动化控制等特点,在分析化学尤其是生命分析化学领域得到了广泛应用。本文以涉及细胞的微流控技术为切入点,主要介绍了近五年来微流控芯片相关技术的发展,如芯片材料与制作技术、表面改性技术和液滴技术等,并简单总结微流控技术在药物筛选和细胞分析等生命分析化学领域的研究应用进展。

  14. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1995-01-01

    Praise for Previous Volumes"This volume maintains the authoritative standards of the series...The editors and publishers are to be congratulated"- M.S. CHILD in PHYSICS BULLETIN"Maintains the high standards of earlier volumes in the series...All the series are written by experts in the field, and their summaries are most timely...Strongly recommended."- G. HERZBERG in AMERICAN SCIENTIST

  15. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    Praise for the Series""This volume maintains the authoritative standards of the series...The editors and publishers are to be congratulated.""--M.S. Child in Physics Bulletin""Maintains the high standards of earlier volumes in the series...All the articles are written by experts in the field, and their summaries are most timely...Strongly recommended.""--G. Herzberg in American Scientist

  16. “众筹”项目不申请专利有风险*--在KickStarter上发布创意应提前申请专利%Crowdfunding Project does not Apply for Patents has Risk--Published Creativityon KickStarter should Apply for Patent In Advance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国高技术产业发展促进会知识产权战略研究课题组

    2015-01-01

    Currently, as the crowdfunding platform to optimize the investment environment and business model changes, there has been a large number of crowdfunding websitesraised in many countries. However, most of these projects published in the sites do not apply for patents, which may pose a risk for the future ifnancing development which is necessary to pay attention to.%目前,由于众筹平台对投资环境的优化和商业模式的变革,各国均出现了大批众筹网站,但是这些网站中发布的大部分项目并没有申请专利,这可能会为以后的融资发展带来风险,有必要引起重视。

  17. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  18. Advancement & Promotion Review: 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the end of June, following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 13/2003. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2003. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions are now published on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist_2003.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2003. Final decisions will be applied retroactively to 1 July 2003. Human Resources Division Tel:...

  19. ADVANCEMENT & PROMOTION REVIEW: 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the beginning of July, under the new career structure scheme and following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 11/2002. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2002. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions will be published this year on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2002. Final decisions will be applied retroactivel...

  20. Multifunctionality in molecular magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkowicz, Dawid; Czarnecki, Bernard; Reczyński, Mateusz; Arczyński, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Molecular magnetism draws from the fundamental ideas of structural chemistry and combines them with experimental physics resulting in one of the highest profile current topics, namely molecular materials that exhibit multifunctionality. Recent advances in the design of new generations of multifunctional molecular magnets that retain the functions of the building blocks and exhibit non-trivial magnetic properties at higher temperatures provide promising evidence that they may be useful for the future construction of nanoscale devices. This article is not a complete review but is rather an introduction into thefascinating world of multifunctional solids with magnetism as the leitmotif. We provide a subjective selection and discussion of the most inspiring examples of multifunctional molecular magnets: magnetic sponges, guest-responsive magnets, molecular magnets with ionic conductivity, photomagnets and non-centrosymmetric and chiral magnets.

  1. Recent advances in molecular genetics of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease%马查多-约瑟夫病的分子遗传学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丹丹; 江泓; 唐北沙

    2008-01-01

    To date,nearly 28 distinct genetic loci of autosomal dominant cerebeUar ataxias have been identified,among them 18 disease-causing genes have been cloned.Of these,Machado-Joseph disease (MJD),also named as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3),is perhaps the most common subtype among different races and origins in the world.It is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the coding region of the MID1 gene,with obvious clinical and genetic heterogeneity.In this review,authors covered the recent advances in molecular genetic of SCA3/MJD.%迄今为止,至少已定位了常染色体显性遗传小脑件共济失调28种不同的基因型,已克隆18个致病基因,其中对不同种族和地域的研究表明,马查多-约瑟夫病(Machado-Joseph disease,MJD),即脊髓小脑性共济失调3型(spinoocerebellar ataxia type 3,SCA3),是世界上最常见的SCAs亚型.它是由位于致病基因MJD13'端的CAG三核苷酸重复扩增突变引起的一种具有明显的临床和遗传异质性的神经系统退行性疾病.作者就SCA3/MJD的分子遗传学方面的研究进展进行综述.

  2. 马胚胎附植及其分子调控研究进展%Advance of Researches on the Procedure and Molecular Mechanism of implantation in the Mare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓亮; 张翔; 韩国才

    2011-01-01

    Implantation is a procedure that establishes links of tissues and physiology gradually between activated blastocyst trophoblast and receivable endometrial epithelial cells. In equids, the procedure involves two distinct types of trophoblast: a minor invasive trophoblast girdle (endometrial cups) and a major non-invasive allantochorion (microcotyledonary epitheliochorial placenta). Therefore, equine is a kind of mammals that provide the opportunity to do research about both invasive and non-invasive trophoblast tissue together. A lot of molecules are involved in the procedure of implantation. Advance of researches on the characters, procedure and molecular mechanism of implantation in the mare has been reviewed, and it's useful to reduce the incidence of early pregnancy loss and abortion of mares.%胚胎附植是处于活化状态的囊胚滋养层细胞与处于接受态的母体子宫上皮细胞之间逐步建立组织和生理上联系的过程.马(马属动物)在该过程中先后存在侵入性的绒毛膜带(子宫内膜杯)和非侵入性的尿囊绒毛膜(微子叶型上皮绒毛膜胎盘),是一种集侵入性与非侵入性胚胎滋养层于一体的哺乳动物.多种分子共同调节妊娠母马的胚胎附植过程.作者综述了马胚胎附植特点、过程与相关分子调控的研究进展,对减少母马妊娠早期胚胎丢失与流产具有重要参考价值.

  3. Molecular physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Dudley

    2013-01-01

    Methods of Experimental Physics, Volume 3: Molecular Physics focuses on molecular theory, spectroscopy, resonance, molecular beams, and electric and thermodynamic properties. The manuscript first considers the origins of molecular theory, molecular physics, and molecular spectroscopy, as well as microwave spectroscopy, electronic spectra, and Raman effect. The text then ponders on diffraction methods of molecular structure determination and resonance studies. Topics include techniques of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic, nuclear quadropole, and electron spin reson

  4. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  5. Molecular assembly in natural and engineered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Howorka, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This volume explores some of the most exciting recent advances in basic research on molecular assembly in natural and engineered systems and how this knowledge is leading to advances in the various fields.* This series provides a forum for discussion of new discoveries, approaches, and ideas * Contributions from leading scholars and industry experts * Reference guide for researchers involved in molecular biology and related fields

  6. Genetic tools for wildlife management: New TWS Working Group focuses on molecular ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latch, Emily; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Robinson, Stacie

    2014-01-01

    Granted interim status in November, 2013, The Wildlife Society’s (TWS) Molecular Ecology Working Group aims to promote scientific advancement by applying molecular techniques to wildlife ecology, management, and conservation. The working group—composed of sci - entists from diverse backgrounds—met for the first time in Pittsburgh at the TWS Annual Conference held in October. Our overarching goal is to enhance awareness of molecular ecology and genetic applica - tions to wildlife biology and act as an informational and networking resource. During the group’s interim status, which runs for three years, we intend to focus on a broad scope of molecular ecology that is applicable to wildlife including genetic and ge - nomic methods, conservation genetics, non-invasive genetic population monitoring, landscape genetics, evolutionary genetics, and molecular forensics

  7. Advanced Mechanics of Piezoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Qing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    "Advanced Mechanics of Piezoelectricity" presents a comprehensive treatment of piezoelectric materials using linear electroelastic theory, symplectic models, and Hamiltonian systems. It summarizes the current state of practice and presents the most recent research findings in piezoelectricity. It is intended for researchers and graduate students in the fields of applied mechanics, material science and engineering, computational engineering, and aerospace engineering. Dr. Qinghua Qin is a professor at the School of Engineering, Australian National University, Australia.

  8. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  9. Polarons in advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexandre Sergeevich

    2008-01-01

    Polarons in Advanced Materials will lead the reader from single-polaron problems to multi-polaron systems and finally to a description of many interesting phenomena in high-temperature superconductors, ferromagnetic oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires. The book divides naturally into four parts. Part I introduces a single polaron and describes recent achievements in analytical and numerical studies of polaron properties in different electron-phonon models. Part II and Part III describe multi-polaron physics, and Part IV describes many key physical properties of high-temperature superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires, which were understood with polarons and bipolarons. The book is written in the form of self-consistent reviews authored by well-established researchers actively working in the field and will benefit scientists and postgraduate students with a background in condensed matter physics and materials sciences.

  10. 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2014, the 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Bandung, Indonesia in December 2014. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  11. 2nd Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, Hamzah; Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2015, the 2nd Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Krabi, Thailand in December 2015. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  12. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  13. Reliability and validity observation on Chinese version of pain assessment scale for patients with advanced dementia applied in nursing care of senile psychiatric department%中文版晚期老年痴呆症疼痛评估量表在老年精神科护理应用中的信效度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段海鸿; 张雪红; 刘健

    2013-01-01

    目的 测试中文版晚期老年痴呆症疼痛评估量表对老年精神障碍患者疼痛评估的信度和效度.方法 使用中文版晚期老年痴呆症疼痛评估量表对79例老年精神科住院患者进行疼痛评估,分析该量表的信度和效度.结果 中文版晚期老年痴呆症疼痛评估量表的Cronbach's α系数为0.748,分半信度为0.610,量表得分与语言描述量表、面部表情疼痛量表评分相关性系数为0.366、0.569,因子分析的贡献率是53.11%,显示具有较好的信度和效度.结论 晚期老年痴呆症疼痛评估量表能用于评估老年精神障碍患者的疼痛程度.%Objective To assess the reliability and validity on Chinese version of pain assessment scale for patients with advanced dementia applied in pain evaluation for senile patients with mental disorders. Method Assess pain for 79 cases of senile inpatients from psychiatric wards by Chinese version of pain assessment scale and analyze reliability and validity for c-valuation tool. Result Cronbach's a coefficient of Chinese version of pain assessment scale for patients with advanced dementia is 0. 748. Split-half reliability is 0. 610. Correlation coefficients between verbal description scale, facial expression pain scale and scores of scales arc 0. 366 and 0. 569. Contribution rate of factor analysis is 53. 11%, which show a nice reliability and validity. Conclusion Chinese version of pain assessment scale for patients with advanced dementia can be applied to evaluate pain for senile patients with mental disorders.

  14. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  15. Applying Advanced Neutron Transport Calculations for Improving Fuel Performance Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botazzoli, P.; Luzzi, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Division - CeSNEF, Milano (Italy); Schubert, A.; Van Uffelen, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haeck, W. [Institute de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2009-06-15

    TRANSURANUS is a computer code for the thermal and mechanical analysis of fuel rods in nuclear reactors. As part of the code, the TUBRNP model calculates the local concentration of the actinides (U, Pu, Am, Cm), the main fission products (Xe, Kr, Cs and Nd) and {sup 4}He produced during the irradiation as a function of the radial position across a fuel pellet (radial profiles). These local quantities are required for the determination of the local power density, the local burn-up, and the source term of fission products and other inert gases. In previous works the neutronic code ALEPH has been used to validate the models for the actinides and fission products concentrations in UO{sub 2} fuels. A similar approach has been adopted in the present work for verifying the Helium production. The present paper focuses on the modelling of the Helium production in PWR oxide fuels (MOX and UO{sub 2}). A reliable prediction of the Helium production and release in LWR oxide fuels is of great interest in case of increasing burn-up, linear heat generation rates and Plutonium content. The contribution of the Helium released plays a fundamental role in the gap pressure and subsequently in the mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod, in particular during the storage of the high burn-up spent fuel. Helium is produced in oxide fuels by three main paths: (i) alpha decay of the actinides (the main contribution is due to {sup 242}Cm, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 244}Cm); (ii) (n,{alpha}) reactions; and (iii) ternary fission. In the present work, the contributions due to ternary fission and the (n,{alpha}) reaction on {sup 16}O as well as some refinements in the {sup 241}Am burn-up chain have been included in TUBRNP. The VESTA neutronic code has been used for the validation of the He production model. The generic VESTA Monte Carlo depletion interface developed at IRSN allows us to couple different Monte Carlo codes with a depletion module. It currently allows for combining the ORIGEN 2.2 isotope depletion code with any version of MCNP or MCNPX for reaction rate calculation. By means of a new efficient approach to Monte Carlo burn-up implemented into VESTA (the multi-group binning approach), the speed and accuracy of any burn-up and activation calculation has been drastically improved to an optimal level. One of the MOX configurations (with a Pu content of 5.6%) and the 3.5% enriched UO{sub 2} have been selected to be simulated by means of the VESTA code both considering the ENDF/B VII.0 and the JEFF 3.1 libraries. Considering the concentrations and the cross sections computed by VESTA, an overestimation in the TRANSURANUS formula can be noticed at the end of the irradiation history due to the fact that only the main fissile isotopes are considered, but at high burn-ups (especially for the MOX fuels), also the fissions of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 245}Cm play a non-negligible role thanks to their high fission cross sections. Including these isotopes the agreement is satisfactory. As a second step, in order to check the correctness of the implemented models, the fission and capture cross sections computed by VESTA have been fitted as a function of burn-up and implemented in the TRANSURANUS code. The results of the TRANSURANUS code have been compared with VESTA. The agreement of the predictions of all the considered isotopes is good, and the overestimation of the Helium production has been eliminated. Two conclusions can be drawn from the present analysis: - The ENDF/B VII.0 library as well as the ORIGEN fission yield database does not consider the ternary fission yield. Hence the results obtained by VESTA with the ENDF/B VII.0 library or with the ORIGEN fission yield database have to be corrected adding the ternary fission contribution. - The set of nuclides selected in TUBRNP are sufficient for a satisfactory description of the nuclide concentrations. As a final step, a sensitivity analysis has been performed by means of the Taguchi method. In particular, the effect of 4 different parameters on the calculated production of Helium have been analyzed: (i) the model for the flux computation; (ii) the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section; (iii) the ternary fission yield; and (iv) the capture and fission cross sections from different libraries. Due to the large influence of the specific cross section library, the set of cross section previously implemented in the TUBRNP model predicts the Helium production within the band of uncertainty of the VESTA results. (authors)

  16. Recent advances in applied nanoscience for food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoing developments in nanotechnology offer potential to transform agriculture in several areas, including food safety, quality, packaging, product traceability, food processing, and bioactive delivery. These nanoscience-based applications utilize the unique properties of materials with a dimension...

  17. Recent Advances of Study on Molecular Circadian Rhythms and Correlated Disease%近日节律调控机制与相关疾病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈图南; 蔡云; 王晖; 胡志安

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, an endogenous timing system synchronizes physiology and behavior to the rhythmic succession of day and night. On the cellular level which is the core mechanism of this system, a number of so-called clock genes were discovered, and these genes and their protein products were shown to organize into a transcriptional/translational feedback loops to give a near 24h rhythm. Recent years, several new clock components have been identified, there is now evidence that transcription may not play an only central role in determining the functioning of the clock: the identification of post-translational modifications of the clock proteins and the chrom-atin remodeling has revealed new levels of control. Disruption of the genes necessary for the circadian clock to function has diverse effects, including metabolism disorder disease and tumors. This review describes the recent advances in our knowledge of the molecular clockwork and correlated disease with human.%近日节律是生命体生理及行为变量遵循内源性的以接近1个太阳日的周期进行循环的生物过程,人体近日节律调控机制及其相关疾病研究已成为当前生物医学新兴领域和研究热点.过去二十年间,以生物钟基因及其相互作用环路为核心的一系列机制研究不断取得新的进展,初步形成了近日节律的分子模型,近年来,生物钟基因在染色体重塑、转录翻译调控、转录后修饰等多个层次的调控模式得到深入的研究.同时,近日节律失控与肿瘤、代谢紊乱等临床疾病的相关性及其影响机的转化研究日益增多,形成了新兴的时间医学.本文谨就近年来近日节律分子机制及其疾病相关研究的概况和最新进展做一总结.

  18. 果实花青素生物合成分子机制研究进展%Recent Advances on the Molecular Mechanisms of Anthocyanin Synthesis in Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 李茂福; 杨媛; 金万梅

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are important natural water-soluble, health-promoting pigments that have much effect on the quality of fruits. The anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in fruits is clear. Anthocyanin accumulation depends on coordinated expression of structural genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthesis. Structural gene expression is regulated by regulatory genes, including MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40 classes. The structural genes and the key regulatory genes controlling the pathway have been isolated in many fruits. Here we reviewed the recent advances in molecular mechanisms of regulatory genes in anthocyanin biosynthesis, including classes, concentration and functions of anthocyanins, transcriptional regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis, microRNAs regulation, as well as the internal and external inlfuences on anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruits. Especially, we pointed many gaps remain in the regulatory network of MYB, bHLH and WD40 transcription factors. Further-more, new discoveries have begun to reveal links between the internal inlfuences (plant hormones, genetics, maturity, biological clock, etc.), external environmental inlfuences (light, temperature, pH, nutrition, etc.) and the regulatory genes in anthocyanin biosynthesis during fruit ripening. These reserches favor the anthocyanin biosynthesis of fruits at the molecular level from the point of view of interaction between the regulatory networks.%花青素是一种天然的水溶性植物色素,与果实的品质性状密切相关,有益于人体健康。花青素的积累是编码花青素生物合成途径的结构基因协同表达的结果,而结构基因通常由MYB、bHLH和WD40这3类调节基因控制。现已从果实中分离了多种花青素合成的结构基因和调节基因。文章重点介绍了调节基因调控果实花青素生物合成的分子机制,指出在MYB、bHLH和WD40互作的调控网络方面的研究还有很多空白。最新的研究揭示了果实成

  19. Advances on molecular mechanisms of plant-pathogen interactions%植物与病原微生物互作分子基础的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程曦; 田彩娟; 李爱宁; 邱金龙

    2012-01-01

    Plants have established a complicated immune defense system during co-evolution with pathogens. The innate immune system of plants can be generally divided into two levels. One, named PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI), is based on the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern-recognition receptors, which confers resistance to most pathogenic microbes. The other begins in cytoplasm and mainly relies on recognition of microbial effectors by plant resistance proteins in direct or indirect ways, which then initiates potent defense responses. This process, termed effector-triggered immunity (ETI), is necessary for defense against pathogens that can secret effectors to suppress the first level of immunity. Activation of these two layers of immunity in plant is based on distinguishing and recognition of "self and "non-self signals. Recognition of "non-self signals can activate signal cascades, such as MAPK cascades, which will then induce defense gene expression and corresponding defense responses. In this review, we focused on underlying molecular mechanisms of plant-pathogen interactions and the latest advances of the PTI and ETI signaling network.%植物在与病原微生物共同进化过程中形成了复杂的免疫防卫体系.植物的先天免疫系统可大致分为两个层面.第一个层面的免疫基于细胞表面的模式识别受体对病原物相关分子模式的识别,该免疫过程被称为病原物相关分子模式触发的免疫(PAMP-triggered immunity,PTI),能帮助植物抵抗大部分病原微生物;第二个层面的免疫起始于细胞内部,主要依靠抗病基因编码的蛋白产物直接或间接识别病原微生物分泌的效应子并且激发防卫反应,来抵抗那些能够利用效应子抑制第一层面免疫的病原微生物,这一过程被称为效应子触发的免疫(Effector-triggered immunity,ETI).这两个层面的免疫都是基于植物对“自我”及“非我”的识别,依靠MAPK 级联等

  20. Advanced Algal Systems Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Research and development (R&D) on advanced algal biofuels and bioproducts presents an opportunity to sustainably expand biomass resource potential in the United States. The Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) Advanced Algal Systems Program is carrying out a long-term, applied R&D strategy to lower the costs of algal biofuel production by working with partners to develop revolutionary technologies and conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential

  1. Applied Electrochemistry of Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Qiu, Zhuxian

    electrolytes. The book is an updated review of the technological advances in the fields of electrolytic production and refining of metals, electroplating, anodizing and other electrochemical surface treatments, primary and secondary batteries, electrolytic capacitors; corrosion and protection and others....

  2. A novel molecular distance edge vector as applied to chemical modeling of quantitative structure-retention relationships: Various gas chromatographic retention behaviors of polychlorinated dibenzo-furans on different polarity-varying stationary phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Hong; HUANG Ping; HU Yinyu; YE Nancy; LI Zhiliang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the identical group as a pseudo atom instead of a typical atom, a novel modified molecular distance-edge (MDE) vector μ was developed in our laboratory to characterize chemical structure of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) congeners and/or isomers. Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) between the new VMDE parameters and gas chromatographic (GC) retention behavior of PCDFs were then generated by multiple linear regression (MLR) method for non-polar, moderately polar, and polar stationary phases. Four excellent models with high correlation coefficients, R=0.984-0.995, were proposed for non-polar columns (DB-5, SE-54, OV-101). For the moderately polar columns (OV-1701), the correlation coefficient of the developed good model is only 0.958. For the polar columns (SP-2300), the QSRR model is poor with R=0.884. Then cross validation with leave-one out of procedure (CV) is performed in high correlation with the non-polar (Rcv=992-0.974) and weakly polar (Rcv=921) columns and in little correlation (Rcv=0.834) with the polar columns. These results show that the new μ vector is suitable for describing the retention behaviors of PCDFs on non-polar and moderately polar stationary phases and not for the various gas chromatographic retention behaviors of PCDFs on the different polarity-varying stationary phases.

  3. Applied data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guandong

    2013-01-01

    Data mining has witnessed substantial advances in recent decades. New research questions and practical challenges have arisen from emerging areas and applications within the various fields closely related to human daily life, e.g. social media and social networking. This book aims to bridge the gap between traditional data mining and the latest advances in newly emerging information services. It explores the extension of well-studied algorithms and approaches into these new research arenas.

  4. Molecular marker databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał Tadeusz; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    The detection and analysis of genetic variation plays an important role in plant breeding and this role is increasing with the continued development of genome sequencing technologies. Molecular genetic markers are important tools to characterize genetic variation and assist with genomic breeding. Processing and storing the growing abundance of molecular marker data being produced requires the development of specific bioinformatics tools and advanced databases. Molecular marker databases range from species specific through to organism wide and often host a variety of additional related genetic, genomic, or phenotypic information. In this chapter, we will present some of the features of plant molecular genetic marker databases, highlight the various types of marker resources, and predict the potential future direction of crop marker databases.

  5. Advancing Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny L. Tenuto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparing students to become active citizens and contributors to a democratic society is premised on teaching democratic principles and modeling standards of democratic practice at all levels of education. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to establish a conceptual framework grounded in literature and a model for cultivating democratic professional practice in education (DPPE to advance leadership for school improvement. This work is presented in three parts: (a a review of historical references, reports, and legislation that culminated in increased accountability and standards in P-12 public education; (b a discussion of social patterns in education generally associated with bureaucracy versus democracy; and (c a new contribution to the literature, a model for cultivating DPPE is conceptualized to encourage leading and teaching professionals to reflect on beliefs and evaluate practices in advancing leadership for school improvement. Recommendations are included for further research.

  6. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  7. Applied groundwater modeling, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary P.; Woessner, William W.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    This second edition is extensively revised throughout with expanded discussion of modeling fundamentals and coverage of advances in model calibration and uncertainty analysis that are revolutionizing the science of groundwater modeling. The text is intended for undergraduate and graduate level courses in applied groundwater modeling and as a comprehensive reference for environmental consultants and scientists/engineers in industry and governmental agencies.

  8. Applying critical thinking to college EFL teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迁

    2016-01-01

    In college EFL teaching, critical thinking has long been regarded as an advanced stage and skill of thinking. However, most Chinese EFL instructors stress language skills rather than critical thinking in class. this article mainly explores the strategies of applying critical thinking in college EFL teaching.

  9. Applied Creativity: The Creative Marketing Breakthrough Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of personal creativity in today's business environment, few conceptual creativity frameworks have been presented in the marketing education literature. The purpose of this article is to advance the integration of creativity instruction into marketing classrooms by presenting an applied creative marketing…

  10. Applied Welding Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in applied welding technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and are…

  11. Applied probability models with optimization applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    1992-01-01

    Concise advanced-level introduction to stochastic processes that frequently arise in applied probability. Largely self-contained text covers Poisson process, renewal theory, Markov chains, inventory theory, Brownian motion and continuous time optimization models, much more. Problems and references at chapter ends. ""Excellent introduction."" - Journal of the American Statistical Association. Bibliography. 1970 edition.

  12. Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.; Ain, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recyc...

  13. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  14. Proteomics applied to exercise physiology: a cutting-edge technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriz, Bernardo A; Gomes, Clarissa P; Rocha, Luiz A O; Rezende, Taia M B; Franco, Octávio L

    2012-03-01

    Exercise research has always drawn the attention of the scientific community because it can be widely applied to sport training, health improvement, and disease prevention. For many years numerous tools have been used to investigate the several physiological adaptations induced by exercise stimuli. Nowadays a closer look at the molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic pathways and muscular and cardiovascular adaptation to exercise are among the new trends in exercise physiology research. Considering this, to further understand these adaptations as well as pathology attenuation by exercise, several studies have been conducted using molecular investigations, and this trend looks set to continue. Through enormous biotechnological advances, proteomic tools have facilitated protein analysis within complex biological samples such as plasma and tissue, commonly used in exercise research. Until now, classic proteomic tools such as one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been used as standard approaches to investigate proteome modulation by exercise. Furthermore, other recently developed in gel tools such as differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and gel-free techniques such as the protein labeling methods (ICAT, SILAC, and iTRAQ) have empowered proteomic quantitative analysis, which may successfully benefit exercise proteomic research. However, despite the three decades of 2-DE development, neither classic nor novel proteomic tools have been convincingly explored by exercise researchers. To this end, this review gives an overview of the directions in which exercise-proteome research is moving and examines the main tools that can be used as a novel strategy in exercise physiology investigation.

  15. 植物与有益微生物互作的分子基础及其应用的研究进展%Advances in Molecular Biology Research of Interaction between Plants and Beneficial Microorganisms and Their Applications in Plant Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓鸿; 田芳; 杜丽璞; 王轲; 林志珊; 叶兴国

    2012-01-01

    interaction of plants and some main beneficial microorganisms, and the advances in applying beneficial microorganisms in genetic engineering of plant improvement were reviewed. The immune response pathways, and the molecular signaling pathway in the interaction between plants and some beneficial microorganisms including Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, endophytes and virus, were described in detail, and the application of them in genetic engineering and breeding was summarized. This review will help people in related research fields to accurately recognize the essence of plant pathogens, change conventional ideas, and improve the resistance or tolerance of plants to biotic or abiotic stresses by using the positive side of beneficial microorganisms to obtain good crop varieties.

  16. Molecular heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham

    2006-02-01

    We propose a molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation wave forms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

  17. Information technology in chemistry research and education: Part I. Ab initio studies on the hydrolysis of aromatic diazonium ions. Part II. Theoretical study and molecular modeling of non-covalent interactions. Part III. Applying information technology in chemistry education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengyu

    Part I of this dissertation studies the bonding in chemical reactions, while Part II studies the bonding related to inter- and intra-molecular interactions. Part III studies the application of IT technology in chemistry education. Part I of this dissertation (chapter 1 and chapter 2) focuses on the theoretical studies on the mechanism of the hydrolysis reactions of benzenediazonium ion and guaninediazonium ion. The major conclusion is that in hydrolysis reactions the "unimolecular mechanism" actually has to involve the reacting solvent molecule. Therefore, the unimolecular pathway can only serve as a conceptual model but will not happen in the reality. Chapter I concludes that the hydrolysis reaction of benzenediazonium ion takes the direct SN2Ar mechanism via a transition state but without going through a pre-coordination complex. Chapter 2 concludes that the formation of xanthine from the dediazoniation reaction of guaninediazonium ion in water takes the SN2Ar pathway without a transition state. And oxanine might come from an intermediate formed by the bimolecular deprotonation of the H atom on N3 of guaninediazonium ion synchronized with the pyrimidine ring opening reaction. Part II of this dissertation includes chapters 3, 4, and 5. Chapter 3 studies the quadrupole moment of benzene and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. We concluded that the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction is important in the arene-arene interactions. Our study shows the most stable structure of benzene dimer is the point-to-face T-shaped structure. Chapter 4 studies the intermolecular interactions that result in the disorder of the crystal of 4-Chloroacetophenone-(4-methoxyphenylethylidene). We analyzed all the nearest neighbor interactions within that crystal and found that the crystal structure is determined by its thermo-dynamical properties. Our calculation perfectly reproduced the percentage of parallel-alignment of the crystal. Part III of this dissertation is focused on the

  18. Third international conference on intelligent systems for molecular biology (ISMB-95): Summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The specific aims of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB-95) were to: convene a critical mass of researchers applying advanced computational techniques to problems in molecular biology; promote interchange of problems and solutions between computer scientists and molecular biologists; create education opportunities in this cross-disciplinary field for students and senior researchers wishing to either apply or benefit from these techniques; produce an archival proceedings as a forum for rapid dissemination of new results in a peer-reviewed manner; produce a set of tutorial materials for education and training of researchers interested in this field; maintain the momentum generated by the highly successful previous conferences in the series, and establish a regular event that will help to solidify the field; and foster the involvement of women and minorities in the field.

  19. Molecular Population Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Sònia; Barbadilla, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Molecular population genetics aims to explain genetic variation and molecular evolution from population genetics principles. The field was born 50 years ago with the first measures of genetic variation in allozyme loci, continued with the nucleotide sequencing era, and is currently in the era of population genomics. During this period, molecular population genetics has been revolutionized by progress in data acquisition and theoretical developments. The conceptual elegance of the neutral theory of molecular evolution or the footprint carved by natural selection on the patterns of genetic variation are two examples of the vast number of inspiring findings of population genetics research. Since the inception of the field, Drosophila has been the prominent model species: molecular variation in populations was first described in Drosophila and most of the population genetics hypotheses were tested in Drosophila species. In this review, we describe the main concepts, methods, and landmarks of molecular population genetics, using the Drosophila model as a reference. We describe the different genetic data sets made available by advances in molecular technologies, and the theoretical developments fostered by these data. Finally, we review the results and new insights provided by the population genomics approach, and conclude by enumerating challenges and new lines of inquiry posed by increasingly large population scale sequence data. PMID:28270526

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".