WorldWideScience

Sample records for apply human senses

  1. Human-centric sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Mani; Abdelzaher, Tarek; Szymanski, Boleslaw

    2012-01-13

    The first decade of the century witnessed a proliferation of devices with sensing and communication capabilities in the possession of the average individual. Examples range from camera phones and wireless global positioning system units to sensor-equipped, networked fitness devices and entertainment platforms (such as Wii). Social networking platforms emerged, such as Twitter, that allow sharing information in real time. The unprecedented deployment scale of such sensors and connectivity options ushers in an era of novel data-driven applications that rely on inputs collected by networks of humans or measured by sensors acting on their behalf. These applications will impact domains as diverse as health, transportation, energy, disaster recovery, intelligence and warfare. This paper surveys the important opportunities in human-centric sensing, identifies challenges brought about by such opportunities and describes emerging solutions to these challenges. PMID:22124088

  2. Boosting Applied to Word Sense Disambiguation

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Gerard; Marquez, Lluis; Rigau, German

    2000-01-01

    In this paper Schapire and Singer's AdaBoost.MH boosting algorithm is applied to the Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) problem. Initial experiments on a set of 15 selected polysemous words show that the boosting approach surpasses Naive Bayes and Exemplar-based approaches, which represent state-of-the-art accuracy on supervised WSD. In order to make boosting practical for a real learning domain of thousands of words, several ways of accelerating the algorithm by reducing the feature space are s...

  3. Remote sensing applied in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research project, aiming at investigation the use of remote sensing in uranium exploration, has been accomplished on data from South Greenland. During the project, analyses have been done on pure remote sensing data (Landsat MSS) and on integrated data of various types, including geochemical, aeromagnetic, radiometric and geological data in addition to the MSS data. Ratioing, factor analysis and discriminant analysis were used for enhancement of colour anomalies which correspond to oxidation zones. Some of the anomalies coincide with U and Nb mineralizations. Lineaments were mapped visually from photoprints, digitized and analysed statistically. A sinusoidal model could be applied to the general directional frequency distribution and was used to define ten classes of significant directions. Three of these directions were of major geological significance. Thus some of the major alkaline intrusions are situated at the intersections of some of the lineaments, a particular NE-SW trending lineament coincides with a geochemical boundary and pitchblende occurrences may be related to a WNW-ESE direction. The various types of data set were brought onto format of the Landsat images and collected in a data base. Representing three different types of data (Landsat MSS-band 7, aeromagnetic data and the geochemical Fe-content of stream sediments) on basis of intensity, hue and saturation revealed new features among which can be mentioned a possible indication of a subsurface continuation of one of the major alkaline intrusions. (author)

  4. THE SIXTH SENSE OF HUMAN?...

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    Animals and lower animals do not have sixth Sense?... NO…NO….NO… All living organism as well as non-living organism considered also have 6th sense in gradient order. i. Which University mosquito studied to gain Techniques and cleverness to bite on the back beyond the reach of human hands?... ii. How the birds and Animals could predict the signals well in advance and move safely to other elevated places during “TSUNAMI 2004” Which human could not predict?... iii. How the pet dog could...

  5. THE SIXTH SENSE OF HUMAN?...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani, B.E

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals and lower animals do not have sixth Sense?... NO…NO….NO… All living organism as well as non-living organism considered also have 6th sense in gradient order. i. Which University mosquito studied to gain Techniques and cleverness to bite on the back beyond the reach of human hands?... ii. How the birds and Animals could predict the signals well in advance and move safely to other elevated places during “TSUNAMI 2004” Which human could not predict?... iii. How the pet dog could steel the chicken waste silently in the kitchen when owner under sleep?... iv. How honey bee, spider construct well defined knitted structure house?... This Scientific research article focus that not only human, all lower animals including Bacteria, Virus have “Intuition Sense” (Wisdom.

  6. Compressed Sensing Applied to Weather Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Kruger, Anton; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an innovative meteorological radar, which uses reduced number of spatiotemporal samples without compromising the accuracy of target information. Our approach extends recent research on compressed sensing (CS) for radar remote sensing of hard point scatterers to volumetric targets. The previously published CS-based radar techniques are not applicable for sampling weather since the precipitation echoes lack sparsity in both range-time and Doppler domains. We propose an alternative ap...

  7. Remote sensing applied to forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandezfilho, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The development of methodologies to classify reforested areas using remotely sensed data is discussed. A preliminary study was carried out in northeast of the Sao Paulo State in 1978. The reforested areas of Pinus spp and Eucalyptus spp were based on the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics fo LANDSAT imagery. Afterwards, a more detailed study was carried out in the Mato Grosso do Sul State. The reforested areas were mapped in functions of the age (from: 0 to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 3 years, 3 to 4 years, 4 to 5 years and 5 to 6 years) and of the heterogeneity stand (from: 0 to 20%, 20 to 40%, 40 to 60%, 60 to 80% and 80 to 100%). The relative differences between the artificial forest areas, estimated from LANDSAT data and ground information, varied from -8.72 to +9.49%. The estimation of forest volume through a multistage sampling technique, with probability proportional to size, is also discussed.

  8. Model of human visual-motion sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A. B.; Ahumada, A. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A model of how humans sense the velocity of moving images is proposed. The model exploits constraints provided by human psychophysics, notably that motion-sensing elements appear tuned for two-dimensional spatial frequency, and by the frequency spectrum of a moving image, namely, that its support lies in the plane in which the temporal frequency equals the dot product of the spatial frequency and the image velocity. The first stage of the model is a set of spatial-frequency-tuned, direction-selective linear sensors. The temporal frequency of the response of each sensor is shown to encode the component of the image velocity in the sensor direction. At the second stage, these components are resolved in order to measure the velocity of image motion at each of a number of spatial locations and spatial frequencies. The model has been applied to several illustrative examples, including apparent motion, coherent gratings, and natural image sequences. The model agrees qualitatively with human perception.

  9. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1995. 3. Appended data; 1995 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3. Fuzoku shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Technological know-how candidates were picked up from the achievements in fiscal 1995 on research and development of a human sense index applying technology. To explain, this paper describes work stress evaluation that uses the autonomic nervous system indexes based on electrocardiograms and respiration sensors. In the technology to evaluate composite physiological function measurement stresses, indication was given on database structure and image transition diagrams for a physiological information control system. The study to use skin temperatures as stress indexes presented a control software flow chart of a strain experiment (closing eyes in rest, saliva collection, subjectivity declaration, and controller for tracking works). Also shown are the control software flow chart for a case of monotonous experiments, and the block diagram for an RGB monochromatic signal board in an image processing device. For a technology to use basic alertness as indexes, explanation was given on a system to evaluate the tympanum temperature sensor. For a composite environment conformance evaluation index technology, an automatic CFF value measuring system was described. Introduction was made on experimental stimulation software for a technology to use device and operation conformance as indexes, and on the internal structure for a human comfort meter. (NEDO)

  10. Sensing Super-Position: Human Sensing Beyond the Visual Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.; Schipper, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The coming decade of fast, cheap and miniaturized electronics and sensory devices opens new pathways for the development of sophisticated equipment to overcome limitations of the human senses. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of augmenting human vision through Sensing Super-position by mixing natural Human sensing. The current implementation of the device translates visual and other passive or active sensory instruments into sounds, which become relevant when the visual resolution is insufficient for very difficult and particular sensing tasks. A successful Sensing Super-position meets many human and pilot vehicle system requirements. The system can be further developed into cheap, portable, and low power taking into account the limited capabilities of the human user as well as the typical characteristics of his dynamic environment. The system operates in real time, giving the desired information for the particular augmented sensing tasks. The Sensing Super-position device increases the image resolution perception and is obtained via an auditory representation as well as the visual representation. Auditory mapping is performed to distribute an image in time. The three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. This paper details the approach of developing Sensing Super-position systems as a way to augment the human vision system by exploiting the capabilities of Lie human hearing system as an additional neural input. The human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns. The known capabilities of the human hearing system to learn and understand complicated auditory patterns provided the basic motivation for developing an image-to-sound mapping system. The

  11. Applying Common Sense Leadership: Evidence from Senior Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Jon K. Webber; Gregory W. Goussak; Elliot M. Ser

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is call for further academic conversations into how to practice common sense leadership in a 21st century organization. This qualitative study was performed from July 29th through December 7th, 2010, which involved 26 participants from across the United States who were identified as senior leaders in their organization. These executives indicated that leading by example; managing your human assets; doing the right thing; seeing the big picture; developing a plan for ...

  12. Use of Human Senses as Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiaki Sugawara; Chie Sugimoto; Sachiko Minabe; Yoshie Iura; Mai Okazaki; Natuki Nakagawa; Miwa Seto; Saki Maruyama; Miki Hirano; Ichiro Kitayama

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an overview of our recent findings obtained by the use of human senses as sensors, suggesting that human senses might be indispensable sensors, not only for practical uses but also for gaining a deeper understanding of humans. From this point of view, two kinds of studies, both based on semantic responses of participants, deserve emphasis. One study assessed the efficacy of the photocatalytic elimination of stains or bio-aerosols from an air environment using TiO2 as well as the...

  13. Sense through wall human detection using UWB radar

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Dechang; Sheng Li; Singh Sukhvinder; Liang Qilian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we discuss techniques for sense through wall human detection for different types of walls. We have focused on detection of stationary human target behind wall based on breathing movements. In detecting the breathing motion, a Doppler based method is used. Also a new approach based on short time Fourier transform is discussed and an already proposed clutter reduction technique based on singular value decomposition is applied to different measurements.

  14. Remote sensing applied to numerical modelling. [water resources pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Bland, R.

    1975-01-01

    Progress and remaining difficulties in the construction of predictive mathematical models of large bodies of water as ecosystems are reviewed. Surface temperature is at present the only variable than can be measured accurately and reliably by remote sensing techniques, but satellite infrared data are of sufficient resolution for macro-scale modeling of oceans and large lakes, and airborne radiometers are useful in meso-scale analysis (of lakes, bays, and thermal plumes). Finite-element and finite-difference techniques applied to the solution of relevant coupled time-dependent nonlinear partial differential equations are compared, and the specific problem of the Biscayne Bay and environs ecosystem is tackled in a finite-differences treatment using the rigid-lid model and a rigid-line grid system.

  15. Integrating Scientific Inquiry into an Undergraduate Applied Remote Sensing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanpillai, R.

    2015-12-01

    Inquiry-based learning (IBL) methods require students to engage in learning activities instead of focusing on learning concepts and facts. Working with the instructor, students have to formulate their research questions, collect and analyze data, and arrive at conclusions. In other words, the focus is shifted from preparing for exams to learning to apply the concepts introduced in the classroom. This experience could result in better understanding of the scientific concepts but instructors have to devote more time for designing and implementing IBL methods in their classroom. At the University of Wyoming, an applied remote sensing course has been taught since 2008. Students enrolled in this course are required to complete a project that is designed around IBL methods. Students do not receive detailed instructions for completing their project, but are trained to develop their own research questions, design an experiment, review literature, and collect, analyze and interpret their data. Additionally they learn about uncertainties and strategies for addressing them at various stages of their project. This presentation will describe the work involved in designing, implementing and mentoring students to successfully complete the course requirements and learn scientific research methods. Lessons learned from this course could provide insights to other instructors interested in implementing IBL or other active learning methods in their classroom.

  16. Use of Human Senses as Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Sugawara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of our recent findings obtained by the use of human senses as sensors, suggesting that human senses might be indispensable sensors, not only for practical uses but also for gaining a deeper understanding of humans. From this point of view, two kinds of studies, both based on semantic responses of participants, deserve emphasis. One study assessed the efficacy of the photocatalytic elimination of stains or bio-aerosols from an air environment using TiO2 as well as the photocatalytic deodorizing efficacy of a TiO2-type deodorizer; the other study evaluated the changes in perception of a given aroma while inhaling the fragrance of essential oils. In the latter study, we employed a sensory test for evaluating changes in perception of a given aroma. Sensory tests were conducted twice, when participants were undergoing the Kraepelin mental performance test (mental arithmetic or an auditory task (listening to environmental natural sounds, once before the task (pre-task and once after the task (post-task. The perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives as a function of the task assigned to participants. The obtained findings illustrate subtle nuances regarding how essential oils manifest their potency and how olfactory discrimination and responses occur in humans.

  17. Detection Performance of Compressive Sensing Applied to Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper some results are presented on detection performance of radar using Compressive Sensing. Compressive sensing is a recently developed theory which allows reconstruction of sparse signals with a number of measurements much lower than implied by the Nyquist rate. In this work the behavior

  18. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  19. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  20. Advanced and applied remote sensing of environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.; Marr, David A.; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    "Remote sensing” is a general term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth’s surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of several different aspects of remote sensing science in both the laboratory and from overhead instruments. Spectroscopy is the science of recording interactions of energy and matter and is the bench science for all remote sensing. Visible and infrared analysis in the laboratory with special instruments called spectrometers enables the transfer of this research from the laboratory to multispectral (5–15 broad bands) and hyperspectral (50–300 narrow contiguous bands) analyses from aircraft and satellite sensors. In addition, mid-wave (3–5 micrometers, µm) and long-wave (8–14 µm) infrared data analysis, such as attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectral analysis, are also conducted. ATR is a special form of vibrational infrared spectroscopy that has many applications in chemistry and biology but has recently been shown to be especially diagnostic for vegetation analysis.

  1. Applied Nanotechnology for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanotechnology for human space exploration is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA's Strategic Vision; 2) Exploration Architecture; 3) Future Exploration Mission Requirements Cannot be met with Conventional Materials; 4) Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes; 5) Applied Nanotechnology at JSC: Fundamentals to Applications; 6) Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); 7) Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production; 8) Characterization: Purity, Dispersion and Consistency; 9) Processing; 10) Nanoelectronics: Enabling Technologies; 11) Applications for Human Space Exploration; 12) Exploration Life Support: Atmosphere Revitalization System; 13) Advanced and Exploration Life Support: Regenerable CO2 Removal; 14) Exploration Life Support: Water Recovery; 15) Advanced Life Support: Water Disinfection/Recovery; 16) Power and Energy: Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells; 17) Nanomaterials for EMI Shielding; 18) Active Radiation Dosimeter; 19) Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) Repair; 20) Thermal Radiation and Impact Protection (TRIPS); 21) Nanotechnology: Astronaut Health Management; 22) JSC Nanomaterials Group Collaborations.

  2. Remote sensing techniques applied to seismic vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Arranz, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Hahgi, Azade; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Advances in remote sensing and photogrammetry techniques have increased the degree of accuracy and resolution in the record of the earth's surface. This has expanded the range of possible applications of these data. In this research, we have used these data to document the construction characteristics of the urban environment of Lorca, Spain. An exposure database has been created with the gathered information to be used in seismic vulnerability assessment. To this end, we have used data from photogrammetric flights at different periods, using both orthorectified images in the visible and infrared spectrum. Furthermore, the analysis is completed using LiDAR data. From the combination of these data, it has been possible to delineate the building footprints and characterize the constructions with attributes such as the approximate date of construction, area, type of roof and even building materials. To carry out the calculation, we have developed different algorithms to compare images from different times, segment images, classify LiDAR data, and use the infrared data in order to remove vegetation or to compute roof surfaces with height value, tilt and spectral fingerprint. In addition, the accuracy of our results has been validated with ground truth data. Keywords: LiDAR, remote sensing, seismic vulnerability, Lorca

  3. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1995. 2. Main subject (Part 2. Research and development of an environment compatible indexing technology); 1995 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Honronhen (Kankyo tekigosei shihyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the environment compatible indexing technology, extracted from the achievements in the development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1995. In an experiment to evaluate subjectivity on compatibility to sound and vibration environments, the background sound was presented three-dimensionally by using a composite acoustic environment presenting device. Psychological effects in different acoustic environments were elucidated. In thermal comfort by living scenes of workers according to a human body thermal model, wide applicability of the model was suggested. In analyzing the model for climate inside apparels, the conditions on skin surface derived from the human body thermal model by each time step and the surrounding environmental conditions were used as the boundary condition. Then, calculation was performed on the apparel thermal model, whose result was used as the boundary condition to solve the subsequent steps. In experimenting and verifying the human body thermal model, the hand calorimeter was found capable to measure heat dissipation efficiently, and useful for simulating the body temperature adjusting mechanism. It is also capable of discussing the role of blood flow played in heat dissipation. For the indexes to evaluate composite environmental compatibility, a fuzzy theory was used to analyze subjectivity volume data of the subjects in order to evaluate effects of warm heat, light beam, and acoustic environment on the workability. (NEDO)

  4. Inferring Human Mobility from Sparse Low Accuracy Mobile Sensing Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2014-01-01

    Understanding both collective and personal human mobility is a central topic in Computational Social Science. Smartphone sensing data is emerging as a promising source for studying human mobility. However, most literature focuses on high-precision GPS positioning and high-frequency sampling, which...... is not always feasible in a longitudinal study or for everyday applications because location sensing has a high battery cost. In this paper we study the feasibility of inferring human mobility from sparse, low accuracy mobile sensing data. We validate our results using participants' location diaries......, and analyze the inferred geographical networks, the time spent at different places, and the number of unique places over time. Our results suggest that low resolution data allows accurate inference of human mobility patterns....

  5. Incorporating Applied Undergraduate Research in Senior to Graduate Level Remote Sensing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Richard B.; Unger, Daniel R.; Kulhavy, David L.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2016-01-01

    An Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture (ATCOFA) senior spatial science undergraduate student engaged in a multi-course undergraduate research project to expand his expertise in remote sensing and assess the applied instruction methodology employed within ATCOFA. The project consisted of performing a change detection…

  6. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nexhmedin Morina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using different virtual reality displays. A non-clinical sample of 38 participants was randomly assigned to either a head-mounted display (HMD with motion tracker and sterescopic view condition or a one-screen projection-based virtual reality display condition. Participants in both conditions engaged in free speech dialogues with virtual humans controlled by research assistants. It was hypothesized that exposure to virtual social interactions will elicit moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety in both groups. Further it was expected that participants in the HMD condition will report higher scores of sense of presence and anxiety than participants in the one-screen projection-based display condition. Results revealed that in both conditions virtual social interactions were associated with moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety. Additionally, participants in the HMD condition reported significantly higher levels of presence than those in the one-screen projection-based display condition (p = .001. However, contrary to the expectations neither the average level of anxiety nor the highest level of anxiety during exposure to social virtual environments differed between the groups (p = .97 and p = .75, respectively. The findings suggest that virtual social interactions can be successfully applied in VRET to enhance sense of presence and anxiety. Furthermore, our results indicate that one-screen projection-based displays can successfully activate levels

  7. Delayed feedback applied to breathing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, N. B.; Pototsky, A.; Parkes, C.

    2013-10-01

    We studied the response of healthy volunteers to the delayed feedback generated from the breathing signals. Namely, in the freely-breathing volunteers the breathing signal was recorded, delayed by τ seconds and fed back to the same volunteer in real time in the form of a visual and auditory stimulus of low intensity, i.e. the stimulus was crucially non-intrusive. In each case volunteers were instructed to breathe in the way which was most comfortable for them, and no explanation about the kind of applied stimulus was provided to them. Each volunteer experienced 10 different delay times ranging between 10% and 100% of the average breathing period without external stimulus. It was observed that in a significant proportion of subjects (11 out of 24) breathing was slowed down in the presence of delayed feedback with moderate delay. Also, in 6 objects out of 24 the delayed feedback was able to induce transition from nearly periodic to irregular breathing. These observations are consistent with the phenomena observed in numerical simulation of the models of periodic and chaotic self-oscillations with delays, and also in experiments with simpler self-oscillating systems.

  8. NASA Applied Sciences' DEVELOP Program Fosters the Next Generation of Earth Remote Sensing Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Brozen, Madeline W.; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Silcox, Tracey L.; Rea, Mimi; Holley, Sharon D.; Renneboog, Nathan; Underwood, Lauren W.; Ross, Kenton W.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology and the science associated with the evaluation of the resulting data are constantly evolving. To meet the growing needs related to this industry, a team of personnel that understands the fundamental science as well as the scientific applications related to remote sensing is essential. Therefore, the workforce that will excel in this field requires individuals who not only have a strong academic background, but who also have practical hands-on experience with remotely sensed data, and have developed knowledge of its real-world applications. NASA's DEVELOP Program has played an integral role in fulfilling this need. DEVELOP is a NASA Science Mission Directorate Applied Sciences training and development program that extends the benefits of NASA Earth science research and technology to society.

  9. Cost-Sensitive Bayesian Control Policy in Human Active Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeraz Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller, various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax (Butko and Movellan, 2010 and one-step look-ahead accuracy (greedy MAP (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005. We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of “confirmation bias” apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes several key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model.

  10. Toll-like receptor sensing of human herpesvirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    John A West; Gregory, Sean M.; Damania, Blossom

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved pathogen sensors that constitute the first line of defense in the human immune system. Herpesviruses are prevalent throughout the world and cause significant disease in the human population. Sensing of herpesviruses via TLRs has only been documented in the last 10 years and our understanding of the relationship between these sentinels of the immune system and herpesvirus infection has already provided great insight into how the host cell...

  11. New trends in applied harmonic analysis sparse representations, compressed sensing, and multifractal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrelli, Carlos; Jaffard, Stephane; Molter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a selection of written notes corresponding to courses taught at the CIMPA School: "New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis: Sparse Representations, Compressed Sensing and Multifractal Analysis". New interactions between harmonic analysis and signal and image processing have seen striking development in the last 10 years, and several technological deadlocks have been solved through the resolution of deep theoretical problems in harmonic analysis. New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis focuses on two particularly active areas that are representative of such advances: multifractal analysis, and sparse representation and compressed sensing. The contributions are written by leaders in these areas, and covers both theoretical aspects and applications. This work should prove useful not only to PhD students and postdocs in mathematics and signal and image processing, but also to researchers working in related topics.

  12. On the Basis and Predicament of Applying Organizational Support Theory to Chinese Public Human Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Huali Wu

    2009-01-01

    Organizational Support Theory emphasizes on the concerns and attentions of organizations to employees. It can arouse employees’ a sense of obligation to help organizations to reach objectives, enhancing employees’ emotional commitments to organizations, and make employees dedicate to organizations willingly. At present, this theory has already been studied and applied to Chinese enterprises’ human resource development and management field. But seldom does it be referenced by the public manage...

  13. An implicit body representation underlying human position sense

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Knowing the body's location in external space is a fundamental perceptual task. Perceiving the location of body parts through proprioception requires that information about the angles of each joint (i.e., body posture) be combined with information about the size and shape of the body segments between joints. Although information about body posture is specified by on-line afferent signals, no sensory signals are directly informative about body size and shape. Thus, human position sense must re...

  14. Predicting targets of human reaching motions using different sensing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Domen; Omlin, Ximena; Leins-Hess, Rebecca; Riener, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Rapid recognition of voluntary motions is crucial in human-computer interaction, but few studies compare the predictive abilities of different sensing technologies. This paper thus compares performances of different technologies when predicting targets of human reaching motions: electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography, camera-based eye tracking, electromyography (EMG), hand position, and the user's preferences. Supervised machine learning is used to make predictions at different points in time (before and during limb motion) with each individual sensing modality. Different modalities are then combined using an algorithm that takes into account the different times at which modalities provide useful information. Results show that EEG can make predictions before limb motion onset, but requires subject-specific training and exhibits decreased performance as the number of possible targets increases. EMG and hand position give high accuracy, but only once the motion has begun. Eye tracking is robust and exhibits high accuracy at the very onset of limb motion. Several advantages of combining different modalities are also shown, including advantages of combining measurements with contextual data. Finally, some recommendations are given for sensing modalities with regard to different criteria and applications. The information could aid human-computer interaction designers in selecting and evaluating appropriate equipment for their applications. PMID:23674417

  15. Remote Sensing Image Classification Applied to the First National Geographical Information Census of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Wen, Zongyong; Zhu, Zhaorong; Xia, Qiang; Shun, Lan

    2016-06-01

    Image classification will still be a long way in the future, although it has gone almost half a century. In fact, researchers have gained many fruits in the image classification domain, but there is still a long distance between theory and practice. However, some new methods in the artificial intelligence domain will be absorbed into the image classification domain and draw on the strength of each to offset the weakness of the other, which will open up a new prospect. Usually, networks play the role of a high-level language, as is seen in Artificial Intelligence and statistics, because networks are used to build complex model from simple components. These years, Bayesian Networks, one of probabilistic networks, are a powerful data mining technique for handling uncertainty in complex domains. In this paper, we apply Tree Augmented Naive Bayesian Networks (TAN) to texture classification of High-resolution remote sensing images and put up a new method to construct the network topology structure in terms of training accuracy based on the training samples. Since 2013, China government has started the first national geographical information census project, which mainly interprets geographical information based on high-resolution remote sensing images. Therefore, this paper tries to apply Bayesian network to remote sensing image classification, in order to improve image interpretation in the first national geographical information census project. In the experiment, we choose some remote sensing images in Beijing. Experimental results demonstrate TAN outperform than Naive Bayesian Classifier (NBC) and Maximum Likelihood Classification Method (MLC) in the overall classification accuracy. In addition, the proposed method can reduce the workload of field workers and improve the work efficiency. Although it is time consuming, it will be an attractive and effective method for assisting office operation of image interpretation.

  16. Applying remote sensing to invasive species science—A tamarisk example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. This fact sheet considers the invasive plant species tamarisk (Tamarix spp), addressing three fundamental questions: *Where is it now? *What are the potential or realized ecological impacts of invasion? *Where can it survive and thrive if introduced? It provides peer-review examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey, working with other federal agencies and university partners, are applying remote-sensing technologies to address these key questions.

  17. The Application of NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    With the help of satellites, the Earth's environment can be monitored from a distance. Earth observing satellites and sensors collect data and survey patterns that supply important information about the environment relating to its affect on human health. Combined with ground data, such patterns and remote sensing data can be essential to public health applications. Remote sensing technology is providing information that can help predict factors that affect human health, such as disease, drought, famine, and floods. A number of public health concerns that affect Earth's human population are part of the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Applications Plan to provide remotely gathered data to public health decision-makers to aid in forming and implementing policy to protect human health and preserve well-being. These areas of concern are: air quality; water quality; weather and climate change; infectious, zoonotic, and vector-borne disease; sunshine; food resource security; and health risks associated with the built environment. Collaborations within the Earth Science Applications Plan join local, state, national, or global organizations and agencies as partners. These partnerships engage in projects that strive to understand the connection between the environment and health. The important outcome is to put this understanding to use through enhancement of decision support tools that aid policy and management decisions on environmental health risks. Future plans will further employ developed models in formats that are compatible and accessible to all public health organizations.

  18. Lessons learned from Applying Human Factor Engineering Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeonsub; Kang, Sungkon; Kim, Jung ho [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Development of products requires lots of activities such as requirements analysis, risk management, available technology, quality management, V and V, human resources management, configuration management. HFE program and qualification program are one of them. Some activities are covered by both HFE and QA programs. Therefore some nuclear power plants have a team to handle both HFE and QA, and other nuclear power plants separate teams. HFE program has been applied to construction nuclear power plants. Each element of HFE program is planned and implemented with report. Due to this effort Korean engineers have considered HFE as useful process. NUREG-0711 has been applied to constructing nuclear power plants. Advantages of NUREG-0711 are to create a common framework for human factor activities, and to provide method to apply human factors. These days there are movement to revise the guideline.

  19. Lessons learned from Applying Human Factor Engineering Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of products requires lots of activities such as requirements analysis, risk management, available technology, quality management, V and V, human resources management, configuration management. HFE program and qualification program are one of them. Some activities are covered by both HFE and QA programs. Therefore some nuclear power plants have a team to handle both HFE and QA, and other nuclear power plants separate teams. HFE program has been applied to construction nuclear power plants. Each element of HFE program is planned and implemented with report. Due to this effort Korean engineers have considered HFE as useful process. NUREG-0711 has been applied to constructing nuclear power plants. Advantages of NUREG-0711 are to create a common framework for human factor activities, and to provide method to apply human factors. These days there are movement to revise the guideline

  20. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  1. Sharing NASA Science with Decision Makers: A Perspective from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, A. I.; Blevins, B.; Hook, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA ARSET http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support. The program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The target audience for the program are professionals engaged in environmental management in the public and private sectors, such as air quality forecasters, public utilities, water managers and non-governmental organizations engaged in conservation. Many program participants have little or no expertise in NASA remote sensing, and it's frequently their very first exposure to NASA's vast resources. One the key challenges for the program has been the evolution and refinement of its approach to communicating NASA data access, research, and ultimately its value to stakeholders. We discuss ARSET's best practices for sharing NASA science, which include 1) training ARSET staff and other NASA scientists on methods for science communication, 2) communicating the proper amount of scientific information at a level that is commensurate with the technical skills of program participants, 3) communicating the benefit of NASA resources to stakeholders, and 4) getting to know the audience and tailoring the message so that science information is conveyed within the context of agencies' unique environmental challenges.

  2. NASA Applied Sciences' DEVELOP National Program: Training the Next Generation of Remote Sensing Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lauren; Brozen, Madeline; Hillyer, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception over a decade ago, the DEVELOP National Program has provided students with experience in utilizing and integrating satellite remote sensing data into real world-applications. In 1998, DEVELOP began with three students and has evolved into a nationwide internship program with over 200 students participating each year. DEVELOP is a NASA Applied Sciences training and development program extending NASA Earth science research and technology to society. Part of the NASA Science Mission Directorate s Earth Science Division, the Applied Sciences Program focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public by conducting projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to research environmental issues. Project outcomes focus on assisting communities to better understand environmental change over time. This is accomplished through research with global, national, and regional partners to identify the widest array of practical uses of NASA data. DEVELOP students conduct research in areas that examine how NASA science can better serve society. Projects focus on practical applications of NASA s Earth science research results. Each project is designed to address at least one of the Applied Sciences focus areas, use NASA s Earth observation sources and meet partners needs. DEVELOP research teams partner with end-users and organizations who use project results for policy analysis and decision support, thereby extending the benefits of NASA science and technology to the public.

  3. Study description of ExternE Project and the EcoSense Tool applied to Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work an overview of the Extern Project in Brazil that has been conducted by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is presented. To perform part of this evaluation study is used a version of the Eco Sense software developed by the Institute for Energy Economy and Rational Energy Application of University of Stuttgart to be applied to Brazil and other countries of South America and part of Central America. An important feature of this study is to establish a local and regional data bank with environmental and social parameters around Brazil and other countries to estimate the externalities of energy that will be introduced due to the new generation units that are planned to be built during the next years to provide an increase of electricity availability to support the economy growth. (author)

  4. An applied research on remote sensing classification in the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Due to complex terrain of the Loess Plateau, the classification accuracy is unsatisfactory when a single supervised classification is used in the remote sensing investigation of the sloping field. Taking the loess hill and gully area of northern Shaanxi Province as a test area, a research was conducted to extract sloping field and other land use categories by applying an integrated classification. Based on an integration of supervised classification and unsupervised classification, sampling method is remarkably improved. The results show that the classification accuracy is satisfactory by the method and is of critical significance in obtaining up-to-date information of the sloping field, which should be helpful in the state key project of converting fiumland to forest and grassland on slope land in this area. This research sought to improve the appfication accuracy of image classification in complex terrain areas.

  5. Applying remote sensing and GIS for chimpanzee habitat change detection, behaviour and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintea, Lilian

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), our closest living relatives, are declining alarmingly in abundance and distribution all across Africa. Clearing of forests and woodlands has one of the most rapid and devastating impacts, leaving chimpanzees in isolated, small populations that face edge effects and elevated risk of extinction. Satellite imagery could be a powerful tool to map chimpanzee habitats and threats at the landscape scale even in the most remote, difficult to access areas. However, few applications exist to demonstrate how remote sensing methods can be used in Africa for chimpanzee research and conservation in practice. In chapter one, I investigate the use of Landsat MSS and ETM+ satellite imagery to monitor dry tropical forests and miombo woodlands change between 1972-1999 inside and outside Gombe National Park, Tanzania. I show that canopy cover increased in the northern and middle parts of the park but with severe canopy loss outside protected area. Deforestation has had unequal effects on the three chimpanzee communities inside the park. The Kasekela chimpanzees have been least affected by canopy loss outside the park. In contrast, the Mitumba and Kalande communities have likely lost key range areas. In chapter two, I use 25 years of data on Gombe chimpanzees to investigate to what extent vegetation variables detected from multi-temporal satellite images can be applied to understand changes in chimpanzee feeding and party size. NDVI positively correlated with the time chimpanzees spent feeding but had no affect on the average number of adult males in the party. Instead the number of males in the party increased with proximity to hostile neighboring communities. In chapter three, I use Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery as the basis for Threat Reduction Assessment to evaluate conservation outcomes of a ten year community based conservation project in Tanzania. The findings suggest that the remote sensing methods applied in this study could provide new

  6. The Concept of Human Functional State in Russian Applied Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Leonova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human functional states (HFS is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.

  7. THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN FUNCTIONAL STATE IN RUSSIAN APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Anna B. Leonova

    2009-01-01

    The concept of human functional states (HFS) is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers states are discussed. Three diff erent strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplifi ed with the help of two empirical studies conce...

  8. Age-related changes in the joint position sense of the human hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewski R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobias Kalisch,1,2,* Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth,2,* Rebecca Kowalewski,2 Martin Tegenthoff,1 Hubert R Dinse21Department of Neurology, BG-Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Neural Plasticity Lab, Institute for Neuroinformatics, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Age-related changes in lower limb joint position sense and their contributions to postural stability are well documented. In contrast, only a few studies have investigated the effect of age on proprioceptive hand function. Here, we introduce a novel test for measuring joint position sense in the fingers of the human hand. In a concurrent matching task, subjects had to detect volume differences between polystyrene balls grasped with their dominant (seven test stimuli: 126–505 cm3 and their nondominant hand (three reference stimuli: 210, 294, and 505 cm3. A total of 21 comparisons were performed to assess the number of errors, the weight of errors (ie, the volume difference between test and reference stimuli, and the direction of errors (ie, over- or underestimation of test stimulus. The test was applied to 45 healthy subjects aged 21 to 79 years. Our results revealed that all variables changed significantly with age, with the number of errors showing the strongest increase. We also assessed tactile acuity (two-point discrimination thresholds and sensorimotor performance (pegboard performance in a subset of subjects, but these scores did not correlate with joint position sense performance, indicating that the test reveals specific information about joint position sense that is not captured with pure sensory or motor tests. The average test–retest reliability assessed on 3 consecutive days was 0.8 (Cronbach's alpha. Our results demonstrate that this novel test reveals age-related decline in joint position sense acuity that is independent from sensorimotor performance.Keywords: aging, hand

  9. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. [TECNATOM SA, BWR General Electric Business Manager, Madrid (Spain); Valdivia, J.C. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Project Manager, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Div. Manager, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  10. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  11. Applied satellite remote sensing to runoff analysis: Through the effective depth of soil layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thickness of the soil layers in which tree roots are able to develop freely influences forest composition and growth. Trees growing in shallow soil are usually less well supplied with water and mineral nutrients than those growing in deeper soil. A soil may be deep in an absolute sense but, because of a relatively impervious layer, such as hardpan or because of a high water-table, may be shallow in a physiological sense. Penetrability measurements have been found useful in evaluating the influence of different forest types on the physical properties of soils. Commonly the penetrability of soils can be measured by using the Hasegawa-formed soil penetrometer and can be judged as the soil softness content (SSC). Previous studies report soil with more than 1.9 cm/drop of SSC to be highly permeable and therefore roots are more likely to be extensively developed. Based upon this theory the depth of soil layer with more than 1.9 cm/drop of SSC can be defined as the Effective Depth of Soil Layer (EDSL). We examined the relationship between the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and the EDSL and established a 'Runoff Simulation Model (RSM)' based upon the theory of the Storage Function Model method. The conclusions are that (1) a strong positive correlation between the RVI (ground measured) and the EDSL was given, (2) applying results of conclusion (1) to satellite analysis a similar correlation between the RVI (satellite analysis of JERS 1/OPS data) and the EDSL was observed and (3) the simulated storm-runoff hydro graph coincides with the observed one well

  12. Tracking the Evolution of Smartphone Sensing for Monitoring Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario, Michael B; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2015-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the "smartphone", a new class of device with more advanced connectivity features that have quickly made it a constant presence in our lives. Smartphones are equipped with comparatively advanced computing capabilities, a global positioning system (GPS) receivers, and sensing capabilities (i.e., an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and more recently magnetometer and barometer) which can be found in wearable ambulatory monitors (WAMs). As a result, algorithms initially developed for WAMs that "count" steps (i.e., pedometers); gauge physical activity levels; indirectly estimate energy expenditure and monitor human movement can be utilised on the smartphone. These algorithms may enable clinicians to "close the loop" by prescribing timely interventions to improve or maintain wellbeing in populations who are at risk of falling or suffer from a chronic disease whose progression is linked to a reduction in movement and mobility. The ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology makes it the ideal platform from which human movement can be remotely monitored without the expense of purchasing, and inconvenience of using, a dedicated WAM. In this paper, an overview of the sensors that can be found in the smartphone are presented, followed by a summary of the developments in this field with an emphasis on the evolution of algorithms used to classify human movement. The limitations identified in the literature will be discussed, as well as suggestions about future research directions. PMID:26263998

  13. Applied human factors research at the NASA Johnson Space Center Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Marianne; Mckay, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    The applied human factors research program performed at the NASA Johnson Space Center's Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory is discussed. Research is conducted to advance knowledge in human interaction with computer systems during space crew tasks. In addition, the Laboratory is directly involved in the specification of the human-computer interface (HCI) for space systems in development (e.g., Space Station Freedom) and is providing guidelines and support for HCI design to current and future space missions.

  14. The Study of Mining Activities and their Influences in the Almaden Region Applying Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This scientific-technical report is a part of an ongoing research work carried out by Celia Rico Fraile in order to obtain the Diploma of Advanced Studies as part of her PhD studies. This work has been developed in collaboration with the Faculty of Science at The Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. The main objective of this work was the characterization and classification of land use in Almaden (Ciudad Real) during cinnabar mineral exploitation and after mining activities ceased in 2002, developing a methodology focused on the integration of remote sensing techniques applying multispectral and hyper spectral satellite data. By means of preprocessing and processing of data from the satellite images as well as data obtained from field campaigns, a spectral library was compiled in order to obtain representative land surfaces within the study area. Monitoring results show that the distribution of areas affected by mining activities is rapidly diminishing in recent years. (Author) 130 refs

  15. Three Dimensional Remote Sensing of Vegetation in Human Landscapes Using Computer Vision Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandois, J.; Ellis, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    Urban and other populated and used landscapes today cover a greater extent globally than do wild ecosystems. Methods for accurate ecological measurements on their vegetation and other ecological properties are therefore essential for ecology and earth science. Yet human landscapes are characterized by complex mosaics of vegetation and built structures that are heterogeneous at very fine spatial scales, therefore defying ecological measurements by conventional two dimensional remote sensing techniques, even when these are applied at fine spatial scales. To better measure and understand human-environment interactions within densely populated landscapes, high-spatial resolution three dimensional (3D) remote sensing techniques are needed. Current methods of remote sensing from aerial and satellite platforms are able to resolve land cover and three-dimensional structure using a combination of passive and active sensor technologies (e.g., optical imagers and LIDAR sensors). Despite such advances, there remain substantial gaps in knowledge about the distribution and biological characteristics of vegetation across all regions of earth, especially in densely populated environments. Here we present new methods for very fine scale 3D remote sensing of vegetation structure using computer vision techniques applied to standard digital photographs taken from consumer grade digital cameras mounted on low-altitude aerial platforms. Computer vision algorithms are used to produce 3D geometry from overlapping images, generating datasets very similar to LIDAR point clouds, and useful for measuring vegetation structure characteristics like canopy structure and tree height. These are then used to estimate vegetation biophysical characteristics like canopy density and biomass. Preliminary results demonstrate that this approach offers great promise as a tool for obtaining ecological measurements such as canopy height and vegetation form at the scale of individual trees in a low-cost and

  16. Human-Machine Systems concepts applied to Control Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Marangé, Pascale; Gellot, François; Riera, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we interest us to Human-Machine Systems (HMS) concepts applied to Education. It is shown how the HMS framework enables to propose original solution in matter of education in the field of control engineering. We focus on practical courses on control of manufacturing systems. The proposed solution is based on an original use of real and large-scale systems instead of simulation. The main idea is to enable the student, whatever his/her level to control the whole system, from novic...

  17. Quantitive analysis of human senses with measurement technology; Keisoku gijutsu kara mita ningen kankaku teiryoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, K.; Hayasaka, Y.; Horiuchi, E. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    It is expected that need to measure human senses will increase when aging society comes. Analysis of human senses is thought to be difficult because of dispersion and uncertainty. But it is possible to reduce uncertainty with the measurement technology. This paper describes some examples of the analitical studies. (author)

  18. Apply an Augmented Reality in a Mobile Guidance to Increase Sense of Place for Heritage Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Lien; Hou, Huei-Tse; Pan, Chao-Yang; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-01-01

    Based on the sense of place theory and the design principles of guidance and interpretation, this study developed an augmented reality mobile guidance system that used a historical geo-context-embedded visiting strategy. This tool for heritage guidance and educational activities enhanced visitor sense of place. This study consisted of 3 visitor…

  19. Observing the Earth from an Astronaut's View - Applied Remote Sensing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienow, Andreas; Hodam, Henryk; Menz, Gunter; Kerstin, Voß

    2015-04-01

    Since spring 2014, NASA conducts the High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) mission at the International Space Station (ISS). HDEV consists of four cameras mounted at ESA's Columbus laboratory. They continuously observe our earth in three different perspectives. Hence, they provide not only footage showing the Sun and the Moon rising and setting but also regular images of landscapes that are difficult to access, such as mountain ranges, deserts, and tropical rainforests. The German educational project "Columbus Eye", which is executed by the University of Bonn and is funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), aims at the implementation of the HDEV imagery and videos in a teaching portal: www.columbuseye.uni-bonn.de. Pupils should be motivated to work with the footage in order to learn about pattern and processes of the coupled human-environment system like volcano eruptions or deforestation. The material is developed on the experiences of the FIS (German abbreviation for "Remote Sensing in Schools") project and its learning portal (www.fis.uni-bonn.de/en). Recognizing that in-depth use of satellite imagery can only be achieved by the means of computer aided learning methods, a sizeable number of e-Learning contents in German and English have been created throughout the last 7 years since FIS' kickoff. The talk presents the educational valorization of ISS and satellite borne imagery data as well as their interactive implementation for teachers and pupils in both learning portals. It will be shown which possibilities the topic of earth observation from space holds ready for teaching the regular STEM curricula. A report of first experiences of a nationwide road show accompanying the mission of the ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst will be given. Among others it involved an event during which pupils from a secondary school in North Rhine-Westphalia have talked to the astronaut via ham radio. Accordingly, the presentation addresses the question of how synergies of human

  20. Applying remote sensing and GIS techniques in solving rural county information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Chris J.; Fernandez, R. Norberto; Lozano-Garcia, D. Fabian

    1992-01-01

    The project designed was to acquaint county government officials and their clientele with remote sensing and GIS products that contain information about land conditions and land use. Other users determined through the course of this project were federal agencies working at the county level, agricultural businesses and others in need of spatial information. The specific project objectives were: (1) to investigate the feasibility of using remotely sensed data to identify and quantify specific land cover categories and conditions for purposes of tax assessment, cropland area measurements and land use evaluation; (2) to investigate the use of satellite remote sensing data as an aid in assessing soil management practices; and (3) to evaluate the use of remotely sensed data to assess soil resources and conditions which affect productivity.

  1. Surface-bounded growth modeling applied to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1999-01-01

    pointing more upward. The full dataset consists of 31 mandibles from six patients. Each patient is longitudinally CT scanned between three and seven times. Age range is 1 month to 12 years old for the scans. Growth modeling consists of three overall steps: 1.extraction of features. 2.registration of the...... old mandible based on the 3 month old scan. When using successively more recent scans as basis for the model the error drops to 2.0 mm for the 11 years old scan. Thus, it seems reasonable to assume that the mandibular growth is linear.......This thesis presents mathematical and computational techniques for three dimensional growth modeling applied to human mandibles. The longitudinal shape changes make the mandible a complex bone. The teeth erupt and the condylar processes change direction, from pointing predominantly backward to...

  2. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran B Vosika

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1 Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2 Cole equation, and 3 Constant Phase Element (CPE. These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects.

  3. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosika, Zoran B; Lazovic, Goran M; Misevic, Gradimir N; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B

    2013-01-01

    Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. PMID:23577065

  4. On the feasibility of benefit-cost analysis applied to remote sensing projects. [California water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewitz, L.

    1973-01-01

    The following step-wise procedure for making a benefit-cost analysis of using remote sensing techniques could be used either in the limited context of California water resources, or a context as broad as the making of integrated resource surveys of the entire earth resource complex on a statewide, regional, national, or global basis. (1) Survey all data collection efforts which can be accomplished by remote sensing techniques. (2) Carefully inspect the State of California budget and the Budget of the United States Government to find annual cost of data collection efforts. (3) Decide the extent to which remote sensing can obviate each of the collection efforts. (4) Sum the annual costs of all data collection which can be equivalently accomplished through remote sensing. (5) Decide what additional data could and would be collected through remote sensing. (6) Estimate the value of this information. It is not harmful to do a benefit-cost analysis so long as its severe limitations are recalled and it is supplemented with socio-economic impact studies.

  5. Remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral recognition of the Aranjuez pilot zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, G. L.; Salinas, J.; Rebollo, M.

    1977-01-01

    A rectangular (7 x 14 km) area 40 km S of Madrid was remote-sensed with a three-stage recognition process. Ground truth was established in the first phase, airborne sensing with a multispectral scanner and photographic cameras were used in the second phase, and Landsat satellite data were obtained in the third phase. Agronomic and hydrological photointerpretation problems are discussed. Color, black/white, and labeled areas are displayed for crop recognition in the land-use survey; turbidity, concentrations of pollutants and natural chemicals, and densitometry of the water are considered in the evaluation of water resources.

  6. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  7. Developmental and Cognitive Perspectives on Humans' Sense of the Times of Past and Future Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mental time travel in human adults includes a sense of when past events occurred and future events are expected to occur. Studies with adults and children reveal that a number of distinct psychological processes contribute to a temporally differentiated sense of the past and future. Adults possess representations of multiple time patterns, and…

  8. Capturing the fugitive: Applying remote sensing to terrestrial animal distribution and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyequien Abarca, E.; Verrelst, J.; Slot, M.; Schaepman-Strub, G.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Amongst many ongoing initiatives to preserve biodiversity, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment again shows the importance to slow down the loss of biological diversity. However, there is still a gap in the overview of global patterns of species distributions. This paper reviews how remote sensing ha

  9. Ubiquitous Geo-Sensing for Context-Aware Analysis: Exploring Relationships between Environmental and Human Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Beinat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet. In this paper we analyzed the collective human behavior in the context of the weather. We therefore explored the complex relationships between these two spatio-temporal phenomena to provide novel insights into the dynamics of urban systems. Aggregated mobile phone data, which served as a proxy for collective human behavior, was linked with the weather data from climate stations in the case study area, the city of Udine, Northern Italy. To identify and characterize potential patterns within the weather-human relationships, we developed a hybrid approach which integrates several spatio-temporal statistical analysis methods. Thereby we show that explanatory factor analysis, when applied to a number of meteorological variables, can be used to differentiate between normal and adverse weather conditions. Further, we measured the strength of the relationship between the ‘global’ adverse weather conditions and the spatially explicit effective variations in user-generated mobile network traffic for three distinct periods using the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC. The analyses result in three spatially referenced maps of MICs which reveal interesting insights into collective human dynamics in the context of weather, but also initiate several new scientific challenges.

  10. UAV Flight Experiments Applied to the Remote Sensing of Vegetated Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Salamí

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The miniaturization of electronics, computers and sensors has created new opportunities for remote sensing applications. Despite the current restrictions on regulation, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with small thermal, laser or spectral sensors has emerged as a promising alternative for assisting modeling, mapping and monitoring applications in rangelands, forests and agricultural environments. This review provides an overview of recent research that has reported UAV flight experiments on the remote sensing of vegetated areas. To provide a differential trend to other reviews, this paper is not limited to crops and precision agriculture applications, but also includes forest and rangeland applications. This work follows a top-down categorization strategy and attempts to fill the gap between application requirements and the characteristics of selected tools, payloads and platforms. Furthermore, correlations between common requirements and the most frequently used solutions are highlighted.

  11. Theory of radiative transfer models applied in optical remote sensing of vegetation canopies.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, W.

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis the work of the author on the modelling of radiative transfer in vegetation canopies and the terrestrial atmosphere is summarized. The activities span a period of more than fifteen years of research in this field carried out at the National Aerospace Laboratory NLR.For the interpretation of optical remote sensing observations of vegetation canopies from satellites or aircraft the use of simulation models can be an important tool, as these models give insight in the relations be...

  12. A Nonlinear Multiparameters Temperature Error Modeling and Compensation of POS Applied in Airborne Remote Sensing System

    OpenAIRE

    Jianli Li; Wenjian Wang; Feng Jiao; Jiancheng Fang; Tao Yu

    2014-01-01

    The position and orientation system (POS) is a key equipment for airborne remote sensing systems, which provides high-precision position, velocity, and attitude information for various imaging payloads. Temperature error is the main source that affects the precision of POS. Traditional temperature error model is single temperature parameter linear function, which is not sufficient for the higher accuracy requirement of POS. The traditional compensation method based on neural network faces gre...

  13. BASICS FOR APPLYING A CONTEMPORARY CONCEPT FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Camilovic, Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    In the process of organizational adaptation to environmental demands, primarily through the anticipated outputs, human resources play a key role. The procuring of necessary human resources, their working commitment and development, are the basic assignments of the management of human resources. The appliance of a contemporary concept of management of human resources, based on theoretical and practical cognizance of successful organizations, contributes to a successful execution of these an...

  14. Applying Human Performance Technology While Staying out of Trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Edward W.

    2003-01-01

    Human performance technology is a collection of techniques for evaluating and designing human performance systems. It isn't a philosophy, a moral imperative, or a way of life. When technologists promote as more than what it is, they jeopardize their credibility and distort their own roles as performance engineers. (Author)

  15. Nerveless and gutsy: intestinal nutrient sensing from invertebrates to humans

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly recognized role of gastrointestinal signals in the regulation of food intake, insulin production and peripheral nutrient storage has prompted a surge of interest in studying how the gastrointestinal tract senses and responds to nutritional information. Identification of metabolically important intestinal nutrient sensors could provide potential new drug targets for the treatment of diabetes, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders. From a more fundamental perspective, the stud...

  16. Applying moving boundary to compute the alluvium transport and testing the results by remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Thi Thuy Nga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To compute the alluvium transport, we use a current model based on a 2D finite-difference grid and a sediment transport model. The first one gives the velocity distribution on the surface of water body and in the case of transient analysis, the velocity distribution is computed at each computational time step. This velocity distribution will be taken as the input for the second model. There are twoimportant problems solved in this research: using moving boundary to get more correct results and testing the results by remote sensing. The models were used to compute the alluvium transport in Ca Maucoastal zone. The resonableness in the transport trend of alluvium shows that those models are confident.

  17. AN APPLIED RESEARCH ON APPROACH OF DYADIC WAVELET TRANSFORM FOR REMOTE SENSING IMAGE EDGE DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Wei; Xing Guangzhong; Hou Lantian; Qin Qiming; Wang Wenjun

    2006-01-01

    In the edge detection of Remote Sensing (RS) image, the useful detail losing and the spurious edge often appear. To solve the problem, the authors uses the dyadic wavelet to detect the edge of surface features by combining the edge detecting with the multi-resolution analyzing of the wavelet transform. Via the dyadic wavelet decomposing, the RS image of a certain appropriate scale is obtained, and the edge data of the plane and the upright directions are respectively figured out, then the gradient vector module of the surface features is worked out. By tracing them, the authors get the edge data of the object, therefore build the RS image which obtains the checked edge. This method can depress the effect of noise and examine exactly the edge data of the object by rule and line. With an experiment of an RS image which obtains an airport, the authors certificate the feasibility of the application of dyadic wavelet in the object edge detection.

  18. Spatial and Temporal knowledge representation techniques for traditional machine learning classifiers applied to remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.

    2005-12-01

    Formulating general hypotheses from limited observations is one of the fundamental principles of scientific discovery. The data mining approach consists, among others, in generating new knowledge analyzing massive amounts of data and using background knowledge. Knowledge representation is one of the fundamental topics of data mining, because the representation language dictates which algorithms to use, as well as the effective usefulness of the learned hypotheses. Programs that use richer representation languages have the advantage of generating hypotheses that are compact and easy to understand, and the disadvantage of being more complex, slower and ususally with more control parameters. On the other hand, programs that use simpler representaiton languages overcome these shortcomings, but fail to generate hypotheses that can be easily interpreted and used for problem solving and decision making. Symbolic machine learning methods, such as decision rule classifiers, use a complex representation language which can be used to describe difficult concepts, and allow to cope with spatial and temporal data, such as remote sensing data. Because data are usually collected as a sequence of observations over time and in specific locations, very often it is necessary to find relations not only in the data per se, but also in the temporal and spatial distribution of the observations. Due to the increasingly large amount of spatial and temporal data collected and analyzed in several fields such as remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS), bioinformatics, medicine, bank transactions, etc, spatial and temporal knowledge representaion has become a problem of crucial importance. Present research investigates methods to use existing symbolic machine learning classifiers with temporal and spatial data. The data are converted in a representation language which is suitable to learn spatial and temporal relationship without modifying the existing algorithms. Results from

  19. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 multiplication by antisense and sense RNA expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, S; Van Brunschot, A; Asad, S.; van der Elst, I; Read, S. E.; Bernstein, A

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primarily infects CD4+ lymphocytes and macrophages and causes AIDS in humans. Retroviral vectors allowing neomycin phosphotransferase (npt) gene expression were engineered to express 5' sequences of HIV-1 RNA in the antisense or sense orientation and used to transform the human CD4+ lymphocyte-derived MT4 cell line. Cells expressing antisense or sense RNA to the HIV-1 tat mRNA leader sequence, as part of the 3' untranslated region of the npt mRNA, r...

  20. Microstructured polymeric substrates applied to human stem cells studies

    OpenAIRE

    Grespan, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the capability to differentiate into specialized cells and to subdivide indefinitely to produce more stem cells. Studies on human stem cells represent a powerful method to analyze biological and physiological processes specific of human cells, as well as for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapies. When these studies are performed in vitro it is important to take in account that cellular processes such as adhesion, migration...

  1. Humans Need Not Apply: Robotization of Kepler Planet Candidate Vetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jeffrey; Mullally, Fergal; Thompson, Susan E.; Kepler Team

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the vast majority of Kepler planet candidate vetting has been performed by a dedicated team of humans. While human expertise has been invaluable in understanding the nuances of Kepler data, human vetting is very time-consuming and can be inconsistent. Over 20,000 threshold crossing events have been produced by the latest pipeline run on all 17 quarters of Kepler mission data, and many more artificial planet transits have been injected to estimate completeness. Given these large numbers, human vetting is no longer feasible on a reasonable time-scale, and would be difficult to characterize. We have created automated vetting programs known as "robovetters" that are specifically designed to mimic the decision-making process employed by the humans. They analyze both the light curve and pixel-level data in order to produce specific reasons for identifying false positives. We present benchmark tests on the Q1-Q16 Kepler planet catalog, which was vetted by humans, and present preliminary robovetter results based on a recent transit-search of the newly reprocessed Q1-Q17 data set.

  2. Automatic Domain Adaptation of Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Sublanguage Semantic Schemata Applied to Clinical Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Domain adaptation of natural language processing systems is challenging because it requires human expertise. While manual effort is effective in creating a high quality knowledge base, it is expensive and time consuming. Clinical text adds another layer of complexity to the task due to privacy and confidentiality restrictions that hinder the…

  3. Digital imaging and remote sensing image generator (DIRSIG) as applied to NVESD sensor performance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kimberly E.; Choi, Hee-sue S.; Kaur, Balvinder; Olson, Jeffrey T.; Hill, Clayton F.; Hutchinson, James A.

    2016-05-01

    The US Army's Communications Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (referred to as NVESD) is developing a virtual detection, recognition, and identification (DRI) testing methodology using simulated imagery as a means of augmenting the field testing component of sensor performance evaluation, which is expensive, resource intensive, time consuming, and limited to the available target(s) and existing atmospheric visibility and environmental conditions at the time of testing. Existing simulation capabilities such as the Digital Imaging Remote Sensing Image Generator (DIRSIG) and NVESD's Integrated Performance Model Image Generator (NVIPM-IG) can be combined with existing detection algorithms to reduce cost/time, minimize testing risk, and allow virtual/simulated testing using full spectral and thermal object signatures, as well as those collected in the field. NVESD has developed an end-to-end capability to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Simple detection algorithms have been used on the degraded images generated by NVIPM-IG to determine the relative performance of the algorithms on both DIRSIG-simulated and collected images. Evaluating the degree to which the algorithm performance agrees between simulated versus field collected imagery is the first step in validating the simulated imagery procedure.

  4. Properties of combined TiN and Pt thin films applied to gas sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Aabom, A E; Eriksson, M; Twesten, R D

    2002-01-01

    TiN was introduced as a part of the sensing layer of gas sensitive metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. Three types of metallic gate layer structures deposited by magnetron sputtering were investigated: TiN, a double layer with Pt on top of TiN, and two-phase Pt-TiN films formed by co-sputtering. The homogeneity of the co-sputtered layer was strongly dependent on the substrate temperature during film growth, with segregation of Pt as a result of high temperature deposition. During the deposition conditions in this work, Pt and TiN appear to be immiscible, resulting in growth of films consisting of the two phases. Furthermore, surface oxidation of TiN and enhanced oxidation of TiN at the grain boundaries to Pt in both the as-deposited films after exposure to atmosphere at room temperature and the films subjected to MIS device processing and to gas response analyses at a temperature of 140 deg. C resulted in a three-phase TiN-TiO sub x -Pt system. A segregation of Pt to the growth surface was observed d...

  5. Best Practices for Improving Capacity Building Outcomes through Professional Training: Insights from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, B.; Mehta, A. V.; Gupta, P.; Prados, A. I.; McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program (ARSET), http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov, has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. To date, the program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support, and to help end-users navigate through the vast, freely available and open data resources. We discuss ARSET's best practices and training approach to improved data access and application of NASA satellite and model data for air quality, water resources, disasters, land, and wildfire management. ARSET follows an iterative approach where the end user community is engaged and data needs input is solicited throughout the training process. End-user data needs and feedback are also incorporated into current and future training content and communicated to NASA Applied Sciences Program principal investigators and data centers responsible for developing NASA tools, portals, data formats, and other data delivery structures. ARSET's success has relied upon 1) targeting outreach to applied science professionals both as training participants and collaborators in developing training activities 2) developing training content tailored to a specific to community's decision support activities and unique environmental challenges 3) promoting interactive forums during trainings to capture and assess end-user needs 4) training scientists within the program in science communication 5) adopting a contextualized gradual learning approach through online and hands-on instruction, and 6) conducting program evaluation, used to assess the benefit of ARSET to program participants and to plan and adapt future training content, methods, and outreach activities.

  6. Stimulating and Sensing Network Inside the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Schulman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The Alfred Mann Foundation is developing a network of up to 850 injectable devices that have stimulating, sensing and communication capabilities. Each of the devices is coordinated via radio signals a hundred times a second by an external small module. All the devices are powered by lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The stimulating, sensing, and communication circuits are designed to be highly power efficient to maximize battery life. The stimulator can be programmed to deliver pulses in the range: 5 µA to 20 mA, 7 µs to 2000 µs, and frequencies up to 4000 Hz. Bursting, ramping, and other stimulation features are included. The voltage sensor covers the range 10 µV to 1.0 V with bandpass filtering and data analysis. The implant also contains sensors for pressure, temperature, DC magnetic field, and distances between implants.

  7. Artificial intelligence in medicine: humans need not apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprose, William; Buist, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly growing field with a wide range of applications. Driven by economic constraints and the potential to reduce human error, we believe that over the coming years AI will perform a significant amount of the diagnostic and treatment decision-making traditionally performed by the doctor. Humans would continue to be an important part of healthcare delivery, but in many situations, less expensive fit-for-purpose healthcare workers could be trained to 'fill the gaps' where AI are less capable. As a result, the role of the doctor as an expensive problem-solver would become redundant. PMID:27349266

  8. New optical sensing system applied to taut wire based straightness measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Borisov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    In modern manufacturing industry, precision components are typically produced on Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machine tools which translate their accuracy onto machined parts. This accuracy is affected by a set of different motion errors caused by inherent imperfections in the design and build of the machine, variations in the local environment such as temperature, the cutting process itself and human factors. The reduction of these effects is achieved primarily through design improvem...

  9. Construction and transfection of sense/antisense eukaryotic expression vectors for human cathepsin L gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maolin He; Anmin Chen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To obtain sense/antisense eukaryotic expression vectors for human cathepsin L gene, and study the biological effects on human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 after transfection. Methods: Cathepsin L gene sense/antisense eukaryotic expression vectors were constructed with recombinant technology and transfected into the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. The expression of cathepsin L gene mRNA was examined with RT-PCR and the expression of cathepsin L was examined with Western blot. Results: The sense/antisense recombinant eukaryotic expression vectors for cathepsin L were successfully constructed and transfected into MG-63 cell.Conclusion: Antisense cathepsin L gene can significantly inhibit the expression of cathepsin L mRNA and protein.

  10. A sense of the mysterious science and the human spirit

    CERN Document Server

    Lightman, Alan

    2006-01-01

    From the bestselling author of Einstein's Dreams comes this lyrical and insightful collection of science writing that delves into the mysteries of the scientific process and exposes its beauty and intrigue.In these brilliant essays, Lightman explores the emotional life of science, the power of imagination, the creative moment, and the alternate ways in which scientists and humanists think about the world. Along the way, he provides in-depth portraits of some of the great geniuses of our time, including Albert Einstein, Richard Feynman, Edward Teller, and astronomer Vera Rubin. Thoughtful, beautifully written, and wonderfully original, A Sense of the Mysterious confirms Alan Lightman's unique position at the crossroads of science and art.

  11. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sagl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the

  12. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  13. HUMAN RIGHTS AND PROSPECTS FOR APPLYING CHEMICAL CASTRATION IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanna Karoevna ABRAMYAN; Arseny Igorevich ZAITSEV; Igor Stanislavovich DMITRIYEV

    2015-01-01

    I The paper examined challenges related to applying chemical castration the Russian community has faced, and assessed the prospect for further implementation as well. The issue has triggered an ample debate in various circles as a new probable way to prevent sexual crime events. The authors inferred that chemical castration should be an option of a complex of measures for pre-venting relapse into pedophilia.

  14. HUMAN RIGHTS AND PROSPECTS FOR APPLYING CHEMICAL CASTRATION IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Karoevna ABRAMYAN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available I The paper examined challenges related to applying chemical castration the Russian community has faced, and assessed the prospect for further implementation as well. The issue has triggered an ample debate in various circles as a new probable way to prevent sexual crime events. The authors inferred that chemical castration should be an option of a complex of measures for pre-venting relapse into pedophilia.

  15. New methodologies of biological dosimetry applied to human protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry is a diagnostic methodology for the measurement of the individual dose absorbed in the case of accidental overexposition to ionizing radiation. It is demonstrated how in vitro radiobiological and chemobiological studies using cytogenetic methods (count of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) on human lymphocytes from healthy subjects and individuals undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy, as well as on lymphocytes of mammals other than man (comparative cytogenetics), can help to increase the basic radiobiological and chemobiological scientific information. Such information gives a valid contribution to understanding of the action of ionizing radiation or of pharmaceuticals on cells and, in return, can be of value to human radioprotection and chemoprotection. Cytogenetic studies can be summerized as follows: a) biodosimetry (estimate of dose received after accidental events); b) individual radiosensitivity (level of individual response); c) clinical radiobiology and chemobiology (individual response to radiopharmaceuticals, to radiotherapy and to chemopharmaceuticals); d) comparative radiobiology (cytogenetic studies on species other than man); e) animal model in the environmental surveillance

  16. Social Psychology Of Persuasion Applied To Human-agent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.

  17. Applied Methods to Combat Noise in Human Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Sällberg, Benny

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic noise has a pronounced negative impact on human vocal communication and user comfort. Interfering noise that is transmitted between communicating users may not only disturb telephone conversation and supporting technical mechanisms (such as speech coders), but may also strain and eventually damage hearing and vocal organs of the users. Furthermore, a user subjected to consistently high levels of noise (such as those emitted by heavy machinery or electrical hand-held tools) may suffer...

  18. Modeling and remote sensing of human induced water cycle change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.

    2016-04-01

    The global water cycle has been profoundly affected by human land-water management especially during the last century. Since the changes in water cycle can affect the functioning of a wide range of biophysical and biogeochemical processes of the Earth system, it is essential to account for human land-water management in land surface models (LSMs) which are used for water resources assessment and to simulate the land surface hydrologic processes within Earth system models (ESMs). During the last two decades, noteworthy progress has been made in modeling human impacts on the water cycle but sufficient advancements have not yet been made, especially in representing human factors in large-scale LSMs toward integrating them into ESMs. In this study, an integrated modeling framework of continental-scale water cycle, with explicit representation of climate and human induced forces (e.g., irrigation, groundwater pumping) is developed and used to reconstruct the observed water cycle changes in the past and to attribute the observed changes to climatic and human factors. The new model builds upon two different previously developed models: a global LSM called the Human Impacts and GroundWater in the MATSIRO (HiGW-MAT) and a high-resolution regional groundwater model called the LEAF-Hydro-Flood. The model is used to retro-simulate the hydrologic stores and fluxes in close dialogue with in-situ and GRACE satellite based observations at a wide range of river basin scales around the world, with a particular focus on the changes in groundwater dynamics in northwest India, Pakistan, and the High Plains and Central Valley aquifers in the US.

  19. Remote sensing technologies applied to the irrigation water management on a golf course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, Celestina; Lança, Rui; Martins, Fernando; Soares, Cristina; Guerrero, Carlos; Paixão, Helena

    2015-04-01

    An adequate irrigation water management in a golf course is a complex task that depends upon climate (multiple microclimates) and land cover (where crops differ in morphology, physiology, plant density, sensitivity to water stress, etc.). These factors change both in time and space on a landscape. A direct measurement provides localized values of the evapotranspiration and climate conditions. Therefore this is not a practical or economical methodology for large-scale use due to spatial and temporal variability of vegetation, soils, and irrigation management strategies. Remote sensing technology combines large scale with ground measurement of vegetation indexes. These indexes are mathematical combinations of different spectral bands mostly in the visible and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. They represent the measures of vegetation activity that vary not only with the seasonal variability of green foliage, but also across space, thus they are suitable for detecting spatial landscape variability. The spectral vegetation indexes may enhance irrigation management through the information contained in spectral reflectance data. This study was carried out on the 18th fairway of the Royal Golf Course, Vale do Lobo, Portugal, and it aims to establish the relationship between direct measurements and vegetation indexes. For that it is required (1) to characterize the soil and climatic conditions, (2) to assessment of the irrigation system, (3) to estimate the evapotranspiration (4) and to calculate the vegetation indices. The vegetation indices were determined with basis on spectral bands red, green and blue, RGB, and near Infrared, NIR, obtained from the analysis of images acquired from a unpiloted aerial vehicle, UAV, platform. The measurements of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) were obtained from two meteorological stations located in the study area. The landscape evapotranspiration, ETL, was determined in the fairway with multiple microclimates

  20. Coercion Changes the Sense of Agency in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Emilie A; Christensen, Julia F; Cleeremans, Axel; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    People may deny responsibility for negative consequences of their actions by claiming that they were "only obeying orders." The "Nuremberg defense" offers one extreme example, though it is often dismissed as merely an attempt to avoid responsibility. Milgram's classic laboratory studies reported widespread obedience to an instruction to harm, suggesting that social coercion may alter mechanisms of voluntary agency, and hence abolish the normal experience of being in control of one's own actions. However, Milgram's and other studies relied on dissembling and on explicit measures of agency, which are known to be biased by social norms. Here, we combined coercive instructions to administer harm to a co-participant, with implicit measures of sense of agency, based on perceived compression of time intervals between voluntary actions and their outcomes, and with electrophysiological recordings. In two experiments, an experimenter ordered a volunteer to make a key-press action that caused either financial penalty or demonstrably painful electric shock to their co-participant, thereby increasing their own financial gain. Coercion increased the perceived interval between action and outcome, relative to a situation where participants freely chose to inflict the same harms. Interestingly, coercion also reduced the neural processing of the outcomes of one's own action. Thus, people who obey orders may subjectively experience their actions as closer to passive movements than fully voluntary actions. Our results highlight the complex relation between the brain mechanisms that generate the subjective experience of voluntary actions and social constructs, such as responsibility. PMID:26898470

  1. Detecting forest canopy layering: applying lidar remote sensing to further understand the role of vertical structure in species habitat preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, A. S.; Dubayah, R.; Swatantran, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full waveform lidar reflects off all forest canopy elements, showing not only height, but also the structure within the canopy from the top to the forest floor, making it an ideal remote sensing technology for research in forest ecosystem dynamics. Vertical stratification or canopy layering has long been noted as an essential element in the forest ecosystem and of importance for species habitat. This project explores the utility of lidar for characterizing forest canopy layering and applying canopy layering information to better understand species habitat preference. Canopy layering will be mapped across the landscape using full-waveform lidar remote sensing data from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). Two methods for quantifying layering have been developed from LVIS data collected during the summer of 2009 for Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. The two layering datasets (one categorical, one continuous) describe how vertical stratification varies across the forest with canopy height and elevation. The relationships between of canopy layering and avian species habitat preference will also be assessed for bird species within Hubbard Brook Experimental forest. These results will provide ecologically meaningful information and a relevant method for quantifying canopy layering at the landscape scale, which will aid in a better understanding of forest ecosystem dynamics for forest management and species habitat research.

  2. Applying aerial digital photography as a spectral remote sensing technique for macrophytic cover assessment in small rural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Y.; Hershkovitz, Y.; Gasith, A.; Ben-Dor, E.

    2011-12-01

    Although remote sensing of fluvial ecosystems is well developed, the tradeoff between spectral and spatial resolutions prevents its application in small streams (correction of spectral RGB (SRGB) cube. Spectral calibration of the HSR dataset was done using the empirical line method, based on reference values of progressive grey scale targets. Differentiation between the vegetation species was done by supervised classification both for the HSR and for the SRGB datasets. This procedure was done using the Spectral Angle Mapper function with the spectral pattern of each vegetation species as a spectral end member. Comparison between the two remote sensing techniques and between the SRGB classification and the in-situ transects indicates that: A. Stream vegetation classification resolution is about 4 cm by the SRGB method compared to about 1 m by HSR. Moreover, this resolution is also higher than of the manual grid transect classification. B. The SRGB method is by far the most cost-efficient. The combination of spectral information (rather than the cognitive color) and high spatial resolution of aerial photography provides noise filtration and better sub-water detection capabilities than the HSR technique. C. Only the SRGB method applies for habitat and section scales; hence, its application together with in-situ grid transects for validation, may be optimal for use in similar scenarios. The HSR dataset was first degraded to 17 bands with the same spectral range as the RGB dataset and also to a dataset with 3 equivalent bands

  3. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  4. Applying Nanotechnology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Shrivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biosystems at the nanoscale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nanobiosystems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nanotechnology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nanoscale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nanomedical research. The present review explores the significance of nanoscience and latest nanotechnologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas.

  5. Applying Nano technology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research on bio systems at the nano scale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, necrophorum engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nano bio systems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nano technology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nano scale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nano medical research. The present review explores the significance of nano science and latest nano technologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas

  6. Ambient Assisted Living Systems in the Context of Human Centric Sensing and IoT Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaric, Nicola; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Pejanovic-Djurisic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept of Human Centric Sensing in the context of Internet of Things and Ambient Assisted Living. The paper uses a case study to present and analyze the proposed idea, and identifies the main challenges and open issues that require research and policy attention....

  7. Making tools and making sense: complex, intentional behaviour in human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, D.; Chaminade, T.

    2009-01-01

    Stone tool-making is an ancient and prototypically human skill characterized by multiple levels of intentional organization. In a formal sense, it displays surprising similarities to the multi-level organization of human language. Recent functional brain imaging studies of stone tool-making similarly demonstrate overlap with neural circuits involved in language processing. These observations consistent with the hypothesis that language and tool-making share key requirements for the constructi...

  8. A Theoretical Analysis of a New Polarimetric Optical Scheme for Glucose Sensing in the Human Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovati, Luigi L.; Boeckle, Stefan; Ansari, Rafat R.; Salzman, Jack A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The challenging task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is the identification and selection of a scheme to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this short communication an earlier approach of Cote et al. is theoretically compared with our new optical scheme. Simulations of the new scheme using the eye model of Navarro, suggest that the new optical geometry can overcome the limitations of the previous approach for in vivo measurements of glucose in a human eye.

  9. Molecular vibration-sensing component in human olfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gane

    Full Text Available Whether olfaction recognizes odorants by their shape, their molecular vibrations, or both remains an open and controversial question. A convenient way to address it is to test for odor character differences between deuterated and undeuterated odorant isotopomers, since these have identical ground-state conformations but different vibrational modes. In a previous paper (Franco et al. (2011 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:9, 3797-802 we showed that fruit flies can recognize the presence of deuterium in odorants by a vibrational mechanism. Here we address the question of whether humans too can distinguish deuterated and undeuterated odorants. A previous report (Keller and Vosshall (2004 Nat Neurosci 7:4, 337-8 indicated that naive subjects are incapable of distinguishing acetophenone and d-8 acetophenone. Here we confirm and extend those results to trained subjects and gas-chromatography [GC]-pure odorants. However, we also show that subjects easily distinguish deuterated and undeuterated musk odorants purified to GC-pure standard. These results are consistent with a vibrational component in human olfaction.

  10. A cobalt oxyhydroxide-modified upconversion nanosystem for sensitive fluorescence sensing of ascorbic acid in human plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yao; Tang, Jun; Kong, Xiang-Juan; Wu, Shuang; Yuan, Jing; Yu, Ru-Qin; Chu, Xia

    2015-08-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant readily scavenging reactive species, is a crucial micronutrient involved in many biochemical processes. Here, we have developed a cobalt oxyhydroxide (CoOOH)-modified upconversion nanosystem for fluorescence sensing of AA activity in human plasma. The nanosystem consists of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) NaYF4:30% Yb,0.5% Tm@NaYF4, which serve as energy donors, and CoOOH nanoflakes formed on the surface of UCNPs, which act as efficient energy acceptors. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process from the UCNPs to the absorbance of the CoOOH nanoflakes occurs in the nanosystem. The AA-mediated specific redox reaction reduces CoOOH into Co2+, leading to the inhibition of FRET, and resulting in the recovery of upconversion emission spectra. On the basis of these features, the nanosystem can be used for sensing AA activity with sensitivity and selectivity. Moreover, due to the minimizing background interference provided by UCNPs, the nanosystem has been applied to monitoring AA levels in human plasma sample with satisfactory results. The proposed approach may potentially provide an analytical platform for research and clinical diagnosis of AA related diseases.Ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant readily scavenging reactive species, is a crucial micronutrient involved in many biochemical processes. Here, we have developed a cobalt oxyhydroxide (CoOOH)-modified upconversion nanosystem for fluorescence sensing of AA activity in human plasma. The nanosystem consists of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) NaYF4:30% Yb,0.5% Tm@NaYF4, which serve as energy donors, and CoOOH nanoflakes formed on the surface of UCNPs, which act as efficient energy acceptors. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process from the UCNPs to the absorbance of the CoOOH nanoflakes occurs in the nanosystem. The AA-mediated specific redox reaction reduces CoOOH into Co2+, leading to the inhibition of FRET, and resulting in the

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase sensing via porous silicon microcavity devices functionalized with human antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Marta; Gergely, Csilla [GES-UMR 5650, CNRS, Universite Montpellier 2, Pl. Eugene Bataillon 34095, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Taleb Bendiab, Chakib; Massif, Laurent; Cuisinier, Frederic [EA4203, Faculte d' Odontologie, Universite Montpellier 1, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Palestino, Gabriela [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Salvador Nava 6, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Agarwal, Vivechana [CIICAP, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    Porous silicon microcavity (PSiMc) structures were used as support material for specific sensing of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). For lower concentrations of MMP-8, the structures were tested with two types of functionalization methods. Silanization of the oxidized porous silicon structures, followed by glutaraldehyde chemistry was found to give very inconsistent results. The use of biotinilated bovine serum albumin linked to the naked PSiMc was found to be an alternative method to attach the anti MMP-8 human antibody, previously modified with streptavidin, which was further used to sense MMP-8 (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Sensing human physiological response using wearable carbon nanotube-based fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Loh, Kenneth J.; Koo, Helen S.

    2016-04-01

    Flexible and wearable sensors for human monitoring have received increased attention. Besides detecting motion and physical activity, measuring human vital signals (e.g., respiration rate and body temperature) provide rich data for assessing subjects' physiological or psychological condition. Instead of using conventional, bulky, sensing transducers, the objective of this study was to design and test a wearable, fabric-like sensing system. In particular, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-latex thin films of different MWCNT concentrations were first fabricated using spray coating. Freestanding MWCNT-latex films were then sandwiched between two layers of flexible fabric using iron-on adhesive to form the wearable sensor. Second, to characterize its strain sensing properties, the fabric sensors were subjected to uniaxial and cyclic tensile load tests, and they exhibited relatively stable electromechanical responses. Finally, the wearable sensors were placed on a human subject for monitoring simple motions and for validating their practical strain sensing performance. Overall, the wearable fabric sensor design exhibited advances such as flexibility, ease of fabrication, light weight, low cost, noninvasiveness, and user comfort.

  13. Multi-parameter sensing with a single magnetoelastic sensor by applying loads on the null locations of multiple resonant modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouin, Andrew; Ghee Ong, Keat

    2016-03-01

    Magnetoelastic sensors are mass sensitive sensors commonly used for stress and pressure measurement, as well as chemical and biological monitoring when combined with a functionalized coating. Magnetoelastic sensors are typically made of free-standing, rectangular strips of magnetoelastic materials that exhibit longitudinal, extensional vibrations due to the excitation of magnetic fields. A single magnetoelastic sensor is generally used to monitor one parameter since only the fundamental resonant frequency is measured. Multiple-parameter sensing in close proximity has previously been achieved by using multiple magnetoelastic sensors of different dimensions and tracking their resonant frequencies independently. However, this requires a large surface area and inconvenient layout of dissimilarly shaped sensors. This paper presents a technique for monitoring multiple parameters with a single magnetoelastic sensor by applying separate mass loads at the null points (points of zero vibration) of multiple resonant modes. Applying a load at a null location does not affect the corresponding resonant mode but alters the resonant frequencies of other modes. Therefore, by isolating the variables of interest to multiple null points and simultaneously measuring the resonant frequency shifts of related resonant modes, the masses at each null location can be calculated. Results showed that changing the coverage at a null location along the width of the sensor can be used to minimize the loading effect on the corresponding resonant mode. In contrast, changing the lengthwise coverage can maximize the loading effect on other resonant modes, thus increasing the mass sensitivity of the sensor. Furthermore, simultaneously applying loads to null points of multiple resonant modes had a nearly additive effect, allowing detection of multiple parameters with a single magnetoelastic sensor.

  14. [Applying the human dignity ideals of Confucianism and Kant to psychiatric nursing: from theory to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Hsiu; Lee, Shui-Chuen; Lee, Shu-Chen

    2012-04-01

    Literature articles and clinical observation suggest disease and environmental factors as primary causes of the low self-esteem and stigmatization that typify most psychiatric patients. These patients are at risk of injury when subjected to inappropriate physical restraint. Hospital staffs, including nurses, are in immediate and close contact with psychiatric patients. Mencius's and Kant's thoughts on human dignity can enhance reflections on clinical nursing practices. Mencius's belief that preserving life is not the most desirable thing and death is not the most hated thing can help nurses realize the human dignity of psychiatric patients by understanding that, as an unrighteous act is more detestable than death, the meaning and value of righteousness are greater than life itself. In light of Kant's views on human dignity, nurses should treat patients as goals rather than means. Exploring such ideas can raise nursing quality, restore a positive sense of humanity to psychiatric patients, and develop nursing values and meaning to a higher plane. PMID:22469899

  15. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, M; Roderick, GK

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Leong and Roderick. Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and ...

  16. MODELLING AND SIMULATING RISKS IN THE TRAINING OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES BY APPLYING THE CHAOS THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen ROTARESCU

    2012-01-01

    The article approaches the modelling and simulation of risks in the training of the human resources, as well as the forecast of the degree of human resources training impacted by risks by applying the mathematical tools offered by the Chaos Theory and mathematical statistics. We will highlight that the level of knowledge, skills and abilities of the human resources from an organization are autocorrelated in time and they depend on the level of a previous moment of the training, as well as on ...

  17. The necessity of natural theology? In conversation with John Calvin on the human senses

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst M. Conradie

    2011-01-01

    This contribution explores John Calvin’s position on natural theology. The point of
    departure is not so much the much discussed notions of a sensus divinitatis or of the
    semen religionis, but the role played by the human senses in coming to knowledge
    of God in the first place. How can God’s presence be recognised? How can human
    language (that which is natural), from below, express the inexpressible? How is
    it possible to speak of God in t...

  18. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  19. Assessment of Human Respiration Patterns via Noncontact Sensing Using Doppler Multi-Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhan Gu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique.

  20. Remote sensing applied to crop disease control, urban planning, and monitoring aquatic plants, oil spills, rangelands, and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to land management, urban planning, agriculture, oceanography, and environmental monitoring is discussed. The results of various projects are presented along with cost effective considerations.

  1. Modern Virtual Reality. And the effects of affecting human senses to increase immersion

    OpenAIRE

    Ekros, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Modern virtual reality is an ever growing subject in today’s society. I delved deeper into some key moments in the development of modern virtual reality. Oculus Rift has shown incredible potential. Some developments even seek to envelope the human senses in virtual reality as well.   With several different approaches to the same solution there are many ways that the experience can affect the overall immersion of a consumer into the product.  The tests I performed were primarily focused around...

  2. Human behavior understanding in networked sensing theory and applications of networks of sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Distante, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a broad overview of both the technical challenges in sensor network development, and the real-world applications of distributed sensing. Important aspects of distributed computing in large-scale networked sensor systems are analyzed in the context of human behavior understanding, including such topics as systems design tools and techniques, in-network signals, and information processing. Additionally, the book examines a varied range of application scenarios, covering surveillance, indexing and retrieval, patient care, industrial safety, social and ambient

  3. Involvement of the Calcium-sensing Receptor in Human Taste Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ohsu, Takeaki; Amino, Yusuke; Nagasaki, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Tomohiko; Takeshita, Sen; Hatanaka, Toshihiro; MARUYAMA, Yutaka; Miyamura, Naohiro; Eto, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    By human sensory analyses, we found that various extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) agonists enhance sweet, salty, and umami tastes, although they have no taste themselves. These characteristics are known as “kokumi taste” and often appear in traditional Japanese cuisine. Although GSH is a typical kokumi taste substance (taste enhancer), its mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate how the kokumi taste is enhanced by the CaSR, a close relative of the class C G-prot...

  4. Solonamide B Inhibits Quorum Sensing and Reduces Staphylococcus aureus Mediated Killing of Human Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita; Månsson, Maria; Bojer, Martin S.;

    2014-01-01

    that a cyclodepsipeptide termed Solonamide B isolated from the marine bacterium, Photobacterium halotolerans strongly reduces expression of RNAIII, the effector molecule of the agr quorum sensing system. Here we show that Solonamide B interferes with the binding of S. aureus autoinducing peptides (AIPs) to sensor......A controlled virulence gene expression in S. aureus.......Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a serious human pathogen, and particularly the spread of community associated (CA)-MRSA strains such as USA300 is a concern, as these strains can cause severe infections in otherwise healthy adults. Recently, we reported...

  5. Acceptance of evolutionary explanations as they are applied to plants, animals, and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanukos, Anastasia

    , makes it likely that awareness of human evolution is high, compared with plant evolution (which may not even "enter the radar screen" when most people think of evolution). Some aspects of human evolution, such as the basic relationship between all primates, may have become so pedestrian that they do not threaten many individuals' worldviews. However, even for those positively disposed towards evolution, extending the ramifications of human evolution by suggesting that evolution shapes our behaviors and physical traits may pose a threat to their sense of personal agency. This threat is not associated with plant evolution.

  6. Human eosinophils - potential pharmacological model applied in human histamine H4 receptor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Histamine and histamine receptors are well known for their immunomodulatory role in inflammation. In this review we describe the role of histamine and histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils. In the first part of article we provide short summary of histamine and histamine receptors role in physiology and histamine related therapeutics used in clinics. We briefly describe the human histamine receptor H4 and its ligands, as well as human eosinophils. In the second part of the review we provide detailed description of known histamine effects on eosinophils including: intracellular calcium concentration flux, actin polymerization, cellular shape change, upregulation of adhesion proteins and cellular chemotaxis. We provide proofs that these effects are mainly connected with the activation of histamine H4 receptor. When examining experimental data we discuss the controversial results and limitations of the studies performed on isolated eosinophils. In conclusion we believe that studies on histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils can provide interesting new biomarkers that can be used in clinical studies of histamine receptors, that in future might result in the development of new strategies in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions like asthma or allergy, in which eosinophils are involved. PMID:25760088

  7. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  8. From Dark to Bright: First-Order Perturbation Theory with Analytical Mode Normalization for Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays Applied to Refractive Index Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, T.; Mesch, M.; Schäferling, M.; Giessen, H.; Langbein, W.; Muljarov, E. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a first-order perturbation theory to calculate the frequency shift and linewidth change of photonic resonances in one- and two-dimensional periodic structures under modifications of the surrounding refractive index. Our method is based on the resonant state expansion, for which we extend the analytical mode normalization to periodic structures. We apply this theory to calculate the sensitivity of bright dipolar and much darker quadrupolar plasmonic modes by determining the maximum shift and optimal sensing volume.

  9. Detecting land use changes affected by human activities using remote sensing (Case study: Karkheh River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Maddah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and abundant activities in order to achieve maximum well-being has forced human to make a lot of changes in the nature. These changes will be cost-effective when they have the minimum damage on the landscape. One of the activities that human did for obtaining the water and preventing flood was making the dam in the track of running water. Since the dam is established until its impoundment and after impoundment, the condition of ecosystem and the appearance of the upstream and downstream of the dam will undergo changes. In this study, using satellite data and remote sensing, these changes have been studied and the landuse changes in vegetation, arid land, water level and residential and non-residential lands is measured in 1998 and 2014 using Maximum Likelihood method and support vector machine.

  10. A Method for Remotely Sensing Vital Signs of Human Subjects Outdoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuantao Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions, finding survivors is a huge challenge. Although human bodies can be found by smart vehicles and drones equipped with cameras, it is difficult to verify if the person is alive or dead this way. This paper describes a continuous wave radar sensor for remotely sensing the vital signs of human subjects. Firstly, a compact and portable 24 GHz Doppler radar system is designed to conduct non-contact detection of respiration signal. Secondly, in order to improve the quality of the respiration signals, the self-correlation and adaptive line enhancer (ALE methods are proposed to minimize the interferences of any moving objects around the human subject. Finally, the detection capabilities of the radar system and the signal processing method are verified through experiments which show that human respiration signals can be extracted when the subject is 7 m away outdoors. The method provided in this paper will be a promising way to search for human subjects outdoors.

  11. Sulfur volatiles of microbial origin are key contributors to human-sensed truffle aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splivallo, Richard; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Truffles are symbiotic fungi in high demand for the aroma of their fruiting bodies which are colonized by a diverse microbial flora. Specific sulfur containing volatiles (thiophene derivatives) characteristic of the white truffle Tuber borchii were recently shown to be derived from the bacterial community inhabiting truffle fruiting bodies. Our aim here was to investigate whether thiophene derivatives contributed to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. Furthermore, we questioned whether the concentration of thiophene volatiles was affected by freezing or whether it differed in truffles from distinct geographical origins. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis revealed that thiophene derivatives were major contributors to the aroma of T. borchii. Of four thiophene derivatives detected in this study, 3-methyl-4,5-dihydrothiophene was the most important one in terms of its contribution to the overall aroma. The relative concentration of thiophene derivatives was unaffected by freezing; however, it differed in samples collected in distinct geographical locations (Italy versus New Zealand). The causes of this variability might be differences in storage conditions and/or in bacterial community composition of the fruiting bodies; however, further work is needed to confirm these hypotheses. Overall, our results demonstrate that thiophene derivatives are major contributors to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. PMID:25573471

  12. Assessing human risk of exposure to plague bacteria in northwestern Uganda based on remotely sensed predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Griffith, Kevin S; Borchert, Jeff N; MacMillan, Katherine; Apangu, Titus; Owor, Nicholas; Acayo, Sara; Acidri, Rogers; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Winters, Anna M; Enscore, Russell E; Schriefer, Martin E; Beard, Charles B; Gage, Kenneth L; Mead, Paul S

    2010-05-01

    Plague, a life-threatening flea-borne zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, has most commonly been reported from eastern Africa and Madagascar in recent decades. In these regions and elsewhere, prevention and control efforts are typically targeted at fine spatial scales, yet risk maps for the disease are often presented at coarse spatial resolutions that are of limited value in allocating scarce prevention and control resources. In our study, we sought to identify sub-village level remotely sensed correlates of elevated risk of human exposure to plague bacteria and to project the model across the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda and into neighboring regions of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our model yielded an overall accuracy of 81%, with sensitivities and specificities of 89% and 71%, respectively. Risk was higher above 1,300 meters than below, and the remotely sensed covariates that were included in the model implied that localities that are wetter, with less vegetative growth and more bare soil during the dry month of January (when agricultural plots are typically fallow) pose an increased risk of plague case occurrence. Our results suggest that environmental and landscape features play a large part in classifying an area as ecologically conducive to plague activity. However, it is clear that future studies aimed at identifying behavioral and fine-scale ecological risk factors in the West Nile region are required to fully assess the risk of human exposure to Y. pestis. PMID:20439974

  13. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators. PMID:26290795

  14. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Hartanto, D.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes.

  15. Reaching with the sixth sense: Vestibular contributions to voluntary motor control in the human right parietal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Heinrich H Bülthoff; Thielscher, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system constitutes the silent sixth sense: It automatically triggers a variety of vital reflexes to maintain postural and visual stability. Beyond their role in reflexive behavior, vestibular afferents contribute to several perceptual and cognitive functions and also support voluntary control of movements by complementing the other senses to accomplish the movement goal. Investigations into the neural correlates of vestibular contribution to voluntary action in humans are chall...

  16. Design of a Handheld Pseudo Random Coded UWB Radar for Human Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zheng-huan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a handheld pseudo random coded Ultra-WideBand (UWB radar for human sensing. The main tasks of the radar are to track the moving human object and extract the human respiratory frequency. In order to achieve perfect penetrability and good range resolution, m sequence with a carrier of 800 MHz is chosen as the transmitting signal. The modulated m-sequence can be generated directly by the high-speed DAC and FPGA to reduce the size of the radar system, and the mean power of the transmitting signal is 5 dBm. The receiver has two receiving channels based on hybrid sampling, the first receiving channel is to sample the reference signal and the second receiving channel is to obtain the radar echo. The real-time pulse compression is computed in parallel with a group of on-chip DSP48E slices in FPGA to improve the scanning rate of the radar system. Additionally, the algorithms of moving target tracking and life detection are implemented using Intel’s micro-processor, and the detection results are sent to the micro displayer fixed on the helmet. The experimental results show that the moving target located at less than 16 m far away from the wall can be tracked, and the respiratory frequency of the static human at less than 14 m far away from the wall can be extracted.

  17. Biological and intelligent manufacturing: human life-skills applied to technological development

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Nelcy Jiménez Hernández; Óscar Fernando Castellanos Domínguez; Luz Alexandra Montoya Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    Highly competitive settings, characterised by development being promoting by the predominance of knowledge, means that mul- tidisciplinary approaches must be adopted for dealing with specific problems. Indeed, techniques and tools have been created by imitating human beings’ behaviour and applying them to productive and technological contexts to increase efficiency and enable a quick response. This paper deals with this topic and presents the results of scientometric- and technological su...

  18. Collaborative Approaches to Increase the Utility of Spatial Data for the Wildfire Management Community Through NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Blevins, B.; Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Prados, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The utility of spatial data products and tools to assess risk and effectively manage wildfires has increased, highlighting the need for communicating information about these new capabilities to decision makers, resource managers, and community leaders. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program works directly with agencies and policy makers to develop in-person and online training courses that teach end users how to access, visualize, and apply NASA Earth Science data in their profession. The expansion of ARSET into wildfire applications began in 2015 with a webinar and subsequent in-person training hosted in collaboration with Idaho State University's (ISU) GIS Training and Research Center (TReC). These trainings featured presentations from the USDA Forest Service's Remote Sensing Training and Applications Center, the Land Processes DAAC, Northwest Nazarene University, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and ISU's GIS TReC. The webinar focused on providing land managers, non-governmental organizations, and international management agencies with an overview of 1) remote sensing platforms for wildfire applications, 2) products for pre- and post-fire planning and assessment, 3) the use of terrain data, 4) new techniques and technologies such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP), and 5) the RECOVER Decision Support System. This training highlighted online tools that engage the wildfire community through collaborative monitoring and assessment efforts. Webinar attendance included 278 participants from 178 organizations in 42 countries and 33 US states. The majority of respondents (93%) from a post-webinar survey indicated they displayed improvement in their understanding of specific remote-sensing data products appropriate for their work needs. With collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local agencies and academic institutions, increased use of NASA Earth Observations may lead to improved near real

  19. Analyzing and sense making of human factors in the Malaysian radiation and nuclear emergency planning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. H. A.; Rozan, M. Z. A.; Deris, S.; Ibrahim, R.; Abdullah, W. S. W.; Rahman, A. A.; Yunus, M. N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of current Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework (RANEPF) simulator emphasizes on the human factors to be analyzed and interpreted according to the stakeholder's tacit and explicit knowledge. These human factor criteria are analyzed and interpreted according to the "sense making theory" and Disaster Emergency Response Management Information System (DERMIS) design premises. These criteria are corroborated by the statistical criteria. In recent findings, there were no differences of distributions among the stakeholders according to gender and organizational expertise. These criteria are incrementally accepted and agreed the research elements indicated in the respective emergency planning frameworks and simulator (i.e. 78.18 to 84.32, p-value human factors criteria in the associated analyses and theoretical perspectives to be further acomodated in the future simulator development. This development is in conjunction with the proposed hypothesis building of the process factors and responses diagram. We proposed that future work which implies the additional functionality of the simulator, as strategized, condensed and concise, comprehensive public disaster preparedness and intervention guidelines, to be a useful and efficient computer simulation.

  20. Analyzing and sense making of human factors in the Malaysian radiation and nuclear emergency planning framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of current Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework (RANEPF) simulator emphasizes on the human factors to be analyzed and interpreted according to the stakeholder’s tacit and explicit knowledge. These human factor criteria are analyzed and interpreted according to the “sense making theory” and Disaster Emergency Response Management Information System (DERMIS) design premises. These criteria are corroborated by the statistical criteria. In recent findings, there were no differences of distributions among the stakeholders according to gender and organizational expertise. These criteria are incrementally accepted and agreed the research elements indicated in the respective emergency planning frameworks and simulator (i.e. 78.18 to 84.32, p-value <0.05). This paper suggested these human factors criteria in the associated analyses and theoretical perspectives to be further acomodated in the future simulator development. This development is in conjunction with the proposed hypothesis building of the process factors and responses diagram. We proposed that future work which implies the additional functionality of the simulator, as strategized, condensed and concise, comprehensive public disaster preparedness and intervention guidelines, to be a useful and efficient computer simulation

  1. Analyzing and sense making of human factors in the Malaysian radiation and nuclear emergency planning framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, A. H. A., E-mail: amyhamijah@gmail.com, E-mail: amyhamijah@nm.gov.my [Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK), Pengkalan Chepa, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Rozan, M. Z. A., E-mail: drmohdzaidi@gmail.com; Ibrahim, R. [Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Deris, S. [Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK), Pengkalan Chepa, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. S. W.; Yunus, M. N. M. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, A. A. [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The evolution of current Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework (RANEPF) simulator emphasizes on the human factors to be analyzed and interpreted according to the stakeholder’s tacit and explicit knowledge. These human factor criteria are analyzed and interpreted according to the “sense making theory” and Disaster Emergency Response Management Information System (DERMIS) design premises. These criteria are corroborated by the statistical criteria. In recent findings, there were no differences of distributions among the stakeholders according to gender and organizational expertise. These criteria are incrementally accepted and agreed the research elements indicated in the respective emergency planning frameworks and simulator (i.e. 78.18 to 84.32, p-value <0.05). This paper suggested these human factors criteria in the associated analyses and theoretical perspectives to be further acomodated in the future simulator development. This development is in conjunction with the proposed hypothesis building of the process factors and responses diagram. We proposed that future work which implies the additional functionality of the simulator, as strategized, condensed and concise, comprehensive public disaster preparedness and intervention guidelines, to be a useful and efficient computer simulation.

  2. Analyzing and sense making of human factors in the Malaysian radiation and nuclear emergency planning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. H. A.; Rozan, M. Z. A.; Deris, S.; Ibrahim, R.; Abdullah, W. S. W.; Rahman, A. A.; Yunus, M. N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of current Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework (RANEPF) simulator emphasizes on the human factors to be analyzed and interpreted according to the stakeholder's tacit and explicit knowledge. These human factor criteria are analyzed and interpreted according to the "sense making theory" and Disaster Emergency Response Management Information System (DERMIS) design premises. These criteria are corroborated by the statistical criteria. In recent findings, there were no differences of distributions among the stakeholders according to gender and organizational expertise. These criteria are incrementally accepted and agreed the research elements indicated in the respective emergency planning frameworks and simulator (i.e. 78.18 to 84.32, p-value <0.05). This paper suggested these human factors criteria in the associated analyses and theoretical perspectives to be further acomodated in the future simulator development. This development is in conjunction with the proposed hypothesis building of the process factors and responses diagram. We proposed that future work which implies the additional functionality of the simulator, as strategized, condensed and concise, comprehensive public disaster preparedness and intervention guidelines, to be a useful and efficient computer simulation.

  3. Songbirds and humans apply different strategies in a sound sequence discrimination task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa eSeki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The abilities of animals and humans to extract rules from sound sequences have previously been compared using observation of spontaneous responses and conditioning techniques. However, the results were inconsistently interpreted across studies possibly due to methodological and/or species differences. Therefore, we examined the strategies for discrimination of sound sequences in Bengalese finches and humans using the same protocol. Birds were trained on a GO/NOGO task to discriminate between two categories of sound stimulus generated based on an AAB or ABB rule. The sound elements used were taken from a variety of male (M and female (F calls, such that the sequences could be represented as MMF and MFF. In test sessions, FFM and FMM sequences, which were never presented in the training sessions but conformed to the rule, were presented as probe stimuli. The results suggested two discriminative strategies were being applied: 1 memorizing sound patterns of either GO or NOGO stimuli and generating the appropriate responses for only those sounds; and 2 using the repeated element as a cue. There was no evidence that the birds successfully extracted the abstract rule (i.e. AAB and ABB; MMF-GO subjects did not produce a GO response for FFM and vice versa. Next we examined whether those strategies were also applicable for human participants on the same task. The results and questionnaires revealed that participants extracted the abstract rule, and most of them employed it to discriminate the sequences. This strategy was never observed in bird subjects, although some participants used strategies similar to the birds when responding to the probe stimuli. Our results showed that the human participants applied the abstract rule in the task even without instruction but Bengalese finches did not, thereby reconfirming that humans have to extract abstract rules from sound sequences that is distinct from non-human animals.

  4. Molecular Sensing and Imaging of Human Disease Cells and Their Responses to Biochemical Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lifu

    2015-01-01

    The overall goal of this dissertation is to develop noninvasive imaging techniques that allow us not only to detect diseased cells but also to study the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases. Atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are applied to measure cellular mechanical properties (e.g. Young’s Modulus, adhesion force) and biochemical composition of living cancerous vs. healthy (A549 vs. SAEC) human lung epithelial cells. These biomechanical and biochemical properties c...

  5. Quorum sensing communication between bacteria and human cells: signals, targets and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eHolm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Both direct and long-range interactions between pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts are important in the outcome of infections. For cell-to-cell communication, these bacteria employ the quorum sensing (QS system to pass on information of the density of the bacterial population and collectively switch on virulence factor production, biofilm formation and resistance development. Thus, QS allows bacteria to behave as a community to perform tasks which would be impossible for individual cells, e.g. to overcome defense and immune systems and establish infections in higher organisms. This review highlights these aspects of QS and our own recent research on how P.aeruginosa communicates with human cells using the small QS signal molecules N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL. We focus on how this conversation changes the behavior and function of neutrophils, macrophages and epithelial cells and on how the signaling machinery in human cells responsible for the recognition of AHL. Understanding the bacteria-host relationships at both cellular and molecular levels is essential for the identification of new targets and for the development of novel strategies to fight bacterial infections in the future.

  6. Active and passive EO sensing for the detection of humans and handheld objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove; Larsson, Hâkan; Petterson, Magnus

    2015-05-01

    Some results from a low light trial in Porton Down UK are described. The purpose was to compare imaging performance for active and passive sensors in the visible, NIR, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR bands concerning detection and identification of humans carrying certain handheld objects and performing associated activities. This paper will concentrate on results from active and passive NIR and SWIR only. Both NIR and SWIR sensors provided passive imagery down to illumination levels between 1-10 lux corresponding to sunset-overcast to moonlight. The active mode gave usable imagery out to 2-3 km at much lower light levels. NIR and SWIR sensor images are compared concerning target to background contrast, cloth recognition and the detection of humans, activities and handheld objects. The target to background contrast was often somewhat better in the SWIR as compared with the NIR wavelength region. The contrast between different types of clothing was in general more discriminative in the NIR vs the SWIR. This was especially true for the active sensing modes. The recognition of large weapons could be done out to 600-1000 m range and handguns out to the 300-600 meter range. We found that activities could be detected and recognized out to 1400 m at least, but depends on the contrast between the person the background.

  7. Disrupting the experience of control in the human brain: pre-supplementary motor area contributes to the sense of agency

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, James W; Ruge, Diane; Wenke, Dorit; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The feeling of controlling events through one's actions is fundamental to human experience, but its neural basis remains unclear. This ‘sense of agency’ (SoA) can be measured quantitatively as a temporal linkage between voluntary actions and their external effects. We investigated the brain areas underlying this aspect of action awareness by using theta-burst stimulation to locally and reversibly disrupt human brain function. Disruption of the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), a key str...

  8. Applying Spatial Audio to Human Interfaces: 25 Years of NASA Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Godfrey, Martine; Miller, Joel D.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of human factors engineering, the inclusion of spatial audio within a human-machine interface is advantageous from several perspectives. Demonstrated benefits include the ability to monitor multiple streams of speech and non-speech warning tones using a cocktail party advantage, and for aurally-guided visual search. Other potential benefits include the spatial coordination and interaction of multimodal events, and evaluation of new communication technologies and alerting systems using virtual simulation. Many of these technologies were developed at NASA Ames Research Center, beginning in 1985. This paper reviews examples and describes the advantages of spatial sound in NASA-related technologies, including space operations, aeronautics, and search and rescue. The work has involved hardware and software development as well as basic and applied research.

  9. Human Tolerance to Rapidly Applied Accelerations: A Summary of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiband, A. Martin

    1959-01-01

    The literature is surveyed to determine human tolerance to rapidly applied accelerations. Pertinent human and animal experiments applicable to space flight and to crash impact forces are analyzed and discussed. These data are compared and presented on the basis of a trapezoidal pulse. The effects of body restraint and of acceleration direction, onset rate, and plateau duration on the maximum tolerable and survivable rapidly applied accelerations are shown. Results of the survey indicate that adequate torso and extremity restraint is the primary variable in tolerance to rapidly applied accelerations. The harness, or restraint system, must be arranged to transmit the major portion of the accelerating force directly to the pelvic structure and not via the vertebral column. When the conditions of adequate restraint have been met, then the other variables, direction, magnitude, and onset rate of rapidly applied accelerations, govern maximum tolerance and injury limits. The results also indicate that adequately stressed aft-faced passenger seats offer maximum complete body support with minimum objectionable harnessing. Such a seat, whether designed for 20-, 30-, or 40-G dynamic loading, would include lap strap, chest (axillary) strap, and winged-back seat to increase headward and lateral G protection, full-height integral head rest, arm rests (load-bearing) with recessed hand-holds and provisions to prevent arms from slipping either laterally or beyond the seat back, and leg support to keep the legs from being wedged under the seat. For crew members and others whose duties require forward-facing seats, maximum complete body support requires lap, shoulder, and thigh straps, lap-belt tie-down strap, and full-height seat back with integral head support.

  10. Range-resolved signal processing for fibre segment interferometry applied to dynamic long-gauge length strain sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Thomas; Correia, Ricardo; Charrett, Thomas O. H.; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2015-09-01

    A range-resolved interferometric signal processing technique using sinusoidal optical frequency modulation is applied to fibre segment interferometry. Here, six optical fibre segments of gauge length 12.5 cm are used as interferometric strain sensors and are formed between seven weak, broadband fibre Bragg gratings, acting as in-fibre partial reflectors. In a very simple and cost-effective optical setup using injection current modulation of a laser diode source, interferometric measurement of acoustic wave propagation in a metal rod is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique.

  11. Using LDR as Sensing Element for an External Fuzzy Controller Applied in Photovoltaic Pumping Systems with Variable-Speed Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Neves De A. Maranhão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a fuzzy controller applied to a Variable-Speed Drive (VSD for use in Photovoltaic Pumping Systems (PVPS is proposed. The fuzzy logic system (FLS used is embedded in a microcontroller and corresponds to a proportional-derivative controller. A Light-Dependent Resistor (LDR is used to measure, approximately, the irradiance incident on the PV array. Experimental tests are executed using an Arduino board. The experimental results show that the fuzzy controller is capable of operating the system continuously throughout the day and controlling the direct current (DC voltage level in the VSD with a good performance.

  12. Vertical accelerator device to apply loads simulating blast environments in the military to human surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Schlick, Michael; Humm, John R; Voo, Liming; Merkle, Andrew; Kleinberger, Michael

    2015-09-18

    The objective of the study was to develop a simple device, Vertical accelerator (Vertac), to apply vertical impact loads to Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) or dummy surrogates because injuries sustained in military conflicts are associated with this vector; example, under-body blasts from explosive devices/events. The two-part mechanically controlled device consisted of load-application and load-receiving sections connected by a lever arm. The former section incorporated a falling weight to impact one end of the lever arm inducing a reaction at the other/load-receiving end. The "launch-plate" on this end of the arm applied the vertical impact load/acceleration pulse under different initial conditions to biological/physical surrogates, attached to second section. It is possible to induce different acceleration pulses by using varying energy absorbing materials and controlling drop height and weight. The second section of Vertac had the flexibility to accommodate different body regions for vertical loading experiments. The device is simple and inexpensive. It has the ability to control pulses and flexibility to accommodate different sub-systems/components of human surrogates. It has the capability to incorporate preloads and military personal protective equipment (e.g., combat helmet). It can simulate vehicle roofs. The device allows for intermittent specimen evaluations (x-ray and palpation, without changing specimen alignment). The two free but interconnected sections can be used to advance safety to military personnel. Examples demonstrating feasibilities of the Vertac device to apply vertical impact accelerations using PMHS head-neck preparations with helmet and booted Hybrid III dummy lower leg preparations under in-contact and launch-type impact experiments are presented. PMID:26159057

  13. Structure and condition of soil-vegetation cover in the Klyazma river basin applying remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Trifonova, Tatiana; Repkin, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Constant observation of vegetation and soil cover is one of the key issues of river basins ecologic monitoring. It is necessary to consider that observation objects have been continuously changing and these changes are comprehensive and depend on temporal and dimensional parameters. Remote sensing data, embracing vast areas and reflecting various interrelations, allow excluding accidental and short-term changes though concentrating on the transformation of the observed river basin ecosystem environmental condition. The research objective is to assess spatial-temporal peculiarities of soil-vegetation structure formation in the Klyazma basin as a whole and minor river basins within the area. Research objects are located in the centre of European Russia. Data used in our research include both statistic and published data, characterizing soil-vegetation cover of the area, space images Landsat. Research methods: Remote data analysis for assessing land utilization structure and soil-vegetation condition according to NDVI. Laying soil-geobotanic landscape profiles river valleys slopes. Phytomass reserve, phytoproductivity, soil fertility characteristics assessment. NDVI computation for each image pixel helped to map general condition of the Klyazma vegetation cover and to determine geographic ranges without vegetation or with depressed vegetation. For instance high vegetation index geographic range has been defined which corresponded to Vladimir Opolye characterized with the most fertile grey forest soil in the region. Comparative assessment of soil vegetation cover of minor river basins within the Klyazma basin, judging by the terrestrial data, revealed its better condition in the Koloksha basin which is also located in the area of grey forest soil. Besides here the maximum value of vegetation index for all phytocenosis was detected. In the research the most dynamically changing parts of the Klyazma basin have been determined according to NDVI dynamics analysis

  14. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Occupational Settings Applied to the Airborne Human Adenovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Annalaura; Donzelli, Gabriele; Cioni, Lorenzo; Verani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) methodology, which has already been applied to drinking water and food safety, may also be applied to risk assessment and management at the workplace. The present study developed a preliminary QMRA model to assess microbial risk that is associated with inhaling bioaerosols that are contaminated with human adenovirus (HAdV). This model has been applied to air contamination data from different occupational settings, including wastewater systems, solid waste landfills, and toilets in healthcare settings and offices, with different exposure times. Virological monitoring showed the presence of HAdVs in all the evaluated settings, thus confirming that HAdV is widespread, but with different average concentrations of the virus. The QMRA results, based on these concentrations, showed that toilets had the highest probability of viral infection, followed by wastewater treatment plants and municipal solid waste landfills. Our QMRA approach in occupational settings is novel, and certain caveats should be considered. Nonetheless, we believe it is worthy of further discussions and investigations. PMID:27447658

  15. The Praxis of Social Enterprise and Human Security: An Applied Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm David Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of social enterprise within development NGO work might lead one to suspect it has been irredeemably corrupted by neo-liberal capitalism. However, using the tools of capitalism is not the same as subscribing to the values of capitalism. This paper is situated at the intersection of five fields: human security, international development, social enterprise, social franchising, and left-wing anti-capitalist thought. It examines the relevance of social en­terprise to human security and to development, the relationship between social enterprise and the anti-capitalist values of the left, and it then focuses on social franchising—a subset of social enterprise that highlights the importance of cooperation—suggesting that it may be a useful methodology for NGOs carrying out educational work in parts of the developing world. It syn­thesises and extends ideas that I have presented elsewhere [1-3], it draws on ethnographic fieldwork on the Thai-Burma border, and it puts forward an agenda for further applied research that is rooted in a sociological analysis of civil society and contributes to the human security paradigm.

  16. Biological stimulation of the Human skin applying health promoting light and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakowicz, P.; Bibinov, N. [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Born, M.; Niemann, U. [Philips Research, Aachen (Germany); Busse, B. [Zell-Kontakt GmbH, Noerten-Hardenberg (Germany); Gesche, R.; Kuehn, S.; Porteanu, H.E. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany); Kaemling, A.; Wandke, D. [CINOGY GmbH, Duderstadt (Germany); Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Liebmann, J. [Institute for Immunobiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kovacs, R.; Mertens, N.; Scherer, J. [Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH, Seligenstadt (Germany); Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. [Clinic for Plastic Surgery, University Clinic, Aachen (Germany); Vioel, W. [Laser-Laboratorium, Goettingen (Germany); University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    In the frame of BMBF project ''BioLiP'', new physical treatment techniques aiming at medical treatment of the human skin have been developed. The acronym BioLiP stands for ''Desinfektion, Entkeimung und biologische Stimulation der Haut durch gesundheitsfoerdernde Licht- und Plasmaquellen'' (Disinfection, germ reduction and biological stimulation of the human skin by health promoting light and plasma sources). A source applying a low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) has been investigated on its effectiveness for skin disinfection and stimulation of biological material. Alternatively an atmospheric plasma source consisting of a microwave resonator combined with a solid state power oscillator has been examined. This concept which allows for a compact and efficient design avoiding external microwave power supply and matching units has been optimized with respect to nitrogen monoxide (NO) production in high yields. In both cases various application possibilities in the medical and biological domain are opened up. Light sources in the visible spectral range have been investigated with respect to the proliferation of human cell types. Intensive highly selective blue light sources based on LED technology can slow down proliferation rates without inducing toxic effects which offers new opportunities for treatments of so-called hyperproliferative skin conditions (e.g. with psoriasis or in wound healing) using UV-free light. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Structural mechanism of ligand activation in human calcium-sensing receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Mosyak, Lidia; Kurinov, Igor; Zuo, Hao; Sturchler, Emmanuel; Cheng, Tat Cheung; Subramanyam, Prakash; Brown, Alice P; Brennan, Sarah C; Mun, Hee-chang; Bush, Martin; Chen, Yan; Nguyen, Trang X; Cao, Baohua; Chang, Donald D; Quick, Matthias; Conigrave, Arthur D; Colecraft, Henry M; McDonald, Patricia; Fan, Qing R

    2016-01-01

    Human calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that maintains extracellular Ca2+ homeostasis through the regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion. It functions as a disulfide-tethered homodimer composed of three main domains, the Venus Flytrap module, cysteine-rich domain, and seven-helix transmembrane region. Here, we present the crystal structures of the entire extracellular domain of CaSR in the resting and active conformations. We provide direct evidence that L-amino acids are agonists of the receptor. In the active structure, L-Trp occupies the orthosteric agonist-binding site at the interdomain cleft and is primarily responsible for inducing extracellular domain closure to initiate receptor activation. Our structures reveal multiple binding sites for Ca2+ and PO43- ions. Both ions are crucial for structural integrity of the receptor. While Ca2+ ions stabilize the active state, PO43- ions reinforce the inactive conformation. The activation mechanism of CaSR involves the formation of a novel dimer interface between subunits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13662.001 PMID:27434672

  18. Anisotropic rigidity sensing on grating topography directs human mesenchymal stem cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sum Thai; Teo, Soo-Kng; Park, Sungsu; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Yim, Evelyn K F

    2014-01-01

    Through mechanotransduction, cells can sense physical cues from the extracellular environment and convert them into internal signals that affect various cellular functions. For example, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on topographical gratings have been shown to elongate and differentiate to different extents depending on grating width. Using a combination of experiments and mathematical modeling, the physical parameters of substrate topography that direct cell elongation were determined. On a variety of topographical gratings with different grating widths, heights and rigidity, elongation of hMSCs was measured and a monotonic increase was observed for grating aspect ratio (crosssectional height to line-width ratio) between 0.035 and 2. The elongation was also dependent on the grating substrate rigidity over a range of 0.18-1.43 MPa. A mathematical model was developed to explain our observations by relating cell elongation to the anisotropic deformation of the gratings and how this anisotropy depends on the aspect ratio and rigidity of the gratings. Our model was in good agreement with the experimental data for the range of grating aspect ratio and substrate rigidity studied. In addition, we also showed that the percentage of aligned cells, which had a strong linear correlation with elongation for slightly elongated cells, saturated toward 100 % at higher level of cell elongation. Our results may be useful in designing gratings to elicit specific cellular responses that may depend on the extent of cell elongation. PMID:23529613

  19. Remote Sensing and GIS Applied to the Landscape for the Environmental Restoration of Urbanizations by Means of 3D Virtual Reconstruction and Visualization (Salamanca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel Martínez-Graña

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The key focus of this paper is to establish a procedure that combines the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing in order to achieve simulation and modeling of the landscape impact caused by construction. The procedure should be easily and inexpensively developed. With the aid of 3D virtual reconstruction and visualization, this paper proposes that the technologies of remote sensing and GIS can be applied to the landscape for post-urbanization environmental restoration. The goal is to create a rural zone in an urban development sector that integrates the residential areas and local infrastructure into the surrounding natural environment in order to measure the changes to the preliminary urban design. The units of the landscape are determined by means of two cartographic methods: (1 indirect, using the components of the landscape; and (2 direct methods, using the landscape’s elements. The visual basins are calculated for the most transited by the population points, while establishing the zones that present major impacts for the urbanization of their landscape. Based on this, the different construction types are distributed (one-family houses, blocks of houses, etc., selecting the types of plant masses either with ornamentals or integration depending on the zone; integrating water channels, creating a water channel in recirculation and green spaces and leisure time facilities. The techniques of remote sensing and GIS allow for the visualization and modeling of the urbanization in 3D, simulating the virtual reality of the infrastructure as well as the actions that need to be taken for restoration, thereby providing at a low cost an understanding of landscape integration before it takes place.

  20. Environmental variables, remote sensing and geographical information systems applied to the study of Rhodnius prolixus distribution in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A data base of the entomological survey performer during the Chagas Disease National Control Programme (CHDNCP) in 1997 - 2001 and temporal satellite images masp containing 57 environmental variables were used to build Rhodnius prolixus dispersion predictive maps in Colombia, based on temporal images, Fourier analyses and a discriminative multivaried statistical analyses of the variables studied. The maps show the dispersion of this species and its implication on the Chagas disease transmission in Colombia. A clear division in the predictive dispersion of R. prolixus in two geographical zones was found: one area in the southeast of the Eastern Cordillera associated with the environmental variables used in the present study and a second zone in the Andean Valleys, East of the Eastern Cordillera not much defined by the same variables. This would suggest that the Southwest Region. of Colombia presents a tendency to a wider dispersion of R. prolixus associated to other variables like human intervention. Sylvatic populations of R. prolixus were found recently in Attalea butyracea palm trees in this Region of the Eastern Planes demonstrating the prediction of the presence of this species.

  1. A comparison of the effects of concentric versus eccentric exercise on force and position sense at the human elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, C; Warren, N; Gregory, J E; Morgan, D L; Proske, U

    1997-10-17

    It is generally accepted that our sense of limb position and movement is provided, in part, by signals from muscle spindles, while the sense of muscle force derives from signals in tendon organs. Experiments are described here, using human subjects, in which the effects of eccentric and concentric exercise of elbow flexor muscles are compared on the sense of forearm position and the sense of tension in elbow flexors. Subjects were required to compress a preloaded spring with one arm, carrying out a concentric contraction in elbow flexors, then flexors of the other arm released the spring from compression and thereby carried out an eccentric contraction. The force of the spring was adjusted to be 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and each subject carried out a minimum of 120 contractions. Position sense was measured in blindfolded subjects by placing one forearm at a set angle and asking subjects to match it by positioning the other arm. Over 4 days postexercise, subjects placed the eccentrically exercised arms in a more extended position than the concentrically exercised arm suggesting that they thought the muscle was shorter than it actually was. In a force-matching task, subjects systematically undershot the target 10% MVC with their eccentrically exercised arm. Since it is known that eccentric exercise is associated with damage to muscle fibres, it is postulated that this leads to a disturbance of muscle receptors, the muscle spindles and tendon organs. PMID:9401745

  2. An applied research on remote sensing classification in the Loess Plateau%黄土高原遥感分类应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘咏梅; 汤国安; 李天文

    2003-01-01

    Due to complex terrain of the Loess Plateau, the classification accuracy is unsatisfactory when a single supervised classification is used in the remote sensing investigation of the sloping field. Taking the loess hill and gully area of northern Shaanxi Province as a test area, a research was conducted to extract sloping field and other land use categories by applying an integrated classification. Based on an integration of supervised classification and unsupervised classification,sampling method is remarkably improved. The results show that the classification accuracy is satisfactory by the method and is of critical significance in obtaining up-to-date information of the sloping field, which should be helpful in the state key project of converting farmland to forest and grassland on slope land in this area. This research sought to improve the application accuracy of image classification in complex terrain areas.

  3. Saving Salmon Through Advances in Fluvial Remote Sensing: Applying the Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) for Bathymetric Mapping of Over 250 km of River Channel and Habitat Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R.; Legleiter, C. J.; Harrison, L.

    2015-12-01

    Salmonids are threatened with extinction across the world from the fragmentation of riverine ecosystems from dams and diversions. In California, efforts to expand the range of spawnable habitat for native salmon by transporting fish around reservoirs is a potentially species saving idea. But, strong scientific evidence of the amount of high quality habitat is required to make these difficult management decisions. Remote sensing has long been used in fluvial settings to identify physical parameters that drive the quality of aquatic habitat; however, the true strength of remote sensing to cover large spatial extents has not been applied with the resolution that is relevant to salmonids. This project utilizes hyperspectral data of over 250 km of the Tuolumne and Merced Rivers to extract depth and bed slope from the wetted channel and NIR LiDAR for the surrounding topography. The Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) has proven as an effective tool to create bathymetric maps of river channels in ideal settings with clear water, high amounts of bottom reflectance, and less than 3 meters deep over short distances. Results from this study show that OBRA can be applied over larger riverscapes at high resolutions (0.5 m). The depth and bed slope estimations are used to classify habitat units that are crucial to quantifying the quality and amount of habitat in these river that once produced large populations of native salmonids. As more managers look to expand habitat for these threatened species the tools developed here will be cost effective over the large extents that salmon migrate to spawn.

  4. Long-term dose measurements applying a human anthropomorphic phantom onboard an aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of aircrew personnel to cosmic radiation has been considered as occupational exposure in the European Union since the European Council Directive 96/26/EURATOM became effective on 13th May 1996. In Germany the corresponding safety standards for aircrew are regulated by the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, which implemented the European law in 2001. The radiation exposure of the flight crew of the LUFTHANSA group is calculated by the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine in Cologne, applying the calculation program EPCARD in the framework of the aircrew dose determination system CALculated and Verified Aviation DOSimetry (CALVADOS). Besides the operational dose calculations, DLR performs measurements at airflight altitudes using active (e.g. TEPC, DOSTEL, etc.) and passive (Thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs), bubble detectors) radiation detectors to verify the calculation codes. Within these activities the project BOdy DOsimetry (BODO) comprised a long-term exposure of a RANDO anthropomorphic phantom to measure the skin and the depth dose distribution inside a human torso applying TLDs at aviation altitudes for the first time. The torso was flown onboard a LUFTHANSA Cargo aircraft for 3 months from mid of July to mid of October 2004. Over 800 TLDs were positioned for depth dose measurements in the head, the thorax and the abdomen of the torso. In addition dosemeter packages have been distributed on the surface of the torso to measure the skin dose as well as in the transport container and on the flight deck

  5. Human brucellosis mimicking axial spondyloarthritis: a challenge for rheumatologists when applying the 2009 ASAS criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cong; Shen, Gui-Fen; Li, Shou-Xin; Dong, Ling-Li; Yu, Yi-Kai; Tu, Wei; Zhu, Ying-Zi; Hu, Shao-Xian

    2016-06-01

    Although the development of the 2009 SpA classification criteria by Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) represents an important step towards a better definition of the early disease stage particularly in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), the specificity of the criteria has been criticized these days. As the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide, human brucellosis can mimic a large number of diseases, including SpA. This study was performed to determine the frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with brucellosis and the chance of misdiagnosing them as having axSpA in central China. The results showed that clinical manifestations of axSpA could be observed in brucellosis. Over half of patients had back pain, and one fifth of the patients with back pain were less than 45 years old at onset and had the symptom for more than 3 months. Two young males were falsely classified as suffering from axSpA according to the ASAS criteria, and one with MRI proved sacroiliitis was once given Etanercept for treatment. Therefore, differential diagnosis including human brucellosis should always be kept in mind when applying the ASAS criteria, even in traditionally non-endemic areas. PMID:27376805

  6. Documenting genomics: Applying archival theory to preserving the records of the Human Genome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The Human Genome Archive Project (HGAP) aimed to preserve the documentary heritage of the UK's contribution to the Human Genome Project (HGP) by using archival theory to develop a suitable methodology for capturing the results of modern, collaborative science. After assessing past projects and different archival theories, the HGAP used an approach based on the theory of documentation strategy to try to capture the records of a scientific project that had an influence beyond the purely scientific sphere. The HGAP was an archival survey that ran for two years. It led to ninety scientists being contacted and has, so far, led to six collections being deposited in the Wellcome Library, with additional collections being deposited in other UK repositories. In applying documentation strategy the HGAP was attempting to move away from traditional archival approaches to science, which have generally focused on retired Nobel Prize winners. It has been partially successful in this aim, having managed to secure collections from people who are not ‘big names’, but who made an important contribution to the HGP. However, the attempt to redress the gender imbalance in scientific collections and to improve record-keeping in scientific organisations has continued to be difficult to achieve. PMID:26388555

  7. A dielectric inverse problem applied to human skin measurements during glucose excursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fringing field capacitive sensor has been used to measure the dielectric properties of human skin and underlying tissue in the MHz frequency range. It has recently been shown in clinical experimental studies that these dielectric properties can be related to the effects of in vivo glucose variations of the test subject. Previously, the relationship between electrical impedance and the glucose level has been established via statistical methods, such as the regression method. In this work, we explored a different approach, namely the resolution of the so-called inverse problem. First we applied the method on an artificial two-layer lossy system in order to test the sensitivity of the solution to forced changes in the layer properties and its stability to a constant setting. After validation of this method on artificial systems, a similar inverse problem was set and solved for dielectric measurements on human skin during an induced glucose excursion, where the skin is also modelled as a double-layer system. The changes of the measured permittivity and conductivity of the second layer versus the glucose changes are calculated for 22 study days. The statistical distribution shows that the median slopes of both dielectric properties are negative. These results can be used to test our hypothesis and to continue building potential explanations for the phenomena induced by the glucose changes on the skin layer dielectric parameters

  8. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  9. Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

  10. Expression of a functional extracellular calcium-sensing receptor in human aortic endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) regulates the functions of many cell types through a G protein-coupled [Ca2+]o-sensing receptor (CaR). Whether the receptor is functionally expressed in vascular endothelial cells is largely unknown. In cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC), RT-PCR yielded the expected 555-bp product corresponding to the CaR, and CaR protein was demonstrated by fluorescence immunostaining and Western blot. RT-PCR also demonstrated the expression in HAEC of alternatively spliced variants of the CaR lacking exon 5. Although stimulation of fura 2-loaded HAEC by several CaR agonists (high [Ca2+]o, neomycin, and gadolinium) failed to increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), the CaR agonist spermine stimulated an increase in [Ca2+]i that was diminished in buffer without Ca2+ and was abolished after depletion of an intracellular Ca2+ pool with thapsigargin or after blocking IP3- and ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca2+ release with xestospongin C and with high concentration ryanodine, respectively. Spermine stimulated an increase in DAF-FM fluorescence in HAEC, consistent with NO production. Both the increase in [Ca2+]i and in NO production were reduced or absent in HAEC transfected with siRNA specifically targeted to the CaR. HAEC express a functional CaR that responds to the endogenous polyamine spermine with an increase in [Ca2+]i, primarily due to release of IP3- and ryanodine-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores, leading to the production of NO. Expression of alternatively spliced variants of the CaR may result in the absence of a functional response to other known CaR agonists in HAEC

  11. Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by human serum paraoxonase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybey, Aynur; Demirkan, Elif

    2016-02-01

    The role of quorum sensing (QS) in the regulation of virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well established. Increased antibiotic resistance in this bacterium has led to the search for new treatment options, and inhibition of the QS system has been explored for potential therapeutic benefits. If the use of QS inhibitory agents were to lead to a reduction in bacterial virulence, new approaches in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections could be further developed. Accordingly, we examined whether human serum paraoxonase 1 (hPON1), which uses lactonase activity to hydrolyse N-acyl homoserine lactones, could cleave P. aeruginosa-derived signalling molecules. hPON1 was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine). Different concentrations of hPON1 were found to reduce various virulence factors including pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, elastase, staphylolytic LasA protease and alkaline protease. Although treatment with 0.1-10 mg hPON1 ml(-1) did not show a highly inhibitory effect on elastase and staphylolytic LasA protease production, it resulted in good inhibitory effects on alkaline protease production at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg ml(-1). hPON1 also reduced the production of pyocyanin and rhamnolipid at a concentration of 1.25 mg ml(-1 )(within a range of 0.312-5 mg ml(-1)). In addition, rhamnolipid, an effective biosurfactant reported to stimulate the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, was able to degrade oil only in the absence of hPON1. PMID:26654051

  12. 76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... the public and an independent, external panel of scientific experts (73 FR 54400). Dated: May 18, 2011... AGENCY Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids... the availability of a final report titled, ``Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments...

  13. Calcium-Sensing Receptors of Human Neural Cells Play Crucial Roles in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Anna; Armato, Ubaldo; Liu, Daisong; Dal Prà, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    In aged subjects, late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) starts in the lateral entorhinal allocortex where a failure of clearance mechanisms triggers an accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-β42 oligomers (Aβ42-os). In neurons and astrocytes, Aβ42-os enhance the transcription of Aβ precursor protein (APP) and β-secretase/BACE1 genes. Thus, by acting together with γ-secretase, the surpluses of APP and BACE1 amplify the endogenous production of Aβ42-os which pile up, damage mitochondria, and are oversecreted. At the plasmalemma, exogenous Aβ42-os bind neurons' and astrocytes' calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) activating a set of intracellular signaling pathways which upkeep Aβ42-os intracellular accumulation and oversecretion by hindering Aβ42-os proteolysis. In addition, Aβ42-os accumulating in the extracellular milieu spread and reach mounting numbers of adjacent and remoter teams of neurons and astrocytes which in turn are recruited, again via Aβ42-os•CaSR-governed mechanisms, to produce and release additional Aβ42-os amounts. This relentless self-sustaining mechanism drives AD progression toward upper cortical areas. Later on accumulating Aβ42-os elicit the advent of hyperphosphorylated (p)-Tau oligomers which acting together with Aβ42-os and other glial neurotoxins cooperatively destroy wider and wider cognition-related cortical areas. In parallel, Aβ42-os•CaSR signals also elicit an excess production and secretion of nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor-A from astrocytes, of Aβ42-os and myelin basic protein from oligodendrocytes, and of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide and (likely) Aβ42-os from microglia. Activated astrocytes and microglia survive the toxic onslaught, whereas neurons and oligodendrocytes increasingly die. However, we have shown that highly selective allosteric CaSR antagonists (calcilytics), like NPS 2143 and NPS 89626, efficiently suppress all the neurotoxic effects Aβ42-os•CaSR signaling drives in

  14. CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTORS OF HUMAN NEURAL CELLS PLAY CRUCIAL ROLES IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eChiarini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In aged subjects, late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD starts in the lateral entorhinal allocortex where a failure of clearance mechanisms triggers an accumulation neurotoxic of amyloid-β42 oligomers (Aβ42-os. In neurons and astrocytes, Aβ42-os enhance the transcription of Aβ precursor protein (APP and β-secretase/BACE1 genes. Thus, by acting together with γ-secretase, the surpluses of APP and BACE1 amplify the endogenous production of Aβ42-os which pile up, damage mitochondria, and are oversecreted. At the plasmalemma, exogenous Aβ42-os bind neurons' and astrocytes' calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs activating a set of intracellular signalling pathways which upkeep Aβ42-os intracellular accumulation and oversecretion by hindering Aβ42-os proteolysis. In addition, Aβ42-os accumulating in the extracellular milieu spread and reach mounting numbers of adjacent and remoter teams of neurons and astrocytes which in turn are recruited, again via Aβ42-osCaSR-governed mechanisms, to produce and release additional Aβ42-os amounts. This relentless self-sustaining mechanism drives AD progression towards upper cortical areas. Later on accumulating Aβ42-os elicit the advent of hyperphosphorylated (p-Tau oligomers which acting together with Aβ42-os and other glial neurotoxins cooperatively destroy wider and wider cognition-related cortical areas. In parallel, Aβ42-osCaSR signals also elicit an excess production and secretion of nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor-A from astrocytes, of Aβ42-os and myelin basic protein from oligodendrocytes, and of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide and (likely Aβ42-os from microglia. Activated astrocytes and microglia survive the toxic onslaught, whereas neurons and oligodendrocytes increasingly die. However, we have shown that highly selective allosteric CaSR antagonists (calcilytics, like NPS 2143 and NPS 89626, efficiently suppress all the neurotoxic effects Aβ42-osCaSR signalling

  15. Electrochemical sensing method for point-of-care cortisol detection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ajeet Kaushik,1 Adriana Yndart,1 Rahul Dev Jayant,1 Vidya Sagar,1 Venkata Atluri,1 Shekhar Bhansali,2 Madhavan Nair11Center of Personalized Nanomedicine, Institute of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, Department of Immun­ology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, 2BioMEMS Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing method was devised for the first time to detect plasma cortisol, a potential psychological stress biomarker, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive subjects. A miniaturized potentiostat (reconfigured LMP91000 chip interfaced with a microfluidic manifold containing a cortisol immunosensor was employed to demonstrate electrochemical cortisol sensing. This fully integrated and optimized electrochemical sensing device exhibited a wide cortisol-detection range from 10 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL, a low detection limit of 10 pg/mL, and sensitivity of 5.8 µA (pg mL-1, with a regression coefficient of 0.995. This cortisol-selective sensing system was employed to estimate plasma cortisol in ten samples from HIV patients. The electrochemical cortisol-sensing performance was validated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The results obtained using both methodologies were comparable within 2%–5% variation. The information related to psychological stress of HIV patients can be correlated with disease-progression parameters to optimize diagnosis, therapeutic, and personalized health monitoring.Keywords: psychological stress, personalized health care, cortisol, HIV, electrochemical immunosensing, miniaturized sensing device

  16. Carbon dioxide-sensing in organisms and its implications for human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Eoin P.; Selfridge, Andrew C; Sporn, Peter H.; et al

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of organisms to sense changes in the levels of internal and external gases and to respond accordingly is central to a range of physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Carbon dioxide, a primary product of oxidative metabolism is one such gas that can be sensed by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and in response to altered levels, elicit the activation of multiple adaptive pathways. The outcomes of activating CO2-sensitive pathways in various species include increased viru...

  17. An advanced scheme of compressed sensing of acceleration data for telemonintoring of human gait

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jianning; Xu, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Background The compressed sensing (CS) of acceleration data has been drawing increasing attention in gait telemonitoring application. In such application, there still exist some challenging issues including high energy consumption of body-worn device for acceleration data acquisition and the poor reconstruction performance due to nonsparsity of acceleration data. Thus, the novel scheme of compressive sensing of acceleration data is needed urgently for solutions that are found to these issues....

  18. A Multi-Modal Sensing Glove for Human Manual-Interaction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bianchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an integrated sensing glove that combines two of the most visionary wearable sensing technologies to provide both hand posture sensing and tactile pressure sensing in a unique, lightweight, and stretchable device. Namely, hand posture reconstruction employs Knitted Piezoresistive Fabrics that allows us to measure bending. From only five of these sensors (one for each finger the full hand pose of a 19 degrees of freedom (DOF hand model is reconstructed leveraging optimal sensor placement and estimation techniques. To this end, we exploit a-priori information of synergistic coordination patterns in grasping tasks. Tactile sensing employs a piezoresistive fabric allowing us to measure normal forces in more than 50 taxels spread over the palmar surface of the glove. We describe both sensing technologies, report on the software integration of both modalities, and describe a preliminary evaluation experiment analyzing hand postures and force patterns during grasping. Results of the reconstruction are promising and encourage us to push further our approach with potential applications in neuroscience, virtual reality, robotics and tele-operation.

  19. Applying Good Sense to Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, William A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the planning and possible effects of marketing efforts. Considers means of retaining current students and recruiting two groups of nonstudents--potential students with no educational interest who need special encouragement and members of the workforce who may have lifelong learning needs and interests. (AYC)

  20. Robust Human Machine Interface Based on Head Movements Applied to Assistive Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Perez; Natalia López; Eugenio Orosco; Carlos Soria; Vicente Mut; Teodiano Freire-Bastos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user’s head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user’s head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four ind...

  1. Radiomodifying effect of resveratrol in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell culture applying the comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is considered a worldwide public health problem. Resveratrol is a defense polyphenol, synthesized naturally by a wide variety of plants according to response of ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposition or according to mechanical stress resulting of pathogens or chemical and physical agents. In vines this substance is found in elevated concentration. Thus, resveratrol is present in grape juice and wines, especially red wine. Red wines are the best dietary source of resveratrol.The protective effects performed by resveratrol during the process of cell damage, produced by oxidative effects of free radicals, are anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet and anti-carcinogenic activity, prevent or inhibit degenerative diseases, decrease incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, resveratrol is considered as a cell radioprotector. On the other hand, in some elevated concentrations resveratrol is considered as a radiosensitizing compound. The aim of this work was study in vitro the radiomodifying effect of resveratrol in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells applying the comet assay to evaluate the cellular damage and its repair capacity. In this study RD cells culture was irradiated by gamma radiation at 50 Gy and 100 Gy doses and the used resveratrol concentrations was from 15 μM to 60 μM. The protective and radioprotective effects were observed at 15 μM and 30 μM resveratrol concentrations. The resveratrol concentration of 60 μM showed cytotoxic effect to RD tumor cells and with gamma radiation presence this concentration showed no statistically significant radiosensitizing effects. (author)

  2. Biological and intelligent manufacturing: human life-skills applied to technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nelcy Jiménez Hernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly competitive settings, characterised by development being promoting by the predominance of knowledge, means that mul- tidisciplinary approaches must be adopted for dealing with specific problems. Indeed, techniques and tools have been created by imitating human beings’ behaviour and applying them to productive and technological contexts to increase efficiency and enable a quick response. This paper deals with this topic and presents the results of scientometric- and technological surveillance-based research for revealing life sciences’ impact on technological development and its management. It was found that such impact has been mainly reflected in producing concepts and applications for topics such as intelligent manufacturing, biological manu- facturing systems and holonic and bionic manufacturing, thereby providing manufacturing and information management with hu- man attributes such as adaptation, self-learning, flexibility and the ability to evolve. It may thus be concluded that technological factor management has been strengthened, based on fields such as biology, thereby leading to direct outcomes regarding pro- duction.

  3. Radiomodifying effect of resveratrol in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell culture applying the comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Vanessa D.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Vieira, Daniel P.; Okazaki, Kayo; Rogero, Jose R., E-mail: van.biologa@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cruz, Aurea S., E-mail: aurcruz@ial.sp.gov.br [Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cancer is considered a worldwide public health problem. Resveratrol is a defense polyphenol, synthesized naturally by a wide variety of plants according to response of ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposition or according to mechanical stress resulting of pathogens or chemical and physical agents. In vines this substance is found in elevated concentration. Thus, resveratrol is present in grape juice and wines, especially red wine. Red wines are the best dietary source of resveratrol.The protective effects performed by resveratrol during the process of cell damage, produced by oxidative effects of free radicals, are anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet and anti-carcinogenic activity, prevent or inhibit degenerative diseases, decrease incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, resveratrol is considered as a cell radioprotector. On the other hand, in some elevated concentrations resveratrol is considered as a radiosensitizing compound. The aim of this work was study in vitro the radiomodifying effect of resveratrol in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells applying the comet assay to evaluate the cellular damage and its repair capacity. In this study RD cells culture was irradiated by gamma radiation at 50 Gy and 100 Gy doses and the used resveratrol concentrations was from 15 μM to 60 μM. The protective and radioprotective effects were observed at 15 μM and 30 μM resveratrol concentrations. The resveratrol concentration of 60 μM showed cytotoxic effect to RD tumor cells and with gamma radiation presence this concentration showed no statistically significant radiosensitizing effects. (author)

  4. APPLIED MODEL REGARDING FUNDAMENTING AND IMPLEMENTING HUMAN RESOURCES AUDIT IN A COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    MARIN Irinel

    2013-01-01

    The audit of human resources management emphasizes the contributions the human resources department makes to the company, it enhances its professional image, fosters greater involvement in the main responsibilities of the department. Furthermore, it reduces the costs for human resources by means of more cost-effective personnel procedures. Moreover, it helps identify critical querries with regard to human resources.

  5. Pu-239 organ specific dosimetric model applied to non-human biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Matthew Jason

    There are few locations throughout the world, like the Maralinga nuclear test site located in south western Australia, where sufficient plutonium contaminate concentration levels exist that they can be utilized for studies of the long-term radionuclide accumulation in non-human biota. The information obtained will be useful for the potential human users of the site while also keeping with international efforts to better understand doses to non-human biota. In particular, this study focuses primarily on a rabbit sample set collected from the population located within the site. Our approach is intended to employ the same dose and dose rate methods selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adapted by the scientific community for similar research questions. These models rely on a series of simplifying assumptions on biota and their geometry; in particular; organisms are treated as spherical and ellipsoidal representations displaying the animal mass and volume. These simplifications assume homogeneity of all animal tissues. In collaborative efforts between Colorado State University and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), we are expanding current knowledge on radionuclide accumulation in specific organs causing organ-specific dose rates, such as Pu-239 accumulating in bone, liver, and lungs. Organ-specific dose models have been developed for humans; however, little has been developed for the dose assessment to biota, in particular rabbits. This study will determine if it is scientifically valid to use standard software, in particular ERICA Tool, as a means to determine organ-specific dosimetry due to Pu-239 accumulation in organs. ERICA Tool is normally applied to whole organisms as a means to determine radiological risk to whole ecosystems. We will focus on the aquatic model within ERICA Tool, as animal organs, like aquatic organisms, can be assumed to lie within an infinite uniform medium. This model would

  6. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B.; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis.

  7. Sensing Small Changes in Protein Abundance: Stimulation of Caco-2 Cells by Human Whey Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Judy K; McConnell, Elizabeth J; Lohe, Kimberly J; Maria, Sarah D; McMahon, Robert J; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approaches have largely facilitated our systemic understanding of cellular processes and biological functions. Cutoffs in protein expression fold changes (FCs) are often arbitrarily determined in MS-based quantification with no demonstrable determination of small magnitude changes in protein expression. Therefore, many biological insights may remain veiled due to high FC cutoffs. Herein, we employ the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line Caco-2 as a model system to demonstrate the dynamicity of tandem-mass-tag (TMT) labeling over a range of 5-40% changes in protein abundance, with the variance controls of ± 5% FC for around 95% of TMT ratios when sampling 9-12 biological replicates. We further applied this procedure to examine the temporal proteome of Caco-2 cells upon exposure to human whey proteins (WP). Pathway assessments predict subtle effects due to WP in moderating xenobiotic metabolism, promoting proliferation and various other cellular functions in differentiating enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. This demonstration of a sensitive MS approach may open up new perspectives in the system-wide exploration of elusive or transient biological effects by facilitating scrutiny of narrow windows of proteome abundance changes. Furthermore, we anticipate this study will encourage more investigations of WP on infant gastrointestinal tract development. PMID:26586228

  8. Identification of Mangrove Areas by Remote Sensing: The ROC Curve Technique Applied to the Northwestern Mexico Coastal Zone Using Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Sánchez-Carrillo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In remote sensing, traditional methodologies for image classification consider the spectral values of a pixel in different image bands. More recently, classification methods have used neighboring pixels to provide more information. In the present study, we used these more advanced techniques to discriminate between mangrove and non‑mangrove regions in the Gulf of California of northwestern Mexico. A maximum likelihood algorithm was used to obtain a spectral distance map of the vegetation signature characteristic of mangrove areas. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was applied to this map to improve classification. Two classification thresholds were set to determine mangrove and non-mangrove areas, and two performance statistics (sensitivity and specificity were calculated to express the uncertainty (errors of omission and commission associated with the two maps. The surface area of the mangrove category obtained by maximum likelihood classification was slightly higher than that obtained from the land cover map generated by the ROC curve, but with the difference of these areas to have a high level of accuracy in the prediction of the model. This suggests a considerable degree of uncertainty in the spectral signatures of pixels that distinguish mangrove forest from other land cover categories.

  9. Human-machine interfaces based on EMG and EEG applied to robotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarcinelli-Filho Mario

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two different Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs were developed, both based on electro-biological signals. One is based on the EMG signal and the other is based on the EEG signal. Two major features of such interfaces are their relatively simple data acquisition and processing systems, which need just a few hardware and software resources, so that they are, computationally and financially speaking, low cost solutions. Both interfaces were applied to robotic systems, and their performances are analyzed here. The EMG-based HMI was tested in a mobile robot, while the EEG-based HMI was tested in a mobile robot and a robotic manipulator as well. Results Experiments using the EMG-based HMI were carried out by eight individuals, who were asked to accomplish ten eye blinks with each eye, in order to test the eye blink detection algorithm. An average rightness rate of about 95% reached by individuals with the ability to blink both eyes allowed to conclude that the system could be used to command devices. Experiments with EEG consisted of inviting 25 people (some of them had suffered cases of meningitis and epilepsy to test the system. All of them managed to deal with the HMI in only one training session. Most of them learnt how to use such HMI in less than 15 minutes. The minimum and maximum training times observed were 3 and 50 minutes, respectively. Conclusion Such works are the initial parts of a system to help people with neuromotor diseases, including those with severe dysfunctions. The next steps are to convert a commercial wheelchair in an autonomous mobile vehicle; to implement the HMI onboard the autonomous wheelchair thus obtained to assist people with motor diseases, and to explore the potentiality of EEG signals, making the EEG-based HMI more robust and faster, aiming at using it to help individuals with severe motor dysfunctions.

  10. Robust Human Machine Interface Based on Head Movements Applied to Assistive Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Perez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user’s head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user’s head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four individuals with severe motors disability and a quantitative index was developed, in order to objectively evaluate the performance. The results obtained are promising since most users could perform the proposed tasks with the robotic wheelchair.

  11. Robust human machine interface based on head movements applied to assistive robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Elisa; López, Natalia; Orosco, Eugenio; Soria, Carlos; Mut, Vicente; Freire-Bastos, Teodiano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user's head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user's head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four individuals with severe motors disability and a quantitative index was developed, in order to objectively evaluate the performance. The results obtained are promising since most users could perform the proposed tasks with the robotic wheelchair. PMID:24453877

  12. Application of dermal microdialysis for the determination of bioavailability of clobetasol propionate applied to the skin of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Au, W L; Skinner, M F; Benfeldt, E;

    2012-01-01

    Dermal microdialysis was used to assess the bioavailability of a topical corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate, following application onto the skin of human subjects. The penetration of clobetasol propionate from a 4% m/v ethanolic solution applied onto 4 sites on one forearm of healthy human...... drug of interest. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated the application of dermal microdialysis as a valuable tool to assess the bioavailability/bioequivalence of clobetasol propionate penetration into the skin following topical application....

  13. The Calcium-Sensing Receptor Is Necessary for the Rapid Development of Hypercalcemia in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gwendolen Lorch; Serge Viatchenko-Karpinski; Hsiang-Ting Ho; Dirksen, Wessel P.; Toribio, Ramiro E.; John Foley; Sandor Györke; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is responsible for the regulation of extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) homeostasis. CaR activation has been shown to increase proliferation in several cancer cell lines; however, its presence or function has never been documented in lung cancer. We report that Ca2+o-activated CaR results in MAPK-mediated stimulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) production in human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lines and humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy ...

  14. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey

    2004-01-01

    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  15. Recent Evolution of Western Pacific Coastal Zones: Human-Induced Changes Documented by Remotely-Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Robinson, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Even as we struggle to understand the processes instrumental in the Cenozoic evolution of the Pacific plate, the rates and magnitudes of some fundamental geologic agents are changing due to human interactions with the Earth. Coastal landscapes of the western Pacific convergent margins have experienced unprecedented changes in the past 50 years due to human activities. Abundant natural resources created by convergent margin processes (for example, rich volcanic soils supporting hardwood forests and agriculture; economically viable mineral deposits; and natural harbors) attract large human populations and development. Populations are growing especially rapidly along Pacific coastal zones; their increasing demands for water and electricity drive developments such as large dam construction that become key agents of geomorphologic change. For example, all of East Asia's major rivers are controlled by large dams, and hundreds of new dams are in stages of planning or construction. These developments dramatically change the water and sediment fluxes along the coast. Impacts include changing rates of deposition, shifting salinity balances in coastal waters, coastal erosion and subsidence, changing ecosystems and biogeochemical balances and controls. Another important change agent is coastline modification through land reclamation and development using dikes, levees, channel construction and dredge and fill activities. Using remotely sensed imagery -- astronaut images of Earth -- we provide examples of human activities currently modifying landscapes along East Asian coasts. Here, natural and human factors are interactive, and combine to create some of the largest rates of change along coasts anywhere in the world. In a sense, these events provide a laboratory for viewing natural processes at accelerated rates. The outstanding question is: Where will these changes in geomorphologic process take us in the larger context of the biogeochemical evolution of the margin of the

  16. SENSORY, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE CHEMICAL SENSES IN HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The examination of the effects of odors on humans is not a simple task. It involves consideration of sensory, psychological, and psychophysiological aspects of the stimulus and the humans studied. Aspects of importance are: 1. Information the subject has ...

  17. Rapid determination of dopamine in human plasma using a gold nanoparticle-based dual-mode sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Qi, Suijian; Liu, Zhonggang; Shi, Yupeng; Yue, Wanqing; Yi, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    Dopamine plays a very important role in biological systems and has a direct relationship with the ability of learning and cognition, human desires, feelings and mental state, as well as motor functions. Traditional methods for the detection of dopamine are complicated and time-consuming, therefore it is necessary to explore rapid and accurate detection of dopamine with high sensitivity and specificity. Herein we report a dual-mode system of colorimetric and fluorometric analyses based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and aptamers specifically targeting dopamine. Aptamers modified with the fluorophore were used as dopamine specific recognition probe and the sensing mechanism is based on the color change of AuNPs and the fluorescence recovery of fluorophore conjugated on the aptamers in the presence of dopamine. The addition of aptamers into AuNPs colloid solution would prevent the AuNPs from aggregation in the high-salt solution. The close distance between AuNPs and fluorophore conjugated on the aptamers would lead to the quenching of fluorescence signal. In the presence of dopamine, the conformation of the aptamers and the inter-particle distance would be changed, leading to the aggregation of AuNPs, which subsequently results in color change from red to blue and fluorescence signal recovery. The dual-mode sensing system demonstrated high specificity towards dopamine with the detection limit as low as 78.7nM. The sensing system reflects on its simplicity as no surface functionalization is required for the nanoparticles, leading to less laborious and more cost-effective synthesis. The reaction time is only 6min, demonstrating a simple approach for rapid analysis of dopamine. More importantly, the sensing system allows the detection of dopamine in both aqueous solution and complicated biological sample with sensitive response, illustrating the feasibility and reliability for the potential applications in clinical and biomedical analysis in the future. PMID:26838842

  18. Object and human tracking, and robot control through a load sensing floor

    OpenAIRE

    Andries, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the capabilities of an ambient intelligence equipped with a load-sensing floor. It deals with the problem of perceiving the environment through a network of low-resolution sensors. Challenges include the interpretation of spread loads for objects wit multiple points of support, weight ambiguities between objects, variation of persons’ weight during dynamic activities, etc. We introduce new techniques, partly inspired from the field of computer vision, for detecting, track...

  19. A Novel Function of Human Pumilio Proteins in Cytoplasmic Sensing of Viral Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Ryo; Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Murakami, Etsu; Hirano, Emi; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Kato, Hiroki; Fujita, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary Mammals utilize innate immune system to counteract viral infections. The host pattern-recognition receptors, such as RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), sense invading pathogens and initiate innate immune responses. RLRs are composed of three RNA helicases, RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2, and detect a series of RNA viruses, such as influenza or hepatitis C virus, in the cytoplasm. Upon RNA virus infection, RLRs transmit signals through mitochondrial adaptor protein, IPS-1, to activate transcrip...

  20. The human carotid body in sensing and signaling of oxygen and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kåhlin, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen is essential for cell survival and global oxygenation is closely monitored in order to protect tissues from hypoxic damage. The carotid body is an important systemic oxygen sensor responding to hypoxia and a multitude of other blood borne stimuli, including inflammatory mediators. Activation of the carotid body by depolarization of the chemosensitive type 1 cells ultimately leads to appropriate ventilatory and cardiovascular responses. While animal carotid body oxygen sensing and signa...

  1. Quorum Sensing Is Accompanied by Global Metabolic Changes in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, Peter W.; Griffin, Julian L.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS) systems to control the expression of secreted effectors. These effectors can be crucial to the ecological fitness of the bacterium, playing roles in nutrient acquisition, microbial competition, and virulence. In this study, we investigated the metabolic consequences of AHL-dependent QS by monitoring the metabolic profile(s) of a lasI rhlI double mutant (unable to make QS signaling molecules) and its wild...

  2. Quorum sensing communication between bacteria and human cells: signals, targets, and functions

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Angelika; Vikström, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Both direct and long-range interactions between pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts are important in the outcome of infections. For cell-to-cell communication, these bacteria employ the quorum sensing (QS) system to pass on information of the density of the bacterial population and collectively switch on virulence factor production, biofilm formation, and resistance development. Thus, QS allows bacteria to behave as a community to perform tasks which would be...

  3. Energy expenditure evaluation in humans and non-human primates by SenseWear Armband. Validation of energy expenditure evaluation by SenseWear Armband by direct comparison with indirect calorimetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Casiraghi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare and validate the use of SenseWear Armband (SWA placed on the arm (SWA ARM and on the back (SWA BACK in healthy humans during resting and a cycle-ergometer exercise and to evaluate the SWA to estimate Resting Energy Expenditure (REE and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE in healthy baboons. METHODS: We studied 26 (15F/11M human subjects wearing SWA in two different anatomical sites (arm and back during resting and a cycle-ergometer test and directly compared these results with indirect calorimetry evaluation (IC, performed at the same time. We then inserted the SWA in a metabolic jacket for baboons and evaluated the TEE and REE in free living condition for 6 days in 21 (8F/13M non-human primates. RESULTS: In humans we found a good correlation between SWA place on the ARM and on the BACK with IC during the resting experiment (1.1±0.3 SWAs, 1±0.2 IC kcal/min and a slight underestimation in the SWAs data compared with IC during the cycle-ergometer exercise (5±1.9 SWA ARM, 4.5±1.5 SWA BACK and 5.4±2.1 IC kcal/min. In the non-human primate (baboons experiment SWA estimated a TEE of 0.54±0.009 kcal/min during free living and a REE of 0.82±0.06 kcal/min. CONCLUSION: SWA, an extremely simple and inexpensive apparatus, provides quite accurate measurements of energy expenditure in humans and in baboons. Energy expenditure data obtained with SWA are highly correlated with the data obtained with "gold standard", IC, in humans.

  4. Reaching with the sixth sense: Vestibular contributions to voluntary motor control in the human right parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Thielscher, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system constitutes the silent sixth sense: It automatically triggers a variety of vital reflexes to maintain postural and visual stability. Beyond their role in reflexive behavior, vestibular afferents contribute to several perceptual and cognitive functions and also support voluntary control of movements by complementing the other senses to accomplish the movement goal. Investigations into the neural correlates of vestibular contribution to voluntary action in humans are challenging and have progressed far less than research on corresponding visual and proprioceptive involvement. Here, we demonstrate for the first time with event-related TMS that the posterior part of the right medial intraparietal sulcus processes vestibular signals during a goal-directed reaching task with the dominant right hand. This finding suggests a qualitative difference between the processing of vestibular vs. visual and proprioceptive signals for controlling voluntary movements, which are pre-dominantly processed in the left posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, this study reveals a neural pathway for vestibular input that might be distinct from the processing for reflexive or cognitive functions, and opens a window into their investigation in humans. PMID:26424179

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Anti-sense PTTG on Malignant Phenotype of Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Line SK-OV-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 李静; 李辅军; 李箫; 周剑锋; 卢运萍; 马丁

    2004-01-01

    To construct eukaryotic expression vector expressing full length anti-sense pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) mRNA and observe its blocking effect on the potential invasion of human ovarian carcinoma cell line SK-OV-3. PCR primers containing designed enzyme cut sites were used for cloning full-length PTTG gene fragment, and the resulting PCR product was inserted into the eukaryotic vector pcDNA3. 1 in the antisense direction. The recombinant vector was then transfected into SK-OV-3 by Lipofectamine. The positive cell clone was screened by G418, PTTG and bFGF at protein level expression were detected by Western blot. The biological behavior change of transfection positive cells was observed by colony formation in soft agar assay. Our results showed that SK-OV-3 clones stably expressing full-length recombinant pcDNA3. 1-PTTGas were obtained. The expressions of PTTG and bFGF protein in transfected cells were decreased by 61.5 % and 52.3%, respectively as compared with non-transfected ones. The number of colony formation was reduced significantly in transfected cells as compared with empty vector transfected and non-transfected cells. It is concluded that the recombinant vector pcDNA3. 1-PTTGas is a novel tool and provides an alternative anti-sense gene therapy targeted at PTTG in human carcinoma.

  6. Making sense of elephants in the shamba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    This article applies sensemaking theory to instances of human-elephant interaction to understand how farmers make sense of elephants in their crops and how this fits into a broader discussion of human-wildlife coexistence. The concept of sensemaking is extended to discuss the institutional context....... This article is intended as a snapshot of the potential for the application of sensemaking theory to human-wildlife interactions rather than a case for generalisation....

  7. When Should We Care About Sustainability? Applying Human Security as the Decisive Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Lautensach

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It seems intuitively clear that not all human endeavours warrant equal concern over the extent of their sustainability. This raises the question about what criteria might best serve for their prioritisation. We refute, on empirical and theoretical grounds, the counterclaim that sustainability should be of no concern regardless of the circumstances. Human security can serve as a source of criteria that are both widely shared and can be assessed in a reasonably objective manner. Using established classifications, we explore how four forms of sustainability (environmental, economic, social, and cultural relate to the four pillars of human security (environmental, economic, sociopolitical, and health-related. Our findings, based on probable correlations, suggest that the criteria of human security allow for a reliable discrimination between relatively trivial incidences of unsustainable behavior and those that warrant widely shared serious concern. They also confirm that certain sources of human insecurity, such as poverty or violent conflict, tend to perpetuate unsustainable behavior, a useful consideration for the design of development initiatives. Considering that human security enjoys wide and increasing political support among the international community, it is to be hoped that by publicizing the close correlation between human security and sustainability greater attention will be paid to the latter and to its careful definition.

  8. An improved method for producing radiation hybrids applied to human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    At the initiation of the grant we had just produced radiation hybrids from a monochromosomal microcell hybrid containing human chromosome 19 as its only human component. Radiation hybrids were produced using doses of radiation ranging from 1000--8000 rads. Lethally irradiated cells were then fused to hamster recipients (CHTG49) and selected for growth in histidinol. Approximately 240 clones were isolated and 75 clones were expanded for the isolation of DNA. This report describes in situ hybridization studies and the introduction of markers into human chromosome 19.

  9. INDICATORS APPLIED TO HIGHLIGHT THE VALORIZATION OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN SHIPPING

    OpenAIRE

    FILIP NISTOR; CATALIN POPA; IMRE RECZEY

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the shipping companies reconsidered their position regarding the importance of human capital because of the new trend in shipbuilding in conjunction with the enforcement of tighter regulations in shipping. Increasing profit of shipping companies was the result of valorization of human capital on board ships through acquirement of new skills and knowledge in accordance with technologies implemented on the new ships by training and development. Thus, identification of indicator...

  10. Aquaticity: A discussion of the term and of how it applies to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varveri, Danae; Karatzaferi, Christina; Pollatou, Elizana; Sakkas, Giorgos K

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between humans and water and the effects on aspects related to human performance has never been studied scientifically. The aim of the current systematic review is to attempt to define the term "aquaticity", present the factors that describe it and reveal the form in which it presents itself in today's society, in order to become a distinct scientific field of study. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted using anecdotal reports from the internet and forums as well as scientific articles and books from databases on issues related to aquatic sports. To the best of our knowledge there are no scientific articles dealing with human's aquaticity. In the current systematic review, four factors have been recognized that are closely related to human aquaticity. Those are related to physical condition in the water, to apnea and ability to immerse, to mental health and to parameters related to body composition. According to our findings, "Aquaticity is the capacity of a terrestrial mammalian organism to function and habitualise in the aquatic environment. The level of aquaticity depends on mental and physical characteristics and can be improved by frequent exposure to the water element". The ideal state of aquaticity is achieved through the activation of the diving reflex, when the human body is totally immersed in water. The development of knowledge regarding the aquatic environment leads humans to an improved state of aquaticity. PMID:27210836

  11. Human health risk assessment of triclosan in land-applied biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verslycke, Tim; Mayfield, David B; Tabony, Jade A; Capdevielle, Marie; Slezak, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]-phenol) is an antimicrobial agent found in a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products. Numerous studies have examined the occurrence and environmental fate of triclosan in wastewater, biosolids, biosolids-amended soils, and plants and organisms exposed to biosolid-amended soils. Triclosan has a propensity to adhere to organic carbon in biosolids and biosolid-amended soils. Land application of biosolids containing triclosan has the potential to contribute to multiple direct and indirect human health exposure pathways. To estimate exposures and human health risks from biosolid-borne triclosan, a risk assessment was conducted in general accordance with the methodology incorporated into the US Environmental Protection Agency's Part 503 biosolids rule. Human health exposures to biosolid-borne triclosan were estimated on the basis of published empirical data or modeled using upper-end environmental partitioning estimates. Similarly, a range of published triclosan human health toxicity values was evaluated. Margins of safety were estimated for 10 direct and indirect exposure pathways, both individually and combined. The present risk assessment found large margins of safety (>1000 to >100 000) for potential exposures to all pathways, even under the most conservative exposure and toxicity assumptions considered. The human health exposures and risks from biosolid-borne triclosan are concluded to be de minimis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2358-2367. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27552397

  12. Applying human factors to the design of control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human factors is a body of scientific factors about human characteristics, covering biomedical, psychological and psychosocial considerations, including principles and applications in the personnel selection areas, training, job performance aid tools and human performance evaluation. Control Centre is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations which are functionally related and all on the same site. Digital control room includes an arrangement of systems, equipment such as computers and communication terminals and workstations at which control and monitoring functions are conducted by operators. Inadequate integration between control room and operators reduces safety, increases the operation complexity, complicates operator training and increases the likelihood of human errors occurrence. The objective of this paper is to present a specific approach for the conceptual and basic design of the control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards, guidelines and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the conceptual and basic phases of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team, an initial sketch 3D of the control centre and workstation are being developed. (author)

  13. Exoskeleton-Based Robotic Platform Applied in Biomechanical Modelling of the Human Upper Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres F. Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the approaches to study the human motor system, and specifically the motor strategies implied during postural tasks of the upper limbs, is to manipulate the mechanical conditions of each joint of the upper limbs independently. At the same time, it is essential to pick up biomechanical signals and bio-potentials generated while the human motor system adapts to the new condition. The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to describe the design, development and validation of an experimental platform designed to modify or perturb the mechanics of human movement, and simultaneously acquire, process, display and quantify bioelectric and biomechanical signals; second, to characterise the dynamics of the elbow joint during postural control. A main goal of the study was to determine the feasibility of estimating human elbow joint dynamics using EMG-data during maintained posture. In particular, the experimental robotic platform provides data to correlate electromyographic (EMG activity, kinetics and kinematics information from the upper limb motion. The platform aims consists of an upper limb powered exoskeleton, an EMG acquisition module, a control unit and a software system. Important concerns of the platform such as dependability and safety were addressed in the development. The platform was evaluated with 4 subjects to identify, using system identification methods, the human joint dynamics, i.e. visco-elasticity. Results obtained in simulations and experimental phase are introduced.

  14. Permeation of topically applied Magnesium ions through human skin is facilitated by hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Navin Chandrakanth; Sanchez, Washington Y; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S; Barnard, Ross T

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium is an important micronutrient essential for various biological processes and its deficiency has been linked to several inflammatory disorders in humans. Topical magnesium delivery is one of the oldest forms of therapy for skin diseases, for example Dead Sea therapy and Epsom salt baths. Some anecdotal evidence and a few published reports have attributed amelioration of inflammatory skin conditions to the topical application of magnesium. On the other hand, transport of magnesium ions across the protective barrier of skin, the stratum corneum, is contentious. Our primary aim in this study was to estimate the extent of magnesium ion permeation through human skin and the role of hair follicles in facilitating the permeation. Upon topical application of magnesium solution, we found that magnesium penetrates through human stratum corneum and it depends on concentration and time of exposure. We also found that hair follicles make a significant contribution to magnesium penetration. PMID:27624531

  15. Brain-Computer Interfaces Applying Our Minds to Human-computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Desney S

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person's mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science fiction stories. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to turn these myths into a reality, and are providing us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that monitor physical p

  16. Applying systemic-structural activity theory to design of human-computer interaction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z; Bedny, Inna

    2015-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is an interdisciplinary field that has gained recognition as an important field in ergonomics. HCI draws on ideas and theoretical concepts from computer science, psychology, industrial design, and other fields. Human-Computer Interaction is no longer limited to trained software users. Today people interact with various devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops. How can you make such interaction user friendly, even when user proficiency levels vary? This book explores methods for assessing the psychological complexity of computer-based tasks. It also p

  17. Using Remote Sensing to Map the Risk of Human Monkeypox Virus in the Congo Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Trevon; Thomassen, Henri A; Mulembakani, Prime M.; Johnston, Sara C.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Kisalu, Neville K.; Lutete, Timothee K.; Blumberg, Seth; Fair, Joseph N.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Shongo, Robert L.; Formenty, Pierre; Meyer, Hermann; Wright, Linda L.; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Although the incidence of human monkeypox has greatly increased in Central Africa over the last decade, resources for surveillance remain extremely limited. We conducted a geospatial analysis using existing data to better inform future surveillance efforts. Using active surveillance data collected between 2005 and 2007, we identified locations in Sankuru district, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where there have been one or more cases of human monkeypox. To assess what taxa constitute the ...

  18. Using remote sensing to map the risk of human monkeypox virus in the Congo basin

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, T.; Thomassen, HA; Mulembakani, PM; Johnston, SC; Lloyd-Smith, JO; Kisalu, NK; Lutete, TK; Blumberg, S.; Fair, JN; Wolfe, ND; Shongo, RL; Formenty, P.; Meyer, H.; Wright, LL; Muyembe, JJ

    2011-01-01

    Although the incidence of human monkeypox has greatly increased in Central Africa over the last decade, resources for surveillance remain extremely limited. We conducted a geospatial analysis using existing data to better inform future surveillance efforts. Using active surveillance data collected between 2005 and 2007, we identified locations in Sankuru district, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where there have been one or more cases of human monkeypox. To assess what taxa constitute the ...

  19. Erikson's Theory of Human Development as it Applies to the Aged: Wisdom as Contradictive Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Vivian

    1975-01-01

    Erikson's theory of human development is discussed; the question is raised as to whether most elderly individuals resolve the crisis between integrity and despair which signals the last stage of the life cycle. It is concluded that most individuals seek foreclosure or enter prolonged moratoriums after adolescence, never reaching this stage. (JMB)

  20. A biophysical model applied to survival of tumor cells and chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations on survival of tumor cells E.M.T.6 and chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro and microdosimetric studies were made using a helion beam. The results obtained were compared in order to see if the Dual Radiation Action Theory of ROSSI and KELLERER can explain these radiobiological phenomena

  1. Performance Improvement: Applying a Human Performance Model to Organizational Processes in a Military Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaberg, Wayne; Thompson, Carla J.; West, Haywood V.; Swiergosz, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a description and the results of a study that utilized the human performance (HP) model and methods to explore and analyze a training organization. The systemic and systematic practices of the HP model are applicable to military training organizations as well as civilian organizations. Implications of the study for future…

  2. Brain-Computer Interfaces: Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Anton

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person’s mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science f

  3. HIERARCHICAL SYSTEM OF SENSE-MAKING. THE "HUMAN-TEXT" SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISELEVA ANNA ARKADIEVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we drew upon the hypothesis that the research of sensemaking process discovers the structure of participant interaction in communication and “text-individual” interaction. With the help of the method of intertextual questions hierarchical structure of this interaction was discovered, the linguistic particularities of text were identified, that provoke hierarchical level of sensemaking process. The main classes of intertextual questions were also singled out. Their classification reflects the hierarchical structure of sense-making. The personified effect has been found, which stimulates more involvement in sensemaking process in communication. This topic is perspective for further experimental researches in this direction, since nowadays it is not studied enough.

  4. Applying mass spectrometry-based qualitative proteomics to human amygdaloid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Zelaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The amygdaloid complex is a key brain structure involved in the expression of behaviours and emotions such as learning, fear, and anxiety. Brain diseases including depression, epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer`s disease, have been associated with amygdala dysfunction. For several decades, neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, volumetric, and cognitive approaches have been the gold standard techniques employed to characterize the amygdala functionality. However, little attention has been focused specifically on the molecular composition of the human amygdala from the perspective of proteomics. We have performed a global proteome analysis employing protein and peptide fractionation methods followed by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS, detecting expression of at least 1820 protein species in human amygdala, corresponding to 1814 proteins which represent a 9-fold increase in proteome coverage with respect to previous proteomic profiling of the rat amygdala. Gene ontology analysis were used to determine biological process represented in human amygdala highlighting molecule transport, nucleotide binding, and oxidoreductase and GTPase activities. Bioinformatic analyses have revealed that nearly 4% of identified proteins have been previously associated to neurodegenerative syndromes, and 26% of amygdaloid proteins were also found to be present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. In particular, a subset of amygdaloid proteins was mainly involved in axon guidance, synaptic vesicle release, L1CAM interactome, and signaling pathways transduced by NGF and NCAM1. Taken together, our data contributes to the repertoire of the human brain proteome, serving as a reference library to provide basic information for understanding the neurobiology of the human amygdala.

  5. Bridging the gap between human and machine trust : applying methods of user-centred design and usability to computer security

    OpenAIRE

    Karvonen, Kristiina

    2008-01-01

    This work presents methods for improving the usability of security. The work focuses on trust as part of computer security. Methods of usability and user-centred design present an essential starting point for the research. The work uses the methods these fields provide to investigate differences between machine and human trust, as well as how the technical expressions of trust could be made more usable by applying these methods. The thesis is based on nine publications, which present various ...

  6. Expression of heparanase mRNA in anti-sense oligonucleotide-transfected human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui-Sheng Chen; Lan Zhang; Lin Tang; Yun-Han Zhang; Dong-Ling Gao; Liang Yan; Lei Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASODNs) on mRNA expression of heparanase in human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells.METHODS: One non-sense oligonucleotide (N-ODN) and five ASODNs against different heparanase mRNA sites were transfected into EC9706 cells, then the expression of heparanase mRNA in EC9706 cells was studied byin situ hybridization.RESULTS: The expression of heparanase mRNA could be inhibited by ASODNs.There was no significant difference among five ASODNs (P>0.05), but there was a significant difference between ASODNs and N-ODN or non-transfected group (ASODN1: 2.25±0.25, ASODN2: 2.21±0.23, ASODN3:2.23±0.23, ASODN4:2.25±0.24 vs N-ODN: 3.47±2.80 or non- transfected group: 3.51±2.93 respectively, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The expression of heparanase mRNA in EC9706 cells can be inhibited by ASODNs in vivo, and heparanase ASODNs can inhibit metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma or other tumors by inhibiting the expression of heparanase.

  7. Mechanical strain applied to human fibroblasts differentially regulates skeletal myoblast differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Michael R.; Cao, Thanh V.; Campbell, David H.; Standley, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic short-duration stretches (CSDS) such as those resulting from repetitive motion strain increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Myofascial release is a common technique used by clinicians that applies an acyclic long-duration stretch (ALDS) to muscle fascia to repair injury. When subjected to mechanical strain, fibroblasts within muscle fascia secrete IL-6, which has been shown to induce myoblast differentiation, essential for muscle repair. We hypothesize that fibroblasts subjected...

  8. Topically applied vitamin C increases the density of dermal papillae in aged human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Koop Urte; Jaspers Sören; Sauermann Kirsten; Wenck Horst

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The influence of ageing on the density of the functional entities of the papillae containing nutritive capillaries, here in terms as the papillary index, and the effect of topically applied vitamin C were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in vivo. Methods The age dependency of the papillary index was determined by CLSM on 3 different age groups. Additionally, we determined the effect of a topical cream containing 3% vitamin C against the vehicle alo...

  9. 3D Visual Sensing of the Human Hand for the Remote Operation of a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New low cost sensors and open free libraries for 3D image processing are making important advances in robot vision applications possible, such as three- dimensional object recognition, semantic mapping, navigation and localization of robots, human detection and/or gesture recognition for human-machine interaction. In this paper, a novel method for recognizing and tracking the fingers of a human hand is presented. This method is based on point clouds from range images captured by a RGBD sensor. It works in real time and it does not require visual marks, camera calibration or previous knowledge of the environment. Moreover, it works successfully even when multiple objects appear in the scene or when the ambient light is changed. Furthermore, this method was designed to develop a human interface to control domestic or industrial devices, remotely. In this paper, the method was tested by operating a robotic hand. Firstly, the human hand was recognized and the fingers were detected. Secondly, the movement of the fingers was analysed and mapped to be imitated by a robotic hand.

  10. Duplex Bioelectronic Tongue for Sensing Umami and Sweet Tastes Based on Human Taste Receptor Nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sae Ryun; An, Ji Hyun; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2016-08-23

    For several decades, significant efforts have been made in developing artificial taste sensors to recognize the five basic tastes. So far, the well-established taste sensor is an E-tongue, which is constructed with polymer and lipid membranes. However, the previous artificial taste sensors have limitations in various food, beverage, and cosmetic industries because of their failure to mimic human taste reception. There are many interactions between tastants. Therefore, detecting the interactions in a multiplexing system is required. Herein, we developed a duplex bioelectronic tongue (DBT) based on graphene field-effect transistors that were functionalized with heterodimeric human umami taste and sweet taste receptor nanovesicles. Two types of nanovesicles, which have human T1R1/T1R3 for the umami taste and human T1R2/T1R3 for the sweet taste on their membranes, immobilized on micropatterned graphene surfaces were used for the simultaneous detection of the umami and sweet tastants. The DBT platform led to highly sensitive and selective recognition of target tastants at low concentrations (ca. 100 nM). Moreover, our DBT was able to detect the enhancing effect of taste enhancers as in a human taste sensory system. This technique can be a useful tool for the detection of tastes instead of sensory evaluation and development of new artificial tastants in the food and beverage industry. PMID:27327579

  11. From margin to center: applying the theoretical framework of Postcolonial feminism to human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Prieto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, postcolonial feminism has had enormous consequences for the reconceptualization of politics or rights. In light of this, the present paper explores the crossroads among postcolonial feminism, human rights and citizenship. The paper follows bell hook’s theoretical work. It does so by first, the paper reviews the emergence of postcolonial feminism and analyzes the key topics of debate generated by these approaches within Women Studies. Secondly, the paper examines some of the dilemmas and criticisms provoked by these approaches to the concept of human rights. The paper concludes by exploring the ways in which postcolonial feminist approaches might continue to make significant advancement in rethinking citizenship

  12. Applying systems biology methods to the study of human physiology in extreme environments

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Lindsay; Thiele, Ines

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology is defined in this review as ‘an iterative process of computational model building and experimental model revision with the aim of understanding or simulating complex biological systems’. We propose that, in practice, systems biology rests on three pillars: computation, the omics disciplines and repeated experimental perturbation of the system of interest. The number of ethical and physiologically relevant perturbations that can be used in experiments on healthy humans is extr...

  13. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lucianna Helene Santos; Rafaela Salgado Ferreira; Ernesto Raúl Caffarena

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the succe...

  14. The Praxis of Social Enterprise and Human Security: an Applied Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm David Brown

    2014-01-01

    class="western"The growth of social enterprise within development NGO work might lead one to suspect it has been irredeemably corrupted by neo-liberal capitalism. However, using the tools of capitalism is not the same as subscribing to the values of capitalism. This paper is situated at the intersection of five fields: human security, international development, social enterprise, social franchising, and left-wing anti-capitalist thought. It examines the relevance of social en­terprise to hum...

  15. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  16. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, e-mail: silvaem@cdtn.br, e-mail: aclc@cdtn.br, e-mail: reissc@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  17. Cognitive Human-Machine Interface Applied in Remote Support for Industrial Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kosicki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is currently being made to widely introduce industrial robots to Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs. Since the enterprises usually employ too small number of robot units to afford specialized departments for robot maintenance, they must be provided with inexpensive and immediate support remotely. This paper evaluates whether the support can be provided by means of Cognitive Info-communication – communication in which human cognitive capabilities are extended irrespectively of geographical distances. The evaluations are given with an aid of experimental system that consists of local and remote rooms, which are physically separated – a six-degree-of-freedom NACHI SH133-03 industrial robot is situated in the local room, while the operator, who supervises the robot by means of audio- visual Cognitive Human-Machine Interface, is situated in the remote room. The results of simple experiments show that Cognitive Info-communication is not only efficient mean to provide the support remotely, but is probably also a powerful tool to enhance interaction with any data- rich environment that require good conceptual understanding of system’s state and careful attention management. Furthermore, the paper discusses data presentation and reduction methods for data-rich environments, as well as introduces the concepts of Naturally Acquired Data and Cognitive Human-Machine Interfaces.

  18. Design of a Wearable Sensing System for Human Motion Monitoring in Physical Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cagnoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human motion monitoring and analysis can be an essential part of a wide spectrum of applications, including physical rehabilitation among other potential areas of interest. Creating non-invasive systems for monitoring patients while performing rehabilitation exercises, to provide them with an objective feedback, is one of the current challenges. In this paper we present a wearable multi-sensor system for human motion monitoring, which has been developed for use in rehabilitation. It is composed of a number of small modules that embed high-precision accelerometers and wireless communications to transmit the information related to the body motion to an acquisition device. The results of a set of experiments we made to assess its performance in real-world setups demonstrate its usefulness in human motion acquisition and tracking, as required, for example, in activity recognition, physical/athletic performance evaluation and rehabilitation.

  19. Mimicking human expert interpretation of remotely sensed raster imagery by using a novel segmentation analysis within ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bas, Tim; Scarth, Anthony; Bunting, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Traditional computer based methods for the interpretation of remotely sensed imagery use each pixel individually or the average of a small window of pixels to calculate a class or thematic value, which provides an interpretation. However when a human expert interprets imagery, the human eye is excellent at finding coherent and homogenous areas and edge features. It may therefore be advantageous for computer analysis to mimic human interpretation. A new toolbox for ArcGIS 10.x will be presented that segments the data layers into a set of polygons. Each polygon is defined by a K-means clustering and region growing algorithm, thus finding areas, their edges and any lineations in the imagery. Attached to each polygon are the characteristics of the imagery such as mean and standard deviation of the pixel values, within the polygon. The segmentation of imagery into a jigsaw of polygons also has the advantage that the human interpreter does not need to spend hours digitising the boundaries. The segmentation process has been taken from the RSGIS library of analysis and classification routines (Bunting et al., 2014). These routines are freeware and have been modified to be available in the ArcToolbox under the Windows (v7) operating system. Input to the segmentation process is a multi-layered raster image, for example; a Landsat image, or a set of raster datasets made up from derivatives of topography. The size and number of polygons are set by the user and are dependent on the imagery used. Examples will be presented of data from the marine environment utilising bathymetric depth, slope, rugosity and backscatter from a multibeam system. Meaningful classification of the polygons using their numerical characteristics is the next goal. Object based image analysis (OBIA) should help this workflow. Fully calibrated imagery systems will allow numerical classification to be translated into more readily understandable terms. Peter Bunting, Daniel Clewley, Richard M. Lucas and Sam

  20. Human Mechatronics Considerations of Sensing and Actuation Systems for Rehabilitation Application

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjanapas, Kan

    2014-01-01

    With the predicted increase in worldwide elderly population in the future and already significant populations of disabled people, assistive technologies and rehabilitation devices are demanded significantly. Utilizing a human mechatronic approach results in several advantages, including capability of measuring insightful information for patient's condition and providing proper assistive torque for abnormal movement correction. This dissertation investigates several domains, including (1) huma...

  1. Making Sense of Women as Career Self-Agents: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mary; Ingols, Cynthia; O'Neill, Regina; Blake-Beard, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we explore the shifting career paradigm of managerial women in the United States, what it may indicate for the broader professional workforce, and human resource development's (HRD's) role in supporting that change. We examine the literature on evolving career definitions, women's place in that evolution, the rising use of…

  2. Illusory Sense of Human Touch from a Warm and Soft Artificial Hand

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibihan, John-John; Srinivasa, Yeshwin Mysore; Chan, Mark Aaron; Muruganantham, Arrchana

    2015-01-01

    To touch and be touched are vital to human development, well being, and relationships. However, to those who have lost their arms and hands due to accident or war, touching becomes a serious concern that often leads to psychosocial issues and social stigma. In this paper, we demonstrate that the touch from a warm and soft rubber hand can be perceived by another person as if the touch were coming from a human hand. We describe a three step process toward this goal. First, we made participants select artificial skin samples according to their preferred warmth and softness characteristics. At room temperature, the preferred warmth was found to be 28.4 deg C at the skin surface of a soft silicone rubber material that has a Shore durometer value of 30 at the OO scale. Second, we developed a process to create a rubber hand replica of a human hand. To compare the skin softness of a human hand and artificial hands, a robotic indenter was employed to produce a softness map by recording the displacement data when const...

  3. Real-time trace gas sensing of ethylene, propanal and acetaldehyde from human skin in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, B.W.M.; Steeghs, M.M.L.; Swam, K. van; Cristescu, S.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trace gases emitted by human skin in vivo are monitored non-invasively and in real time using laser-based photoacoustic detection and proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry. A small quartz cuvette is placed on the skin to create a headspace from which a carrier gas transports the skin emissions

  4. An Efficient Acoustic Density Estimation Method with Human Detectors Applied to Gibbons in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Kidney

    Full Text Available Some animal species are hard to see but easy to hear. Standard visual methods for estimating population density for such species are often ineffective or inefficient, but methods based on passive acoustics show more promise. We develop spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR methods for territorial vocalising species, in which humans act as an acoustic detector array. We use SECR and estimated bearing data from a single-occasion acoustic survey of a gibbon population in northeastern Cambodia to estimate the density of calling groups. The properties of the estimator are assessed using a simulation study, in which a variety of survey designs are also investigated. We then present a new form of the SECR likelihood for multi-occasion data which accounts for the stochastic availability of animals. In the context of gibbon surveys this allows model-based estimation of the proportion of groups that produce territorial vocalisations on a given day, thereby enabling the density of groups, instead of the density of calling groups, to be estimated. We illustrate the performance of this new estimator by simulation. We show that it is possible to estimate density reliably from human acoustic detections of visually cryptic species using SECR methods. For gibbon surveys we also show that incorporating observers' estimates of bearings to detected groups substantially improves estimator performance. Using the new form of the SECR likelihood we demonstrate that estimates of availability, in addition to population density and detection function parameters, can be obtained from multi-occasion data, and that the detection function parameters are not confounded with the availability parameter. This acoustic SECR method provides a means of obtaining reliable density estimates for territorial vocalising species. It is also efficient in terms of data requirements since since it only requires routine survey data. We anticipate that the low-tech field requirements will

  5. Data Mining Based Skin Pixel Detection Applied On Human Images: A Study Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Gagandeep Kaur; Seema Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Skin segmentation is the process of the identifying the skin pixels in a image in a particular color model and dividing the images into skin and non-skin pixels. It is the process of find the particular skin of the image or video in a color model. Finding the regions of the images in human images to say these pixel regions are part of the image or videos is typically a preprocessing step in skin detection in computer vision, face detection or multi-view face detection. Skin pixel detection mo...

  6. Applying human capital management to model manpower readiness a conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ngin, Pert Chin.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Navy is currently going through a human capital transformation in order to better meet the security challenges of the 21st century. A key component of the plan is the job analysis process, conducted using the SkillsNET methodology, to define job requirements in terms of knowledge, skills, abilities, and tools, in contrast to the current approach of relying on the rating badge and a naval enlisted code associated with the billet. The objective of this thesis is to develop a ...

  7. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  8. Smart textile sensing system for human respiration monitoring based on fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Chang-yun; Li, Hong-qiang; Song, Hui-chao; Xu, Fan-jie

    2009-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable aid to diagnosis and treatment. As the doctor cannot accompany the patient, it is essential that the patient be monitored remotely to avoid the risk of respiration being impaired by anesthetic drugs or upper airway obstruction. A smart wearable textile sensing system is described in this paper. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with polymer encapsulation has been woven into an elastic bandage to detect the respiration motion. According to the strain principle of FBG, the breathing rate and intensity can be obtained by measuring the variety of FBG reflected wavelength. In order to eliminate the temperature cross-sensitivity, a FBG temperature sensor has also been woven into the bandage to achieve the temperature compensation computing. Based on the tunable Fabry-Perot filter wavelength demodulated theory, wavelength measuring method and data processing arithmetic have been presented, and the system with ARM microprocessor has been designed to process and display the breathing information. The experiments to the system have proved that the wavelength measuring range is about 40nm, the resolution of wavelength can arrive at 2pm, and the sampling rate is 5Hz.

  9. Mechanical strain applied to human fibroblasts differentially regulates skeletal myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael R; Cao, Thanh V; Campbell, David H; Standley, Paul R

    2012-08-01

    Cyclic short-duration stretches (CSDS) such as those resulting from repetitive motion strain increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Myofascial release is a common technique used by clinicians that applies an acyclic long-duration stretch (ALDS) to muscle fascia to repair injury. When subjected to mechanical strain, fibroblasts within muscle fascia secrete IL-6, which has been shown to induce myoblast differentiation, essential for muscle repair. We hypothesize that fibroblasts subjected to ALDS following CSDS induce myoblast differentiation through IL-6. Fibroblast conditioned media and fibroblast-myoblast cocultures were used to test fibroblasts' ability to induce myoblast differentiation. The coculture system applies strain to fibroblasts only but still allows for diffusion of potential differentiation mediators to unstrained myoblasts on coverslips. To determine the role of IL-6, we utilized myoblast unicultures ± IL-6 (0-100 ng/ml) and cocultures ± α-IL-6 (0-200 μg/ml). Untreated uniculture myoblasts served as a negative control. After 96 h, coverslips (n = 6-21) were microscopically analyzed and quantified by blinded observer for differentiation endpoints: myotubes per square millimeter (>3 nuclei/cell), nuclei/myotube, and fusion efficiency (%nuclei within myotubes). The presence of fibroblasts and fibroblast conditioned media significantly enhanced myotube number (P release after repetitive strain increases myoblast differentiation and thus may improve muscle repair in vivo. Neutralization of IL-6 in coculture significantly reduced differentiation, suggesting fibroblast-IL-6 is necessary but not sufficient in this process. PMID:22678963

  10. 人机交互的语义标注系统开发和应用%The Development and Application of a Sense Tagged System with a Human Machine Interactive Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛日华

    2012-01-01

    Word sense disambiguation is widely used in many NLP ( natural language processing) tasks, such as machine translation, information retrieval, sentence analysis and speech recognition. It is important both in theory and practice to the study of word sense disambiguation. Word sense disambiguation is one of the primary problems in natural language processing system so far in the sense that it is hard to acquire a large scale sense tagged training corpus. To solve the problem, a knowledge based Sense Pruning method is proposed. The objective of WSD( Word Sense Disambiguation) is to reduce the number of plausible meanings of a word as much as possible through " Sense Pruning". After Sense Pruning, we will associate a word with a list of plausible meanings. We would keep the truly correct sense of each word on its own list of meanings. A human-machine mutual word sense tagging system with a human machine interface has been developed. The tagging results are used as the criteria for Sense Pruning. The proposed method has shown to have be effective when the corpus tagged is applied to a true WSD system.%词义排歧是自然语言处理中的一个难点问题,它在机器翻译、信息检索、句子分析和语音识别等自然语言处理的许多领域中起着举足轻重的作用.因此词义排歧方法的研究在自然语言处理领域具有重要的理论和实践意义.获得带语义标记的大规模训练语料是词义排歧在自然语言处理中的一个难点.为了解决这一问题,提出了一种基于知识的语义剪枝方法.其目的是通过语义剪枝系统尽可能地减少歧义词在上下文中错误的或最不可能的义项.语义剪枝以后,形成词和其可能义项的一个列表,尽量将一个词真正正确的义项保留下来.为了对语义剪枝算法进行评价,特意开发了一个人机交互的语义标注系统,并将获得的语料应用到了词义排歧系统.通过对系统标注的语料和人工标注的语

  11. "implicate Order" and the Good Life: Applying David Bohm's Ontology in Human World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Ib.

    In an attempt to formulate a coherent view of quantum reality, the theoretical physicist David Bohm has proposed a new concept of order to supplement the mechanistic Cartesian order of traditional physics. The "implicate" order is a subtler and deeper order that emphasizes "unbroken wholeness in flowing movement," in contrast to the coarser and more superficial, "explicate" Cartesian order of distinct phenomena. This dissertation attempts to develop a meaning for the idea of implicate order in the world of human experience. First is offered an account of some evolutionary episodes in terms of implicate and explicate order which draws on compatible work in cosmology, embryogenesis, visual perception, brain memory, decision making and phenomenology. Two important characteristics of the implicate order are then identified: in an implicate order, the whole is enfolded (or represented) in its parts; and all parts render different perspectives of the whole. Using arguments from decision making, the study of "flow" in human consciousness, and a model of skill acquisition, it is suggested that these characteristics manifest themselves in the human world as the "unity experience" and the "diversity experience," respectively. The former is the experience that a given part of one's life reveals a larger wholeness or unity; the subject-object distinction is transcended and one becomes absorbed in the flow of whatever activity is pursued. The latter is a deep appreciation of the diversity of ways in which people may seek the unity experience. These experiences are proposed as general values: social and psychological conditions ought to be such that these experiences are enhanced in all people. A two-by-two matrix of the two experiences demonstrates the danger of pursuing one to the exclusion of the other. The experience of unity without diversity turns into absolutism, the insistence that one's chosen activities or beliefs are the only right ones. The experience of diversity

  12. Sense-antisense gene pairs: sequence, transcription, and structure are not conserved between human and mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Emily J.; Chin-Inmanu, Kwanrutai; Jia, Hui; Lipovich, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Previous efforts to characterize conservation between the human and mouse genomes focused largely on sequence comparisons. These studies are inherently limited because they don't account for gene structure differences, which may exist despite genomic sequence conservation. Recent high-throughput transcriptome studies have revealed widespread and extensive overlaps between genes, and transcripts, encoded on both strands of the genomic sequence. This overlapping gene organization, which produce...

  13. Whole-Body Human Inverse Dynamics with Distributed Micro-Accelerometers, Gyros and Force Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, Claudia; Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Romano, Francesco; Traversaro, Silvio; Nori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Human motion tracking is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications that require human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of estimation of real-time kinetics information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for a human soft wearable force tracking for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. The early stage of our framework encompasses traditional passive marker based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational technique for estimating dynamic quantities, originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present experimental analysis on subjects performing a two degrees-of-freedom bowing task, and we estimate the motion and kinetics quantities. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. We discuss the possible use of this technique in the design of a novel soft wearable force tracking device and its potential applications. PMID:27213394

  14. Whole-Body Human Inverse Dynamics with Distributed Micro-Accelerometers, Gyros and Force Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, Claudia; Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Romano, Francesco; Traversaro, Silvio; Nori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Human motion tracking is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications that require human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of estimation of real-time kinetics information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for a human soft wearable force tracking for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. The early stage of our framework encompasses traditional passive marker based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational technique for estimating dynamic quantities, originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present experimental analysis on subjects performing a two degrees-of-freedom bowing task, and we estimate the motion and kinetics quantities. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. We discuss the possible use of this technique in the design of a novel soft wearable force tracking device and its potential applications. PMID:27213394

  15. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  16. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucianna Helene Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase (RT is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted.

  17. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lucianna Helene; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl

    2015-11-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted. PMID:26560977

  18. Spatially Resolved Two-Color Diffusion Measurements in Human Skin Applied to Transdermal Liposome Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Jonathan; Bloksgaard, Maria; Kubiak, Jakub;

    2013-01-01

    A multiphoton excitation-based fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method, Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), was used to measure the local diffusion coefficients of distinct model fluorescent substances in excised human skin. In combination with structural information obtained by...... integrity. Independent of the liposome composition (phospholipids or transfersomes), our results show a clear lack of cross-correlation below the skin surface, indicating that the penetration of intact liposomes is highly compromised by the skin barrier.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online...... is very heterogeneous on a microscopic scale. This diffusion-based strategy was further exploited to investigate the integrity of liposomes during transdermal penetration. Specifically, the diffusion of dual-color fluorescently labeled liposomes-containing an amphiphilic fluorophore in the lipid...

  19. Human-machine interface based on muscular and brain signals applied to a robotic wheelchair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) based on the signals generated by eye blinks or brain activity. The system structure and the signal acquisition and processing are shown. The signals used in this work are either the signal associated to the muscular movement corresponding to an eye blink or the brain signal corresponding to visual information processing. The variance is the feature extracted from such signals in order to detect the intention of the user. The classification is performed by a variance threshold which is experimentally determined for each user during the training stage. The command options, which are going to be sent to the commanded device, are presented to the user in the screen of a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). In the experiments here reported, a robotic wheelchair is used as the device being commanded

  20. Human terrain exploitation suite: applying visual analytics to open source information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Timothy; Richardson, John; Mittrick, Mark; Dumer, John; Heilman, Eric; Roy, Heather; Kase, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the concept development and demonstration of the Human Terrain Exploitation Suite (HTES) under development at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Tactical Information Fusion Branch. The HTES is an amalgamation of four complementary visual analytic capabilities that target the exploitation of open source information. Open source information, specifically news feeds, blogs and other social media, provide a unique opportunity to collect and examine salient topics and trends. Analysis of open source information provides valuable insights into determining opinions, values, cultural nuances and other socio-political aspects within a military area of interest. The early results of the HTES field study indicate that the tools greatly increased the analysts' ability to exploit open source information, but improvement through greater cross-tool integration and correlation of their results is necessary for further advances.

  1. Novel methods for physical mapping of the human genome applied to the long arm of chromosome 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, M.

    1991-12-01

    The object of our current grant is to develop novel methods for mapping of the human genome. The techniques to be assessed were: (1) three methods for the production of unique sequence clones from the region of interest; (2) novel methods for the production and separation of multi-megabase DNA fragments; (3) methods for the production of physical linking clones'' that contain rare restriction sites; (4) application of these methods and available resources to map the region of interest. Progress includes: In the first two years methods were developed for physical mapping and the production of arrayed clones; We have concentrated on developing rare- cleavage tools based or restriction endonucleases and methylases; We studied the effect of methylation on enzymes used for PFE mapping of the human genome; we characterized two new isoschizomers of rare cutting endonucleases; we developed a reliable way to produce partial digests of DNA in agarose plugs and applied it to the human genome; and we applied a method to double the apparent specificity of the rare-cutter'' endonucleases.

  2. Novel methods for physical mapping of the human genome applied to the long arm of chromosome 5. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, M.

    1991-12-01

    The object of our current grant is to develop novel methods for mapping of the human genome. The techniques to be assessed were: (1) three methods for the production of unique sequence clones from the region of interest; (2) novel methods for the production and separation of multi-megabase DNA fragments; (3) methods for the production of ``physical linking clones`` that contain rare restriction sites; (4) application of these methods and available resources to map the region of interest. Progress includes: In the first two years methods were developed for physical mapping and the production of arrayed clones; We have concentrated on developing rare- cleavage tools based or restriction endonucleases and methylases; We studied the effect of methylation on enzymes used for PFE mapping of the human genome; we characterized two new isoschizomers of rare cutting endonucleases; we developed a reliable way to produce partial digests of DNA in agarose plugs and applied it to the human genome; and we applied a method to double the apparent specificity of the ``rare-cutter`` endonucleases.

  3. In vivo imaging of human breast cancer mouse model with high level expression of calcium sensing receptor at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baio, Gabriella; Tagliafico, Alberto; Neumaier, Carlo Emanuele [National Cancer Institute, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, IST, Genoa (Italy); Fabbi, Marina; Carbotti, Grazia [National Cancer Institute, Unit of Immunological Therapy, IST, Genoa (Italy); Emionite, Laura; Cilli, Michele [National Cancer Institute, Animal Facility, IST, Genoa (Italy); Salvi, Sandra; Truini, Mauro [National Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, IST, Genoa (Italy); Ghedin, Piero; Prato, Sabina [General Electric, GE, Milano (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    To demonstrate that manganese can visualise calcium sensing receptor (CaSR)-expressing cells in a human breast cancer murine model, as assessed by clinical 3T magnetic resonance (MR). Human MDA-MB-231-Luc or MCF7-Luc breast cancer cells were orthotopically grown in NOD/SCID mice to a minimum mass of 5 mm. Mice were evaluated on T1-weighted sequences before and after intravenous injection of MnCl{sub 2}. To block the CaSR-activated Ca{sup 2+} channels, verapamil was injected at the tumour site 5 min before Mn{sup 2+} administration. CaSR expression in vivo was studied by immunohistochemistry. Contrast enhancement was observed at the tumour periphery 10 min after Mn{sup 2+} administration, and further increased up to 40 min. In verapamil-treated mice, no contrast enhancement was observed. CaSR was strongly expressed at the tumour periphery. Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can visualise CaSR-expressing breast cancer cells in vivo, opening up possibilities for a new MR contrast agent. (orig.)

  4. Coca and poppy eradication in Colombia: environmental and human health assessment of aerially applied glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Anadón, Arturo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Cerdeira, Antonio L; Marshall, Jon; Sanin, Luz-Helena

    2007-01-01

    The production of coca and poppy as well as the processing and production of cocaine and heroin involve significant environmental impacts. Both coca and poppy are grown intensively in a process that involves the clearing of land in remote areas, the planting of the crop, and protection against pests such as weeds, insects, and pathogens. The aerial spray program to control coca and poppy production in Colombia with the herbicide glyphosate is conducted with modern state-of-the-art aircraft and spray equipment. As a result of the use of best available spray and navigation technology, the likelihood of accidental off-target spraying is small and is estimated to be less than 1% of the total area sprayed. Estimated exposures in humans resulting from direct overspray, contact with treated foliage after reentry to fields, inhalation, diet, and drinking water were small and infrequent. Analyses of surface waters in five watersheds showed that, on most occasions, glyphosate was not present at measurable concentrations; only two samples had residues just above the method detection limit of 25 microg/L. Concentrations of glyphosate in air were predicted to be very small because of negligible volatility. Glyphosate in soils that are directly sprayed will be tightly bound and biologically unavailable and have no residual activity. Concentrations of glyphosate plus Cosmo-Flux will be relatively large in shallow surface waters that are directly oversprayed (maximum instantaneous concentration of 1,229microgAE/L in water 30cm deep); however, no information was available on the number of fields in close proximity to surface waters, and thus it was not possible to estimate the likelihood of such contamination. The formulation used in Colombia, a mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux, has low toxicity to mammals by all routes of exposure, although some temporary eye irritation may occur. Published epidemiological studies have not suggested a strong or consistent linkage between

  5. Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. July 1987-January 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for July 1987-January 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote-sensing techniques and equipment to study air- and water-pollution problems. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, various radar techniques, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 54 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. Topically applied vitamin C increases the density of dermal papillae in aged human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Urte

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of ageing on the density of the functional entities of the papillae containing nutritive capillaries, here in terms as the papillary index, and the effect of topically applied vitamin C were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM in vivo. Methods The age dependency of the papillary index was determined by CLSM on 3 different age groups. Additionally, we determined the effect of a topical cream containing 3% vitamin C against the vehicle alone using daily applications for four months on the volar forearm of 33 women. Results There were significant decreases in the papillary index showing a clear dependency on age. Topical vitamin C resulted in a significant increase of the density of dermal papillae from 4 weeks onward compared to its vehicle. Reproducibility was determined in repeated studies. Conclusions Vitamin C has the potential to enhance the density of dermal papillae, perhaps through the mechanism of angiogenesis. Topical vitamin C may have therapeutical effects for partial corrections of the regressive structural changes associated with the aging process.

  7. Photoacoustic evaluation of the penetration of piroxicam gel applied with phonophoresis into human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoacoustic (PA) technique has been increasingly employed in biomedical studies, allowing in vivo skin measurements not easily performed with other techniques. It is possible to use PA measurements to evaluate transdermal delivery of products topically applied through manual massage or phonophoresis, that is the utilization of ultrasound waves to enhance drug absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the period of phonophoresis application in the transdermal penetration of piroxicam gel. In vivo PA measurements employed a tungsten lamp as light source and a thin aluminum foil closing the PA chamber. The PA signals of the arm (i) clean; and (ii) after phonophoresis were utilized to estimate the concentration of piroxicam into skin. For all (4) volunteers, drug concentration in skin after phonophoresis application was the same for the different application times employed; in this way, phonophoresis for one minute seemed to be sufficient to enhance piroxicam penetration into skin. The actual amount of drug delivered into tissue depends on the person, suggesting a dependency with the skin type, which affects the PA signal level [2]. We conclude that drug delivery depends not only on the application method, but also on the specific skin type.

  8. Photoacoustic evaluation of the penetration of piroxicam gel applied with phonophoresis into human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, F L F D; Barja, P R [Research and Development Institute, UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, 12209-010 (Brazil); Acosta-Avalos, D, E-mail: barja@univap.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), R.Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    The photoacoustic (PA) technique has been increasingly employed in biomedical studies, allowing in vivo skin measurements not easily performed with other techniques. It is possible to use PA measurements to evaluate transdermal delivery of products topically applied through manual massage or phonophoresis, that is the utilization of ultrasound waves to enhance drug absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the period of phonophoresis application in the transdermal penetration of piroxicam gel. In vivo PA measurements employed a tungsten lamp as light source and a thin aluminum foil closing the PA chamber. The PA signals of the arm (i) clean; and (ii) after phonophoresis were utilized to estimate the concentration of piroxicam into skin. For all (4) volunteers, drug concentration in skin after phonophoresis application was the same for the different application times employed; in this way, phonophoresis for one minute seemed to be sufficient to enhance piroxicam penetration into skin. The actual amount of drug delivered into tissue depends on the person, suggesting a dependency with the skin type, which affects the PA signal level [2]. We conclude that drug delivery depends not only on the application method, but also on the specific skin type.

  9. Effects of topically applied acitretin in reconstructed human epidermis and the rhino mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Edward; Johnston, Michael J; Houlden, Robert J; Chern, Wendy H; Hofland, Hans E J

    2008-01-01

    Oral acitretin is currently indicated for the treatment of severe psoriasis in adults, but its use is limited by systemic side effects and teratogenicity. Topical administration of acitretin may lessen the risk of systemic toxicity while increasing local bioavailability in the skin. The effects of topical acitretin on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) and Rhino mice were investigated and compared to those of currently marketed topical retinoids: tretinoin and tazarotene. In acitretin-treated RHE cultures, there was a reduction in keratohyalin granules and filaggrin expression in the stratum granulosum, a loss of keratin 10 expression in the stratum spinosum, and an increase in keratin 19 expression in all viable cell layers. All retinoids showed similar signs of activity in RHE cultures. Furthermore, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-8 in RHE cultures was less pronounced with acitretin compared to tretinoin- and tazarotene-containing formulations, suggesting that acitretin may be less irritating. In Rhino mice, acitretin induced a local, dose-dependent reduction in utricle diameter after seven daily dermal doses. A similar effect was observed in tretinoin- and tazarotene-treated mice. Our data suggest that topical application of acitretin may have a therapeutic benefit in the local management of keratinization disorders. PMID:17637822

  10. Performance comparison of digital microRNA profiling technologies applied on human breast cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Knutsen

    Full Text Available MicroRNA profiling represents an important first-step in deducting individual RNA-based regulatory function in a cell, tissue, or at a specific developmental stage. Currently there are several different platforms to choose from in order to make the initial miRNA profiles. In this study we investigate recently developed digital microRNA high-throughput technologies. Four different platforms were compared including next generation SOLiD ligation sequencing and Illumina HiSeq sequencing, hybridization-based NanoString nCounter, and miRCURY locked nucleic acid RT-qPCR. For all four technologies, full microRNA profiles were generated from human cell lines that represent noninvasive and invasive tumorigenic breast cancer. This study reports the correlation between platforms, as well as a more extensive analysis of the accuracy and sensitivity of data generated when using different platforms and important consideration when verifying results by the use of additional technologies. We found all the platforms to be highly capable for microRNA analysis. Furthermore, the two NGS platforms and RT-qPCR all have equally high sensitivity, and the fold change accuracy is independent of individual miRNA concentration for NGS and RT-qPCR. Based on these findings we propose new guidelines and considerations when performing microRNA profiling.

  11. Spatially resolved two-color diffusion measurements in human skin applied to transdermal liposome penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jonathan; Bloksgaard, Maria; Kubiak, Jakub; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Bagatolli, Luis A

    2013-05-01

    A multiphoton excitation-based fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method, Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), was used to measure the local diffusion coefficients of distinct model fluorescent substances in excised human skin. In combination with structural information obtained by multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy imaging, the acquired diffusion information was processed to construct spatially resolved diffusion maps at different depths of the stratum corneum (SC). Experiments using amphiphilic and hydrophilic fluorescently labeled molecules show that their diffusion in SC is very heterogeneous on a microscopic scale. This diffusion-based strategy was further exploited to investigate the integrity of liposomes during transdermal penetration. Specifically, the diffusion of dual-color fluorescently labeled liposomes--containing an amphiphilic fluorophore in the lipid bilayer and a hydrophilic fluorophore encapsulated in the liposome lumen--was measured using cross-correlation RICS. This type of experiment allows discrimination between separate (uncorrelated) and joint (correlated) diffusion of the two different fluorescent probes, giving information about liposome integrity. Independent of the liposome composition (phospholipids or transfersomes), our results show a clear lack of cross-correlation below the skin surface, indicating that the penetration of intact liposomes is highly compromised by the skin barrier. PMID:23223136

  12. The Gene Wiki in 2011: community intelligence applied to human gene annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Benjamin M; Clarke, Erik L; de Alfaro, Luca; Su, Andrew I

    2012-01-01

    The Gene Wiki is an open-access and openly editable collection of Wikipedia articles about human genes. Initiated in 2008, it has grown to include articles about more than 10,000 genes that, collectively, contain more than 1.4 million words of gene-centric text with extensive citations back to the primary scientific literature. This growing body of useful, gene-centric content is the result of the work of thousands of individuals throughout the scientific community. Here, we describe recent improvements to the automated system that keeps the structured data presented on Gene Wiki articles in sync with the data from trusted primary databases. We also describe the expanding contents, editors and users of the Gene Wiki. Finally, we introduce a new automated system, called WikiTrust, which can effectively compute the quality of Wikipedia articles, including Gene Wiki articles, at the word level. All articles in the Gene Wiki can be freely accessed and edited at Wikipedia, and additional links and information can be found at the project's Wikipedia portal page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki. PMID:22075991

  13. Dogs'olfactory diagnostics applied on human species: state of the art and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, B; Nardo, B; Lippi, G; Palmieri, L; Vadalà, M; Laurino, C

    2016-01-01

    Dogs'smell ability is about 10000-100000 more developed than humans' one. Dogs smell is usually exploited in forensic medicine, to find missing people and specific substances showing peculiar sensorial features. In clinic, there is the possibility to take advantage of dogs smell, which are conveniently trained, for the screening of cancers and other diseases. The common feature is the presence of molecules in organic samples that may be considered as biomarkers of a specific pathology. In cancer, scientific evidences exist about screening of melanoma, lung, breast, rectum, ovarian, prostate and bladder cancer. Instead, other pathologies manifest the presence of organic volatile compounds in biologic materials, such as spit, faeces and urine that may be studied by dogs smell in order to identify the presence of a specific disease. This review shows the state of the art of actual dogs' olfactory ability based on scientific principles and the advantages and the disadvantages of this method. The authors also reveal some potential pathologies joined by the presence of organic volatile compounds, which may be investigated by dogs smell. PMID:27598027

  14. Making sense of the social: human-nonhuman constellations and the wicked road to sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hiedanpää

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social questions become especially tangible in the context of human-nonhuman interrelations. This article focuses on coexistential practices in the context of management, protection, and production and it clarifies how the social in particular empirical cases is enacted. The work is based on three empirical case studies. We explore the conflicts in forestry and urban planning caused by the Siberian flying squirrel; the increased presence of the grey wolf; and the paradox of the domestic pig—a clever animal that is treated harshly by factory-farming practices. As our cases indicate, the social is not a group of people living in a certain setting according to certain norms and traditions. The social is a contingent, activated constellation of interagentivities that emerges together with a shared concern that particular customs and habits are not serving the purpose they are expected to serve. The cases challenge efforts to adopt a human-centered view of the social as the basis for developing the concept of sustainability. They also indicate that there is no one social sustainability, but rather many articulations of the concept.

  15. Postural responses to anterior and posterior perturbations applied to the upper trunk of standing human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebatch, James G; Govender, Sendhil; Dennis, Danielle L

    2016-02-01

    This study concerned the effects of brisk perturbations applied to the shoulders of standing subjects to displace them either forwards or backwards, our aim being to characterise the responses to these disturbances. Subjects stood on a force platform, and acceleration was measured at the level of C7, the sacrum and both tibial tuberosities. Surface EMG was measured from soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA), the hamstrings (HS), quadriceps (QUAD), rectus abdominis (RA) and lumbar paraspinal (PS) muscles. Trials were recorded for each of four conditions: subjects' eyes open (reference) or closed and on a firm (reference) or compliant surface. Observations were also made of voluntary postural reactions to a tap over the deltoid. Anterior perturbations (mean C7 acceleration 251.7 mg) evoked activity within the dorsal muscles (SOL, HS, PS) with a similar latency to voluntary responses to shoulder tapping. Responses to posterior perturbations (mean C7 acceleration -240.4 mg) were more complex beginning, on average, at shorter latency than voluntary activity (median TA 78.0 ms). There was activation of TA, QUAD and SOL associated with initial forward acceleration of the lower legs. The EMG responses consisted of an initial phasic discharge followed by a more prolonged one. These responses differ from the pattern of automatic postural responses that follow displacements at the level of the ankles, and it is unlikely that proprioceptive afferents excited by ankle movement had a role in the initial responses. Vision and surface properties had only minor effects. Perturbations of the upper trunk evoke stereotyped compensatory postural responses for each direction of perturbation. For posterior perturbations, EMG onset occurs earlier than for voluntary responses. PMID:26487178

  16. Characterization of poly(5-hydroxytryptamine)-modified glassy carbon electrode and applications to sensing of norepinephrine and uric acid in preparations and human urines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modified electrode was fabricated by electro-polymerization of 5-HT on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7). The characterization of the modified electrode was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mechanism of electro-deposition of 5-HT at GCE was discussed based on electrochemical studies and quantum chemical calculations. The poly(5-HT)-modified electrode could separately detect NE and UA, even in the presence of 10-fold concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and was applied successfully to the analysis of NE preparations and healthy human urines. Due to the favorable functionalized groups (-NH2 and -OH), electroactivity, biocompatibility and stability, the poly(5-HT) film could be a promising immobilization matrix for anchoring interested biological molecules in the fabrication of sensors and biosensors. Highlights: ► A poly(5-HT)-modified electrode was fabricated originally by CV. ► The electro-deposition mechanism of 5-HT at GCE was proposed. ► The polymer film shows favorable electrocatalytic properties to NE and UA. ► The modified GCE was applied to the sensing analysis of real samples. -- Abstract: A poly(5-hydroxytryptamine) (poly(5-HT)) modified electrode was fabricated by electropolymerization of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7). The characterization of poly(5-HT)-modified electrode was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that a brown and heterogeneous film was formed on the surface of the modified electrode. The mechanism of electro-deposition of 5-HT at GCE was discussed. The modified electrode showed good affinity and electrocatalytic properties to some species, such as norepinephrine (NE) and uric acid (UA). Furthermore

  17. Mathematical Decision Models Applied for Qualifying and Planning Areas Considering Natural Hazards and Human Dealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Jose M.; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Elena; Andina, Diego

    2014-05-01

    The authors were involved in the use of some Mathematical Decision Models, MDM, to improve knowledge and planning about some large natural or administrative areas for which natural soils, climate, and agro and forest uses where main factors, but human resources and results were important, natural hazards being relevant. In one line they have contributed about qualification of lands of the Community of Madrid, CM, administrative area in centre of Spain containing at North a band of mountains, in centre part of Iberian plateau and river terraces, and also Madrid metropolis, from an official study of UPM for CM qualifying lands using a FAO model from requiring minimums of a whole set of Soil Science criteria. The authors set first from these criteria a complementary additive qualification, and tried later an intermediate qualification from both using fuzzy logic. The authors were also involved, together with colleagues from Argentina et al. that are in relation with local planners, for the consideration of regions and of election of management entities for them. At these general levels they have adopted multi-criteria MDM, used a weighted PROMETHEE, and also an ELECTRE-I with the same elicited weights for the criteria and data, and at side AHP using Expert Choice from parallel comparisons among similar criteria structured in two levels. The alternatives depend on the case study, and these areas with monsoon climates have natural hazards that are decisive for their election and qualification with an initial matrix used for ELECTRE and PROMETHEE. For the natural area of Arroyos Menores at South of Rio Cuarto town, with at North the subarea of La Colacha, the loess lands are rich but suffer now from water erosions forming regressive ditches that are spoiling them, and use of soils alternatives must consider Soil Conservation and Hydraulic Management actions. The use of soils may be in diverse non compatible ways, as autochthonous forest, high value forest, traditional

  18. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  19. Analytic concepts for assessing risk as applied to human space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) principles provide an effective framework for quantifying individual elements of risk, including the risk to astronauts and spacecraft of the radiation environment of space flight. The concept of QRA is based on a structured set of scenarios that could lead to different damage states initiated by either hardware failure, human error, or external events. In the context of a spacecraft risk assessment, radiation may be considered as an external event and analyzed in the same basic way as any other contributor to risk. It is possible to turn up the microscope on any particular contributor to risk and ask more detailed questions than might be necessary to simply assess safety. The methods of QRA allow for as much fine structure in the analysis as is desired. For the purpose of developing a basis for comprehensive risk management and considering the tendency to open-quotes fear anything nuclear,close quotes radiation risk is a prime candidate for examination beyond that necessary to answer the basic question of risk. Thus, rather than considering only the customary damage states of fatalities or loss of a spacecraft, it is suggested that the full range of damage be analyzed to quantify radiation risk. Radiation dose levels in the form of a risk curve accomplish such a result. If the risk curve is the complementary cumulative distribution function, then it answers the extended question of what is the likelihood of receiving a specific dose of radiation or greater. Such results can be converted to specific health effects as desired. Knowing the full range of the radiation risk of a space mission and the contributors to that risk provides the information necessary to take risk management actions [operational, design, scheduling of missions around solar particle events (SPE), etc.] that clearly control radiation exposure

  20. Analytic concepts for assessing risk as applied to human space flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1997-04-30

    Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) principles provide an effective framework for quantifying individual elements of risk, including the risk to astronauts and spacecraft of the radiation environment of space flight. The concept of QRA is based on a structured set of scenarios that could lead to different damage states initiated by either hardware failure, human error, or external events. In the context of a spacecraft risk assessment, radiation may be considered as an external event and analyzed in the same basic way as any other contributor to risk. It is possible to turn up the microscope on any particular contributor to risk and ask more detailed questions than might be necessary to simply assess safety. The methods of QRA allow for as much fine structure in the analysis as is desired. For the purpose of developing a basis for comprehensive risk management and considering the tendency to {open_quotes}fear anything nuclear,{close_quotes} radiation risk is a prime candidate for examination beyond that necessary to answer the basic question of risk. Thus, rather than considering only the customary damage states of fatalities or loss of a spacecraft, it is suggested that the full range of damage be analyzed to quantify radiation risk. Radiation dose levels in the form of a risk curve accomplish such a result. If the risk curve is the complementary cumulative distribution function, then it answers the extended question of what is the likelihood of receiving a specific dose of radiation or greater. Such results can be converted to specific health effects as desired. Knowing the full range of the radiation risk of a space mission and the contributors to that risk provides the information necessary to take risk management actions [operational, design, scheduling of missions around solar particle events (SPE), etc.] that clearly control radiation exposure.

  1. Finite Element Based Solution of Laplace's Equation Applied to Electrical Activity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab T. Baqer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer models are used in the study of electrocardiography to provide insight into physiological phenomena that are difficult to measure in the lab or in a clinical environment. The electrocardiogram is an important tool for the clinician in that it changes characteristically in a number of pathological conditions. Many illnesses can be detected by this measurement. By simulating the electrical activity of the heart one obtains a quantitative relationship between the electrocardiogram and different anomalies. Because of the inhomogeneous fibrous structure of the heart and the irregular geometries of the body, finite element method is used for studying the electrical properties of the heart. This work describes the implementation of the Conjugate Gradient iterative method for the solution of large linear equation systems resulting from the finite element method. A diagonal Jacobi preconditioner is used in order to accelerate the convergence. Gaussian elimination is also implemented and compared with the Precondition Conjugate Gradient (PCG method and with the iterative method. Different types of matrix storage schemes are implemented such as the Compressed Sparse Row (CSR to achieve better performance. In order to demonstrate the validity of the finite element analysis, the technique is adopted to solve Laplace's equation that describes the electrical activity of the human body with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. An automatic mesh generator is built using C++ programming language. Initially a complete finite element program is built to solve Laplace's equation. The same accuracy is obtained using these methods. The results show that the CSR format reduces computation time compared to the order format. The PCG method is better for the solution of large linear system (sparse matrices than the Gaussian Elimination and back substitution method, while Gaussian elimination is better than iterative method.

  2. Atomic force microscopy combined with human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes for biomechanical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesl, Martin; Pribyl, Jan; Acimovic, Ivana; Vilotic, Aleksandra; Jelinkova, Sarka; Salykin, Anton; Lacampagne, Alain; Dvorak, Petr; Meli, Albano C; Skladal, Petr; Rotrekl, Vladimir

    2016-11-15

    Cardiomyocyte contraction and relaxation are important parameters of cardiac function altered in many heart pathologies. Biosensing of these parameters represents an important tool in drug development and disease modeling. Human embryonic stem cells and especially patient specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are well established as cardiac disease model.. Here, a live stem cell derived embryoid body (EB) based cardiac cell syncytium served as a biorecognition element coupled to the microcantilever probe from atomic force microscope thus providing reliable micromechanical cellular biosensor suitable for whole-day testing. The biosensor was optimized regarding the type of cantilever, temperature and exchange of media; in combination with standardized protocol, it allowed testing of compounds and conditions affecting the biomechanical properties of EB. The studied effectors included calcium , drugs modulating the catecholaminergic fight-or-flight stress response such as the beta-adrenergic blocker metoprolol and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Arrhythmogenic effects were studied using caffeine. Furthermore, with EBs originating from patient's stem cells, this biosensor can help to characterize heart diseases such as dystrophies. PMID:27266660

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymerization-based surface plasmon resonance sensing for glucose detection in human urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Soame; Peng, Wei; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Booksh, Karl S.

    2006-10-01

    A novel Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor to detect glucose using molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) will be presented in this paper. SPR has been traditionally used as a probe for surface interaction of large molecules but harder to measure small molecules since the effective change in the SPR condition becomes smaller. The accurate measurement of glucose in complex physiological fluids like urine is particularly challenging since the constituents of these fluids vary significantly from person to person and even throughout the day for a particular individual. The polymer was prepared by crosslinking polyallyamine in the presence of Glucose Phosphate, monobarium salt (GPS-Ba) and attached to a 50 nm thin film of gold which had been sputtered on top of a glass slide, via amide coupling. Upon removal of the template, this sensor was used to detect glucose in human urine in physiologically significant levels (1-20 mg/ml). Enhancement of the glucose sensor was made possible by incorporating gold nanoparticles which improved the signal. This study has demonstrated the specific detection of glucose in a complex physiological fluid using SPR spectroscopy. The association of glucose to the imprinted polymer results in the swelling of the polymer that can be tracked by the minima in SPR spectra. The sensitivity of this method, while lower than protein based detection schemes, is sufficient for quantitative measurement of glucose in urine at physiologically significant levels without extensive pre-treatment of the sample. Given the nature of the weak non-covalent binding of glucose to the amine functional groups, the scheme used here can be adapted to detect a number of different molecular species of sizes comparable to that of glucose without the need for extensive sample preparation or use of chemicals with limited shelf life.

  4. Selective electrochemical sensing of human serum albumin by semi-covalent molecular imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Maciej; Szwabinska, Katarzyna; Sosnowska, Marta; Chandra, Bikram K C; Borowicz, Pawel; Noworyta, Krzysztof; D'Souza, Francis; Kutner, Wlodzimierz

    2015-12-15

    We devised and prepared a conducting molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for human serum albumin (HSA) determination using semi-covalent imprinting. The bis(2,2'-bithien-5-yl)methane units constituted the MIP backbone. This MIP was deposited as a thin film on an Au electrode by oxidative potentiodynamic electropolymerization to fabricate an electrochemical chemosensor. The HSA template imprinting, and then its releasing from the MIP was confirmed by the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), XPS, and PM-IRRAS measurements as well as by AFM imaging. Semi-covalent imprinting provided a very well defined locations of recognition sites in the MIP molecular cavities. These sites populated the imprinted cavities or the MIP surface only. The DPV and EIS response of the MIP film coated electrode to the HSA analyte was linear in the range of 0.8 to 20 and 4 to 80 µg/mL HSA, respectively, with the limit of detection of 16.6 and 800 ng/mL, respectively. The impressively high imprinting factor reached, exceeding 20, strongly confirmed that semi-covalent imprinting resulted in formation of a large number of very well defined molecular cavities with high affinity to the HSA molecules. The MIP selectivity against low-(molecular weight) interferences, common for physiological fluids, such as blood and urea, was very high. There was no response to the presence of these interferences at concentrations encountered in the samples analyzed. Moreover, the chemosensor selectivity to the myoglobin and cytochrome c interferences was excellent while that to lysozyme was slightly lower but still high. The chemosensor was useful for determination of abnormal HSA concentration in a control blood serum. PMID:26258876

  5. Q-factor enhancement for self-actuated self-sensing piezoelectric MEMS resonators applying a lock-in driven feedback loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a robust Q-control approach based on an all-electrical feedback loop enhancing the quality factor of a resonant microstructure by using the self-sensing capability of a piezoelectric thin film actuator made of aluminium nitride. A lock-in amplifier is used to extract the feedback signal which is proportional to the piezoelectric current. The measured real part is used to replace the originally low-quality and noisy feedback signal to modulate the driving voltage of the piezoelectric thin-film actuator. Since the lock-in amplifier reduces the noise in the feedback signal substantially, the proposed enhancement loop avoids the disadvantage of a constant signal-to-noise ratio, which an analogue feedback circuit usually suffers from. The quality factor was increased from the intrinsic value of 1766 to a maximum of 34 840 in air. These promising results facilitate precise measurements for self-actuated and self-sensing MEMS cantilevers even when operated in static viscous media. (paper)

  6. Calcium sensing receptor suppresses human pancreatic tumorigenesis through a novel NCX1/Ca(2+)/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bo; Chow, Jimmy Y C; Dong, Tobias Xiao; Yang, Shi-Ming; Lu, De-Sheng; Carethers, John M; Dong, Hui

    2016-07-10

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is functionally expressed in normal human pancreases, but its pathological role in pancreatic tumorigenesis is currently unknown. We sought to investigate the role of CaSR in pancreatic cancer (PC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We revealed that the expression of CaSR was consistently downregulated in the primary cancer tissues from PC patients, which was correlated with tumor size, differentiation and poor survival of the patients. CaSR activation markedly suppressed pancreatic tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo likely through the Ca(2+) entry mode of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) to induce Ca(2+) entry into PC cells. Moreover, NCX1-mediated Ca(2+) entry resulted in Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of β-catenin signaling in PC cells, eventually leading to the inhibition of pancreatic tumorigenesis. Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time that CaSR exerts a suppressive function in pancreatic tumorigenesis through a novel NCX1/Ca(2+)/β-catenin signaling pathway. Targeting this specific signaling pathway could be a potential therapeutic strategy for PC. PMID:27108064

  7. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques applied to the noninvasive investigation of mural paintings: a feasibility study carried out on a wall painting by Beato Angelico in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucci, Costanza; Picollo, Marcello; Chiarantini, Leandro; Sereni, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays hyperspectral imaging is a well-established methodology for the non-invasive diagnostics of polychrome surfaces, and is increasingly utilized in museums and conservation laboratories for documentation purposes and in support of restoration procedures. However, so far the applications of hyperspectral imaging have been mainly limited to easel paintings or paper-based artifacts. Indeed, specifically designed hyperspectral imagers, are usually used for applications in museum context. These devices work at short-distances from the targets and cover limited size surfaces. Instead, almost still unexplored remain the applications of hyperspectral imaging to the investigations of frescoes and large size mural paintings. For this type of artworks a remote sensing approach, based on sensors capable of acquiring hyperspectral data from distances of the order of tens of meters, is needed. This paper illustrates an application of hyperspectral remote sensing to an important wall-painting by Beato Angelico, located in the San Marco Museum in Florence. Measurements were carried out using a re-adapted version of the Galileo Avionica Multisensor Hyperspectral System (SIM-GA), an avionic hyperspectral imager originally designed for applications from mobile platforms. This system operates in the 400-2500 nm range with over 700 channels, thus guaranteeing acquisition of high resolution hyperspectral data exploitable for materials identification and mapping. In the present application, the SIM-GA device was mounted on a static scanning platform for ground-based applications. The preliminary results obtained on the Angelico's wall-painting are discussed, with highlights on the main technical issues addressed to optimize the SIM-GA system for new applications on cultural assets.

  8. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human PathogenPseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Nicolic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence,

  9. An Adaptive Single-Well Stochastic Resonance Algorithm Applied to Trace Analysis of Clenbuterol in Human Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofei Xie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of stochastic resonance, an adaptive single-well stochastic resonance (ASSR coupled with genetic algorithm was developed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of weak chromatographic signals. In conventional stochastic resonance algorithm, there are two or more parameters needed to be optimized and the proper parameters values were obtained by a universal searching within a given range. In the developed ASSR, the optimization of system parameter was simplified and automatic implemented. The ASSR was applied to the trace analysis of clenbuterol in human urine and it helped to significantly improve the limit of detection and limit of quantification of clenbuterol. Good linearity, precision and accuracy of the proposed method ensure that it could be an effective tool for trace analysis and the improvement of detective sensibility of current detectors.

  10. Unveiling the relationship between complex networks metrics and word senses

    OpenAIRE

    Amancio, Diego R.; Osvaldo N. Oliveira Jr.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2013-01-01

    The automatic disambiguation of word senses (i.e., the identification of which of the meanings is used in a given context for a word that has multiple meanings) is essential for such applications as machine translation and information retrieval, and represents a key step for developing the so-called Semantic Web. Humans disambiguate words in a straightforward fashion, but this does not apply to computers. In this paper we address the problem of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) by treating text...

  11. HAHA--nothing to laugh about. Measuring the immunogenicity (human anti-human antibody response) induced by humanized monoclonal antibodies applying ELISA and SPR technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Immunogenicity induced by passively applied proteins is a serious issue because it is directly related to the patient's safety. The out-come of an immune reaction to a therapeutic protein can range from transient appearance of antibodies without any clinical significance to severe life threatening conditions. Within this article, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology to measure immunogenicity are compared and the pros and cons are discussed. PMID:19679421

  12. Nitrogen-doped multiple graphene aerogel/gold nanostar as the electrochemical sensing platform for ultrasensitive detection of circulating free DNA in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiyi, Li; Ling, Liu; Hongxia, Bei; Zaijun, Li

    2016-05-15

    Graphene aerogel has attracted increasing attention due to its large specific surface area, high-conductivity and electronic interaction. The paper reported a facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped multiple graphene aerogel/gold nanostar (termed as N-doped MGA/GNS) and its use as the electrochemical sensing platform for detection of double stranded (dsDNA). On the one hand, the N-doped MGA offers a much better electrochemical performance compared with classical graphene aerogel. Interestingly, the performance can be enhanced by only increasing the cycle number of graphene oxide gelation. On the other hand, the hybridization with GNS further enhances the electrocatalytic activity towards Fe(CN)6(3-/4-). In addition, the N-doped MGA/GNS provides a well-defined three-dimensional architecture. The unique structure make it is easy to combine with dsDNA to form the electroactive bioconjugate. The integration not only triggers an ultrafast DNA electron and charge transfer, but also realizes a significant synergy between N-doped MGA, GNS and dsDNA. As a result, the electrochemical sensor based on the hybrid exhibits highly sensitive differential pulse voltammetric response (DPV) towards dsDNA. The DPV signal linearly increases with the increase of dsDNA concentration in the range from 1.0×10(-)(21) g ml(-)(1) to 1.0×10(-16) g ml(-1) with the detection limit of 3.9×10(-22) g ml(-1) (S/N=3). The sensitivity is much more than that of all reported DNA sensors. The analytical method was successfully applied in the electrochemical detection of circulating free DNA in human serum. The study also opens a window on the electrical properties of multiple graphene aerogel and DNA as well their hybrids to meet the needs of further applications as special nanoelectronics in molecule diagnosis, bioanalysis and catalysis. PMID:26745792

  13. Research recommendations for applying vitamin A-labelled isotope dilution techniques to improve human vitamin A nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Kurpad, Anura V; Hunt, Janet R

    2014-01-01

    The current use of serum retinol concentrations as a measurement of subclinical vitamin A deficiency is unsatisfactory for many reasons. The best technique available for vitamin A status assessment in humans is the measurement of total body pool size. Pool size is measured by the administration of retinol labelled with stable isotopes of carbon or hydrogen that are safe for human subjects, with subsequent measurement of the dilution of the labelled retinol within the body pool. However, the isotope techniques are time-consuming, technically challenging, and relatively expensive. There is also a need to assess different types of tracers and doses, and to establish clear guidelines for the use and interpretation of this method in different populations. Field-friendly improvements are desirable to encourage the application of this technique in developing countries where the need is greatest for monitoring the risk of vitamin A deficiency, the effectiveness of public health interventions, and the potential of hypervitaminosis due to combined supplement and fortification programs. These techniques should be applied to validate other less technical methods of assessing vitamin A deficiency. Another area of public health relevance for this technique is to understand the bioconversion of β-carotene to vitamin A, and its relation to existing vitamin A status, for future dietary diversification programs. PMID:25537106

  14. Towards remote sensing of Arctic ice roads and associated human activities using SUOMI NPP night light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.; Stephenson, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ice roads are often the only cost-effective means of transporting goods and supplies to communities, mines, and other sites in remote parts of the Arctic. Yet, there is no global dataset for Arctic ice roads. However, remotely sensed images from the SUOMI NPP day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) may allow for the construction of such a dataset. The DNB's high sensitivity to low-level light suggests that while it is not feasible to view ice roads at night per se, other prominent features associated with ice roads can serve as proxies. Using a time series of images taken in winter 2012, 2013, and 2014, SUOMI NPP images are compared with Landsat 8 images and an existing map of the Tibbitt to Contwoyto ice road in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. First results reveal that while the ice road's exact path cannot be discerned, key points of human activity along the way can be made out. This bodes well for future applications of DNB imagery to detect ice roads in places like the Russian Federation, for which there is a dearth of publicly available maps. Knowing the location of ice roads is important for two reasons. First, these data can signal sites of natural resource extraction in places for which information is not widely disseminated, such as in the Russian Far East. Second, new geospatial datasets for ice roads can be combined with models assessing impacts of climate change on circumpolar land accessibility (Stephenson et al. 2011) in order to understand where the structural integrity of ice roads may be at risk. As warming temperatures threaten to shorten the season for ice roads, communities and mines alike will need to prepare for changes to their transportation infrastructure, made out of the changing landscape itself.

  15. Expression of Genes Associated with DNA Damage Sensing in Human Fibroblasts Exposed to Low-dose-rate Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish; Hammond, Diane; Pierson, Duane; Jeevarajan, Antony; Cucinotta, Francis; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the molecular response to low-dose and low-dose-rate radiation exposure is essential for the extrapolation of high-dose radiation risks to those at dose levels relevant to space and other environmental concerns. Most of the reported studies of gene expressions induced by low-dose or low-dose-rate radiation were carried out on exponentially growing cells. In the present study, we analyzed expressions of 84 genes associated with DNA damage sensing using real time PCR in human fibroblasts in mostly G1 phase of the cell cycle. The cells were exposed continuously to gamma rays at a dose rate of 0.8 cGy/hr for 1, 2, 6 or 24 hrs at 37 C throughout the exposure. The total RNA was isolated immediately after the exposure was terminated. Of the 84 genes, only a few showed significant changes of the expression level. Some of the genes (e.g. DDit3 and BTG2) were found to be up or down regulated only after a short period of exposure, while other genes (e.g. PRKDC) displayed a highest expression level at the 24 hr time point. The expression profiles for the exposed cells which had a smaller portion of G1 cells indicated more cell cycle signaling and DNA repair genes either up or down regulated. Interestingly, the panel of genes changed from radiation exposure in G1 cells is different from the panel in cells having less G1 arrest cells. The gene expression profile of the cells responding to low-dose-radiation insult apparently depends on the cell growth stage. The response pathway in G1 cells may differ from that in exponentially growing cells.

  16. Applying remote sensing expertise to crop improvement: progress and challenges to scale up high throughput field phenotyping from research to industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouache, David; Beauchêne, Katia; Mini, Agathe; Fournier, Antoine; de Solan, Benoit; Baret, Fred; Comar, Alexis

    2016-05-01

    Digital and image analysis technologies in greenhouses have become commonplace in plant science research and started to move into the plant breeding industry. However, the core of plant breeding work takes place in fields. We will present successive technological developments that have allowed the migration and application of remote sensing approaches at large into the field of crop genetics and physiology research, with a number of projects that have taken place in France. These projects have allowed us to develop combined sensor plus vector systems, from tractor mounted and UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) mounted spectroradiometry to autonomous vehicle mounted spectroradiometry, RGB (red-green-blue) imagery and Lidar. We have tested these systems for deciphering the genetics of complex plant improvement targets such as the robustness to nitrogen and water deficiency of wheat and maize. Our results from wheat experiments indicate that these systems can be used both to screen genetic diversity for nitrogen stress tolerance and to decipher the genetics behind this diversity. We will present our view on the next critical steps in terms of technology and data analysis that will be required to reach cost effective implementation in industrial plant breeding programs. If this can be achieved, these technologies will largely contribute to resolving the equation of increasing food supply in the resource limited world that lies ahead.

  17. Characterization of duodenal expression and localization of fatty acid-sensing receptors in humans: relationships with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Isaacs, Nicole J; Young, Richard L; Ott, Raffael; Nguyen, Nam Q; Rayner, Christopher K; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2014-11-15

    Fatty acids (FAs) stimulate the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which suppress energy intake. In obesity, gastrointestinal responses to FAs are attenuated. Recent studies have identified a key role for the FA-sensing receptors cluster of differentiation (CD)36, G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40, GPR120, and GPR119 in mediating gastrointestinal hormone secretion. This study aimed to determine the expression and localization of these receptors in the duodenum of humans and to examine relationships with obesity. Duodenal mucosal biopsies were collected from nine lean [body mass index (BMI): 22 ± 1 kg/m2], six overweight (BMI: 28 ± 1 kg/m2), and seven obese (BMI: 49 ± 5 kg/m2) participants. Absolute levels of receptor transcripts were quantified using RT-PCR, while immunohistochemistry was used for localization. Transcripts were expressed in the duodenum of lean, overweight, and obese individuals with abundance of CD36>GPR40>GPR120>GPR119. Expression levels of GPR120 (r = 0.46, P = 0.03) and CD36 (r = 0.69, P = 0.0004) were directly correlated with BMI. There was an inverse correlation between expression of GPR119 with BMI (r2 = 0.26, P = 0.016). Immunolabeling studies localized CD36 to the brush border membrane of the duodenal mucosa and GPR40, GPR120, and GPR119 to enteroendocrine cells. The number of cells immunolabeled with CCK (r = -0.54, P = 0.03) and GLP-1 (r = -0.49, P = 0.045) was inversely correlated with BMI, such that duodenal CCK and GLP-1 cell density decreased with increasing BMI. In conclusion, CD36, GPR40, GPR120, and GPR119 are expressed in the human duodenum. Transcript levels of duodenal FA receptors and enteroendocrine cell density are altered with increasing BMI, suggesting that these changes may underlie decreased gastrointestinal hormone responses to fat and impaired energy intake regulation in obesity. PMID:25258406

  18. A simple method for assessment of human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies applied to Kawasaki disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Padler-Karavani

    Full Text Available N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc is an immunogenic sugar of dietary origin that metabolically incorporates into diverse native glycoconjugates in humans. Anti-Neu5Gc antibodies are detected in all human sera, though with variable levels and epitope-recognition profiles. These antibodies likely play a role in several inflammation-mediated pathologies including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In cancer, they have dualistic and opposing roles, either stimulating or repressing disease, as a function of their dose, and some of these antibodies serve as carcinoma biomarkers. Thus, anti-Neu5Gc antibodies may signify risk of inflammation-mediated diseases, and changes in their levels could potentially be used to monitor disease progression and/or response to therapy. Currently, it is difficult to determine levels of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in individual human samples because these antibodies recognize multiple Neu5Gc-epitopes. Here we describe a simple and specific method for detection and overall estimation of human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies. We exploit the difference between two mouse models that differ only by Neu5Gc-presence (wild-type or Neu5Gc-absence (Cmah(-/- knockout. We characterize mouse serum from both strains by HPLC, lectin and mass-spectrometry analysis and show the target Neu5Gc-epitopes. We then use Cmah(-/- knockout sera to inhibit all non-Neu5Gc-reactivity followed by binding to wild-type sera to detect overall anti-Neu5Gc response in a single assay. We applied this methodology to characterize and quantify anti-Neu5Gc IgG and IgA in sera of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD at various stages compared to controls. KD is an acute childhood febrile disease characterized by inflammation of coronary arteries that untreated may lead to coronary artery aneurysms with risk of thrombosis and myocardial infarction. This estimated response is comparable to the average of detailed anti-Neu5Gc IgG profile analyzed by a sialoglycan microarray

  19. Evolution of Microbial Quorum Sensing to Human Global Quorum Sensing: An Insight into How Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Might Be Linked to the Global Metabolic Disease Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosko, James E

    2016-01-01

    The first anaerobic organism extracted energy for survival and reproduction from its source of nutrients, with the genetic means to ensure protection of its individual genome but also its species survival. While it had a means to communicate with its community via simple secreted molecules ("quorum sensing"), the eventual shift to an aerobic environment led to multi-cellular metazoan organisms, with evolutionary-selected genes to form extracellular matrices, stem cells, stem cell niches, and a family of gap junction or "connexin" genes. These germinal and somatic stem cells responded to extracellular signals that triggered intra-cellular signaling to regulate specific genes out of the total genome. These extra-cellular induced intra-cellular signals also modulated gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in order to regulate the new cellular functions of symmetrical and asymmetrical cell division, cell differentiation, modes of cell death, and senescence. Within the hierarchical and cybernetic concepts, differentiated by neurons organized in the brain of the Homo sapiens, the conscious mind led to language, abstract ideas, technology, myth-making, scientific reasoning, and moral decision-making, i.e., the creation of culture. Over thousands of years, this has created the current collision between biological and cultural evolution, leading to the global "metabolic disease" crisis. PMID:27314399

  20. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Soković; Ana Ćirić; Jasmina Glamočlija; Miloš Nikolić; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In thi...

  1. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  2. A modified algorithm for continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy applied to in-vivo animal experiments and on human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Hopman, Jeroen C. W.; Liem, K. Djien; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Thijssen, Johan M.

    2008-02-01

    Continuous wave Near Infrared Spectroscopy is a well known non invasive technique for measuring changes in tissue oxygenation. Absorption changes (ΔO2Hb and ΔHHb) are calculated from the light attenuations using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Generally, the concentration changes are calculated relative to the concentration at a starting point in time (delta time method). It is also possible, under certain assumptions, to calculate the concentrations by subtracting the equations at different wavelengths (delta wavelength method). We derived a new algorithm and will show the possibilities and limitations. In the delta wavelength method, the assumption is that the oxygen independent attenuation term will be eliminated from the formula even if its value changes in time, we verified the results with the classical delta time method using extinction coefficients from different literature sources for the wavelengths 767nm, 850nm and 905nm. The different methods of calculating concentration changes were applied to the data collected from animal experiments. The animals (lambs) were in a stable normoxic condition; stepwise they were made hypoxic and thereafter they returned to normoxic condition. The two algorithms were also applied for measuring two dimensional blood oxygen saturation changes in human skin tissue. The different oxygen saturation levels were induced by alterations in the respiration and by temporary arm clamping. The new delta wavelength method yielded in a steady state measurement the same changes in oxy and deoxy hemoglobin as the classical delta time method. The advantage of the new method is the independence of eventual variation of the oxygen independent attenuations in time.

  3. Simulating Nationwide Pandemics: Applying the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis System to Human Infectious Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombroski, M; Melius, C; Edmunds, T; Banks, L E; Bates, T; Wheeler, R

    2008-09-24

    This study uses the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) system developed for foreign animal diseases to assess consequences of nationwide human infectious disease outbreaks. A literature review identified the state of the art in both small-scale regional models and large-scale nationwide models and characterized key aspects of a nationwide epidemiological model. The MESA system offers computational advantages over existing epidemiological models and enables a broader array of stochastic analyses of model runs to be conducted because of those computational advantages. However, it has only been demonstrated on foreign animal diseases. This paper applied the MESA modeling methodology to human epidemiology. The methodology divided 2000 US Census data at the census tract level into school-bound children, work-bound workers, elderly, and stay at home individuals. The model simulated mixing among these groups by incorporating schools, workplaces, households, and long-distance travel via airports. A baseline scenario with fixed input parameters was run for a nationwide influenza outbreak using relatively simple social distancing countermeasures. Analysis from the baseline scenario showed one of three possible results: (1) the outbreak burned itself out before it had a chance to spread regionally, (2) the outbreak spread regionally and lasted a relatively long time, although constrained geography enabled it to eventually be contained without affecting a disproportionately large number of people, or (3) the outbreak spread through air travel and lasted a long time with unconstrained geography, becoming a nationwide pandemic. These results are consistent with empirical influenza outbreak data. The results showed that simply scaling up a regional small-scale model is unlikely to account for all the complex variables and their interactions involved in a nationwide outbreak. There are several limitations of the methodology that should be explored in future

  4. Effectiveness of basin morphometry, remote sensing, and applied geosciences on groundwater recharge potential mapping: a comparative study within a small watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Suvendu; Sahu, Abhay Sankar

    2016-06-01

    A multidisciplinary approach using the integrated field of geosciences (e.g., geomorphology, geotectonics, geophysics, and hydrology) is established to conduct groundwater recharge potential mapping of the Kunur River Basin, India. The relative mean error (RME) calculation of the results of three applied techniques and water table data from twenty-four observation wells in the basin over the 2000-2010 period are presented. Nine subbasins were identified and ranked for the RME calculation, where the observation wells-based ranking was taken as standard order for comparison. A linear model has been developed using six factors (drainage density, surface slope, ruggedness index, lineament density, Bouguer gravity anomaly, and potential maximum water retention capacity) and a grid-wise weighted index. In a separate comparative approach, the sub-basin and grid-wise analyses have been conducted to identify the suitable spatial unit for watershed level hydrological modeling.

  5. Reverse Engineering Applied to Red Human Hair Pheomelanin Reveals Redox-Buffering as a Pro-Oxidant Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Panzella, Lucia; Micillo, Raffaella; Bentley, William E; Napolitano, Alessandra; Payne, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    Pheomelanin has been implicated in the increased susceptibility to UV-induced melanoma for people with light skin and red hair. Recent studies identified a UV-independent pathway to melanoma carcinogenesis and implicated pheomelanin's pro-oxidant properties that act through the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or the depletion of cellular antioxidants. Here, we applied an electrochemically-based reverse engineering methodology to compare the redox properties of human hair pheomelanin with model synthetic pigments and natural eumelanin. This methodology exposes the insoluble melanin samples to complex potential (voltage) inputs and measures output response characteristics to assess redox activities. The results demonstrate that both eumelanin and pheomelanin are redox-active, they can rapidly (sec-min) and repeatedly redox-cycle between oxidized and reduced states, and pheomelanin possesses a more oxidative redox potential. This study suggests that pheomelanin's redox-based pro-oxidant activity may contribute to sustaining a chronic oxidative stress condition through a redox-buffering mechanism. PMID:26669666

  6. Biocompatibility of a restorative resin-modified glass ionomer cement applied in very deep cavities prepared in human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Scheffel, Débora Lopes Sales; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Hebling, Josimeri

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a restorative resin-modified glass ionomer cement, Vitremer (VM), would be biocompatible with pulp tissue when used as a liner in very deep cavities prepared in young human permanent teeth. Two dental cements in current use as liner materials, Vitrebond (VB) and Dycal (DY), were compared to VM. Class V cavities were prepared in 36 sound premolars that were scheduled for extraction, and the cavity floor was lined with the restorative cement (VM) or a liner/base control cement (VB or DY). For VM specimens, the cavity floor was pretreated with a primer (polyacrylic acid plus 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Teeth were extracted after 7 or 30 days and processed for microscopic evaluation. In the VM group, inward diffusion of dental material components through dentinal tubules, associated with disruption of the odontoblastic layer, moderate to intense inflammatory response, and resorption of inner dentin, was observed in 2 teeth at 7 days. These histologic features were observed in 1 tooth at 30 days. In the VB group, mild inflammatory reactions and tissue disorganization observed at 7 days were resolved at 30 days. No pulpal damage occurred in the DY specimens. Of the materials tested, only Vitremer was not considered biocompatible, because it caused persistent pulpal damage when applied in very deep cavities (remaining dentin thickness less than 0.3 mm). PMID:27367631

  7. Acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in human lymphoma cells: a role for the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor TDAG8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Dong, Lixue; Dean, Eric; Yang, Li V

    2013-01-01

    Acidosis is a biochemical hallmark of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report that acute acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in U937 human lymphoma cells. The level of c-Myc transcripts, but not mRNA or protein stability, contributes to c-Myc protein reduction under acidosis. The pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 (GPR65) is involved in acidosis-induced c-Myc downregulation. TDAG8 is expressed in U937 lymphoma cells, and the overexpression or knockdown of TDAG8 further decreases or partially rescues c-Myc expression, respectively. Acidic pH alone is insufficient to reduce c-Myc expression, as it does not decrease c-Myc in H1299 lung cancer cells expressing very low levels of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Instead, c-Myc is slightly increased by acidosis in H1299 cells, but this increase is completely inhibited by ectopic overexpression of TDAG8. Interestingly, TDAG8 expression is decreased by more than 50% in human lymphoma samples in comparison to non-tumorous lymph nodes and spleens, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor function of TDAG8 in lymphoma. Collectively, our results identify a novel mechanism of c-Myc regulation by acidosis in the tumor microenvironment and indicate that modulation of TDAG8 and related pH-sensing receptor pathways may be exploited as a new approach to inhibit Myc expression. PMID:24152439

  8. Acidosis Decreases c-Myc Oncogene Expression in Human Lymphoma Cells: A Role for the Proton-Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptor TDAG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acidosis is a biochemical hallmark of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report that acute acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in U937 human lymphoma cells. The level of c-Myc transcripts, but not mRNA or protein stability, contributes to c-Myc protein reduction under acidosis. The pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 (GPR65 is involved in acidosis-induced c-Myc downregulation. TDAG8 is expressed in U937 lymphoma cells, and the overexpression or knockdown of TDAG8 further decreases or partially rescues c-Myc expression, respectively. Acidic pH alone is insufficient to reduce c-Myc expression, as it does not decrease c-Myc in H1299 lung cancer cells expressing very low levels of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Instead, c-Myc is slightly increased by acidosis in H1299 cells, but this increase is completely inhibited by ectopic overexpression of TDAG8. Interestingly, TDAG8 expression is decreased by more than 50% in human lymphoma samples in comparison to non-tumorous lymph nodes and spleens, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor function of TDAG8 in lymphoma. Collectively, our results identify a novel mechanism of c-Myc regulation by acidosis in the tumor microenvironment and indicate that modulation of TDAG8 and related pH-sensing receptor pathways may be exploited as a new approach to inhibit Myc expression.

  9. Pedestrian navigation using the sense of touch

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Ricky; Winstanley, Adam; Togher, Naomi; Roche, Richard; Mooney, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Haptics is a feedback technology that takes advantage of the human sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, and/or motions to a haptic-enabled user device such as a mobile phone. Historically, human–computer interaction has been visual, data, or images on a screen. Haptic feedback can be an important modality in Mobile Location-Based Services like – knowledge discovery, pedestrian navigation and notification systems. In this paper we describe a methodology for the implementa...

  10. Extracellular acidification induces connective tissue growth factor production through proton-sensing receptor OGR1 in human airway smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The involvement of extracellular acidification in airway remodeling was investigated. → Extracellular acidification alone induced CTGF production in human ASMCs. → Extracellular acidification enhanced TGF-β-induced CTGF production in human ASMCs. → Proton-sensing receptor OGR1 was involved in acidic pH-stimulated CTGF production. → OGR1 may play an important role in airway remodeling in asthma. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling. Extracellular acidification is known to be associated with severe asthma; however, the role of extracellular acidification in airway remodeling remains elusive. In the present study, the effects of acidification on the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a critical factor involved in the formation of extracellular matrix proteins and hence airway remodeling, were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Acidic pH alone induced a substantial production of CTGF, and enhanced transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced CTGF mRNA and protein expression. The extracellular acidic pH-induced effects were inhibited by knockdown of a proton-sensing ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor (OGR1) with its specific small interfering RNA and by addition of the Gq/11 protein-specific inhibitor, YM-254890, or the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonist, 2-APB. In conclusion, extracellular acidification induces CTGF production through the OGR1/Gq/11 protein and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ mobilization in human ASMCs.

  11. Infrared Motion Sensing for Human-Following with Mobile Robots%实现机器人随动的红外感知方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国栋; 刘敏; 王国利

    2012-01-01

    Considering the requirements for target localization of human-following robots, a hierarchical infrared motion sensing paradigm and its physical implementation using pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors are presented. From the perspec-tive of sensing model, the proposed sensing paradigm is structured in two tiers. The bottom tier is the geometric sensing tier, and it is composed of geometric sensing units, which offer multi-view bearing measurements of a moving target within the field of view (FOV) of a robot. The upper tier is the cooperative sensing tier, and it coordinates the geometric sensing units at the bottom tier to localize the moving target. From the perspective of physical implementation, at the bottom tier, the geometric sensing units for measuring the bearing information of the moving target are constructed by combining PIR sensors and Fresnel lens arrays. At the upper tier, the least square optimization is used to fuse the multi-view bearing measurements to obtain the position information of the moving target. The experimental results are given to validate the proposed sensing method in the context of human-following with mobile robots. Compared with the multi-view optical vision techniques, the proposed method has irreplaceable advantages of high sensing efficiency, robustness to illumination and background changes, low-cost and low energy consumption.%结合机器人随动任务对人体运动定位的需求,提出一种分层递阶结构的红外运动感知模式,及基于热释电红外传感器的物理实现方法.在传感模型方面,采用两层递阶结构的感知模式:底层为由多个几何传感单元构成的几何传感层,在机器人视野内实现多视角运动目标的方位测量;上层为协作感知层,用来组织底层各几何传感单元的协作,实现运动目标的定位测量.在物理实现方面,底层组合热释电红外传感阵列与菲涅尔透镜组,构建运动目标方位角测量所需的几何传感单

  12. Warburg effect's manifestation in aggressive pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: insights from a mouse cell model applied to human tumor tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M J Fliedner

    Full Text Available A glycolytic profile unifies a group of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs with distinct underlying gene defects, including von Hippel-Lindau (VHL and succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB mutations. Nevertheless, their tumor aggressiveness is distinct: PHEOs/PGLs metastasize rarely in VHL-, but frequently in SDHB-patients. To date, the molecular mechanisms causing the more aggressive phenotype in SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs remain largely unknown. Recently, however, an excellent model to study aggressive PHEOs (mouse tumor tissue (MTT cells has been developed from mouse PHEO cells (MPC. We employed this model for a proteomics based approach to identify changes characteristic for tumor aggressiveness, which we then explored in a homogeneous set of human SDHB- and VHL-PHEOs/PGLs. The increase of glucose transporter 1 in VHL, and of hexokinase 2 in VHL and SDHB, confirmed their glycolytic profile. In agreement with the cell model and in support of decoupling of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, SDHB tumors showed increased lactate dehydrogenase levels. In SDHB-PGLs OXPHOS complex activity was increased at complex III and, as expected, decreased at complex II. Moreover, protein and mRNA expression of all tested OXPHOS-related genes were higher in SDHB- than in VHL-derived tumors. Although there was no direct evidence for increased reactive oxygen species production, elevated superoxide dismutase 2 expression may reflect elevated oxidative stress in SDHB-derived PHEOs/PGLs. For the first time, we show that despite dysfunction in complex II and evidence for a glycolytic phenotype, the Warburg effect does not seem to fully apply to SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs with respect to decreased OXPHOS. In addition, we present evidence for increased LDHA and SOD2 expression in SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs, proteins that have been proposed as promising therapeutic targets in other cancers. This study provides new insight into pathogenic mechanisms in

  13. Warburg effect's manifestation in aggressive pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: insights from a mouse cell model applied to human tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, Stephanie M J; Kaludercic, Nina; Jiang, Xiao-Sheng; Hansikova, Hana; Hajkova, Zuzana; Sladkova, Jana; Limpuangthip, Andrea; Backlund, Peter S; Wesley, Robert; Martiniova, Lucia; Jochmanova, Ivana; Lendvai, Nikoletta K; Breza, Jan; Yergey, Alfred L; Paolocci, Nazareno; Tischler, Arthur S; Zeman, Jiri; Porter, Forbes D; Lehnert, Hendrik; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    A glycolytic profile unifies a group of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs) with distinct underlying gene defects, including von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) mutations. Nevertheless, their tumor aggressiveness is distinct: PHEOs/PGLs metastasize rarely in VHL-, but frequently in SDHB-patients. To date, the molecular mechanisms causing the more aggressive phenotype in SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs remain largely unknown. Recently, however, an excellent model to study aggressive PHEOs (mouse tumor tissue (MTT) cells) has been developed from mouse PHEO cells (MPC). We employed this model for a proteomics based approach to identify changes characteristic for tumor aggressiveness, which we then explored in a homogeneous set of human SDHB- and VHL-PHEOs/PGLs. The increase of glucose transporter 1 in VHL, and of hexokinase 2 in VHL and SDHB, confirmed their glycolytic profile. In agreement with the cell model and in support of decoupling of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), SDHB tumors showed increased lactate dehydrogenase levels. In SDHB-PGLs OXPHOS complex activity was increased at complex III and, as expected, decreased at complex II. Moreover, protein and mRNA expression of all tested OXPHOS-related genes were higher in SDHB- than in VHL-derived tumors. Although there was no direct evidence for increased reactive oxygen species production, elevated superoxide dismutase 2 expression may reflect elevated oxidative stress in SDHB-derived PHEOs/PGLs. For the first time, we show that despite dysfunction in complex II and evidence for a glycolytic phenotype, the Warburg effect does not seem to fully apply to SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs with respect to decreased OXPHOS. In addition, we present evidence for increased LDHA and SOD2 expression in SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs, proteins that have been proposed as promising therapeutic targets in other cancers. This study provides new insight into pathogenic mechanisms in aggressive human

  14. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Guan

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  15. Human vision model for the objective evaluation of perceived image quality applied to MRI and image restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Kyle A.; Wilson, David L.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing a method to objectively quantify image quality and applying it to the optimization of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI). In iMRI, images are used for live-time guidance of interventional procedures such as the minimally invasive treatment of cancer. Hence, not only does one desire high quality images, but they must also be acquired quickly. In iMRI, images are acquired in the Fourier domain, or k-space, and this allows many creative ways to image quickly such as keyhole imaging where k-space is preferentially subsampled, yielding suboptimal images at very high frame rates. Other techniques include spiral, radial, and the combined acquisition technique. We have built a perceptual difference model (PDM) that incorporates various components of the human visual system. The PDM was validated using subjective image quality ratings by naive observers and task-based measures defined by interventional radiologists. Using the PDM, we investigated the effects of various imaging parameters on image quality and quantified the degradation due to novel imaging techniques. Results have provided significant information about imaging time versus quality tradeoffs aiding the MR sequence engineer. The PDM has also been used to evaluate other applications such as Dixon fat suppressed MRI and image restoration. In image restoration, the PDM has been used to evaluate the Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) image restoration method and to examine the ability to appropriately determine a stopping condition for such iterative methods. The PDM has been shown to be an objective tool for measuring image quality and can be used to determine the optimal methodology for various imaging applications.

  16. Does degree of alteration in effort sense caused by eccentric exercise significantly affect initial exercise hyperpnea in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Norio; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Ogata, Hisayoshi; Maher, Patrick; Okumura, Naoya; Ishida, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown an exaggeration in exercise hyperpnea 2 days after eccentric exercise (ECC). Enhancement in central command has been suggested as one candidate to account for this effect given that ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction increases relative exercise intensity, thus resulting in reinforcement of effort sense. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to elucidate whether the degree of alteration in effort sense caused by ECC affects exercise hyperpnea. Ten subjects performed 20-s single-arm extension-flexion exercises with weight strapped to the wrist, and ventilatory response was measured before (Pre) and 2 days after ECC (D2). Relative exercise intensity at Pre was 5 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of Pre, whereas that at D2 was 9 % MVC of D2 because of decline in muscle strength. Ventilatory responses were significantly exaggerated at D2 with a significant increase in effort sense. Although effort sense was significantly reduced during exercise at D2 when wrist weight was subtracted to match relative exercise intensity at Pre (5 % MVC of D2), ventilatory responses were still significantly higher than those of Pre. After the disappearance of post-ECC muscle damage, subjects performed the same exercise with weight added (9 % MVC of Pre) so that effort was equalized to match that of D2; however, no significant increase in ventilatory response was detected. The fact that the extent of change in effort sense caused by ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction did not affect ventilatory response at the onset of exercise after ECC may suggest that the exaggeration of ventilatory response after ECC is caused by mechanisms other than alteration of the central command. PMID:27558395

  17. Acidosis Decreases c-Myc Oncogene Expression in Human Lymphoma Cells: A Role for the Proton-Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptor TDAG8

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Li; Lixue Dong; Eric Dean; Yang, Li V.

    2013-01-01

    Acidosis is a biochemical hallmark of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report that acute acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in U937 human lymphoma cells. The level of c-Myc transcripts, but not mRNA or protein stability, contributes to c-Myc protein reduction under acidosis. The pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 (GPR65) is involved in acidosis-induced c-Myc downregulation. TDAG8 is expressed in U937 lymphoma cells, and the overexpression or knockdown of TDAG8 further decreases or partia...

  18. Toward a universal theory of the human group: sociological systems framework applied to the comparative analysis of groups and organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Tom R. Burns; Machado, Nora; Corte, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a sociological multi-level, dynamic systems approach – actor-system-dynamics (ASD) -- which has been developed and applied in institutional, organizational, and societal analyses, we formulate a general model for the comparative analysis of social groups and organizations. This social systems approach has not been previously applied in the group area. We claim that the approach can be systematically and fruitfully applied to small as well as large groups and organiza...

  19. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to regulatory action. (e) This section does not apply to hydrocortisone and hydrocortisone acetate..., progesterone, pregnenolone, and pregnenolone acetate have been present as ingredients in OTC drug...

  20. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Soković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  1. Sensing land pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  2. Cognitive models applied to human effectiveness in national security environments (ergonomics of augmented cognition system design and application).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntuen, Celestine (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC); Winchester, Woodrow III (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC)

    2004-06-01

    In complex simulation systems where humans interact with computer-generated agents, information display and the interplay of virtual agents have become dominant media and modalities of interface design. This design strategy is reflected in augmented reality (AR), an environment where humans interact with computer-generated agents in real-time. AR systems can generate large amount of information, multiple solutions in less time, and perform far better in time-constrained problem solving. The capabilities of AR have been leveraged to augment cognition in human information processing. In this sort of augmented cognition (AC) work system, while technology has become the main source for information acquisition from the environment, the human sensory and memory capacities have failed to cope with the magnitude and scale of information they encounter. This situation generates opportunity for excessive cognitive workloads, a major factor in degraded human performance. From the human effectiveness point of view, research is needed to develop, model, and validate simulation tools that can measure the effectiveness of an AR technology used to support the amplification of human cognition. These tools will allow us to predict human performance for tasks executed under an AC tool construct. This paper presents an exploration of ergonomics issues relevant to AR and AC systems design. Additionally, proposed research to investigate those ergonomic issues is discussed.

  3. Maximizing reuse: Applying common sense and discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waligora, Sharon; Langston, James

    1992-01-01

    Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC)/System Sciences Division (SSD) has maintained a long-term relationship with NASA/Goddard, providing satellite mission ground-support software and services for 23 years. As a partner in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) since 1976, CSC has worked closely with NASA/Goddard to improve the software engineering process. This paper examines the evolution of reuse programs in this uniquely stable environment and formulates certain recommendations for developing reuse programs as a business strategy and as an integral part of production. It focuses on the management strategy and philosophy that have helped make reuse successful in this environment.

  4. Quorum Sensing Inhibition, Relevance to Periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Yada, Sudheer; B Kamalesh; Sonwane, Siddharth; Guptha, Indra; Swetha, R K

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing helps bacteria to communicate with each other and in coordinating their behavior. Many diseases of human beings, plants, and animals are mediated by quorum sensing. Various approaches are being tried to inhibit this communication to control the diseases caused by bacteria. Periodontal pathogens also communicate through quorum sensing and new approaches to treat periodontal disease using quorum sensing inhibition need to explored.

  5. Hybrid Human-Computing Distributed Sense-Making: Extending the SOA Paradigm for Dynamic Adjudication and Optimization of Human and Computer Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    In many evolving systems, inputs can be derived from both human observations and physical sensors. Additionally, many computation and analysis tasks can be performed by either human beings or artificial intelligence (AI) applications. For example, weather prediction, emergency event response, assistive technology for various human sensory and…

  6. Effective photoprotection of human skin against infrared A radiation by topically applied antioxidants: results from a vehicle controlled, double-blind, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Infrared A radiation (IRA) from solar sunlight contributes to photoaging of human skin, e.g. by upregulating MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the need for photoprotection of human skin against IRA. Up to now, however, there has been no controlled study to show that effective protection of human skin against IRA radiation is possible. Here, we have conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blinded prospective study in 30 healthy volunteers to assess the capacity of an SPF 30 sunscreen versus the same sunscreen supplemented with an antioxidant cocktail containing grape seed extract, vitamin E, ubiquinone and vitamin C to protect human skin against IRA radiation-induced MMP-1 upregulation. As expected, exposure to IRA radiation significantly upregulated MMP-1 expression, as compared to unirradiated skin, and this response was significantly reduced, if the SPF30 sunscreen plus the antioxidant cocktail had been applied prior to IRA radiation. In contrast, treatment of human skin with the SPF30 sunscreen alone did not provide significant protection. These results indicate that topically applied antioxidants effectively protect human skin against IRA radiation and that regular sunscreens need to be supplemented with specific antioxidants in order to achieve IRA photoprotection. PMID:25349107

  7. The Human Acid-Sensing Ion Channel ASIC1a: Evidence for a Homotetrameric Assembly State at the Cell Surface

    OpenAIRE

    van Bemmelen, Miguel Xavier; Huser, Delphine; Gautschi, Ivan; Schild, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The chicken acid-sensing ion channel ASIC1 has been crystallized as a homotrimer. We address here the oligomeric state of the functional ASIC1 in situ at the cell surface. The oligomeric states of functional ASIC1a and mutants with additional cysteines introduced in the extracellular pore vestibule were resolved on SDS-PAGE. The functional ASIC1 complexes were stabilized at the cell surface of Xenopus laevis oocytes or CHO cells either using the sulfhydryl crosslinker BMOE, or sodium tetrathi...

  8. Applying Problem Based Learning for improving Human-tech competencies in Computer Engineering students: a research proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Nuno Valero; Filipe, Joaquim; Caldeira, Carlos Pampulim

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the background theory of the likewise entitled research project. The project aims to give a contribution to software programming quality improving Human-tech” competencies in Computer Engineering students as a means to prevent, or at least avoid in a great extend, the rate of unsuccessful software implementation projects. We are specially interested in researching what Human Factors competencies must be profiled in Computing Curricula outcomes that may contribute to bet...

  9. Applying Problem Based Learning educational method for improving Human-tech competencies in Computer Engineering students: a research proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Nuno; Caldeira, Carlos Pampulim; Filipe, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    This paper resumes the background theory of the likewise entitled research project. The project aims to give a contribution to software programming quality improving “Human-tech” competencies in Computer Engineering students as a means to prevent, or at least avoid in a great extend, the rate of unsuccessful software implementation projects. We are specially interested in researching what Human Factors competencies must be profiled in Computing Curricula outcomes that may...

  10. Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

    When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

  11. Applying the criteria of Ulrich and Brockbank for the assessment of the role of human resources as a strategic business partner in a mining company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize de Bruyn

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to apply the 14 criteria of Ulrich and Brockbank for the assessment of the movement of a human-resource function from its current development phase to a strategic business-partner role. A qualitative method, based on casing, was adopted as the research strategy. Data were collected from members of the human-resource forum of an organisation through a semi-structured focus group, individual interviews and solicited document reviews. The collected data were analysed through open coding or thematic analyses. Findings indicated that the organisation’s human-resource function was moving from operational human-resource service provision to a more strategic focus.

  12. The Study of Mining Activities and their Influences in the Almaden Region Applying Remote Sensing Techniques; Estudio de la Influencia de las Actividades Mineras de Mercurio en la Comarca de Almaden Aplicando Tecnicas de Teledeteccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, C.; Schmid, T.; Millan, R.; Gumuzzio, J.

    2010-11-17

    This scientific-technical report is a part of an ongoing research work carried out by Celia Rico Fraile in order to obtain the Diploma of Advanced Studies as part of her PhD studies. This work has been developed in collaboration with the Faculty of Science at The Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. The main objective of this work was the characterization and classification of land use in Almaden (Ciudad Real) during cinnabar mineral exploitation and after mining activities ceased in 2002, developing a methodology focused on the integration of remote sensing techniques applying multispectral and hyper spectral satellite data. By means of preprocessing and processing of data from the satellite images as well as data obtained from field campaigns, a spectral library was compiled in order to obtain representative land surfaces within the study area. Monitoring results show that the distribution of areas affected by mining activities is rapidly diminishing in recent years. (Author) 130 refs.

  13. Finding Tiny People: Long-range outdoor sensing for establishing joint attention in human-robot interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Jake

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we present two novel methods for a robot to determine whether a distant human wants to interact. The first method finds periodic signals in camera streams and clusters them into potential human waving gestures. We demonstrated this on a ground robot by waving at the robot from long distances of up to 45 meters to attract its attention. The robot then approached to close range to confirm the gesture with other, more precise but distance-limited methods, such as human detection....

  14. Applying Learner-Centered Principles to Teaching Human Behavior in the Social Environment in a Baccalaureate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolich, Robert; Ford, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the demographics of American undergraduate students must be addressed by changes in delivery of the curriculum. The learner-centered approach to education helps to recognize and integrate student diversity with class exercises and assignments designed to help students meet course learning outcomes. This article applies the American…

  15. Why E-Business Must Evolve beyond Market Orientation: Applying Human Interaction Models to Computer-Mediated Corporate Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin McCullough

    2001-01-01

    Considers the design of corporate communications for electronic business and discusses the increasing importance of corporate interaction as companies work in virtual environments. Compares sociological and psychological theories of human interaction and relationship formation with organizational interaction theories of corporate relationship…

  16. Human motion classification using a particle filter approach: multiple model particle filtering applied to the micro-Doppler spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.; Harmanny, R.; Driessen, H.; Yarovoy, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a novel motion model-based particle filter implementation is proposed to classify human motion and to estimate key state variables, such as motion type, i.e. running or walking, and the subject’s height. Micro-Doppler spectrum is used as the observable information. The system and me

  17. Applying Human-performance Models to Designing and Evaluating Nuclear Power Plants: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.

    2009-11-30

    Human performance models (HPMs) are simulations of human behavior with which we can predict human performance. Designers use them to support their human factors engineering (HFE) programs for a wide range of complex systems, including commercial nuclear power plants. Applicants to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can use HPMs for design certifications, operating licenses, and license amendments. In the context of nuclear-plant safety, it is important to assure that HPMs are verified and validated, and their usage is consistent with their intended purpose. Using HPMs improperly may generate misleading or incorrect information, entailing safety concerns. The objective of this research was to develop guidance to support the NRC staff's reviews of an applicant's use of HPMs in an HFE program. The guidance is divided into three topical areas: (1) HPM Verification, (2) HPM Validation, and (3) User Interface Verification. Following this guidance will help ensure the benefits of HPMs are achieved in a technically sound, defensible manner. During the course of developing this guidance, I identified several issues that could not be addressed; they also are discussed.

  18. The RS685012 Polymorphism of ACCN2, the Human Ortholog of Murine Acid-Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC1) Gene, is Highly Represented in Patients with Panic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliandolo, Agnese; Gangemi, Chiara; Caccamo, Daniela; Currò, Monica; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Quattrone, Diego; Crucitti, Manuela; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Bruno, Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna

    2016-03-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a disabling anxiety disorder that is characterized by unexpected, recurrent panic attacks, associated with fear of dying and worrying about possible future attacks or other behavioral changes as a consequence of the attacks. The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of proton-sensing channels expressed throughout the nervous system. Their activity is linked to a variety of behaviors including fear, anxiety, pain, depression, learning, and memory. The human analog of ASIC1a is the amiloride-sensitive cation channel 2 (ACCN2). Adenosine A2A receptors are suggested to play an important role in different brain circuits and pathways involved in anxiety reactions. In this work we aimed to evaluate the distribution of ACCN2 rs685012 and ADORA2A rs2298383 polymorphisms in PD patients compared with healthy subjects. We found no association between ADORA2A polymorphism and PD. Instead, the C mutated allele for ACCN2 rs685012 polymorphism was significantly more frequent in patients than in controls. On the contrary, the TT homozygous wild-type genotype and also the ACCN2 TT/ADORA2A CT diplotype were significantly more represented in controls. These results are suggestive for a role of ACCN2 rs685012 polymorphism in PD development in Caucasian people. PMID:26589317

  19. TLR-9 contributes to the antiviral innate immune sensing of rodent parvoviruses MVMp and H-1PV by normal human immune cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari Raykov

    Full Text Available The oncotropism of Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp is partially related to the stimulation of an antiviral response mediated by type-I interferons (IFNs in normal but not in transformed mouse cells. The present work was undertaken to assess whether the oncotropism displayed against human cells by MVMp and its rat homolog H-1PV also depends on antiviral mechanisms and to identify the pattern recognition receptor (PRR involved. Despite their low proliferation rate which represents a drawback for parvovirus multiplication, we used human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs as normal model specifically because all known PRRs are functional in this mixed cell population and moreover because some of its subsets are among the main IFN producers upon infections in mammals. Human transformed models consisted in lines and tumor cells more or less permissive to both parvoviruses. Our results show that irrespective of their permissiveness, transformed cells do not produce IFNs nor develop an antiviral response upon parvovirus infection. However, MVMp- or H-1PV-infected hPBMCs trigger such defense mechanisms despite an absence of parvovirus replication and protein expression, pointing to the viral genome as the activating element. Substantial reduction of an inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotide (iODN of the latter IFN production identified TLR-9 as a potential PRR for parvoviruses in hPBMCs. However, neither the iODN treatment nor an antibody-induced neutralization of the IFN-triggered effects restored parvovirus multiplication in these cells as expected by their weak proliferation in culture. Finally, given that a TLR-9 activation could also not be observed in parvovirus-infected human lines reported to be endowed with a functional TLR-9 pathway (Namalwa, Raji, and HEK293-TLR9(+/+, our data suggest that transformed human cells do not sense MVMp or H-1PV either because of an absence of PRR expression or an intrinsic, or virus-driven defect in the endosomal

  20. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  1. Force sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David

    2007-01-01

    A young child can explore and learn and compensate for unknown dynamics by prodding, pushing, touching, grasping and feeling. Force sensing and software research could soon allow artificial mechanisms to do the same. Force sensing has its roots in strain gauges, piezoelectrics, Wheatstone bridges, automation, robotics, grippers and virtual reality. That force sensing research has now become commonplace and has expanded from those roots to include so much more: video games, athletic equipment,...

  2. Neural representations of the sense of self

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain constructs representations of what is sensed and thought about in the form of nerve impulses that propagate in circuits and network assemblies (Circuit Impulse Patterns, CIPs). CIP representations of which humans are consciously aware occur in the context of a sense of self. Thus, research on mechanisms of consciousness might benefit from a focus on how a conscious sense of self is represented in brain. Like all senses, the sense of self must be contained in patterns of nerve impuls...

  3. The applied indicators of water quality may underestimate the risk of chemical exposure to human population in reservoirs utilized for human supply-Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Debora Regina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Filipak Neto, Francisco; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; Garcia, Juan Esquivel; Costa, Daniele Dietrich Moura; Liebel, Samuel; Campos, Sandro Xavier; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The knowledge concerning associations between chronic chemical exposure and many disorders with complex etiology involving gene-environment interactions is increasing, and new methods must be developed to improve water quality monitoring. The complexity of chemical mixtures in polluted aquatic environments makes the evaluation of toxic potential in those sites difficult, but the use of biomarkers and bioindicators has been recognized as a reliable tool to assess risk of exposure to biota and also the human population. In order to evaluate the use of fish and biomarkers to assess toxic potential and bioavailability of chemicals in human-related hydric resources, an in situ experiment was accomplished in two water reservoirs designated for human supply, which were previously evaluated by the local environmental regulatory agency through a set of physical, chemical, and classical biological parameters. Molecular, biochemical, and morphological biomarkers were performed in caged Oreochromis niloticus kept for 6 months in the studied reservoirs to assess potentially useful biomarkers to evaluate the quality of water for human supply. Chemical analysis of toxic metals in liver and muscle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile was considered to assess the bioavailability of pollutants and highlight human activity impact. The reservoir previously classified by a governmental agency as less impacted presented more risk of exposure to biota. These results were supported by chemical analysis, vitellogenin expression, histopathological findings (gonads, liver, and gills), as well as indicators of neurotoxic effects and oxidative stress in liver. The inclusion of some biomarkers as parameters in regulatory monitoring programs in reservoirs designated for human supply is strongly suggested to evaluate the risks of exposure to the human population. Thus, a revision of the traditional biological and physicochemical analysis utilized to establish the conditions of

  4. Plasmon enhanced photoelectrochemical sensing of mercury (II) ions in human serum based on Au@Ag nanorods modified TiO2 nanosheets film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Shoaib, Anwer; Li, Jiaojiao; Ji, Muwei; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Meng; Tong, Bin; Zhang, Jiatao; Wei, Qin

    2016-05-15

    Taking advantages of the monodisperse TiO2 nanosheets (NSs) with high active crystal face exposure and the tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of Au@Ag nanorods (NRs), this study demonstrated that TiO2 NSs film with trace amount of Au@Ag NRs modification possess a strong enhancement of photocurrent response, which was remarkably inhibited with the addition of mercury (II) ions (Hg(2+)). Based on the selective decrease of photocurrent with the addition of Hg(2+), a simple photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor has been assembled. The PEC sensor exhibits wide linear range (0.01-10nM), low detection limit (2.5pM), satisfying selectivity, reproducibility and acceptable stability for Hg(2+) detection. The feasibility of this method for practical application in human serum has been evaluated and the result was satisfactory. This PEC sensing method would provide a potential application for Hg(2+) detection in clinical diagnosis. PMID:26785311

  5. The International Court of Justice and applied forms of reparation for international human rights and humanitarian law violations

    OpenAIRE

    Gentian Zyberi

    2011-01-01

    The International Court of Justice has contributed significantly to developing and interpreting different legal aspects concerning reparations which are due to states or individuals for internationally wrongful acts committed against them. This paper will analyze a number of decisions by this Court that provide for either state or individual reparations for violations of international human rights and humanitarian law. That analysis is structured according to the four types of reparations app...

  6. FCR Method vs. IR Method: Comparative and intercultural analysis of two human behavior measurements applying extended Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Clavell Pi-Sunyer, Pau

    2008-01-01

    The advanced knowledge of people’s real opinions is getting more important every day from many points of view and fields of application. The decision-making science, the improvement of market research, Marketing and psychological studies or the artificial intelligence are clear examples of this phenomenon. This is the reason why the development of new theories that help to understand, to model or to predict human behaviours is something that has an impact, interests and what is...

  7. Hybrid instrument applied to human reliability study in event of loss of external electric power in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study projects in highly complex installations involves robust modeling, supported by conceptual and mathematical tools, to carry out systematic research and structured the different risk scenarios that can lead to unwanted events from occurring equipment failures or human errors. In the context of classical modeling, the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) seeks to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the project particularity and their operational facilities, including the identification of factors or scenarios that contribute to the risk and consequent comparison options for increasing safety. In this context, the aim of the thesis is to develop a hybrid instrument (CPP-HI) innovative, from the integrated modeling techniques of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), concepts of Human Reliability Analysis and Probabilistic Composition of Preferences (PCP). In support of modeling and validation of the CPP-HI, a simulation was performed on a triggering event 'Loss of External Electric Power' - PEEE, in a Nuclear Power plant. The results were simulated in a virtual environment (sensitivity analysis) and are robust to the study of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the PSA. (author)

  8. The Human Acid-Sensing Ion Channel ASIC1a: Evidence for a Homotetrameric Assembly State at the Cell Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, Miguel Xavier; Huser, Delphine; Gautschi, Ivan; Schild, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The chicken acid-sensing ion channel ASIC1 has been crystallized as a homotrimer. We address here the oligomeric state of the functional ASIC1 in situ at the cell surface. The oligomeric states of functional ASIC1a and mutants with additional cysteines introduced in the extracellular pore vestibule were resolved on SDS-PAGE. The functional ASIC1 complexes were stabilized at the cell surface of Xenopus laevis oocytes or CHO cells either using the sulfhydryl crosslinker BMOE, or sodium tetrathionate (NaTT). Under these different crosslinking conditions ASIC1a migrates as four distinct oligomeric states that correspond by mass to multiples of a single ASIC1a subunit. The relative importance of each of the four ASIC1a oligomers was critically dependent on the availability of cysteines in the transmembrane domain for crosslinking, consistent with the presence of ASIC1a homo-oligomers. The expression of ASIC1a monomers, trimeric or tetrameric concatemeric cDNA constructs resulted in functional channels. The resulting ASIC1a complexes are resolved as a predominant tetramer over the other oligomeric forms, after stabilization with BMOE or NaTT and SDS-PAGE/western blot analysis. Our data identify a major ASIC1a homotetramer at the surface membrane of the cell expressing functional ASIC1a channel. PMID:26252376

  9. Optimizing the Use of an Artificial Tongue-Placed Tactile Biofeedback for Improving Ankle Joint Position Sense in Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillerme, N; Fleury, A; Demongeot, J; Payan, Y; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Chenu, Olivier; Fleury, Anthony; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

    2006-01-01

    The performance of an artificial tongue-placed tactile biofeedback device for improving ankle joint position sense was assessed in 12 young healthy adults using an active matching task. The underlying principle of this system consists of supplying individuals with supplementary information about the position of the matching ankle relative to the reference ankle position through a tongue-placed tactile output device generating electrotactile stimulation on a 36-point (6 X 6) matrix held against the surface of the tongue dorsum. Precisely, (1) no electrodes were activated when both ankles were in a similar angular position within a predetermined "angular dead zone" (ADZ); (2) 12 electrodes (2 X 6) of the anterior and posterior zones of the matrix were activated (corresponding to the stimulation of the front and rear portion of the tongue) when the matching ankle was in a too plantarflexed and dorsiflexed position relative to the reference ankle, respectively. Two ADZ values of 0.5° and 1.5° were...

  10. In Vitro Analysis of Pyrogenicity and Cytotoxicity Profiles of Flex Sensors to be Used to Sense Human Joint Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Saggio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flex sensors can be usefully adopted as mechanical-electrical transducers to measure human joint movements, since their electrical resistance varies proportionally to the angle assumed by the joint under measure. Over time, these sensors have been investigated in terms of mechanical and electrical behavior, but no reports have detailed the possibility of their adoption not just on top but under the human skin of the joint. To this aim, our work investigated in vitro the pyrogenic potential and cytotoxicity of some commercially available flex sensors as a first step toward the necessary requirements regarding their biocompatibility, to predict possible foreign body reactions when used in vivo. Results demonstrated that some specific flex sensors satisfy such requirements.

  11. Building a common sense within the human resource management department of a university hospital in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Camilo Pulido-Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, healthcare organizations have had to accommodate tonational and international regulations governing work and health. This process has been accompanied by the introduction of knowledge and practices coming from social and administrative sciences. In this encounter between the liberal reforms and the particular ways of managing the workforce, the circulating meanings play an important role because, to a large extent, the agendas, programs and interventions geared to towards workforce management depend on these circulating meanings to succeed. In this paper, meanings about work, worker, organization, human resources management and hiring that are currently circulating in a human resources department of a university hospital in Bogotá, Colombia, are presented. The qualitative design used in this paper aimed to collect the circulating meanings as wellas their emotional correlative elements.

  12. Sensing via optical interference

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Ryan C.; Mohammed Parpia; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological sensing are problems of tremendous contemporary technological importance in multiple regulatory and human health contexts, including environmental monitoring, water quality assurance, workplace air quality assessment, food quality control, many aspects of biodiagnostics, and, of course, homeland security. Frequently, what is needed, or at least wanted, are sensors that are simultaneously cheap, fast, reliable, selective, sensitive, robust, and easy to use. Unfortunatel...

  13. Science & the Senses: Perceptions & Deceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Science requires the acquisition and analysis of empirical (sense-derived) data. Given the same physical objects or phenomena, the sense organs of all people do not respond equally to these stimuli, nor do their minds interpret sensory signals identically. Therefore, teachers should develop lectures on human sensory systems that include some…

  14. Remotely-Sensed Urban Wet-Landscapes AN Indicator of Coupled Effects of Human Impact and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This study proposes the concept of urban wet-landscapes (loosely-defined wetlands) as against dry-landscapes (mainly impervious surfaces). The study is to examine whether the dynamics of urban wet-landscapes is a sensitive indicator of the coupled effects of the two major driving forces of urban landscape change - human built-up impact and climate (precipitation) variation. Using a series of satellite images, the study was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area of the United States. A rule-based classification algorithm was developed to identify fine-scale, hidden wetlands that could not be appropriately detected based on their spectral differentiability by a traditional image classification. The spatial analyses of wetland changes were implemented at the scales of metropolitan, watershed, and sub-watershed as well as based on the size of surface water bodies in order to reveal urban wetland change trends in relation to the driving forces. The study identified that wet-landscape dynamics varied in trend and magnitude from the metropolitan, watersheds, to sub-watersheds. The study also found that increased precipitation in the region in the past decades swelled larger wetlands in particular while smaller wetlands decreased mainly due to human development activities. These findings suggest that wet-landscapes, as against the dry-landscapes, can be a more effective indicator of the coupled effects of human impact and climate change.

  15. FPA-based infrared thermography as applied to the study of cutaneous perspiration and stimulated vascular response in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainer, Boris G [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 13, Lavrentyev avenue, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2005-12-07

    This review gives an overview of focal plane array (FPA)-based infrared (IR) thermography as a powerful research method in the field of physiology and medicine. Comparison of the gained results with the data previously obtained by other authors with other research tools is given. Outer thermoregulatory manifestations displayed by the human organism subjected to whole-body heating (sauna bath) and physical loads (exercise bicycling) are quantitatively analysed. Some details of human body emotional sweating (psycho-physiological effect) are reported. Particular attention is paid to studying active sweat glands as individual objects. All experimental data were obtained with the help of a high-sensitivity (0.03 {sup 0}C) fast 128 x 128 InAs IR detector-based thermal imaging system operating in the short-wave spectral region (2.5 to 3 {mu}m) and perfectly suiting medical purposes. It is shown that IR thermography makes it possible to overcome limitations inherent to contact measuring means that were traditionally used before in thermal studies. It is also shown that heterogeneous thermograms displayed by organisms with disturbed inner equilibrium can be quantitatively analysed in terms of statistical parameters of related surface-temperature histograms, such as the mean temperature and the standard deviation of temperature (SDT). The increase and the decrease in SDT turned out to be typical of prolonged physical load and subsequent relaxation, and of external whole-body heating, respectively. Explanation of this result based on a hypothesis advanced within the context of the doctrine of human-organism evolution is given. Skin-temperature distribution function accompanying the relaxed organism in normality was found to closely resemble normal-distribution function. Symmetry break down and variation of the shape of this characteristic may serve as an indicator of homeostasis shift and can be used as a quantitative criterion for the latter. A new phenomenon, stable

  16. Hype, harmony and human factors: applying user-centered design to achieve sustainable telehealth program adoption and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossos, P G; St-Cyr, O; Purdy, B; Toenjes, C; Masino, C; Chmelnitsky, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of international experience with the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare delivery, widespread telehealth adoption remains limited and progress slow. Escalating health system challenges related to access, cost and quality currently coincide with rapid advancement of affordable and reliable internet based communication technologies creating unprecedented opportunities and incentives for telehealth. In this paper, we will describe how Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and user-centric elements have been incorporated into the establishment of telehealth within a large academic medical center to increase acceptance and sustainability. Through examples and lessons learned we wish to increase awareness of HFE and its importance in the successful implementation, innovation and growth of telehealth programs. PMID:25980714

  17. Composite growth model applied to human oral and pharyngeal structures and identifying the contribution of growth types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Chung, Moo K; Vorperian, Houri K

    2013-11-13

    The growth patterns of different anatomic structures in the human body vary in terms of growth amount over time, growth rate and growth periods. The oral and pharyngeal structures, also known as vocal tract structures, are housed in the craniofacial complex where the cranium/brain follows a distinct neural growth pattern, and the face follows a distinct somatic or skeletal growth pattern. Thus, it is reasonable to expect the oral and pharyngeal structures to follow a combined or mixed growth pattern. Existing parametric growth models are limited in that they are mainly focused on modeling one particular type of growth pattern. In this paper, we propose a novel composite growth model using neural and somatic baseline curves to fit the combined growth pattern of select vocal tract structures. The method can also determine the overall percent contribution of each of the growth types. PMID:24226094

  18. Analysis of Golf Swing Motion and Applied Loads on the Human Body Using Soft-Golf {sup TM} Club

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Ki Young; So, Ha Ju; Kim, Sung Hyeon; Kim, Dong Wook [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Gyun [Colar Seven Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf {sup TM} instrument on the human body structure. To analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf {sup TM} instrument, Golf swing using Soft-golf {sup TM} instrument and regular golf instrument was captured. And then Upper limbs and lumbar joint torques was calculated via computer simulation. Five man participated this study. Subjects performed golf swing using a regular golf and Soft-golf {sup TM} instrument. Golf swing motion was captured using three position sensor, active infrared LED maker and force plate. Golf swing model was generated and simulated using ADAMS/LifeMOD program. As a results, joint torque during Soft-golf swing were lower than regular golf swing. Thus soft-golf swing have joint load lower than regular golf swing and contribute to reduce joint injury.

  19. An experimental and bioinformatic tissue proteomics-strategy applied to human hepatocellular carcinoma focussing on functional data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and tissue') although liver-specifically synthesized plasma proteins were found to be enriched in HCC compared to non-tumorous liver at the tissue proteome level. Hence, the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the tumor secretome are discussed as well as functional groups with influence on this phenotype including protein synthesis, import of proteins into the ER as prerequisite for secretion as well as chaperones and protein degradation. Furthermore, alterations of enzyme expression involved in glycolysis (Warburg effect), glycogen metabolism and fatty acid metabolism (altered composition of lipid composition of tumors) were determined. In additon, some liver-specific functions concerning detoxification in a broader sense are covered (urea cycle, phase I- and II-system). Moreover, the involvement of e.g. c-Myc and Ras in tumor development or maintenance is indicated, the first based on the coordinated expression levels of five independent proteins, the second by being highly upregulated in HCC tissue. In addition, some other tumor-relevant proteins such as anti-apoptotic and drug resistance-mediating sorcin, the supposedly locally enriched cardiotrophin-1, and HRPAP20, which enhances the growth and survival of hormone-responsive tumor cells but has not been associated with primary liver cancer thus far, were found to be pronouncedly more abundant in HCC. (author)

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing Molecule N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-L-Homoserine-Lactone Induces HLA-G Expression in Human Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Daria; LeMaoult, Joel; Trapella, Claudio; Di Luca, Dario; Carosella, Edgardo D; Rizzo, Roberta

    2015-10-01

    HLA-G is a nonclassical class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) involved in mechanisms of immune tolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL), a quorum sensing molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, could modify HLA-G expression to control the host immune response. We evaluated the ability of 3O-C12-HSL to induce HLA-G expression in primary immune cells, monocytes (U937 and THP1), and T-cell lines (Jurkat) in vitro and analyzed the cellular pathway responsible for HLA-G expression. We studied the HLA-G promoter with a luciferase assay and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and p38/CREB signaling with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence, respectively. We observed that 3O-C12-HSL is able to induce HLA-G expression in human monocytes and T cells. We showed that the induction of HLA-G by 3O-C12-HSL is p38/CREB and IL-10 dependent. 3O-C12-HSL treatment is able to arrest only the U937 cell cycle, possibly due to the peculiar expression of the ILT2 receptor in the U937 cell line. Our observations suggest HLA-G as a mechanism to create a protected niche for the bacterial reservoir, similar to the role of HLA-G molecules during viral infections. PMID:26195547

  1. "Light-up" Sensing of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase activity by target-induced autocatalytic DNAzyme-generated rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Juan; Wu, Shuang; Cen, Yao; Yu, Ru-Qin; Chu, Xia

    2016-05-15

    Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) plays a crucial role in maintaining the genomic integrity of living organisms for its capability of repairing DNA oxidative damage. The expression level of hOGG1 is closely associated with many diseases including various kinds of cancers. In this study, a novel "light-up" sensor based on target-induced formation of 5' phosphorylated probe and autocatalytic DNAzyme-generated rolling circle amplification has been developed for highly sensitive human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) activity assay. The approach reaches detection limit as low as 0.001U/mL for hOGG1 via scarcely increased background signal and dual signal amplification strategy. To the best of our knowledge, it is one of the most sensitive methods for the detection of base excision repair enzyme. Moreover, the approach shows excellent specificity over other nonspecific enzymes would interfere with the assay and holds great promise for application in real sample analysis. Hence, the proposed method provides a highly sensitive, selective, and desirable hOGG1 sensing platform. PMID:26765532

  2. Structural basis for regulation of human calcium-sensing receptor by magnesium ions and an unexpected tryptophan derivative co-agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Tuo; Zou, Juan; Miller, Cassandra Lynn; Gorkhali, Rakshya; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Schilmiller, Anthony; Wang, Shuo; Huang, Kenneth; Brown, Edward M; Moremen, Kelley W; Hu, Jian; Yang, Jenny J

    2016-05-01

    Ca(2+)-sensing receptors (CaSRs) modulate calcium and magnesium homeostasis and many (patho)physiological processes by responding to extracellular stimuli, including divalent cations and amino acids. We report the first crystal structure of the extracellular domain (ECD) of human CaSR bound with Mg(2+) and a tryptophan derivative ligand at 2.1 Å. The structure reveals key determinants for cooperative activation by metal ions and aromatic amino acids. The unexpected tryptophan derivative was bound in the hinge region between two globular ECD subdomains, and represents a novel high-affinity co-agonist of CaSR. The dissection of structure-function relations by mutagenesis, biochemical, and functional studies provides insights into the molecular basis of human diseases arising from CaSR mutations. The data also provide a novel paradigm for understanding the mechanism of CaSR-mediated signaling that is likely shared by the other family C GPCR [G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor] members and can facilitate the development of novel CaSR-based therapeutics. PMID:27386547

  3. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  4. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  5. Computational Intelligence Techniques for Tactile Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gastaldo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tactile sensing helps robots interact with humans and objects effectively in real environments. Piezoelectric polymer sensors provide the functional building blocks of the robotic electronic skin, mainly thanks to their flexibility and suitability for detecting dynamic contact events and for recognizing the touch modality. The paper focuses on the ability of tactile sensing systems to support the challenging recognition of certain qualities/modalities of touch. The research applies novel computational intelligence techniques and a tensor-based approach for the classification of touch modalities; its main results consist in providing a procedure to enhance system generalization ability and architecture for multi-class recognition applications. An experimental campaign involving 70 participants using three different modalities in touching the upper surface of the sensor array was conducted, and confirmed the validity of the approach.

  6. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): A Long-Term Remote Sensing, Hydrologic, Ecologic, and Socio-Economic Assessment with Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto-Orta, M.; Ortiz, J.; Santiago, L.; Setegn, S. G.; Guild, L. S.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Detres, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs) have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Coral reefs, for instance, have been impacted by sedimentation, increased eutrophication, and coastal water contamination. Here we present an overview of a new NASA project to study human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project uses an interdisciplinary approach that includes historic and recent remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change in coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves and sandy beaches. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. Methods include assessments of coral reefs benthic communities cover, monitoring of short- and long-term beach geomorphological changes associated with riverine and sediment input, calculation of the economical value of selected CMEs, establish permanent monitoring transects in never before studied coral reef areas, provide recommendations to enhance current coastal policy management practices, and disseminate the results to local stakeholders. This project will include imagery from the Operational Land Imager of Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Our results and the generality of the methodology will provide for its application to other similar tropical locations.

  7. Human factor integration into the development of a realistic tree-rendering system based on lidar remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Evans, David L.; Moorhead, Robert J.; Mohammadi-Aragh, Mahnas Jean; Irby, Derek W.; Roberts, Scott D.

    2004-05-01

    This paper introduces application of the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) to forest visualization and user studies which were designed to gain insight into human factors for system development. This interdisciplinary research project was undertaken by the Visualization, Analysis, and Imaging Laboratory and the Department of Forestry at Mississippi State University (MSU). The purpose was to create a forest management tool for remote examination of stands in a stereoscopic environment which allows users to observe and interact with realistic virtual stands. The datasets used in this study include measurements such as total height, Diameter at the Breast Height (DBH), and crown radii. The datasets were directly and indirectly generated from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. The datasets from immature (eight-years-old) high density and mature (40-years-old) low density loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands were used to generate three types of tree models. These three models represent trees in different graphic-complexities and thus interactivity. In general, higher fidelity is preferred in visualization. However, there is a trade-off between graphic details and interaction speed. To determine an optimal model, a user study was designed to examine the influence photo-reality and interactivity have on the viewer's perception. Human subjects recruited from MSU's Department of Forestry will explore virtual stands rendered with one of the tree models in the CAVE and estimate forest parameters.

  8. Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Human Peripheral Blood T Lymphocytes Is Involved in the AMI Onset and Progression through the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing-Ya; Du, Jing-Jing; Pan, Ying; Wu, Jian; Bi, Hai-Liang; Cui, Bao-Hong; Zhai, Tai-Yu; Sun, Yong; Sun, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a condition triggered by an inflammatory process that seriously affects human health. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in T lymphocytes is involved during the inflammation reaction. However, the relationship between them is not very clear. In this study, we collected human peripheral blood T lymphocytes from patients with AMI and in different stages of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (at the onset of AMI, the first day after PCI (PCI-1), PCI-3, and PCI-5) to study the CaSR and NF-κB pathway protein expression, cytokine release and T cell apoptosis. The results showed that the expressions of CaSR, P-p65, Caspase-12, and the secretions of Th-1 and Th-2 type cytokines were increased at the onset of AMI, especially on the PCI-1. Meanwhile, the apoptosis rate of CD(3+), CD(4+) and CD(8+) T lymphocytes also increased. However, from PCI-3, all the indicators began to decline. In addition, we also found that positive CaSR small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection in T lymphocytes and NF-κB pathway blocker Bay-11-7082 reversed the increased expressions of CaSR, P-p65, Caspase-12, reduced the secretions of Th-1 and Th-2 type cytokines, and decreased T lymphocytes apoptosis rate not only in the AMI patients but also in the normal controls. All of these results indicated that CaSR in the human peripheral blood T lymphocytes were involved in the AMI onset and progression, which probably was related to the NF-κB pathway. Our study demonstrated the relationship between AMI and CaSR, and will provide new effective prevention theory and new targets for drug treatment. PMID:27563892

  9. Word sense disambiguation using semantic relatedness measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Che-Yu

    2006-01-01

    All human languages have words that can mean different things in different contexts, such words with multiple meanings are potentially "ambiguous". The process of "deciding which of several meanings of a term is intended in a given context" is known as "word sense disambiguation (WSD)". This paper presents a method of WSD that assigns a target word the sense that is most related to the senses of its neighbor words. We explore the use of measures of relatedness between word senses based on a novel hybrid approach. First, we investigate how to "literally" and "regularly" express a "concept". We apply set algebra to WordNet's synsets cooperating with WordNet's word ontology. In this way we establish regular rules for constructing various representations (lexical notations) of a concept using Boolean operators and word forms in various synset(s) defined in WordNet. Then we establish a formal mechanism for quantifying and estimating the semantic relatedness between concepts-we facilitate "concept distribution statistics" to determine the degree of semantic relatedness between two lexically expressed concepts. The experimental results showed good performance on Semcor, a subset of Brown corpus. We observe that measures of semantic relatedness are useful sources of information for WSD.

  10. Quantifying the broader economic consequences of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Germany applying a government perspective framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Remy, Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    HPV infections can cause substantial burden in females and males as it is associated with several genital cancers, in addition to genital warts. Traditional economic evaluations often focus on quantifying cost-effectiveness, however, it is increasingly recognized that vaccinations may generate broader benefits not captured in cost-effectiveness analysis. Τhe aim of this study was to evaluate the broader economic consequences associated with HPV vaccination in males and females and to conduct a lifetime cost-benefit analysis of investing in universal vaccination in Germany from the perspective of government. Methodologies from generational accounting, human capital and health economics were combined to estimate the broader economic consequences of HPV vaccination including the fiscal impact for the government. A cohort model was developed simulating the medical costs and average lifetime fiscal transfers between the government and 12-year-old immunized and non-immunized males and females. To estimate tax revenue attributed to vaccination-related changes in morbidity and mortality, direct and indirect tax rates were linked to differences in age- and gender-specific earnings. Based on HPV vaccination costs, the base case cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that investing 1 in universal HPV vaccination could yield 1.7 in gross tax revenue over the lifetime of the cohorts. After taking into consideration the governmental transfers, universal HPV vaccination in Germany could result in incremental positive net discounted taxes (i.e. tax revenue-transfers) from 62 million for the German government. The vaccination of males and females with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine is likely to have positive effects on public finances. PMID:26198884

  11. The remote sensing of mental stress from the electromagnetic reflection coefficient of human skin in the sub-THz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrai, Eli; Ishai, Paul Ben; Caduff, Andreas; Puzenko, Alexander; Polsman, Alexander; Agranat, Aharon J; Feldman, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the reflection coefficient of human skin in the frequency range from 95 to 110 GHz (W band) mirrors the temporal relaxation of stress induced by physical exercise. In this work, we extend these findings to show that in the event of a subtle trigger to stress, such as mental activity, a similar picture of response emerges. Furthermore, the findings are extended to cover not only the W band (75-110 GHz), but also the frequency band from 110 to 170 GHz (D band). We demonstrate that mental stress, induced by the Stroop effect and recorded by the galvanic skin response (GSR), can be correlated to the reflection coefficient in the aforementioned frequency bands. Intriguingly, a light physical stress caused by repeated hand gripping clearly showed an elevated stress level in the GSR signal, but was largely unnoted in the reflection coefficient in the D band. The implication of this observation requires further validation. PMID:22170380

  12. Electroactive polymers for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical coupling in electroactive polymers (EAPs) has been widely applied for actuation and is also being increasingly investigated for sensing chemical and mechanical stimuli. EAPs are a unique class of materials, with low-moduli high-strain capabilities and the ability to conform to surfaces of different shapes. These features make them attractive for applications such as wearable sensors and interfacing with soft tissues. Here, we review the major types of EAPs and their sensing mechanisms. These are divided into two classes depending on the main type of charge carrier: ionic EAPs (such as conducting polymers and ionic polymer–metal composites) and electronic EAPs (such as dielectric elastomers, liquid-crystal polymers and piezoelectric polymers). This review is intended to serve as an introduction to the mechanisms of these materials and as a first step in material selection for both researchers and designers of flexible/bendable devices, biocompatible sensors or even robotic tactile sensing units. PMID:27499846

  13. Electroactive polymers for sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiesheng; Farajollahi, Meisam; Choi, Yeon Sik; Lin, I-Ting; Marshall, Jean E; Thompson, Noel M; Kar-Narayan, Sohini; Madden, John D W; Smoukov, Stoyan K

    2016-08-01

    Electromechanical coupling in electroactive polymers (EAPs) has been widely applied for actuation and is also being increasingly investigated for sensing chemical and mechanical stimuli. EAPs are a unique class of materials, with low-moduli high-strain capabilities and the ability to conform to surfaces of different shapes. These features make them attractive for applications such as wearable sensors and interfacing with soft tissues. Here, we review the major types of EAPs and their sensing mechanisms. These are divided into two classes depending on the main type of charge carrier: ionic EAPs (such as conducting polymers and ionic polymer-metal composites) and electronic EAPs (such as dielectric elastomers, liquid-crystal polymers and piezoelectric polymers). This review is intended to serve as an introduction to the mechanisms of these materials and as a first step in material selection for both researchers and designers of flexible/bendable devices, biocompatible sensors or even robotic tactile sensing units. PMID:27499846

  14. Study of the influence of the metal partition coefficient on the human health risk evaluation, applied to Figueira (PR) soil region, using C-Soil model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of partition coefficient show that Kp values of metals can vary orders of magnitude according to the soil physical-chemistry characteristics. Therefore, the Kp is a sensible parameter in human health risk assessment model. In general, a default value is adopted by environmental agencies and often it is not represent suitably the soil studied and can cause errors in the risk calculation. The objectives of this work are: evaluate the heavy metals soil contamination around the Figueira coal-fired power plant; determine the metal Kp of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil by the ratio between the metal concentration obtained by concentrate HNO3 digestion and the metal concentration obtained by extraction with EDTA 0,05 mol L-1 (KpEDTA) or Ca(NO3)2 0,1 mol L-1 (KpCa(NO3)2); and evaluate the influence of the application of different Kp values in human health risk assessment C-Soil model in risk calculation. The main conclusions of the present study were: As, Cd, Mo, Pb e Zn were the Figueira soil metal contaminants, being As the pollutant of major human health concern; either KpCa(NO3)2 or KpEDTA values could be used for human health risk calculation, in Figueira case, except for Pb, and the KpEDTA values were preferably recommended due to the less dispersion of their values; the KpCSoil metals default values could be applied for the human health risk calculation in Figueira case, in other words, it would not have necessity to determine Kp values of region (KpEDTA and KpCa(NO3)2), except to Pb. (author)

  15. Macrobend optical sensing for pose measurement in soft robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareh, Sina; Noh, Yohan; Li, Min; Ranzani, Tommaso; Liu, Hongbin; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a pose-sensing system for soft robot arms integrating a set of macrobend stretch sensors. The macrobend sensory design in this study consists of optical fibres and is based on the notion that bending an optical fibre modulates the intensity of the light transmitted through the fibre. This sensing method is capable of measuring bending, elongation and compression in soft continuum robots and is also applicable to wearable sensing technologies, e.g. pose sensing in the wrist joint of a human hand. In our arrangement, applied to a cylindrical soft robot arm, the optical fibres for macrobend sensing originate from the base, extend to the tip of the arm, and then loop back to the base. The connectors that link the fibres to the necessary opto-electronics are all placed at the base of the arm, resulting in a simplified overall design. The ability of this custom macrobend stretch sensor to flexibly adapt its configuration allows preserving the inherent softness and compliance of the robot which it is installed on. The macrobend sensing system is immune to electrical noise and magnetic fields, is safe (because no electricity is needed at the sensing site), and is suitable for modular implementation in multi-link soft continuum robotic arms. The measurable light outputs of the proposed stretch sensor vary due to bend-induced light attenuation (macrobend loss), which is a function of the fibre bend radius as well as the number of repeated turns. The experimental study conducted as part of this research revealed that the chosen bend radius has a far greater impact on the measured light intensity values than the number of turns (if greater than five). Taking into account that the bend radius is the only significantly influencing design parameter, the macrobend stretch sensors were developed to create a practical solution to the pose sensing in soft continuum robot arms. Henceforward, the proposed sensing design was benchmarked against an electromagnetic

  16. Pullout strength of cancellous screws in human femoral heads depends on applied insertion torque, trabecular bone microarchitecture and areal bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab-Lazid, Rosidah; Perilli, Egon; Ryan, Melissa K; Costi, John J; Reynolds, Karen J

    2014-12-01

    For cancellous bone screws, the respective roles of the applied insertion torque (TInsert) and of the quality of the host bone (microarchitecture, areal bone mineral density (aBMD)), in contributing to the mechanical holding strength of the bone-screw construct (FPullout), are still unclear. During orthopaedic surgery screws are tightened, typically manually, until adequate compression is attained, depending on surgeons' manual feel. This corresponds to a subjective insertion torque control, and can lead to variable levels of tightening, including screw stripping. The aim of this study, performed on cancellous screws inserted in human femoral heads, was to investigate which, among the measurements of aBMD, bone microarchitecture, and the applied TInsert, has the strongest correlation with FPullout. Forty six femoral heads were obtained, over which microarchitecture and aBMD were evaluated using micro-computed tomography and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Using an automated micro-mechanical test device, a cancellous screw was inserted in the femoral heads at TInsert set to 55% to 99% of the predicted stripping torque beyond screw head contact, after which FPullout was measured. FPullout exhibited strongest correlations with TInsert (R=0.88, pscrews, FPullout depends most strongly on the applied TInsert, followed by microarchitecture and aBMD of the host bone. In trabecular bone, screw tightening increases the holding strength of the screw-bone construct. PMID:25265033

  17. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  18. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  19. Human ecology, land use and biomass burning in DRC, Central Africa, using GIS and remote-sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    2007-05-01

    Four major vegetation types are shown to be the dominant ecosystems over Kayamba County in the Congo (DRC). Covering about 76.6% of the County total area, savanna is the largest land cover type, and the marshlands (grass formations over waterlogged soils) the second (12.9% of the area). This amounts to 89.5% of the County lands being covered with herbaceous vegetations, compared to a very weak proportion of forests cover (10.5%). Open water bodies are rare, covering only 1.1 km2 (0.04%) of the County territory. They consist mostly of small ponds in the vast marshlands along the main rivers. Kayamba is thus shown to be a savanna area, with large expanse of wetlands and scattered patches of various types of tropical rainforests (natural or man-made forests, and sparse woodlands). Rain fed agriculture (slash and burn in the forests, or shifting cultivation in the savanna) is shown to be the main life-sustaining human activity among the Luba of Kayamba County. Its full dependence on the natural elements (especially the rainfall) makes it easily affected by any variability in the climatic regimes. Hunting, fishing and gathering provide a supplement to the daily food intake. This lifestyle compares to that of other tropical rainforest dwellers (e.g. the Kayapo Indian in Brazil or the Karen in Thailand). A strong village dynamics (permanent relocations in the North and the Center, new villages built at important crossways, or splitting followed by relocation along main arteries in the South), more likely in response to the need for a new economy-oriented way of life in the County is also observed, pointing to the need for more investigation in relation with the possible development of this area. Biomass burning in Kayamba is either planned (bushfire hunting) or accidental (uncontrolled fires from field debris burning), occurring exclusively during the peak of the dry season (June-July). The seasonal bushfires regime is analyzed and discussed. It is shown that of the

  20. Unveiling the relationship between complex networks metrics and word senses

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/98/18002

    2013-01-01

    The automatic disambiguation of word senses (i.e., the identification of which of the meanings is used in a given context for a word that has multiple meanings) is essential for such applications as machine translation and information retrieval, and represents a key step for developing the so-called Semantic Web. Humans disambiguate words in a straightforward fashion, but this does not apply to computers. In this paper we address the problem of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) by treating texts as complex networks, and show that word senses can be distinguished upon characterizing the local structure around ambiguous words. Our goal was not to obtain the best possible disambiguation system, but we nevertheless found that in half of the cases our approach outperforms traditional shallow methods. We show that the hierarchical connectivity and clustering of words are usually the most relevant features for WSD. The results reported here shine light on the relationship between semantic and structural parameters of ...

  1. Soft capacitive tactile sensing arrays fabricated via direct filament casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Gao, Yang; Fontecchio, Adam; Visell, Yon

    2016-07-01

    Advances in soft electronics are enabling the development of mechanical sensors that can conform to curved surfaces or soft objects, allowing them to interface seamlessly with the human body. In this paper, we report on intrinsically deformable tactile sensing arrays that achieve a unique combination of high spatial resolution, sensitivity, and mechanical stretchability. The devices are fabricated via a casting process that yields arrays of microfluidic channels in low modulus polymer membranes with thickness as small as one millimeter. Using liquid metal alloy as a conductor, we apply matrix-addressed capacitive sensing in order to resolve spatially distributed strain with millimeter precision over areas of several square centimeters. Due to the use of low-modulus polymers, the devices readily achieve stretchability greater than 500%, making them well suited for novel applications in wearable tactile sensing for biomedical applications.

  2. Plasmonic sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2015-01-01

    increase in the sensitivity, as compared to traditional refractive index sensing. Here, a detection scheme based on controlled dissolution is reported. Monitoring the plasmon band, while the particles are continuously decreased in size, enables the investigation of size-related effects on the same fixed...... the detection that cannot be obtained by traditional refractive index sensing, without the use of bioprobes. A simple modified Drude model is used to account for shifts in the plasmon band position due to electrical charging. Here, a screening parameter is introduced in the expression for the free...

  3. Polarimetric Glucose Sensing Using Brewster Reflection off of Eye Lens: Theoretical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-01-01

    An important task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is to find an appropriate way to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this paper two different approaches are analyzed theoretically and applied to the eye model of Le Grand. First approach is the tangential path of Cote, et al. (G.L. Cot6, M.D. Fox, and R.B. Northrop: Noninvasive Optical Polarimetric Glucose Sensing Using a True Phase Measurement Technique. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 752-756, 1992.) and the second is a new scheme of this paper of applying Brewster reflection off the eye lens.

  4. Role of receptor activity modifying protein 1 in function of the calcium sensing receptor in the human TT thyroid carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya J Desai

    Full Text Available The Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR plays a role in calcium homeostasis by sensing minute changes in serum Ca(2+ and modulating secretion of calciotropic hormones. It has been shown in transfected cells that accessory proteins known as Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs, specifically RAMPs 1 and 3, are required for cell-surface trafficking of the CaSR. These effects have only been demonstrated in transfected cells, so their physiological relevance is unclear. Here we explored CaSR/RAMP interactions in detail, and showed that in thyroid human carcinoma cells, RAMP1 is required for trafficking of the CaSR. Furthermore, we show that normal RAMP1 function is required for intracellular responses to ligands. Specifically, to confirm earlier studies with tagged constructs, and to provide the additional benefit of quantitative stoichiometric analysis, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to show equal abilities of RAMP1 and 3 to chaperone CaSR to the cell surface, though RAMP3 interacted more efficiently with the receptor. Furthermore, a higher fraction of RAMP3 than RAMP1 was observed in CaSR-complexes on the cell-surface, suggesting different ratios of RAMPs to CaSR. In order to determine relevance of these findings in an endogenous expression system we assessed the effect of RAMP1 siRNA knock-down in medullary thyroid carcinoma TT cells, (which express RAMP1, but not RAMP3 constitutively and measured a significant 50% attenuation of signalling in response to CaSR ligands Cinacalcet and neomycin. Blockade of RAMP1 using specific antibodies induced a concentration-dependent reduction in CaSR-mediated signalling in response to Cinacalcet in TT cells, suggesting a novel functional role for RAMP1 in regulation of CaSR signalling in addition to its known role in receptor trafficking. These data provide evidence that RAMPs traffic the CaSR as higher-level oligomers and play a role in CaSR signalling even after cell surface localisation has

  5. Micellar Enhanced Spectrofluorimetric Method for the Determination of Ponatinib in Human Plasma and Urine via Cremophor RH 40 as Sensing Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Bakheit, Ahmed H.; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; AlKhairallah, Amer S.

    2015-01-01

    An impressively simple and precise spectrofluorimetric procedure was established and validated for ponatinib (PTB) quantitation in biological fluids such as human plasma and human urine. This method depends on examining the fluorescence characteristics of PTB in a micellar system of Cremophor RH 40 (Cr RH 40). Cr RH 40 enhanced the intrinsic fluorescence of PTB distinctly in aqueous water. The fluorescence spectra of PTB was recorded at 457 nm following its excitation at 305 nm. Maximum fluorescence intensity was attained by addition of 0.7 mL of Cr RH 40 and one mL of phosphate buffer to PTB aliquots and then dilution with distilled water. There is a linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity of PTB and its concentration over the range 5–120 ngmL−1, with limit of detection and limit of quantification equal to 0.905 ngmL−1 and 2.742 ngmL−1, respectively. The accuracy and the precisions of the proposed method were checked and gave adequate results. The adopted method was applied with a great success for PTB quantitation in different biological matrices (spiked human plasma and urine) giving high recovery values. PMID:26880920

  6. Needs and emerging trends of remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Michael

    2014-06-01

    From the earliest need to be able to see an enemy over a hill to sending semi-autonomous platforms with advanced sensor packages out into space, humans have wanted to know more about what is around them. Issues of distance are being minimized through advances in technology to the point where remote control of a sensor is useful but sensing by way of a non-collocated sensor is better. We are not content to just sense what is physically nearby. However, it is not always practical or possible to move sensors to an area of interest; we must be able to sense at a distance. This requires not only new technologies but new approaches; our need to sense at a distance is ever changing with newer challenges. As a result, remote sensing is not limited to relocating a sensor but is expanded into possibly deducing or inferring from available information. Sensing at a distance is the heart of remote sensing. Much of the sensing technology today is focused on analysis of electromagnetic radiation and sound. While these are important and the most mature areas of sensing, this paper seeks to identify future sensing possibilities by looking beyond light and sound. By drawing a parallel to the five human senses, we can then identify the existing and some of the future possibilities. A further narrowing of the field of sensing causes us to look specifically at robotic sensing. It is here that this paper will be directed.

  7. Cloning and construction of sense and antisense eukaryotic expression vector of human Pin1%正反义人Pin1基因克隆及真核表达载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊文化; 陈安民; 郭风劲

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To clone and construct eukaryotic expressing vectors of sense and antisense human Pin1 (hPin1)genes.Methods: Total RNA was extracted from MG-63 cells,then the hPin1 cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR.The same time the sense and antisense hPin1 genes were formed by binding BamH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ in cis and trans-directions.At the end they were cloned into the eukaryotic expressing vector pIRES2-EGFP in cis and trans directions using DNA recombinant technology.The recombinant vectors were further identified by digestion of BamH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ.Results: The results of sequencing showed that the orientation of the ligations and the reading frame were correct.After digested by BamH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ,two fragments exhibiting 5.3 kb and 0.99 kb were formed in sense and antisense eukaryotic expressing vectors.Electrophoretic results were completely coincident with theoretical calculation.Conclusion: Human Pin1 sense and antisense genes were successfully cloned and eukaryotic expressing vectors were successfully constructed.

  8. SIXTH SENSE TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Kanel, Kedar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explain the development of the technology by describing current hot concept in its field. The thesis describes the trend of development and current phase of the technology. The trend was described by explaining the concept of sixth sense technology and the effort that have been applied for this technology. As the concept is new, finding the suitable material related to the subject matter was the challenge for this project. The objective was completed by condu...

  9. Electrical engineering is an applied mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Yuda Bakti; Sambasri, Susanto; Widodo, Rohani Jahja

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents developments and applications of Electrical Engieering (EE) as an Applied Mathematic (AM). Several characteristics of EE can be linked to human behavior. EE can "think" in the sense that they can replace to some extent, human operation. It is a concept or principle that seems to fundamental in nature and not necessarily peculiar to engineering. EE theory can be discussed from four viewpoints as: an intellectual discipline within science and the philosophy of science, a part of engineering, with industrial applications and Social Systems (SS) of the present and the future. In global communication, developed countries and developing countries should build several attractive and sound symbiosis bridges, to prevent loss of universe balances. EE applications have social impacts not only in developed countries but also in developing countries.

  10. Mechanics of localized slippage in tactile sensing and application to soft sensing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Anh-Van

    2014-01-01

    Localized slippage occurs during any relative sliding of soft contacts, ranging from human fingertips to robotic fingertips. Although this phenomenon is dominant for a very short time prior to gross slippage, localized slippage is a crucial factor for any to-be-developed soft sensing system to respond to slippage before it occurs. The content of this book addresses all aspects of localized slippage, including modeling and simulating it, as well as applying it to the construction of novel sensors with slip tactile perception.

  11. A tactile sensing element based on a hetero-core optical fiber for force measurement and texture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Koyama, Yuya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-01

    Tactile sensing technology can measure a given property of an object through physical contact between a sensing element and the object. Various tactile sensing techniques have been developed for several applications such as intelligent robots, tactile interface, medical support and nursing care support. A desirable tactile sensing element for supporting human daily life can be embedded in the soft material with high sensitivity and accuracy in order to prevent from damaging to human or object physically. This report describes a new tactile sensing element. Hetero-core optical fibers have high sensitivity of macro-bending at local sensor portion and temperature independency, including advantages of optical fiber itself; thin size, light weight, flexible transmission line, and immunity to electro-magnetic interference. The proposed tactile sensing element could detect textures of touched objects through the optical loss caused by the force applied to the sensing element. The characteristics of the sensing element have been evaluated, in which the sensing element has the monotonic and non-linear sensitivity against the normal force ranged from 0 to 5 N with lower accuracy than 0.25 dB. Additionally, texture detection have been successfully demonstrated in which small surface figures of 0.1 mm in height were detected with spatial resolution of 0.4 mm.

  12. Non Sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    ’t make sense but appeared extremely complicated and contradictionary. This article studies the school reform through the filter of discourse analysis. The reform represents an advances version of liberal management and is construed as an alliance between 4 conflicting regimes of practice. Consequently...

  13. Ethnoscience: examining common sense.

    OpenAIRE

    Nuti, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis I trace ideas about naturalistic inquiry into commonsense understanding through Chomsky's work. I argue that the resulting picture significantly illuminates both the nature of `common sense' and existing interdisciplinary debates surrounding it. Specifically, I claim that progress in investigating the nature of humans' commonsense understanding of psychology (folk psychology) has been hampered by the same kind of methodological dualism which for so long haunted s...

  14. Research of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing Technique Applied to Monitor Landslip and Barrier Lake Hazard in Chengkou County of Chongqing%低空无人飞行器遥感技术在重庆城口滑坡堰塞湖灾害监测中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马泽忠; 王福海; 刘智华; 刘学

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing technique was applied to monitor landslip geological hazard in Chengkou county of Chongqing by analyzing methods of low-altitude flying UAV remote sensing technique in complex terrain and weather conditions to access and process digital image data,and applications of low-altitude flying UAV remote sensing technique to landslip geological hazard assessment and hazard loss evaluation was explored. The distinct advantage of accomplishing remote sensing data acquirement, processing, 3-dimension modeling and application analysis was proved in the study. The conclusion could be derived that the accurate and excellent accounts basis information and data of statistical analysis could be provided to emergency rescues of geological hazard, disaster relief work, assessment of natural disaster and reconstruction by applying UAV remote sensing digital ortho-photo map and digital elevation model, and using low-altitude flying UAV remote sensing technique can be effective for the traditional remote sensing technology in geological hazard monitoring.%应用无人飞行器低空遥感技术对重庆城口滑坡地质灾害进行监测,分析了无人飞行器低空遥感技术在复杂地形及气象条件下数据获取与数据处理的技术流程和方法,并对无人飞行器低空遥感技术在滑坡地质灾害灾情评估和灾损评价中的应用上进行了探索.结果表明,无人飞行器低空遥感技术在困难地区完成遥感数据的获取与处理、三维建模和应用分析具有明显优势;无人飞行器低空遥感技术生成的数字正射影像图和数字高程模型数据可以为地质灾害发生后的抢险救灾、灾情评估和灾后重建提供准确、直观、翔实的基础数据和统计分析数据;采用无人飞行器低空遥感进行地质灾害监测可以有效弥补传统遥感技术的不足,为地质灾害遥感监测提供技术保障.

  15. Calcium-sensing receptor and aquaporin 2 interplay in hypercalciuria-associated renal concentrating defect in humans. An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Procino

    Full Text Available One mechanism proposed for reducing the risk of calcium renal stones is activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR on the apical membranes of collecting duct principal cells by high luminal calcium. This would reduce the abundance of aquaporin-2 (AQP2 and in turn the rate of water reabsorption. While evidence in cells and in hypercalciuric animal models supports this hypothesis, the relevance of the interplay between the CaR and AQP2 in humans is not clear. This paper reports for the first time a detailed correlation between urinary AQP2 excretion under acute vasopressin action (DDAVP treatment in hypercalciuric subjects and in parallel analyzes AQP2-CaR crosstalk in a mouse collecting duct cell line (MCD4 expressing endogenous and functional CaR. In normocalciurics, DDAVP administration resulted in a significant increase in AQP2 excretion paralleled by an increase in urinary osmolality indicating a physiological response to DDAVP. In contrast, in hypercalciurics, baseline AQP2 excretion was high and did not significantly increase after DDAVP. Moreover DDAVP treatment was accompanied by a less pronounced increase in urinary osmolality. These data indicate reduced urinary concentrating ability in response to vasopressin in hypercalciurics. Consistent with these results, biotinylation experiments in MCD4 cells revealed that membrane AQP2 expression in unstimulated cells exposed to CaR agonists was higher than in control cells and did not increase significantly in response to short term exposure to forskolin (FK. Interestingly, we found that CaR activation by specific agonists reduced the increase in cAMP and prevented any reduction in Rho activity in response to FK, two crucial pathways for AQP2 translocation. These data support the hypothesis that CaR-AQP2 interplay represents an internal renal defense to mitigate the effects of hypercalciuria on the risk of calcium precipitation during antidiuresis. This mechanism and possibly reduced

  16. Number Sense in Human Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Goddard, Sydney

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments used a preferential looking method to investigate 6-month-old infants' capacity to represent numerosity in visual-spatial displays. Building on previous findings that such infants discriminate between arrays of eight versus 16 discs, but not eight versus 12 discs (Xu & Spelke, 2000), Experiments 1 and 2 investigated whether…

  17. Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco de Haan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as ‘sensor technology’ measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research.

  18. Coral reef remote sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchler, D.A.; Jupp, D.L.B.; Claasen, D.B.; Bour, William

    1986-01-01

    Great Barrier Reef work is the major example used to describe how remote sensing technology is being applied in coral reef studies. Such studies include reef geography, reef form, surface cover, vegetation, micro aspects and oceanography. New generation sensors optimized for oceanographic applications, means that coral reef and oceanic studies will adopt more precise and more extensive uses of remote sensing technology. (Résumé d'auteur)

  19. Miniaturized RF Remote Sensing Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, James; McEachron, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, miniaturization of RF remote sensing instruments has not been cost effective. Aperture size has governed launch vehicle selection and spacecraft mass has been well within margins. However, as technologies improve for miniature spacecraft, multiple spacecraft can fit within small launch vehicle shrouds. Down-sizing payloads is now advantageous. E-Systems is applying state-of the- art technologies to significantly reduce the size and weight of RF remote sensing payload electroni...

  20. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  1. Water management and remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Assem, S. van den; W. G. M. Bastiaanssen; Claassen, T.H.L.; R. A. Feddes; M. Menenti; Minderhoud, P.; Nieuwenhuis, G.J.A.; Van Nieuwkoop, J; Stokkom, H.T.C. van; Stokman, N.G.M.; Thunnissen, H.A.M.; Visser, T.N.M.

    1990-01-01

    In modern water management detailed information is required on processes that occur and on the state of water systems, including the way they are influenced by human activities. Remote sensing can contribute significantly to these information. For example, areal patterns of water quality parameters such as suspended solids and algae, and physical and hydrological conditions of the soil can be directly observed. Moreover, with successive synoptical images, remote sensing provides the opportuni...

  2. Kite Aerial Photography as a Tool for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.

    2010-01-01

    As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…

  3. Applied Literature for Healing,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Marie Anderson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative research study interviews conducted with elite participants serve to reveal the underlying elements that unite the richly diverse emerging field of Applied Literature. The basic interpretative qualitative method included a thematic analysis of data from the interviews yielding numerous common elements that were then distilled into key themes that elucidated the beneficial effects of engaging consciously with literature. These themes included developing a stronger sense of self in balance with an increasing connection with community; providing a safe container to engage challenging and potentially overwhelming issues from a stance of empowered action; and fostering a healing space for creativity. The findings provide grounds for uniting the work being done in a range of helping professions into a cohesive field of Applied Literature, which offers effective tools for healing, transformation and empowerment.Keywords: Applied Literature, Bibliotherapy, Poetry Therapy, Arts in Corrections, Arts in Medicine

  4. MEMS Sensor Technologies for Human Centred Applications in Healthcare, Physical Activities, Safety and Environmental Sensing: A Review on Research Activities in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Gastone Ciuti; Leonardo Ricotti; Arianna Menciassi; Paolo Dario

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades the increased level of public awareness concerning healthcare, physical activities, safety and environmental sensing has created an emerging need for smart sensor technologies and monitoring devices able to sense, classify, and provide feedbacks to users’ health status and physical activities, as well as to evaluate environmental and safety conditions in a pervasive, accurate and reliable fashion. Monitoring and precisely quantifying users’ physical activity with ine...

  5. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  6. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine

  7. Sensing at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    properties are an important indicator for sensing. In search of a better understanding of these systems Zhang et al from Southern Illinois University inspect the role of Joule heating, exothermal reactions and heat dissipation in gas sensing using nanowires [7]. The mechanisms behind electrical chemical sensors are also further scrutinized in a kinetics study by Joan Ramon Morante from the University of Barcelona in Spain. 'In spite of the growing commercial success many basic issues remain still open and under discussion limiting the broad use of this technology,' he explains. He discusses surface chemical reaction kinetics and the experimental results for different representative gas molecules to gain an insight into the chemical to electrical transduction mechanisms taking place [8]. Perhaps one of the most persistent targets in sensing research is increasing the sensitivity. Gauging environmental health issues around the commercial use of nanomaterials places high demands on low-level detection and spurred a collaboration of researchers in the UK, Croatia and Canada to look into the use of particle-impact voltammetry for detecting nanoparticles in environmental media [9]. At the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in the US, researchers have applied wave transform analysis techniques to the oscillations of an atomic force microscopy cantilever and tailored a time-frequency-domain filter to identify the region of highest vibrational energy [10]. The approach allows them to improve the signal to noise ratio by a factor 32 on current high-performance devices. In addition, researchers in Korea report how doping NiO nanofibres can improve the sensitivity to a number of gases, including ethanol, where the response was enhanced by as much as a factor of 217.86 [11]. Biomedicine is one of the largest industries for the application of nanotechnology in sensing. Demonstrating the state of the art, researchers in China use silicon wafers decorated with gold nanoparticles for

  8. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis - The study on human health and environment by neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Yeon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sung Jun; Lee, Sang Sun; Jeon, Ki Hong; Na, Kyung Won; Kang, Sang Hun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    With the development of the precise quantitative analytical method for the analysis of trace elements in the various biological samples such as hair and food, evaluation in view of health and environment to the trace elements in various sources which can be introduced inside human body was done. The trace elemental distribution in Korean total diet and representative food stuff was identified first. With the project the elemental distributions in supplemental healthy food and Korean and Chinese origin oriental medicine were identified. The amount of trace elements ingested with the hair analysis of oriental medicine takers were also estimated. The amounts of trace elements inhaled with the analysis of foundry air, blood and hair of foundry workers were also estimated. The basic estimation method in view of health and environment with the neutron activation analysis of biological samples such as foods and hair was established with the result. Nationwide usage system of the NAA facility in Hanaro in many different and important areas of biological area can be initiated with the results. The output of the project can support public heath, environment, and medical research area. The results can be applied for the process of micronutrients enhanced health food production and for the health safety and health status enhancement with the additional necessary data expansion and the development of various evaluation technique. 19 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  9. Determination of the effect of lipophilicity on the in vitro permeability and tissue reservoir characteristics of topically applied solutes in human skin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sheree E; Magnusson, Beatrice M; Winckle, Gareth; Anissimov, Yuri; Roberts, Michael S

    2003-05-01

    In order to establish the relationship between solute lipophilicity and skin penetration (including flux and concentration behavior), we examined the in vitro penetration and membrane concentration of a series of homologous alcohols (C2-C10) applied topically in aqueous solutions to human epidermal, full-thickness, and dermal membranes. The partitioning/distribution of each alcohol between the donor solution, stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermis, and receptor phase compartments was determined during the penetration process and separately to isolated samples of each tissue type. Maximum flux and permeability coefficients are compared for each membrane and estimates of alcohol diffusivity are made based on flux/concentration data and also the related tissue resistance (the reciprocal of permeability coefficient) for each membrane type. The permeability coefficient increased with increasing lipophilicity to alcohol C8 (octanol) with no further increase for C10 (decanol). Log vehicle:stratum corneum partition coefficients were related to logP, and the concentration of alcohols in each of the tissue layers appeared to increase with lipophilicity. No difference was measured in the diffusivity of smaller more polar alcohols in the three membranes; however, the larger more lipophilic solutes showed slower diffusivity values. The study showed that the dermis may be a much more lipophilic environment than originally believed and that distribution of smaller nonionized solutes into local tissues below a site of topical application may be estimated based on knowledge of their lipophilicity alone. PMID:12713577

  10. Applied Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Spencer G.

    Stratigraphy is a cornerstone of the Earth sciences. The study of layered rocks, especially their age determination and correlation, which are integral parts of stratigraphy, are key to fields as diverse as geoarchaeology and tectonics. In the Anglophile history of geology, in the early 1800s, the untutored English surveyor William Smith was the first practical stratigrapher, constructing a geological map of England based on his own applied stratigraphy. Smith has, thus, been seen as the first “industrial stratigrapher,” and practical applications of stratigraphy have since been essential to most of the extractive industries from mining to petroleum. Indeed, gasoline is in your automobile because of a tremendous use of applied stratigraphy in oil exploration, especially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Applied stratigraphy, thus, is a subject of broad interest to Earth scientists.

  11. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  12. The experience of agency in human-computer interactions: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Limerick; Moore, James W

    2014-01-01

    The sense of agency is the experience of controlling both one’s body and the external environment. Although the sense of agency has been studied extensively, there is a paucity of studies in applied ‘real-life’ situations. One applied domain that seems highly relevant is human-computer-interaction (HCI), as an increasing number of our everyday agentive interactions involve technology. Indeed, HCI has long recognized the feeling of control as a key factor in how people experience interactions ...

  13. The experience of agency in human-computer interactions: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Limerick, Hannah; Coyle, David; Moore, James W

    2014-01-01

    The sense of agency is the experience of controlling both one's body and the external environment. Although the sense of agency has been studied extensively, there is a paucity of studies in applied "real-life" situations. One applied domain that seems highly relevant is human-computer-interaction (HCI), as an increasing number of our everyday agentive interactions involve technology. Indeed, HCI has long recognized the feeling of control as a key factor in how people experience interactions ...

  14. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the text smaller. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HOME | CONTACT US | JOBS AT NIDDK | RSS ... a Resource About HealthSense Diabetes HealthSense Title/Keywords: Go Diabetes ...

  15. Applied mineralogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.C.; Hausen, D.M.; Hagni, R.D. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    A conference on applied mineralogy was held and figures were presented under the following headings: methodology (including image analysis); ore genesis; exploration; beneficiations (including precious metals); process mineralogy - low and high temperatures; and medical science applications. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  16. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. PMID:27155351

  17. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  18. Infrastructure sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  19. Freedom, choice, and the sense of agency

    OpenAIRE

    Barlas, Zeynep; Obhi, Sukhvinder S.

    2013-01-01

    The sense of agency is an intriguing aspect of human consciousness and is commonly defined as the sense that one is the author of their own actions and their consequences. In the current study, we varied the number of action alternatives (one, three, seven) that participants could select from and determined the effects on intentional binding which is believed to index the low-level sense of agency. Participants made self-paced button presses while viewing a conventional Libet clock and report...

  20. Terahertz Sensing of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, G.; Ghosh, S.; Kim, S.; Lv, P.-C.; Buma, T.; Weng, B.; Barner, K.; Kolodzey, J.

    2007-06-01

    Biomolecules such as DNA and proteins exhibit a wealth of modes in the Terahertz (THz) range from the rotational, vibrational and stretching modes of biomolecules. Many materials such as drywall that are opaque to human eyes are transparent to THz. Therefore, it can be used as a powerful tool for biomolecular sensing, biomedical analysis and through-the-wall imaging. Experiments were carried out to study the absorption of various materials including DNA and see-through imaging of drywall using FTIR spectrometer and Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) system.

  1. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  2. Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band, together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields.

  3. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed

  4. Remote sensing in soil science.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides coverage of remote sensing techniques and their application in soil science. A clear, step-by-step approach to the various aspects ensures that the reader will gain a good grasp of the subject so that he can apply the techniques to his own field of study. The book opens with an in

  5. Noise and resolution in IO interferometric sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Lambeck, P.V.; Koster, T.M.; Uranus, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a general theory for sensing devices, relating noise and device parameters to resolution of modal index changes. The theory is applied to optimise the length of a few integrated optics sensing devices, being a Mac-Zehnder interferometers and two Fabry-Perot implementations. The re

  6. Sensing Mine, Yours, Theirs and Ours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb

    2015-01-01

    To effectively leverage human sensorimotor abilities, this paper urges going beyond the traditional five senses. When users share physical space or location with other people, a crucial neglected modality is argued to be a sense of ownership. If, how, and what someone can see, touch, hear, feel...

  7. Sensors for the Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    , engaging, and enjoyable. Conceptualizing, designing and realizing alternative digital media entertainment situations in stage performance, interactive installations and exhibitions at leading Museums for Modern Art, National and International major events, contributed to development of a sensor......-based system conceived as a platform to investigate meaning making having societal impact beyond art. The system involves arrays of selectable sensor profiles mixed and matched according to requirements. Sensing of human input can be through worn (biosignal e.g. EEG, ECG, EMG, GSR), held, and/or non......-worn sensors (volumetric, linear and planar interface profiles). Mapping of sourced human data is to a variety of digital content including art-based (music making, digital painting, lighting effects), video games, Virtual Reality and robotic devices. System adaptability promotes participant profile matching e...

  8. Graphical analysis of reversible radioligand binding from time-activity measurements applied to [N-11C-methyl]-(-)-cocaine PET studies in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A graphical method of analysis applicable to ligands that bind reversibly to receptors or enzymes requiring the simultaneous measurement of plasma and tissue radioactivities for multiple times after the injection of a radiolabeled tracer is presented. It is shown that there is a time t after which a plot of integral of t0ROI(t')dt'/ROI(t) versus integral of t0Cp(t')dt'/ROI(t) (where ROI and Cp are functions of time describing the variation of tissue radioactivity and plasma radioactivity, respectively) is linear with a slope that corresponds to the steady-state space of the ligand plus the plasma volume,.Vp. For a two-compartment model, the slope is given by lambda + Vp, where lambda is the partition coefficient and the intercept is -1/[kappa 2(1 + Vp/lambda)]. For a three-compartment model, the slope is lambda(1 + Bmax/Kd) + Vp and the intercept is -(1 + Bmax/Kd)/k2 + [koff(1 + Kd/Bmax)]-1 [1 + Vp/lambda(1 + Bmax/Kd)]-1 (where Bmax represents the concentration of ligand binding sites and Kd the equilibrium dissociation constant of the ligand-binding site complex, koff (k4) the ligand-binding site dissociation constant, and k2 is the transfer constant from tissue to plasma). This graphical method provides the ratio Bmax/Kd from the slope for comparison with in vitro measures of the same parameter. It also provides an easy, rapid method for comparison of the reproducibility of repeated measures in a single subject, for longitudinal or drug intervention protocols, or for comparing experimental results between subjects. Although the linearity of this plot holds when ROI/Cp is constant, it can be shown that, for many systems, linearity is effectively reached some time before this. This analysis has been applied to data from [N-methyl-11C]-(-)-cocaine studies in normal human volunteers and the results are compared to the standard nonlinear least-squares analysis

  9. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  10. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  11. What is word sense disambiguation good for?

    CERN Document Server

    Kilgarriff, A

    1997-01-01

    Word sense disambiguation has developed as a sub-area of natural language processing, as if, like parsing, it was a well-defined task which was a pre-requisite to a wide range of language-understanding applications. First, I review earlier work which shows that a set of senses for a word is only ever defined relative to a particular human purpose, and that a view of word senses as part of the linguistic furniture lacks theoretical underpinnings. Then, I investigate whether and how word sense ambiguity is in fact a problem for different varieties of NLP application.

  12. What is word sense disambiguation good for?

    OpenAIRE

    Kilgarriff, Adam

    1997-01-01

    Word sense disambiguation has developed as a sub-area of natural language processing, as if, like parsing, it was a well-defined task which was a pre-requisite to a wide range of language-understanding applications. First, I review earlier work which shows that a set of senses for a word is only ever defined relative to a particular human purpose, and that a view of word senses as part of the linguistic furniture lacks theoretical underpinnings. Then, I investigate whether and how word sense ...

  13. Interactive Display under the Influence of Tactile Sense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ge-yang; YAO Jing

    2010-01-01

    Humans have a variety of sense in dynamic environment,and tactile sensation is an important way apperceiving the world.It enhances the process of experience and the interaction between humans and environment.However,vision as a dominant sense impairs the variety of sense.In the display design,current designers often put more emphasi on structure,form,color,such other visual elements,consequently neglect the importance of the tactile sensation,which weakens real experience of humans.

  14. Phosphate sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Human phosphate homeostasis is regulated at the level of intestinal absorption of phosphate from the diet, release of phosphate through bone resorption, and renal phosphate excretion and involves the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2-D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) to maintain circulating phosphate levels within a narrow normal range, which is essential for numerous cellular functions, for the growth of tissues and for bone mineralization. ...

  15. Study on optical measurement conditions for noninvasive blood glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kexin; Chen, Wenliang; Jiang, Jingying; Qiu, Qingjun

    2004-05-01

    Utilizing Near-infrared Spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose concentration sensing has been a focusing topic in biomedical optics applications. In this paper study on measuring conditions of spectroscopy on human body is carried out and a series of experiments on glucose concentration sensing are conducted. First, Monte Carlo method is applied to simulate and calculate photons" penetration depth within skin tissues at 1600 nm. The simulation results indicate that applying our designed optical probe, the detected photons can penetrate epidermis of the palm and meet the glucose sensing requirements within the dermis. Second, we analyze the influence of the measured position variations and the contact pressure between the optical fiber probe and the measured position on the measured spectrum during spectroscopic measurement of a human body. And, a measurement conditions reproduction system is introduced to enhance the measurement repeatability. Furthermore, through a series of transmittance experiments on glucose aqueous solutions sensing from simple to complex we found that though some absorption variation information of glucose can be obtained from measurements using NIR spectroscopy, while under the same measuring conditions and with the same modeling method, choices toward measured components reduce when complication degree of components increases, and this causes a decreased prediction accuracy. Finally, OGTT experiments were performed, and a PLS (Partial Least Square) mathematical model for a single experiment was built. We can easily get a prediction expressed as RMSEP (Root Mean Square Error of Prediction) with a value of 0.5-0.8mmol/dl. But the model"s extended application and reliability need more investigation.

  16. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  17. People-centric sensing in assistive healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    follows a more passive approach and has focused on collecting and processing data using a static-topology and an application-aware infrastructure. However, with the technological advances in sensing, computation, storage, and communications, a new era is about to emerge changing the traditional view of...... sensor-based assistive environments where people are passive data consumers, with one where people carry mobile sensing elements involving large volumes of data related to everyday human activities. This evolution will be driven by people-centric sensing and will turn mobile phones into global mobile...... sensing devices enabling thousands new personal, social, and public sensing applications. In this paper, we discuss our vision for people-centric sensing in assistive healthcare environments and study the security challenges it brings. This highly dynamic and mobile setting presents new challenges for...

  18. Context Based Word Sense Extraction in Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeetsingh S.Suryawanshi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the era of modern e-document technology, everyone using computerized document for their purpose. Due to huge amount of text document available in the form of pdf, doc, txt, html, and xml user may confuse about reading sense of these entire documents, if same word interpret different sense. Word sense has always been an important problem in information retrieval and extraction, as well as, text mining, because machines don’t have that much intelligence as compared to human to sense word in particular context. User want to determine which sense of a word is used in a given context. Word is usage-based, and part of it can be created automatically from an electronic dictionary. This paper describes word sense as expressed by its WordNet synsets, arranged according to their relevance and their context are expressed by means of word association

  19. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  20. An improved method for producing radiation hybrids applied to human chromosome 19. Technical progress report, March 1, 1991--February 28, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L.

    1992-04-01

    At the initiation of the grant we had just produced radiation hybrids from a monochromosomal microcell hybrid containing human chromosome 19 as its only human component. Radiation hybrids were produced using doses of radiation ranging from 1000--8000 rads. Lethally irradiated cells were then fused to hamster recipients (CHTG49) and selected for growth in histidinol. Approximately 240 clones were isolated and 75 clones were expanded for the isolation of DNA. This report describes in situ hybridization studies and the introduction of markers into human chromosome 19.

  1. Role of remote sensing in the evaluation of anthropogenic activity and its effect on environment and human econonomic development: an Indian example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Venkateswarlu

    In the scenario of a exponential growth of world population, changes in land use and evaluating the domestication and rearing of aquatic animals and plants; Remote Sensing has the role of an emerging discipline and provides essential tools of trade to the environmental scientist. Ecologically sustainable development of the aqua resources requires that management and use as compatible with the attributes of exploited resources. Aquaculture plays a crucial role in the development of fishing industry and contributes in rural development, increased foreign reserves besides replenishment of important aquatic species. The synoptivity, repititivity and multi spectral vision are the significant edges of Remote Sensing over conventional practices in the application domain. The present study aimed at mapping and monitoring of damages to the ecologically sensitive land farms like mangroves, sand deserts, wetlands, marshy areas etc., due to the development of aquaculture ponds and to analyze and understand the impact of pond aquaculture on water course, ground water quality, drinking water source etc. Indian Remote Sensing satellite:1D - Liss-III + PAN sensors merged data of two seasons is used to carry out change detection studies of mangroves, lakes/lagoons and coastal wetlands. To generate microscopic information of Machilipatnam and to monitor the water circulation in creeks the very high resolution IKONOS Panchromatic data is used. Geometrically rectified digital base map covering the study area is prepared on 1:63,630 scale. Satellite data of Land Sat TM, IRS Liss - II, Liss - III and PAN were used. Satellite data geometrically rectified with reference to base map using standard image-to-image tie up procedure besides necessary enhancement techniques for better interpretation. The economic impact of aquaculture is critically analyzed considering certain statistics and the resultant affects are presented. Tropical brackish water and saltwater aquaculture have contributed

  2. Applying an agent-based model of agricultural terraces coupled with a landscape evolution model to explore the impact of human decision-making on terraced terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubius, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural terraces impact landscape evolution as a result of long-term human-landscape interactions, including decisions regarding terrace maintenance and abandonment. Modeling simulations are often employed to examine the sensitivity of landscapes to various factors, such as rainfall and land cover. Landscape evolution models, erosion models, and hydrological models have all previously been used to simulate the impact of agricultural terrace construction on terrain evolution, soil erosion, and hydrological connectivity. Human choices regarding individual terraces have not been included in these models to this point, despite recent recognition that maintenance and abandonment decisions alter transport and storage patterns of soil and water in terraced terrain. An agent-based model of human decisions related to agricultural terraces is implemented based on a conceptual model of agricultural terrace life cycle stages created from a literature review of terracing impacts. The agricultural terracing agent-based model is then coupled with a landscape evolution model to explore the role of human decisions in the evolution of terraced landscapes. To fully explore this type of co-evolved landscape, human decision-making and its feedbacks must be included in landscape evolution models. Project results may also have implications for management of terraced terrain based on how human choices in these environments affect soil loss and land degradation.

  3. TACTILE SENSING FOR OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    2009-01-01

    The artificial sense of touch is a research area that can be considered still in demand, compared with the human dexterity of grasping a wide variety of shapes and sizes, perform complex tasks, and switch between grasps in response to changing task requirements. For handling unknown objects in...... unstructured environments, tactile sensing can provide more than valuable to complementary vision information about mechanical properties such as recognition and characterization, force, pressure, torque, compliance, friction, and mass as well as object shape, texture, position and pose. In this paper, we...... described the working principles of a few types of tactile sensing cells, focusing on the piezoresistive materials. Starting from a set of requirements for developing a high resolution flexible array sensor we have investigated if CSA pressure sensitive conductive rubber could be a proper candidate and can...

  4. Structured IR illumination for relative depth sensing in virtual interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Raulot, Victorien; Grossman, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Depth mapping or depth sensing has become a popular field, applied not only to automotive sensing for collision avoidance (radar) but also to gesture sensing for gaming and virtual interfaces (optical). Popular gesture sensing devices such as the Kinect from Microsoft's Xbox gaming device produce a full absolute depth map, which is in most cases not adapted to the task on hand (relative gesture sensing). We propose in this paper a new gesture sensing technique through structured IR illumination to provide a relative depth mapping rather than an absolute one, and this reducing the requirements on computing power and therefore enabling this technology for wearable computing such as see through display.

  5. Bayesian Word Sense Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, Samuel; Lapata, Mirella

    2009-01-01

    Sense induction seeks to automatically identify word senses directly from a corpus. A key assumption underlying previous work is that the context surrounding an ambiguous word is indicative of its meaning. Sense induction is thus typically viewed as an unsupervised clustering problem where the aim is to partition a word’s contexts into different classes, each representing a word sense. Our work places sense induction in a Bayesian context by modeling the contexts of the ambiguous word as samp...

  6. COMMON SENSE BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  7. Visual sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the spread of arc welding robots is conspicuous, and as the sensors for the robots, wire touch sensor and arc sensor have been put to practical use. However, when the welding of high quality is required, the objects which are welded complately automatically in unmanned state are limited. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has advanced the research on unmanned welding, and in particular, on the visual sensor which can detect plural objects during welding. In this report, the outline of visual sensors, the example of their development in Mitsubishi, and the limit of visual sensing are mentioned. As the light sensors for arc welding, there are point sensor, linear sensor and area sensor, and the linear and area sensors are called visual sensor. The visual sensors have been utilized for the profile control of welding lines, the adaptive control of welding conditions, the profile control and adaptive control of welding lines and the monitoring of welding. As the examples of applying visual sensors, the applications to GMA multi-layer welding, GMA narrow groove welding and orbital TIG welding are reported. As nthe limit of visual sensors, in the linear sensor, the grasp of melting phenomena, the effect of surface roughness and color, and the problem of sensing position, and in the area sensor, the problem of the blooming and smear phenomena of cameras are discussed. (K.I.)

  8. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  9. Sensing via optical interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Bailey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological sensing are problems of tremendous contemporary technological importance in multiple regulatory and human health contexts, including environmental monitoring, water quality assurance, workplace air quality assessment, food quality control, many aspects of biodiagnostics, and, of course, homeland security. Frequently, what is needed, or at least wanted, are sensors that are simultaneously cheap, fast, reliable, selective, sensitive, robust, and easy to use. Unfortunately, these are often conflicting requirements. Over the past few years, however, a number of promising ideas based on optical interference effects have emerged. Each is based to some extent on advances in the design and fabrication of functional materials. Generally, the advances are of two kinds: chemo- and bio-selective recognition and binding, and efficient methods for micropatterning or microstructuring.

  10. The Effect of Gradations in Mineral Content, Matrix Alignment, and Applied Strain on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Morphology within Collagen Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzen, Laura C; Thorpe, Stephen D; Screen, Hazel R C; Harley, Brendan A C

    2016-07-01

    The tendon-bone junction is a unique, mechanically dynamic, structurally graded anatomical zone, which transmits tensile loads between tendon and bone. Current surgical repair techniques rely on mechanical fixation and can result in high re-failure rates. A new class of collagen biomaterial that contains discrete mineralized and structurally aligned regions linked by a continuous interface to mimic the graded osteotendinous insertion has been recently described. Here the combined influence of graded biomaterial environment and increasing levels of applied strain (0%-20%) on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) orientation and alignment have been reported. In osteotendinous scaffolds, which contain opposing gradients of mineral content and structural alignment characteristic of the native osteotendinous interface, MSC nuclear, and actin alignment is initially dictated by the local pore architecture, while applied tensile strain enhances cell alignment in the direction of strain. Comparatively, in layered scaffolds that do not contain any structural alignment cues, MSCs are randomly oriented in the unstrained condition, then become oriented in a direction perpendicular to applied strain. These findings provide an initial understanding of how scaffold architecture can provide significant, potentially competitive, feedback influencing MSC orientation under applied strain, and form the basis for future tissue engineering efforts to regenerate the osteotendinous enthesis. PMID:27245787

  11. Topically Applied Connective Tissue Growth Factor/CCN2 Improves Diabetic Preclinical Cutaneous Wound Healing: Potential Role for CTGF in Human Diabetic Foot Ulcer Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Henshaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Hypothesis. Topical application of CTGF/CCN2 to rodent diabetic and control wounds was examined. In parallel research, correlation of CTGF wound fluid levels with healing rate in human diabetic foot ulcers was undertaken. Methods. Full thickness cutaneous wounds in diabetic and nondiabetic control rats were treated topically with 1 μg rhCTGF or vehicle alone, on 2 consecutive days. Wound healing rate was observed on day 14 and wound sites were examined for breaking strength and granulation tissue. In the human study across 32 subjects, serial CTGF regulation was analyzed longitudinally in postdebridement diabetic wound fluid. Results. CTGF treated diabetic wounds had an accelerated closure rate compared with vehicle treated diabetic wounds. Healed skin withstood more strain before breaking in CTGF treated rat wounds. Granulation tissue from CTGF treatment in diabetic wounds showed collagen IV accumulation compared with nondiabetic animals. Wound α-smooth muscle actin was increased in CTGF treated diabetic wounds compared with untreated diabetic wounds, as was macrophage infiltration. Endogenous wound fluid CTGF protein rate of increase in human diabetic foot ulcers correlated positively with foot ulcer healing rate (r=0.406; P<0.001. Conclusions/Interpretation. These data collectively increasingly substantiate a functional role for CTGF in human diabetic foot ulcers.

  12. Childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Bonnie M; Williams, Reg Arthur; Oe, Hiroaki

    2002-07-01

    Sense of belonging has been proposed to be a basic human need, and deficits in sense of belonging have been linked to problems in social and psychological functioning. Yet, there is little evidence about what early life experiences contribute to sense of belonging. The purpose of this study was to examine potential childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging. The sample consisted of 362 community college students ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, with a mean age of 26 years. Measures included the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Deviance Instrument. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate childhood antecedents with adult sense of belonging. The final reduced model included 12 variables, which accounted for 25% of the variance in sense of belonging. Significant positive antecedents with a relationship with sense of belonging were perceived caring by both mother and father while growing up, participation in high school athletic activity, and parental divorce. Significant negative variables with a relationship with sense of belonging included perceived overprotection of father, high school pregnancy, family financial problems while growing up, incest, and homosexuality. Knowledge of these factors should influence interventions with families regarding child-rearing and parenting practices, mediating the effects of crises during childhood such as divorce and teen pregnancy, and the interpersonal growth needs of teenagers. PMID:12205719

  13. Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  14. Indirect remote sensing of a cryptic forest understorey invasive species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, C; De Leeuw, J; van Andel, J; Skidmore, AK; Lekhak, HD; van Duren, IC; Norbu, N

    2006-01-01

    Remote sensing has successfully been applied to map the distribution of canopy dominating invasive species. Many invaders however, do not dominate the canopy, and remote sensing has so far not been applied to map such species. In this study, an indirect method was used to map the seed production of

  15. New method of classifying human errors at nuclear power plants and the analysis results of applying this method to maintenance errors at domestic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since many of the adverse events that have occurred in nuclear power plants in Japan and abroad have been related to maintenance or operation, it is necessary to plan preventive measures based on detailed analyses of human errors made by maintenance workers or operators. Therefore, before planning preventive measures, we developed a new method of analyzing human errors. Since each human error is an unsafe action caused by some misjudgement made by a person, we decided to classify them into six categories according to the stage in the judgment process in which the error was made. By further classifying each error into either an omission-type or commission-type, we produced 12 categories of errors. Then, we divided them into the two categories of basic error tendencies and individual error tendencies, and categorized background factors into four categories: imperfect planning; imperfect facilities or tools; imperfect environment; and imperfect instructions or communication. We thus defined the factors in each category to make it easy to identify factors that caused the error. Then using this method, we studied the characteristics of human errors that involved maintenance workers and planners since many maintenance errors have occurred. Among the human errors made by workers (worker errors) during the implementation stage, the following three types were prevalent with approximately 80%: commission-type 'projection errors', omission-type comprehension errors' and commission type 'action errors'. The most common among the individual factors of worker errors was 'repetition or habit' (schema), based on the assumption of a typical situation, and the half number of the 'repetition or habit' cases (schema) were not influenced by any background factors. The most common background factor that contributed to the individual factor was 'imperfect work environment', followed by 'insufficient knowledge'. Approximately 80% of the individual factors were 'repetition or habit' or

  16. Development of Temperature Sensing Fabric

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Muhammad Dawood

    2012-01-01

    Human body temperature is an important indicator of physical performance and condition in terms of comfort, heat or cold stress. The aim of this research was to develop Temperature Sensing Fabric (TSF) for continuous temperature measurement in healthcare applications. The study covers the development and manufacture of TSF by embedding fine metallic wire into the structure of textile material using a commercial computerised knitting machine. The operational principle of TSF is based on the in...

  17. Applying Human Resource Tools to Promote the Effectiveness Management of Project-Based Organizations : A Case Study of Development Agency of Valkeakoski Region, Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shiran

    2010-01-01

    The mainly idea of the thesis is to investigate how does human resource and leadership plays a role in a project employment organization. Firstly, objective is to describe the field of a project organization. Secondly, the thesis aims to evaluate the life-cycle employment of the project manager and the team. Furthermore, a questionnaire will be conducted to analyze current situation of the project manager and team within the company. Finally, a strategy on how to improve the development of Va...

  18. The Page You Are Attempting to Access Has Been Blocked in Accordance with National Laws: Applying a Corporate Responsibility Framework to Human Rights Issues Facing Internet Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Emily C. Miletello

    2011-01-01

    According to the OpenNet Intiative, at least 40 countries engage in some degree of Internet censorship. 1 While censorship may be considered justifiable for various reasons—including national security, blocking child pornography, or protecting intellectual property—some authoritative states, most notably China, censor the Internet in order to control the activities of political dissidents, international human rights groups, or those who may be otherwise critical of the govern...

  19. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Macias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  20. Mobile sensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  1. Cloud Computing Technology Applied in the Human Resource Management System%云计算技术在人力资源管理系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2013-01-01

      随着科技的发展和知识经济时代的来临,企业管理者逐步认识到人力资源管理的信息化将成为未来发展的必然趋势。云计算技术作为新一代的资源共享利用模式,具有需求服务自助化、服务可计量化的特点。将云计算技术引入人力资源管理系统,可对人才招聘、绩效管理和薪酬管理等方面产生重大影响,人力资源管理工作将更加流程化、标准化和透明化。%With the development of technology and the knowledge economy era coming,enterprise managers gradually realize that human resource management information technology will become a trend.As one of the next generation of resource sharing modes,cloud computing technology has the feature that demand service is on self and can be measured.Putting the cloud computing technology into human resource management system,it will have significant impact on talent recruitment,performance management and compensation management so that human resources management will be more streamlined,standardized and transparent.

  2. 7th International Conference on Sensing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of selected works stemming from the 2013 International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST), which was held in Wellington, New Zealand. The purpose of the book is to distill the highlights of the conference, and therefore track the latest developments in sensing technologies. The book contents are broad, since sensors can be applied in many different areas. Therefore the book gives a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.The book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective. 

  3. Discriminating word senses with tourist walks in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Thiago C

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of topological arrangement are widely used for both animal and human brains in the learning process. Nevertheless, automatic learning techniques frequently overlook these patterns. In this paper, we apply a learning technique based on the structural organization of the data in the attribute space to the problem of discriminating the senses of 10 polysemous words. Using two types of characterization of meanings, namely semantical and topological approaches, we have observed significative accuracy rates in identifying the suitable meanings in both techniques. Most importantly, we have found that the characterization based on the deterministic tourist walk improves the disambiguation process when one compares with the discrimination achieved with traditional complex networks measurements such as assortativity and clustering coefficient. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such deterministic walk has been applied to such a kind of problem. Therefore, our finding suggests that the tourist walk c...

  4. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  5. Noninvasive Remote Sensing Techniques for Infrastructures Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Palombo; Stefano Pignatti; Angela Perrone; Francesco Soldovieri; Tony Alfredo Stabile; Simone Pascucci

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims at analyzing the potentialities of noninvasive remote sensing techniques used for detecting the conservation status of infrastructures. The applied remote sensing techniques are ground-based microwave radar interferometer and InfraRed Thermography (IRT) to study a particular structure planned and made in the framework of the ISTIMES project (funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme). To exploit ...

  6. Some operative applications of remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, A

    2000-01-01

    Among the methods of applied geophysics, remote sensing plays a major and an ancillary role, at the same time. The major role deals with the acquisition and processing of data with the aim of describing the properties of the surfaces and their subsurface mass. The ancillary one consists in furnishing indications to address specific geophysical surveys. The paper presents some operative applications of remote sensing by stations fixed on ground and by airborne surveys: monitoring the biogas ve...

  7. 7th International Conference on Sensing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi

    2015-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective. The book is intended to give broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.

  8. Applying generalized hydrophobicity scale of amino acids to quantitative prediction of human leukocyte antigen-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Peng; TIAN Feifei; ZHANG Mengjun; LI Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Derived from 149 hydrophobic factors of 20 natural amino acids, a novel amino acid descriptor termed as generalized hydrophobicity scale (GH-scale) was proposed by principal component analysis (PCA). Via genetic algorithm-partial least square (GPLS) method, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was constructed by GH-scale for 152 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes with the model estimated and cross-validated correlative coefficients of R2 = 0.813 and Q2 = 0.725, respectively. It was indicated that hydrophobic interaction played an important role in HLA-A*0201-CTL interaction, prominently at anchor residues.

  9. Building Sense of Community at a Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred P. Rovai

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article challenges the belief that strong sense of community is limited to the traditional classroom and proposes that the virtual classroom has the potential of building and sustaining sense of community at levels that are comparable to the traditional classroom. Drawing on research literature, the concept of learning community is applied to the virtual classroom by taking on the issue of how best to design and conduct an online course that fosters community among learners who are physically separated from each other. Course design principles are described that facilitate dialogue and decrease psychological distance, thereby increasing a sense of community among learners.

  10. Math Sense: Placement Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    Math Sense consists of five books that develop from basic to more advanced math skills. This document contains a placement test used with Math Sense to help students and their teachers decide into which Math Sense book to begin working. The placement test is divided into six parts, each consisting of 10 to 22 problems, and is based on exit skill…

  11. LiDAR remote sensing applied to forest resources assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Landa, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Disponer de información precisa y actualizada de inventario forestal es una pieza clave para mejorar la gestión forestal sostenible y para proponer y evaluar políticas de conservación de bosques que permitan la reducción de emisiones de carbono debidas a la deforestación y degradación forestal (REDD). En este sentido, la tecnología LiDAR ha demostrado ser una herramienta perfecta para caracterizar y estimar de forma continua y en áreas extensas la estructura del bosque y las principales vari...

  12. Enabling Virtual Sensing as a Service

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Li; Ioannis Pandis; Yike Guo

    2016-01-01

    In many situations, placing a physical sensor in the ideal position in or on the human body to acquire sensing data is incredibly difficult. Virtual sensors, in contrast to physical sensors, can provide indirect measurements by making use of other available sensor data. In this paper, we demonstrate a virtual sensing application developed as a service on top of a cloud-based health sensor data management platform called Wiki-Health. The proposed application “implants” virtual sensors in the h...

  13. Affect and Metaphor Sensing in Virtual Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhang; John Barnden

    2010-01-01

    We report our developments on metaphor and affect sensing for several metaphorical language phenomena including affects as external entities metaphor, food metaphor, animal metaphor, size metaphor, and anger metaphor. The metaphor and affect sensing component has been embedded in a conversational intelligent agent interacting with human users under loose scenarios. Evaluation for the detection of several metaphorical language phenomena and affect is provided. Our paper contributes to the jour...

  14. Applied Mathematics in the Humanities: Review of Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences by Sidney Siegel and N. John Castellan, Jr. (2nd ed., 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydney Siegel and N. John Castellan, Jr. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Second Edition (New York NY: McGraw Hill, 1988. 399 pp. ISBN: 9780070573574. Almost 60 years ago, Sidney Siegel wrote a stellar book helping anyone in academe to use nonparametric statistics, but ironically, 60 years after that achievement, American higher education confesses itself to be in the worst Quantitative Teaching Crisis of all time. The key clue to solving that crisis may be in Siegel and Castellan’s title, Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, which quietly and perhaps unconsciously excludes the Humanities. Yet it is in humanistic realities that students read, write, and think. This book review considers what could be done if the Humanities were made aware of the enormous power of nonparametric statistics for advancing both their disciplines and their students’ ability to think quantitatively. A potentially revolutionary, humanistic, nonparametric finding is considered in detail along with a brief account of tens of humanistic discoveries deriving from Siegel and Castellan’s impetus.

  15. A review of critical factors for assessing the dermal absorption of metal oxide nanoparticles from sunscreens applied to humans, and a research strategy to address current deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; McCall, Maxine J; Bowman, Diana M; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens provide broad-spectrum ultraviolet protection to skin. All studies to assess dermal penetration of nanoparticles have unanimously concluded that the overwhelming majority of nanoparticles remain on the outer surface of the skin. However, possibly due to many different experimental protocols in use, conclusions over the potential penetration to viable skin are mixed. Here, we review several factors that may influence experimental results for dermal penetration including the species studied (human, or animal model), size and coating of the metal oxide nanoparticles, composition of the sunscreen formulation, site of sunscreen application, dose and number of applications, duration of the study, types of biological samples analysed, methods for analysing samples, exposure to UV and skin flexing. Based on this information, we suggest an appropriate research agenda involving international collaboration that maximises the potential for dermal absorption of nanoparticles, and their detection, under normal conditions of sunscreen use by humans. If results from this research agenda indicate no absorption is observed, then concerns over adverse health effects from the dermal absorption of nanoparticles in sunscreens may be allayed. PMID:26140917

  16. A common-sense probabilistic approach to assessing inadvertent human intrusion into low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each site disposing of low-level radioactive waste is required to prepare and maintain a site-specific performance assessment (1) to determine potential risks posed by waste management systems to the public, and the environment, and (2) to compare these risks to established performance objectives. The DOE Nevada Operations Office, Waste Management Program recently completed a one-year study of site-specific scenarios for inadvertent human intrusion by drilling into buried low-level radioactive waste sites, as part of ongoing performance assessment studies. Intrusion scenarios focus on possible penetration of buried waste through drilling for sources of groundwater. The probability of drilling penetration into waste was judged to be driven primarily by two settlement scenarios: (1) scattered individual homesteaders, and (2) a community scenario consisting of a cluster of settlers that share drilling and distribution systems for groundwater. Management control factors include institutional control, site knowledge, placards and markers, surface barriers, and subsurface barriers. The Subject Matter Experts concluded that institutional control and site knowledge may be important factors for the first few centuries, but are not significant over the evaluation period of 10,000 years. Surface barriers can be designed that would deter the siting of a drill rig over the waste site to an effectiveness of 95%. Subsurface barriers and placards and markers will not as effectively prevent inadvertent human intrusion. Homestead and community scenarios were considered by the panel to render a site-specific probability of around 10% for inadvertent human intrusion. If management controls are designed and implemented effectively, then the probability of inadvertent human intrusion can be reduced to less than 1%

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: FPA-based infrared thermography as applied to the study of cutaneous perspiration and stimulated vascular response in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainer, Boris G.

    2005-12-01

    This review gives an overview of focal plane array (FPA)-based infrared (IR) thermography as a powerful research method in the field of physiology and medicine. Comparison of the gained results with the data previously obtained by other authors with other research tools is given. Outer thermoregulatory manifestations displayed by the human organism subjected to whole-body heating (sauna bath) and physical loads (exercise bicycling) are quantitatively analysed. Some details of human body emotional sweating (psycho-physiological effect) are reported. Particular attention is paid to studying active sweat glands as individual objects. All experimental data were obtained with the help of a high-sensitivity (0.03 °C) fast 128 × 128 InAs IR detector-based thermal imaging system operating in the short-wave spectral region (2.5 to 3 µm) and perfectly suiting medical purposes. It is shown that IR thermography makes it possible to overcome limitations inherent to contact measuring means that were traditionally used before in thermal studies. It is also shown that heterogeneous thermograms displayed by organisms with disturbed inner equilibrium can be quantitatively analysed in terms of statistical parameters of related surface-temperature histograms, such as the mean temperature and the standard deviation of temperature (SDT). The increase and the decrease in SDT turned out to be typical of prolonged physical load and subsequent relaxation, and of external whole-body heating, respectively. Explanation of this result based on a hypothesis advanced within the context of the doctrine of human-organism evolution is given. Skin-temperature distribution function accompanying the relaxed organism in normality was found to closely resemble normal-distribution function. Symmetry break down and variation of the shape of this characteristic may serve as an indicator of homeostasis shift and can be used as a quantitative criterion for the latter. A new phenomenon, stable punctate

  18. Comparison of open-flow microperfusion and microdialysis methodologies when sampling topically applied fentanyl and benzoic acid in human dermis ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Nielsen, J B;

    2012-01-01

    . The second purpose was to provide guidance to researchers in choosing the most efficient method for a given penetrant and give suggestions concerning critical choices for successful dermal sampling. METHODS: The dOFM and dMD techniques are compared in equal set-ups using three probe-types (one d......OFM probe and two dMD probe-types) in donor skin (n = 9)--27 probes of each type sampling each penetrant in solutions applied in penetrationchambers glued to the skin surface over a time range of 20 h. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic results demonstrated concordance between dOFM and dMD sampling technique under...... the given experimental conditions. The methods each had advantages and limitations in technical, practical and hands-on comparisons. CONCLUSION: When planning a study of cutaneous penetration the advantages and limitations of each probe-type have to be considered in relation to the scientific question...

  19. The Page You Are Attempting to Access Has Been Blocked in Accordance with National Laws: Applying a Corporate Responsibility Framework to Human Rights Issues Facing Internet Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. Miletello

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the OpenNet Intiative, at least 40 countries engage in some degree of Internet censorship. 1 While censorship may be considered justifiable for various reasons—including national security, blocking child pornography, or protecting intellectual property—some authoritative states, most notably China, censor the Internet in order to control the activities of political dissidents, international human rights groups, or those who may be otherwise critical of the government. Potentially more troubling, both authoritative nations and liberal democracies alike frequently request  user-data information from Internet companies, which may infringe on individual rights to privacy and free speech, and may even lead to arbitrary detention and torture.

  20. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethics, business ethics etc. Classification-JEL: A23

  1. Distinct kinetics of human DNA ligases I, IIIalpha, IIIbeta, and IV reveal direct DNA sensing ability and differential physiological functions in DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Ballin, Jeff D.; Della-Maria, Julie; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; White, Elizabeth J.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2009-05-11

    The three human LIG genes encode polypeptides that catalyze phosphodiester bond formation during DNA replication, recombination and repair. While numerous studies have identified protein partners of the human DNA ligases (hLigs), there has been little characterization of the catalytic properties of these enzymes. In this study, we developed and optimized a fluorescence-based DNA ligation assay to characterize the activities of purified hLigs. Although hLigI joins DNA nicks, it has no detectable activity on linear duplex DNA substrates with short, cohesive single-strand ends. By contrast, hLigIII{beta} and the hLigIII{alpha}/XRCC1 and hLigIV/XRCC4 complexes are active on both nicked and linear duplex DNA substrates. Surprisingly, hLigIV/XRCC4, which is a key component of the major non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, is significantly less active than hLigIII on a linear duplex DNA substrate. Notably, hLigIV/XRCC4 molecules only catalyze a single ligation event in the absence or presence of ATP. The failure to catalyze subsequent ligation events reflects a defect in the enzyme-adenylation step of the next ligation reaction and suggests that, unless there is an in vivo mechanism to reactivate DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 following phosphodiester bond formation, the cellular NHEJ capacity will be determined by the number of adenylated DNA ligaseIV/XRCC4 molecules.

  2. Book Review of “Human Behaviour and the Social Environment: Models, Metaphors, and Maps for Applying Theoretical Perspectives to Practice”. 640 pages, Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2007, by James A. Forte

    OpenAIRE

    Moula, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This voluminous book which draws on almost 1000 references provides an important theoretical base for practice. After an informative introduction about models, maps and metaphors, Forte provides an impressive presentation of several perspectives for use in practice; applied ecological theory, applied system theory, applied biology, applied cognitive science, applied psychodynamic theory, applied behaviourism, applied symbolic interactionism, applied social role theory, applied economic theory...

  3. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Charles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through cocondensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

  4. The basic importance of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1986-01-01

    We argue that applied behavior analysis is relevant to basic research. Modification studies, and a broad range of investigations that focus on the precipitating and maintaining conditions of socially significant human behavior, have basic importance. Applied behavior analysis may aid basic researchers in the design of externally valid experiments and thereby enhance the theoretical significance of basic research for understanding human behavior. Applied research with humans, directed at cultu...

  5. Effect of anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides homeobox B2 on the proliferation and expression of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭盛; 张晓

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of homeobox B2 (HOXB2) antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asodn) on the proliferation and expression of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).   Methods: Various concentrations of HOXB2 asodn modified by thiophosphate transfected the induction of liposome into HUVECs. MTT and RT-PCR methods were employed to determine the effect of different concentrations of asodn on the endothelial proliferation and the expression level of HOXB2 mRNA.   Results: After the transfection of HOXB2 asodn, the endothelial proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion. Simultaneously, the expression of HOXB2 mRNA decreased significantly.   Conclusions: HOXB2 plays an important role in the proliferation of endothelia.

  6. Reaching with the sixth sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Bülthoff, Heinrich H;

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system constitutes the silent sixth sense: It automatically triggers a variety of vital reflexes to maintain postural and visual stability. Beyond their role in reflexive behavior, vestibular afferents contribute to several perceptual and cognitive functions and also support...... voluntary control of movements by complementing the other senses to accomplish the movement goal. Investigations into the neural correlates of vestibular contribution to voluntary action in humans are challenging and have progressed far less than research on corresponding visual and proprioceptive...... involvement. Here, we demonstrate for the first time with event-related TMS that the posterior part of the right medial intraparietal sulcus processes vestibular signals during a goal-directed reaching task with the dominant right hand. This finding suggests a qualitative difference between the processing...

  7. Human Security: A Thematic Guidance Note for Regional and National Human Development Report Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Oscar; Gasper, Des

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Many important aspects of human development relate also to people’s security: loosely defined as people’s freedom from fear and freedom from want in a broad sense. Applying a human security approach offers an opportunity to analyse many issues in an informative way. This note explains how one might go about doing that. Human security relates to much more than security from violence and crime. A report team wanting to look at the security of people’s livelihoods (economic,...

  8. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  9. Human Voice Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Humans communicate by many means. The two senses most used for communication are the visual and auditory senses. These can be stimulated by other humans by using for example hand gestures, face expressions, speech and song. This report will give a short introduction to the auditory sense and to speech generation. The text is mainly an abridgement of the books "Hearing" edited by B. C. J. Moore, and "Acoustic Phonetics" by K. N. Stevens. Sammanfattning av tal och hörsel...

  10. Number sense how the mind creates mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of how the human brain performs mathematical calculations is far from complete, but in recent years there have been many exciting breakthroughs by scientists all over the world. Now, in The Number Sense, Stanislas Dehaene offers a fascinating look at this recent research, in an enlightening exploration of the mathematical mind. Dehaene begins with the eye-opening discovery that animals--including rats, pigeons, raccoons, and chimpanzees--can perform simple mathematical calculations, and that human infants also have a rudimentary number sense. Dehaene suggests that this rudime

  11. Acoustical sensing of cardiomyocyte cluster beating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •An example of the application of QCM-D to live cell studies. •Detection of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte cluster beating. •Clusters were studied in a thin liquid film and in a large liquid volume. •The QCM-D beating profile provides an individual fingerprint of the hPS-CMCs. -- Abstract: Spontaneously beating human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes clusters (CMCs) represent an excellent in vitro tool for studies of human cardiomyocyte function and for pharmacological cardiac safety assessment. Such testing typically requires highly trained operators, precision plating, or large cell quantities, and there is a demand for real-time, label-free monitoring of small cell quantities, especially rare cells and tissue-like structures. Array formats based on sensing of electrical or optical properties of cells are being developed and in use by the pharmaceutical industry. A potential alternative to these techniques is represented by the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technique, which is an acoustic surface sensitive technique that measures changes in mass and viscoelastic properties close to the sensor surface (from nm to μm). There is an increasing number of studies where QCM-D has successfully been applied to monitor properties of cells and cellular processes. In the present study, we show that spontaneous beating of CMCs on QCM-D sensors can be clearly detected, both in the frequency and the dissipation signals. Beating rates in the range of 66–168 bpm for CMCs were detected and confirmed by simultaneous light microscopy. The QCM-D beating profile was found to provide individual fingerprints of the hPS-CMCs. The presented results point towards acoustical assays for evaluation cardiotoxicity

  12. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  13. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  14. Passive RFID based sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Capdevila Cascante, Santiago; Jofre Roca, Lluís; Romeu Robert, Jordi; Bolomey, J.Ch

    2011-01-01

    The principle of communication of passive RFID, which relies on the Modulated Scattering Technique (MST) to transmit the information from the tag to the reader, opens a way to enable conventional RFID for sensing purposes, without any additional circuitry. In this paper a short description of the physical principle behind the sensing is presented along with measurements of RFID tags used for sensing in multiple applications, such as electromagnetic field measurement temperature or presence de...

  15. Making Sense of Smell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilys; Breese; 高培荣

    1998-01-01

    我们热情地向读者推荐这篇科普性和趣味性俱佳的短文。BBC English在原文前加了这样一句话: Humans might think they lead the rest of the animal world, but as Dilys Bressesreveals, when it comes to the five senses, many animals leave us behind. 而读了此文,读者不仅会认识嗅觉的奇妙功能,而且不得不承认,就嗅觉言,在许多动物面前,人类只得自叹弗如。 嗅觉的产生主要依靠什么? In mammals, smells are detected by a thin layer of very sensitive cells in the nosecalled the olfactory epithelium (嗅觉上皮组织). 人类的嗅觉所以不如狗,原因就在于此: Humans only have about five square centimeters of thesc cells, while an Alsatian dog,for example, has 150 equare centimeters. 我们称smell为“气味”,其实并不科学。因为,smell也同样存在于水中。如: …but scents can be detected in water too. The hammerhead can detect blood at several hundred meters. 以下这句话,读者也许没有想到过,但言之有理: Sight and hearing provide information too, but in short lived messages. Theadvantage of scent is that it can remain for hours or days. 下面这一则信息真令人类叹?

  16. Optimized Reputable Sensing Participants Extraction for Participatory Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By collecting data via sensors embedded personal smart devices, sensing participants play a key role in participatory sensor networks. Using information provided by reputable sensing participants ensures the reliability of participatory sensing data. Setting a threshold for the reputation, and those whose reputations are bigger than this value are regarded as reputable. The bigger the threshold value is, the more reliable the extracted reputable sensing participant is. However, if the threshold value is too big, only very limited participatory sensing data can be involved. This may cause unexpected bias in information collection. Existing works did not consider the relationship between the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants and the ratio of usable participatory sensing data. In this work, we propose a criterion for optimized reputable sensing participant extraction in participatory sensor networks. This is achieved based on the mathematical analysis on the ratio of available participatory sensing data and the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants. Our suggested threshold value for reputable sensing participant extraction is only related to the power of sensing participant’s reputation distribution. It is easy to be applied in real applications. Simulation results tested on real application data further verified the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  17. Statistical Compressed Sensing of Gaussian Mixture Models

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Guoshen

    2011-01-01

    A novel framework of compressed sensing, namely statistical compressed sensing (SCS), that aims at efficiently sampling a collection of signals that follow a statistical distribution, and achieving accurate reconstruction on average, is introduced. SCS based on Gaussian models is investigated in depth. For signals that follow a single Gaussian model, with Gaussian or Bernoulli sensing matrices of O(k) measurements, considerably smaller than the O(k log(N/k)) required by conventional CS based on sparse models, where N is the signal dimension, and with an optimal decoder implemented via linear filtering, significantly faster than the pursuit decoders applied in conventional CS, the error of SCS is shown tightly upper bounded by a constant times the best k-term approximation error, with overwhelming probability. The failure probability is also significantly smaller than that of conventional sparsity-oriented CS. Stronger yet simpler results further show that for any sensing matrix, the error of Gaussian SCS is u...

  18. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, A

    1998-01-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the simi...

  19. Hyperspectral sensing of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash

    2007-11-01

    Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.

  20. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...