WorldWideScience

Sample records for applied thermal cutting

  1. Fabrication of low cost cutting wheel via thermal spray process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anasyida, A. S.; Nurulakmal, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study is mainly focused on development of metal cutting wheel. The process involved hard particles (abrasives) being bonded on the wheel to enhance the cutting capability by thermal spraying process and followed by polymer bonding. The purpose of this work is to produce low cost cutting wheel and study the performance of cutting behavior. Two different types of powders; silicon carbide (SiC) as bonding agent and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) as abrasives were used. Wear loss and depth of cut as function of load, cutting time and cutting speed were evaluated. The results showed that the speed and load were the main factors that affected the cutting efficiency and the optimum cutting process can be performed at low cutting speed and high load or at high cutting speed and low load.

  2. Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates and thermal stress formed at cutting sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.

    2012-02-01

    Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates is carried out and thermal stress field developed in the cutting region is predicted using the finite element code. Temperature predictions are validated through the thermocouple data. The morphological changes in the cutting section are examined by incorporating optical and scanning electron microscopes. It is found that temperature predictions agree well with the thermocouple data. High values of von Mises stress are observed at the cutting edges and at the mid-thickness of the Kevlar laminate due to thermal compression formed in this region. The laser cut edges are free from whiskers; however, striation formation and some small sideways burning is observed at the kerf edges.

  3. Cutting Power during Milling of Thermally Modified Pine Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krauss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental testing results of cutting power of thermally modified wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. during lengthwise milling. The process of heat treatment was performed in the atmosphere of superheated steam, at temperatures of 130, 160, 190 and 220 °C, maintaining an identical heating time of 4 h for all modification variants. Cutting power was determined during milling of the radial surface of modifi ed and non--modified samples. It was calculated as the difference of power used by a milling machine during wood machining and at idling. Based on the results of measurements, it was found that, in the case of modified wood, cutting power decreases with an increase in modifi cation temperature (the dependence being linear and increases with an increase in the working engagement. At temperatures exceeding 160 °C, the power required for milling of modified wood is lower than cutting power for non-modified wood. The experiment indicated a significant reduction of cutting power with an increase in wood modification temperature. It was also found that an increase in the working engagement results in an increase of cutting power both in thermally modifi ed and non-modified wood.

  4. Thermal and mechanical cutting of concrete and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various thermal and mechanical processes for dismantling radioactive large components and concrete structures were investigated in order to determine the optimal handling conditions and their respective efficiency. For the thermal processes, the separation of heavy concrete and steel components by means of oxygen lances, powder cutting, ocyacetylene cutting, and plasma cutting processes were tested. In order to gain the necessary data for designing filtering equipment with regard to use in nuclear power stations, the amount of dust deposition and particle size distribution for these thermal processes were measured. The largest particle size proportion occurs for a particle size of ca. 0.3 μm. For the mechanical processes, stationary saws were used. Due to the large dimensions of the components which are to be found in a nuclear installation, it is not possible to use such saws for the initial dismantling. These saws can be used for both low-alloy and austenitic types of steel, and for separating materials not containing iron. In order to compare the efficiency of the saws with that of the thermal processes, to some extent the same test pieces were used that were used for the thermal tests. The advantage of the saw technique in comparison to the thermal separation processes lies in that next to no gas or dust contamination can become released. Also, the amount of shavings produced (secondary waste) is low. Furthermore, some of the saws can be used under remote control

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of thermal effects in nanometric cutting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the basic action of how material removing in nanoscale is a critical issue of producing well-formed components.In order to clarify thermal effects on material removal at atomic level,molecular dynamics(MD)simulations of nanometric cutting of mono-crystalline copper are performed with Morse,EAM and Tersoff potential.The effects of cutting speed on temperature distribution are investigated.The simulation results demonstrate that the temperature distribution shows a roughly concentric shape around shear zone and a steep temperature gradient lies in diamond tool,a relative high temperature is located in shear zone and machined surface,but the highest temperature is found in chip.At a high cutting speed mode,the atoms in shear zone with high temperature implies a large stress is built up in a local region.

  6. Under Water Thermal Cutting of the Moderator Vessel and Thermal Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the segmentation of the in 8 meter depth of water and for cutting through super alloyed moderator vessel and of the thermal shield of the MZFR stainless steel up to 130 mm wall thickness. Depending on the research reactor by means of under water plasma and contact arc metal cutting. The moderator vessel and the thermal shield are the most essential parts of the MZFR reactor vessel internals. These components have been segmented in 2005 by means of remotely controlled under water cutting utilizing a special manipulator system, a plasma torch and CAMC (Contact Arc Metal Cutting) as cutting tools. The engineered equipment used is a highly advanced design developed in a two years R and D program. It was qualified to cut through steel walls of more than 100 mm thickness in 8 meters water depth. Both the moderator vessel and the thermal shield had to be cut into such size that the segments could afterwards be packed into shielded waste containers each with a volume of roughly 1 m3. Segmentation of the moderator vessel and of the thermal shield was performed within 15 months. (author)

  7. Thermal modelling of cooling tool cutting when milling by electrical analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmoussa H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement temperatures by (some devises are applied immediately after shut-down and may be corrected for the temperature drop that occurs in the interval between shut-down and measurement. This paper presents a new procedure for thermal modelling of the tool cutting used just after machining; when the tool is out off the chip in order to extrapolate the cutting temperature from the temperature measured when the tool is at stand still. A fin approximation is made in enhancing heat loss (by conduction and convection to air stream is used. In the modelling we introduce an equivalent thermal network to estimate the cutting temperature as a function of specific energy. In another hand, a local modified element lumped conduction equation is used to predict the temperature gradient with time when the tool is being cooled, with initial and boundary conditions. These predictions provide a detailed view of the global heat transfer coefficient as a function of cutting speed because the heat loss for the tool in air stream is an order of magnitude larger than in normal environment. Finally we deduct the cutting temperature by inverse method.

  8. Reliability concepts applied to cutting tool change time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino Rodriguez, Carmen Elena, E-mail: cpatino@udea.edu.c [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Francisco Martha de Souza, Gilberto [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents a reliability-based analysis for calculating critical tool life in machining processes. It is possible to determine the running time for each tool involved in the process by obtaining the operations sequence for the machining procedure. Usually, the reliability of an operation depends on three independent factors: operator, machine-tool and cutting tool. The reliability of a part manufacturing process is mainly determined by the cutting time for each job and by the sequence of operations, defined by the series configuration. An algorithm is presented to define when the cutting tool must be changed. The proposed algorithm is used to evaluate the reliability of a manufacturing process composed of turning and drilling operations. The reliability of the turning operation is modeled based on data presented in the literature, and from experimental results, a statistical distribution of drilling tool wear was defined, and the reliability of the drilling process was modeled.

  9. Performance Testing of Thermal Cutting Systems for Sweet Pepper Harvesting Robot in Greenhouse Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachche, Shivaji; Oka, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes design of end-effector and prototype of thermal cutting system for harvesting sweet peppers. The design consists of two parallel gripper bars mounted on a frame connected by specially designed notch plate and operated by servo motor. Based on voltage and current, two different types of thermal cutting system prototypes; electric arc and temperature arc respectively were developed and tested for performance. In electric arc, a special electric device was developed to obtain high voltage to perform cutting operation. At higher voltage, electrodes generate thermal arc which helps to cut stem of sweet pepper. In temperature arc, nichrome wire was mounted between two electrodes and current was provided directly to electrodes which results in generation of high temperature arc between two electrodes that help to perform cutting operation. In both prototypes, diameters of basic elements were varied and the effect of this variation on cutting operation was investigated. The temperature arc thermal system was found significantly suitable for cutting operation than electric arc thermal system. In temperature arc thermal cutting system, 0.5 mm nichrome wire shows significant results by accomplishing harvesting operation in 1.5 seconds. Also, thermal cutting system found suitable to increase shelf life of fruits by avoiding virus and fungal transformation during cutting process and sealing the fruit stem. The harvested sweet peppers by thermal cutting system can be preserved at normal room temperature for more than 15 days without any contamination.

  10. FEM–based thermal modelling of the cutting process using power law-temperature dependent concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Grzesik

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this study is to compare two variants of the FEM simulation model of orthogonal cuttingprocess of AISI 1045 carbon steel with uncoated and multilayer-coated carbide tools i.e. standard and Power Law–Temperature Dependent (PL-TD options. The primary reason for undertaking this problem was unsatisfactoryaccuracy of the predictions of cutting temperature especially for coated cutting tools.Design/methodology/approach: Methodology used employs the Lagrangian-FEM model with more accuratethermophysical properties of the substrate and coating materials. All thermal properties (thermal conductivity anddiffusivity and specific heat are expressed in the forms of polynomial models of the 5th degree. Multi-layercoating is substituted by homogeneous monolithic layer with equivalent thermal properties. In addition, thesesimulation algorithms use the Johnson-Cook constitutive law.Findings: Basically, the FEM package applied allows the temperature distribution and heat flux intensity to bepredicted closer to appropriate measurements and computations.Research limitations/implications: Research limitations deal with the lack of reliable data and models forboth cutting tool and workpiece material. Future research should be focused on other coatings which are commonlyused in cutting tool industry.Practical implications: They can be related to more detailed inputs from research and developing centerswhich exist in many leading branches of industry. Unfortunately, academic approach is sometimes very narrowand does not consider real machining conditions.Originality/value: Originality of this simulation approach can be seen in elaborating more accurate modelsfor thermal properties. Moreover, it contributes to finding some fundamental relationships between all physicalphenomena involved into tool-chip contact behaviour.

  11. Plasma arc and thermal lance techniques for cutting concrete and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma arc technique is used today in industrial practice for any metal, but mainly for cutting stainless steel, carbon steel and aluminium. In air the maximum thickness that was cut in the performed tests was 150 mm, both with ferritic and austenitic steel. Underwater the maximum thickness cut was 103 mm. The two types of torch used in the tests are those used today: the plasma-shaped electrode torch (WIPC) and the pointed electrode torch (DMC-GRUEN). Two different types of gas were compared: an argon-nitrogen mixture and an argon-hydrogen mixture. The second mixture adopted results in less dust emission. The production of dust and aerosols also depends on the cutting speed, on the kind of steel, but mainly on the environmental conditions; it is reduced up to 500 times under water. Dust and aerosols can, jeopardize the efficiency of the system; moreover, the ambient air can have high-level radiation fields. Indirect and direct protections are needed (shields, remote control, robots, etc.). Tentative procedures for dismantling two types of BWR reactor are examined. Two series of tests demonstrated the feasibility of cutting the most geometrically difficult parts of the reactor internals. The thermal lance technique is used in industrial practice mainly for dismantling large reinforced concrete structures. This technique can be applied to dismantle nuclear facilities, even though it can cause some problems due to the gases, fumes and lapilli produced. In addition, the cost of this technique seems to be generally higher than the cost of other techniques. From the analyses done, the conclusion seems that both the above techniques are feasible for dismantling a nuclear power plant (NPP). The best solution is probably to analyse the different dismantling possibilities and problems and problems of each case

  12. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horibe Takanori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific radioactivity of sucrose and glucose in leaves, but specific radioactivity of sucrose in petals was much higher than that of glucose. These results suggested that most of the exogenously applied glucose first moved to the leaves, where it was converted into sucrose and then the synthesised sucrose was translocated to the petals. Our results showed that the leaves of cut rose flowers play an important role in the metabolism and transportation of exogenously applied soluble carbohydrates toward the petals, thus contributing to sustaining the post-harvest quality.

  13. Hot Stuff? Thermal Imaging Applied to Cryocrystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, E. H.

    2004-01-01

    In the past we have used thermal imaging techniques to visualize the cryocooling processes of macromolecular crystals. From these images it was clear that a cold wave progresses through a crystal starting at the face closest to the origin of the cold stream and ending at the point furthest away. During these studies we used large volume crystals, which were clearly distinguished fiom the loop holding them. These large crystals, originally grown for neutron diffiaction studies, were chosen deliberately to enhance the imaging. As an extension to this work, we present used thermal imaging to study small crystals, held in a cryo-loop, in the presence of vitrified mother liquor. The different d a r e d transmission and reflectance properties of the crystal in comparison to the mother liquor surrounding it are thought to be the parameter that produces the contrast that makes the crystal visible. An application of this technology may be the determination of the exact location of small crystals in a cryo-loop. Data fkom initial tests in support of application development was recorded for lysozyme crystals and for bFGF/dna complex crystals, which were cryocooled and imaged in large loops, both with visible light mad with h i k e d rdi&tion. The crystals were clearly distinguished from the vitrified solution in the infiared spectrum, while in the case of the bFGF/dna complex the illumination had to be carefully manipulated to make the crystal visible in the visible spectrum. These results suggest that the thermal imaging may be more sensitive than visual imaging for automated location of small crystals. However, further work on small crystals robotically mounted at SSRL did not clearly visualize those crystals. The depth of field of the camera proved to be limiting and a different cooling geometry was used, compared to the previous, successful experiments. Analysis to exploit multiple images to improve depth of field and experimental work to understand cooling geometry

  14. Cost minimizing of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaeva, Anastasia; Kurennov, Dmitry

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with optimization problem of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines. The accuracy of objective function parameters calculation for optimization problem is investigated. This paper shows that working tool path speed is not constant value. One depends on some parameters that are described in this paper. The relations of working tool path speed depending on the numbers of NC programs frames, length of straight cut, configuration part are presented. Based on received results the correction coefficients for working tool speed are defined. Additionally the optimization problem may be solved by using mathematical model. Model takes into account the additional restrictions of thermal cutting (choice of piercing and output tool point, precedence condition, thermal deformations). At the second part of paper the non-standard cutting techniques are considered. Ones may lead to minimizing of cutting cost and time compared with standard cutting techniques. This paper considers the effectiveness of non-standard cutting techniques application. At the end of the paper the future research works are indicated.

  15. Optoacoustic monitoring of cutting efficiency and thermal damage during laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Erwin; Douplik, Alexandre; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Successful laser surgery is characterized by a precise cut and effective hemostasis with minimal collateral thermal damage to the adjacent tissues. Consequently, the surgeon needs to control several parameters, such as power, pulse repetition rate, and velocity of movements. In this study we propose utilizing optoacoustics for providing the necessary real-time feedback of cutting efficiency and collateral thermal damage. Laser ablation was performed on a bovine meat slab using a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (532 nm, 4 kHz, 18 W). Due to the short pulse duration of 7.6 ns, the same laser has also been used for generation of optoacoustic signals. Both the shockwaves, generated due to tissue removal, as well as the normal optoacoustic responses from the surrounding tissue were detected using a single broadband piezoelectric transducer. It has been observed that the rapid reduction in the shockwave amplitude occurs as more material is being removed, indicating decrease in cutting efficiency, whereas gradual decrease in the optoacoustic signal likely corresponds to coagulation around the ablation crater. Further heating of the surrounding tissue leads to carbonization accompanied by a significant shift in the optoacoustic spectra. Our results hold promise for real-time monitoring of cutting efficiency and collateral thermal damage during laser surgery. In practice, this could eventually facilitate development of automatic cut-off mechanisms that will guarantee an optimal tradeoff between cutting and heating while avoiding severe thermal damage to the surrounding tissues.

  16. Preliminary results on dose-effect relationships of thermally treated, oil-containing drilled cuttings in boxcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans to reduce emission of oil prescribe the development of testing techniques to judge effects on the marine environment. In the Netherlands, a technique with the potential to be applied in offshore operations, is based on thermal treatment and grinding of the cutting in order to recover the base oil. The resulting cuttings form a very fine hydrophobic powder with an oil content of ca. 7.5 g kg-1 dry weight. In order to assess the dose-effect relationships and no-effect concentration of these cuttings at the ecological community level, boxcosm experiments were set-up. This study is a joint effort of the Dutch Government and the Dutch E and P Industry (NOGEPA). Clean marine sediments were inoculated in duplo with 50 concentrations of pretreated cuttings with a 3.2 factor stepwise dilution of concentration. The results were compared with two blancs: one without addition of cuttings and one with addition of cuttings which had been made oil-free by heating at 500 degrees C. The incubation period was 3 months. The minimal dose of the cuttings was calculated to amount to ca. 1.2 mg oil kg-1 dry weight, the maximal dose to ca. 120 mg oil kg-1 dry sediment in the top 10 cm sediment layer. The results, however, showed that the initial background concentration of oil was at least 10 times as high as expected from previous measurements with a mean calculated value of 110 ± 50 mg oil kg-1 dry sediment (n = 10). A parameter indicative for impact on biological activity in the sediment is the depth of the oxygen present in the sediment and the overlying water. Oxygen concentrations at the sediment/water interface were always near saturation, but the thickness of the aerobic layer differed markedly

  17. Application of Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) to treat low-toxicity mineral oil base cuttings in Barinas District, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon, Ruben [Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Luzardo, Janeth; Alcoba, Alcides [M-I SWACO, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The potential environmental impact of oil-based drill cuttings is generating increased scrutiny in the oil and gas industry. If left untreated, oil-based cuttings not only increase the risk of environmental liabilities, but also affect revenue, as drilling generates wastes that in most cases require special treatment before disposal. Consequently, the oil industry is looking for technologies to help minimize environmental liabilities. Accordingly, the Barinas District of PDVSA has started a pilot trial to treat oil-based drilling cuttings by applying thermal desorption technology. The main objective of this technology is recovering trapped hydrocarbons, while minimizing wastes and preparing solids to be disposed of through a mobile treatment plant. This novel technology has been used worldwide to treat organic pollutants in soil. Thermal desorption is a technology based on the application of heat in soils polluted with organic compounds. With this technology, target temperatures vary according to the type and concentration of detected pollutants along with its characterization, in such a way that compounds are disposed of by volatilization. As part of the integral waste management development along with the pilot trial for hydrocarbon-contaminated solid waste treatment, trials on soils were undertaken by applying process-generated ashes in equally-sized bins, with different mixtures (ashes, ashes organic material, ashes-organic material-sand, ashes-land). The resulting process offers an immediate soil remediation and final disposal solution for toxic and dangerous waste. (author)

  18. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; Mastro, N.L. del E-mail: nelida@usp.br

    2002-03-01

    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600 deg. C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  19. Photo-elastic effect, thermal lensing and depolarization in a-cut tetragonal laser crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumashev, K. V.; Zakharova, A. N.; Loiko, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    We report on analytical description of thermal lensing effect in tetragonal crystals cut along the [1 0 0] crystallographic axis, for the two principal light polarizations, E ┴ c and E || c, under diode-pumping (plane stress approximation). Within this approach, we take into account anisotropy of elastic, photo-elastic, thermal and optical properties of the material. Expressions for the ‘generalized’ thermo-optic coefficient χ are presented. It is shown that astigmatism of thermal lens is determined both by the photo-elastic and end-bulging effects. The sign of the photo-elastic term χ″ can be either positive or negative affecting significantly the sign of the thermal lens. Depolarization loss in a-cut tetragonal crystals is few orders of magnitude lower than that in cubic crystals. Calculations are performed for a-cut tetragonal molybdates, Nd:CaMoO4, Nd:PbMoO4 and Nd:NaBi(MoO4)2.

  20. Ventilation and filtration techniques for handling aerosols produced by thermal cutting operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work done to characterize aerosols from thermal cutting operations and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out under a research contract between the Windscale Laboratory and the Commission of the European Communities. The contract started in October 1984 and was completed in June 1988. The total cost of the work was UKL 132 000 of which 50% was funded by the Commission. This report has been compiled from the several progress reports submitted during the work period and details the main findings from the work programme. By working with colleagues from Commissariat a l'energie atomique, Saclay, France, additional useful data were collected. The bimodal size distribution of aerosols from oxypropane cutting was confirmed. Trials on various prefilters showed that the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and the cartridge filter had excellent collection properties. From these trials the ESP was selected as the prefilter for the windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project. This work is presented in Appendix 1 to this report. Details are given of the proposals to modify the ESP to enable the safe removal of radioactive dust and contamined collector plates. Tests are described on aerosols generated by laser cutting and also trials on the ESP and high gradient magnetic separation prefilters. Finally, the measurement of filter burdens, aerosol concentrations and dust deposition rates from thermal cutting in a full-size ventilation rig are reported

  1. Micro-cutting of silicon implanted with hydrogen and post-implantation thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenković, Emil V.; To, Suet; Sundaravel, B.; Xiao, Gaobo; Huang, Hu

    2016-07-01

    It was reported that non-amorphizing implantation by hydrogen has a potential in improving silicon machining. Post-implantation high-temperature treatment will affect implantation-induced damage, which can have impact on silicon machining. In this article, a relation of a thermal annealing of hydrogen implanted in silicon to micro-cutting experiment is investigated. Hydrogen ions were implanted into 4″ silicon wafers with 175 keV, 150 keV, 125 keV and doses of 2 × 1016 cm-2, 2 × 1016 cm-2 and 3 × 1016 cm-2, respectively. In this way, low hydrogen atom-low defect concentration was created in the region less than ~0.8 μm deep and high hydrogen atom-high defect concentration was obtained at silicon depth of ~0.8-1.5 μm. The post-implantation annealing was carried out at 300 and 400 °C in nitrogen for 1 h. Physical and electrical properties of implanted and annealed samples were characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nanoindentation. Plunge cutting experiment was carried out in and silicon crystal direction. The critical depth of cut and cutting force were monitored and found to be influenced by the annealing. The limits of hydrogen implantation annealing contribution to the cutting characteristics of silicon are discussed in light of implantation process and redistribution of hydrogen and defects generation during annealing process.

  2. Animal abolitionism meets moral abolitionism : cutting the Gordian knot of applied ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Joel

    2013-12-01

    The use of other animals for human purposes is as contentious an issue as one is likely to find in ethics. And this is so not only because there are both passionate defenders and opponents of such use, but also because even among the latter there are adamant and diametric differences about the bases of their opposition. In both disputes, the approach taken tends to be that of applied ethics, by which a position on the issue is derived from a fundamental moral commitment. This commitment in turn depends on normative ethics, which investigates the various moral theories for the best fit to our moral intuitions. Thus it is that the use of animals in biomedical research is typically defended by appeal to a utilitarian theory, which legitimates harm to some for the greater good of others; while the opposition condemns that use either by appeal to the same theory, but disagreeing about the actual efficacy of animal experimentation, or by appeal to an alternative theory, such as the right of all sentient beings not to be exploited. Unfortunately, the normative issue seems likely never to be resolved, hence leaving the applied issue in limbo. The present essay seeks to circumvent this impasse by dispensing altogether with any moral claim or argument, thereby cutting the Gordian knot of animal ethics with a meta-ethical sword. The alternative schema defended is simply to advance relevant considerations, whereupon "there is nothing left but to feel." In a word, motivation replaces justification. PMID:24092403

  3. Pengaruh Penambahan Paladium Terhadap Perilaku Thermal Amalgam Tembaga Tinggi Tipe Lathe Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Ellyza Herda

    2015-01-01

    Effects of additing 1 percent (w/o) palladium (Pd) on the thermal behavior of a lathe cut type high copper amalgam (13 w/o copper) were studied. The identical alloys, with and without 1% Pd were fabricated. X-ray diffraction studies of the amalgams revealed the elimination of the γ2-phase by Pd addition DSC thermogram of non-Pd containing amalgam indicated the existence of two γ1-phaseone with the transition temperature (endothermic peak) at 88◦C and the other at 109◦C. The thermogram data of...

  4. Laser cutting silicon-glass double layer wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yecheng; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed at introducing the laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) technology to solve the silicon-glass double layer wafer dicing problems in the packaging procedure of silicon-glass device packaged by WLCSP technology, investigating the feasibility of this idea, and studying the crack propagation process of LITP cutting double layer wafer. In this paper, the physical process of the 1064 nm laser beam interact with the double layer wafer during the cutting process was studied theoretically. A mathematical model consists the volumetric heating source and the surface heating source has been established. The temperature and stress distribution was simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The extended finite element method (XFEM) was added to the simulation as the supplementary features to simulate the crack propagation process and the crack propagation profile. The silicon-glass double layer wafer cutting verification experiment under typical parameters was conducted by using the 1064 nm semiconductor laser. The crack propagation profile on the fracture surface was examined by optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and XFEM status. It was concluded that the quality of the finished fracture surface has been greatly improved, and the experiment results were well supported by the numerical simulation results.

  5. Thermal Behavior of Green Roofs Applied to Tropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Tibério Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present results on an experimental field about the green roofs thermal behavior, compared to other traditional roof covering systems. On the one hand, it intends to describe shortly the constructive system of a green roof with a lightweight building system, which has a sustainable building materials character and, on the other, it worries with the water reuse and with the run-off delay. The main methodological procedure adopted to study the thermal behavior of green roof was installing thermocouples to collect surface temperatures and indoor air, later comparing them with existing prototypes in an experimental plot. The thermal behavior analysis of cover systems was assessed by a representative episode of the climate fact, based on the dynamic climate approach. The experimental results from internal air temperature measurements show that the green roofs applied to warm and dry climates also provide an interesting time lag with surface and internal air temperature reduction.

  6. Evaluation of hand applied naled thermal fog for Wyeomyia control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, G A; Carlson, D B

    1990-09-01

    Tests on the effect of hand applied naled thermal fog, both as a single treatment on one day/week and a single treatment on 3 successive days, did not control Wyeomyia vanduzeei and Wy. mitchellii. Five-min landing/biting counts in a native oak/palm woodland demonstrated that single applications produced an average landing rate decrease of 13%. Treatments 3 days in succession did not suppress the landing rate. PMID:1977876

  7. Thermal and fluid flow characteristics in a tube equipped with peripherally-cut dual twisted tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changcharoen, W.; Somravysin, P.; Eiamsa-ard, S.

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an experimental analysis of the turbulent flow of water in a heat exchanger tube fitted with peripherally-cut dual twisted tapes (PDTs) under a constant wall heat-flux condition. The peripherallycut dual twisted tapes with different cutting pitch ratios (l/y = 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0) were tested for Reynolds numbers in the range of 5400 to 14,000. The experimental results showed thatNusselt number and friction factor of the tubes fitted with PDTswere considerably higher than those of the plain tube and those of the tubes with single twisted tape (ST) and dual twisted tapes (DTs). It was found that PDTs with l/y = 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 gave higher heat transfer rate than the typical DTs, with average Nusselt numbers greater by 12.1%, 7.8% and 3.8%, respectively. For the range investigated, PDTs with the smallest l/y ratio offered the highest thermal performance factor of 1.14.

  8. Formalism of thermal waves applied to the characterization of materials thermal effusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauchois, Alexis; Antczak, Emmanuel; Defer, Didier; Carpentier, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Thermal characterization of materials, especially civil engineering materials, in the way of non-destructive methods, are more and more widespread. In this article, we show an original point of view to describe the used method, the thermal waves, to obtain the thermal impedance of the studied system, using a specific sensor - a fluxmeter. The identification technique, based on a frequential approach, is optimized by applying a random input to the system. This kind of random heating is shown to provide a frequency range where the thermal effusivity is able to be identified and not correlated to another parameter. The strength of the method is also the determination of the contact resistance of the system, that allows to validate the identification process. Experimental results obtained from a sample with well-known thermal properties (polyvinyl chloride) are used to validate the proposed method.

  9. Plasticity in soil-structure interaction applied to cut-and-cover tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Plumey, Sylvain; Muttoni, Aurelio; Vulliet, Laurent; Labiouse, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Cut-and-cover tunnels behavior at ultimate limit state depends strongly on the interactions between the foundation soil, the backfill and the reinforced concrete structure. Characterization of the potential failure modes of these types of structure necessitates taking into account every major mechanical property of each components. The influence of the structure plastic behavior on the ultimate limit state of the soil-structure system is discussed through a basic case study of soil mechanics....

  10. Representation of thermal information in the antennal lobe of leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eRuchty

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Insects are equipped with various types of antennal sensilla, which house thermosensitive neurons adapted to receive different parameters of the thermal environment for a variety of temperature-guided behaviors. In the leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri, the physiology and the morphology of the thermosensitive sensillum coeloconicum (Sc has been thoroughly investigated. However, the central projections of its receptor neurons are unknown. Here we selectively stained the three neurons found in single Sc and tracked their axons into the brain of Atta vollenweideri workers. Each of the three axons terminates in a single glomerulus of the antennal lobe (Sc-glomeruli. Two of the innervated glomeruli are adjacent to each other and are located laterally, while the third one is clearly separated and located medially in the antennal lobe. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging of antennal lobe projection neurons, we studied where in the antennal lobe thermal information is represented. In the 11 investigated antennal lobes, we found up to 10 different glomeruli in a single specimen responding to temperature stimulation. Both, warm- and cold-sensitive glomeruli could be identified. The thermosensitive glomeruli were mainly located in the medial part of the antennal lobe. Based on the general representation of thermal information in the antennal lobe and functional data on the Sc-glomeruli we conclude that temperature stimuli received by Sc are processed in the medial of the three target glomeruli. The present study reveals an important role of the antennal lobe in temperature processing and links a specific thermosensitive neuron to its central target glomerulus.

  11. Large-scaled non-thermal laser peeling, cutting and drilling in nuclear decommissioning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JAERI FEL has recently discovered the new FEL lasing of 255fs ultra fast pulse, 6-9% high-efficiency, one gigawatt high peak power, a few kilowatts average power, and wide tunability of medium and far infrared wavelength regions at the same time. Using the new lasing and energy-recovery linac technology, we could extend a more powerful and more efficient free-electron laser (FEL) than 10kW and 25%, respectively, for nuclear industry, pharmacy, medical, defense, shipbuilding, semiconductor industry, chemical industries, environmental sciences, space-debris, power beaming and so on. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, we need the efficient and powerful FEL driven by the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero boil-off super-conducting RF linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the FEL will cover the application of non-thermal peeling, cutting, and drilling to decommission the nuclear power plants, and to prevent stress-corrosion cracking in nuclear industry and roadmap for the industrial FELs, the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero-boil-off cryostat concept and operational experience, the new, highly-efficient, high-power, and ultra fast pulse lasing mode, and the energy-recovery geometry. (authors)

  12. Thermal Processes and Temperature Patterns in a Complex Headwater Stream Within a Clear Cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Sutherland, P.

    2002-12-01

    Stream temperature is an ecologically critical variable, and stream temperature changes associated with forest harvesting are an ongoing concern in many regions. Little research has examined the energetic processes controlling headwater stream temperatures and their response to forestry operations. The objective of this study was to quantify these processes at the scales of a 220-m reach within a clear cut, and an individual step-pool unit located within the reach. At the step-pool unit, energy exchanges across the air-water surface were determined from measurements of net radiation, air temperature and humidity and wind speed, directly over the stream. Bed heat conduction was calculated from bed temperature gradients and assumed thermal conductivities. Hyporheic exchange associated with flow through the sediment upstream of the step structures was estimated from bed infiltration computed via Darcy's law and hydraulic gradients determined from piezometers installed in the stream bed, coupled with temperatures of infiltrating/exfiltrating water. These observations, along with measurements of channel characteristics and streamflow, were used as input to a Lagrangian energy-balance model to simulate reach-scale stream temperature variations. At both scales, hyporheic exchange appears to exert a strong control on the energy balance and resulting stream temperatures. In particular, hyporheic exchange appeared to reduce maximum daily stream temperatures during a period of low flow and sunny weather by several degrees C, compared to simulations without hyporheic exchange.

  13. Thermal Analysis Applied to Verapamil Hydrochloride Characterization in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Yoshida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC are useful techniques that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical industry to reveal important information regarding the physicochemical properties of drug and excipient molecules such as polymorphism, stability, purity, formulation compatibility among others. Verapamil hydrochloride shows thermal stability up to 180 °C and melts at 146 °C, followed by total degradation. The drug is compatible with all the excipients evaluated. The drug showed degradation when subjected to oxidizing conditions, suggesting that the degradation product is 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid derived from alkyl side chain oxidation. Verapamil hydrochloride does not present the phenomenon of polymorphism under the conditions evaluated. Assessing the drug degradation kinetics, the drug had a shelf life (t90 of 56.7 years and a pharmaceutical formulation showed t90 of 6.8 years showing their high stability.

  14. Influence of wood properties and technological parameters of processing on cutting power in milling of thermally modified beechwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of influence of thermal modification on cutting power required for milling wood processing. The experiment was conducted for the different treatment temperatures (170°C, 190°C and 210°C and different technological parameters of processing (feed and cutting depth. Cutting powers during milling were measured on four groups of beech wood samples, dimensions 35×16×400 mm, separately for heartwood and sapwood. The following mechanical and physical properties of the processed samples were tested: bending properties (modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, cross-sectional and tangential hardness, and air-dry density. The measuring device used for measuring, monitoring and displaying cutting power was developed at the Wood Machining Centre at the Faculty of Forestry in Belgrade. The results point out the differences in the powers required for processing heat-treated wood compared to untreated wood. The analysis shows that with the increase in treatment temperature, the required cutting powers decrease.

  15. Sensitivity theory applied to a transient thermal-hydraulics problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Oblow, E.M.

    1979-10-01

    A new method for sensitivity analysis of transient nonlinear problems is developed and applied to a reactor thermal-hydraulics problem. The method resembles the differential sensitivity methods currently used in the linear problems of reactor physics, but it is applicable to nonlinear systems as well. The equations governing heat transfer and fluid flow in a fuel pin and surrounding coolant are given and used to derive a second set of equations (commonly known as the adjoint equations) used in the sensitivity analysis. Both systems contain one second-order parabolic and one first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation. Difference equations are derived to approximate both systems and the convergence properties of these discrete systems are evaluated, yielding a useful analysis of the numerical solution. The solution functions are used to derive sensitivity coefficients for any desired integral response. These sensitivity coefficients are used in a first-order perturbation theory to predict changes in a response resulting from changes in parameter values. The results of a test problem are shown, verifying that this procedure is indeed useful for a wide variety of sensitivity calculations.

  16. FEM–based thermal modelling of the cutting process using power law-temperature dependent concept

    OpenAIRE

    W. Grzesik; P. Niesłony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this study is to compare two variants of the FEM simulation model of orthogonal cuttingprocess of AISI 1045 carbon steel with uncoated and multilayer-coated carbide tools i.e. standard and Power Law–Temperature Dependent (PL-TD) options. The primary reason for undertaking this problem was unsatisfactoryaccuracy of the predictions of cutting temperature especially for coated cutting tools.Design/methodology/approach: Methodology used employs the Lagrangian-FEM model with mo...

  17. Photoacoustic microscopy by photodeformation applied to thermal diffusivity determination

    OpenAIRE

    Balageas, Daniel; Boscher, Daniel; Déom, Alain; Enguehard, Franck

    1991-01-01

    International audience In this paper, an original technique is proposed to measure the thermal diffusivity at local scale using a photoacoustic microscopy set-up. Several experimental results collected on thin metallic layers are presented.

  18. Thermal Behavior of Green Roofs Applied to Tropical Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Tibério Cardoso; Francisco Vecchia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present results on an experimental field about the green roofs thermal behavior, compared to other traditional roof covering systems. On the one hand, it intends to describe shortly the constructive system of a green roof with a lightweight building system, which has a sustainable building materials character and, on the other, it worries with the water reuse and with the run-off delay. The main methodological procedure adopted to study the thermal behavior o...

  19. On the control of structures by applied thermal gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Don; Chen, JAY-C.

    1987-01-01

    Some preliminary results of research on control of flexible structures performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are presented. It was shown that the thermoelectric device is a feasible actuator and may effectively be used to control structures, provided the structure has a relatively low thermal inertia. The control law only depends on the open-loop system natural frequency.

  20. The effect of meat cuts and thermal processing on selected mineral concentration in beef from Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonka, Małgorzata; Szterk, Arkadiusz

    2015-07-01

    The impact of meat cuts (nine muscles and liver) and thermal processing on selected mineral (potassium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, including heme form) concentration in beef from Holstein-Friesian bulls was evaluated in the present study. The mineral's content widely varied depending on the tissue type (skeletal muscles/liver, except zinc) and between the different bovine muscles. The greatest diversity between the muscles demonstrated was zinc (3.5-6.9 mg 100 g(-1)f/w) and iron (1.7-2.3 mg 100 g(-1)f/w), however, there were no significant differences in heme iron to total iron ratio (average 74%). Thermal processes conducted on longissimus dorsi muscles also significantly affected mineral concentration. Grilled, roasted and fried bovine meat was characterised by a higher content (by 6-26%) of most studied minerals (except sodium) as compared to raw meat. Sodium levels in processed meat were 16-33% lower than in raw samples.

  1. Applied thermal pyrolysis of cogongrass in twin screw reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promdee, K.; Vitidsant, T.

    2014-08-01

    Thermal pyrolysis by heat transfer model can be solved the control temperature in twin screw feeder for produce bio-oil from Cogongrass by novel continuous pyrolysis reactor. In this study, all yield were expressed on a dry and their values were taken as the average of the thermal controlled. Thermal of pyrolysis were carried out at 400-500°C. The products yield calculation showed that the liquid yield of Cogongrass by pyrolysis was higher than that solid and gas yield, as highest of 52.62%, at 500°C, and the other of liquid yield obtained from Cogongrass were 40.56, and 46.45%, at 400, and 450°C, respectively. When separate liquid phase be composed of the bio-oil was highest 37.39%, at 500°C. Indicated that biomass from Cogongrass had good received yields because of low solid yield average and gas yield and high liquid yield average. The compounds detected in bio-oil from Cogongrass showed the functional group, especially; Phenol, Phenol 2,5-dimethyl, Benzene 1-ethyl-4-methoxy, 2-Cyclopenten-1-one, 2,3-dimethyl, Benzene 1-ethyl-3-methyl.

  2. Inductive thermal plasma generation applied for the materials coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coatings by thermal plasma are carried out introducing particles into a plasma system where they are accelerated and melted (total or partially) before striking the substrate to which they adhere and are suddenly cooled down. The nature of consolidation and solidification of the particles allows to have control upon the microstructure of the deposit. This technique is able to deposit any kind of material that is suitable to be merged (metal, alloy, ceramic, glass) upon any type of substrate (metal, graphite, ceramic, wood) with an adjustable thickness ranging from a few microns up to several millimeters. The applications are particularly focused to the coating of materials in order to improve their properties of resistance to corrosion, thermal and mechanical efforts as well as to preserve the properties of the so formed compound. In this work the electromagnetic induction phenomenon in an ionized medium by means of electric conductivity, is described. Emphasis is made on the devices and control systems employed in order to generate the thermal plasma and in carrying out the coatings of surfaces by the projection of particles based on plasma

  3. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Bento, A. C., E-mail: acbento@uem.br [Departamento de Física, Grupo de Espectroscopia Fotoacústica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná (Brazil); Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S. [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho – UNESP, Av. Brasil 56, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-21

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (∼7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (∼12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s{sup 0.5}/cm{sup 2} K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm{sup 3} K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water)

  4. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (∼7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (∼12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10−3 cm2/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s0.5/cm2 K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm3 K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water)

  5. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.; Bento, A. C.

    2013-11-01

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (˜7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (˜12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10-3 cm2/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s0.5/cm2 K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm3 K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water).

  6. Thermal behavior of the duct applied functionally graded material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), the high temperature results from friction among the air, combustion of fuel in engine and combustion gas of a nozzle. The high temperature may cause serious damages in UAV structure. The Functionally Graded Material(FGM) is chosen as a material of the engine duct structure. Thermal stress analysis of FGM is performed in this paper. FGM is composed of two constituent materials that are mixed up according to the specific volume fraction distribution in order to withstand high temperature. Therefore, hoop stress, axial stress and shear stress of duct with 2 layers, 4 layers and 8 layers FGM are compared and analyzed respectively. In addition, the creep behavior of FGM used in duct structure of an engine is analyzed for better understanding of FGM characteristics

  7. Effect of non-thermal hurdles in extending shelf life of cut apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayanfar, Shima; Chauhan, O P; Toepfl, Stefan; Heinz, Volker

    2014-12-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF), high pressure processing (HPP) and conventional method of heating (90 °C, 60s) were evaluated as blanching methods for fresh cut apples. The settings employed for PEF and HPP were 1.5 kV/cm, 100 pulses, 4 Hz and 600 MPa for 2 min respectively. The blanched samples were soaked in sucrose solution (60°Brix, 60 min) containing ascorbic acid, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate. The treated samples were packed and pasteurized using either hot water (90 °C, 15 min) or HPP (600 MPa, 10 min). These samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological attributes immediately after treatment and after 2 months of cold storage. The combination of different hurdles in all groups completely inhibited microbial growth. However, in terms of color values and texture retention, the apple cuts treated with PEF followed by hot water pasteurization were of a better quality when compared to HPP pasteurized ones (P < 0.05). PMID:25477677

  8. Comparative Studies on Thermal Performance of Conic Cut Twist Tape Inserts with SiO2 and TiO2 Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami D. Salman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison study on thermal performance conic cut twist tape inserts in laminar flow of nanofluids through a constant heat fluxed tube. Three tape configurations, namely, quadrant cut twisted tape (QCT, parabolic half cut twisted tape (PCT, and triangular cut twisted (VCT of twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth de = 0.5 cm were used with 1% and 2% volume concentration of SiO2/water and TiO2/water nanofluids. Typical twist tape with twist ratio of y = 2.93 was used for comparison. The results show that the heat transfer was enhanced by increasing of Reynolds number and nanoparticles concentration of nanofluid. The results have also revealed that the use of twist tape enhanced the heat transfer coefficient significantly and maximum heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the presence of triangular cut twist tape insert with 2% volume concentration of SiO2 nanofluid. Over the range investigated, the maximum thermal performance factor of 5.13 is found with the simultaneous use of the SiO2 nanofluid at 2% volume concentration VCT at Reynolds number of 220. Furthermore, new empirical correlations for Nusselt number, friction factor, and thermal performance factor are developed and reported.

  9. Laser Surface Thermal Treatment Applied to Stainless Steel X5 CrNi 18 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amariei

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper propose to mark out the influence of different control parameters of laser beam light over the entire surface thermal treatment applied and, also, the physical and technological proprieties of the stainless steel obtained layer

  10. Laser Surface Thermal Treatment Applied to Stainless Steel X5 CrNi 18 10

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Amariei; Florin Breaban; Constantin Marta

    2006-01-01

    The paper propose to mark out the influence of different control parameters of laser beam light over the entire surface thermal treatment applied and, also, the physical and technological proprieties of the stainless steel obtained layer

  11. Evaluation of the thermal damages in inlet engine valves varying the grinding wheels and the cutting fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carlos Bianchi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental research in which the thermal damage in inlet engine valves grinding was evaluated. Four different cutting fluids and two grinding wheel were tested and were analyzed the workpiece residual stress, the micro hardness and the optical observation of the workpiece microstructure. The cutting fluid and the grinding wheel types adopted resulted in different types of residual stress. The cutting oil resulted in compressive residual stresses, even using the conventional wheel. The CBN wheel, due to the best proprieties of its grains resulted in compressive residual stresses for all fluids tested by the reducing of the grinding energy and its easier dissipation from the grinding zone. The microstructure investigations showed that the source of the tensile residual stresses observed was the thermal cycles imposed. No microstructure alterations were detected. Although, the absence of microstructure alterations not always suggests that favorable residual stresses can be obtained.Nesse artigo é apresentada uma pesquisa experimental sobre os danos térmicos que aparecem nas válvulas de admissão dos motores após passarem pelo processo de retificação. Foram utilizados, nessa experimentação, quatro tipos de fluidos de corte e dois rebolos (CBN e Al2O3, sendo analisadas a tensão residual, a microdureza e a microestrutrura das peças fabricadas com esses materiais. Esses fluidos e rebolos resultaram em diferentes tipos de tensões residuais. O óleo de corte, por exemplo, induziu nas peças tensões residuais de compressão. Em relação ao rebolo de CBN, devido às melhores propriedades de seus grãos abrasivos, estes proporcionaram tensões de compressão para todos os fluidos testados. Em relação às alterações microestruturais, notou-se que nenhuma alteração térmica foi detectada nas peças, embora a inexistência de alterações microestruturais nem sempre sugerem que tensões residuais favoráveis foram

  12. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  13. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  14. Photothermal Techniques Applied to the Thermal Characterization of l-Cysteine Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, E. Maldonado; Ramón-Gallegos, E.; Jiménez Pérez, J. L.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández Rosas, J.

    2013-05-01

    Thermal-diffusivity ( D) and thermal-effusivity ( e) measurements were carried out in l-cysteine nanoliquids l-cysteine in combination with Au nanoparticles and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) nanofluid) by using thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) and photopyroelectric (PPE) techniques. The TLS technique was used in the two mismatched mode experimental configuration to obtain the thermal-diffusivity of the samples. On the other hand, the sample thermal effusivity ( e) was obtained by using the PPE technique where the temperature variation of a sample, exposed to modulated radiation, is measured with a pyrolectric sensor. From the obtained thermal-diffusivity and thermal-effusivity values, the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the sample were calculated. The obtained thermal parameters were compared with the thermal parameters of water. The results of this study could be applied to the detection of tumors by using the l-cysteine in combination with Au nanoparticles and PpIX nanofluid, called conjugated in this study.

  15. Binomial and ratio-of-Poisson-means frequentist confidence intervals applied to the error evaluation of cut efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Ranucci, Gioacchino

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the error to be attributed to cut efficiencies is a common question in the practice of experimental particle physics. Specifically, the need to evaluate the efficiency of the cuts for background removal, when they are tested in a signal-free-background-only energy window, originates a statistical problem which finds its natural framework in the ample family of solutions for two classical, and closely related, questions, i.e. the determination of confidence intervals for the parameter of a binomial proportion and for the ratio of Poisson means. In this paper the problem is first addressed from the traditional perspective, and afterwards naturally evolved towards the introduction of non standard confidence intervals both for the binomial and Poisson cases; in particular, special emphasis is given to the intervals obtained through the application of the likelihood ratio ordering to the traditional Neyman prescription for the confidence limits determination. Due to their attractiveness in term o...

  16. Thermally activated relaxation behaviour of shot-peened tool steels for cutting tool body applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Different shot-peened tool steels had different thermal surface stress relaxation. → Hot-work tool steel had better stress relaxation resistance than low-alloyed steel. → Stress relaxation mechanism was diffusion-controlled. → Relaxation rate determining exponent was time and temperature dependent. - Abstract: Surface residual stress, microstrain and domain size were determined using X-ray diffraction in shot-peened low-alloyed and hot-work tool steels subjected to varying temperatures (200-600 deg. C) and times (0.5-50 h). The stress relaxation was directly related to microstrain decrease and domain size increase.The Zener-Wert-Avrami function was used to model the relaxation behaviour. The mechanism responsible for the relaxation behaviour is proposed to be diffusion-controlled as the activation energies for stress and microstrain relaxation were close to the activation enthalpy for lattice self-diffusion of alpha-iron.The relaxation rate varied over time and temperature. At temperatures up to 300 deg. C, the relaxation rate was insignificant in all the steels. In the temperature range of 300-400 deg. C and 400-550 deg. C for low-alloyed and hot-work tool steels, respectively, the stresses decreased at a similar rate with increasing time and temperature. At the tempering temperatures of the steels, the stress relaxation was controlled by microstructure transformations. A stress relaxation stabilization was found in one of hot-work steels between 450 and 500 deg. C at annealing times longer than 3 h.

  17. The use of a task-based exposure assessment model (T-BEAM) for assessment of metal fume exposures during welding and thermal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, P; Goldberg, M; Barnes, P; Stafford, E

    2000-01-01

    Elevated disease rates have been documented among construction workers for cancer, pneumonoconiosis, asbestosis, and silicosis. However, methodologies for exposure assessment in construction are not well described in the U.S. literature. Working through a cooperative agreement with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Center to Protect Workers' Rights--a research arm of the Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO--has developed and used a "Task-Based Exposure Assessment Model (T-BEAM)" for construction. The characteristic elements of T-BEAM are: (1) an emphasis on the identification, implementation, and evaluation of engineering and work practice controls; and (2) use of experienced, specially trained construction workers (construction safety and health specialists) in the exposure assessment process. A task-based approach was used because tasks, or specialized skills, form the single greatest thread of continuity in the dynamic environment of construction. Workers in the construction industry come from several crafts and are typically employed by a large number of contractors throughout their career. Project types (e.g., residential or industrial rehabilitation) are also highly variable and present unique health risks. Finally, because construction involves building, renovating, or dismantling physical surroundings, the work site is constantly changing. Between 1995 and 1996, T-BEAM was applied to the collection of approximately 200 personal exposure measurements associated with "hot work tasks"--welding and thermal cutting. Data were collected with the assistance of specially trained, journeyman ironworkers, pipe fitters, and boilermakers on nine construction sites located throughout the United States. Portable local exhaust ventilation was provided to participating contractors with the intent of measuring its impact on exposure. Results indicate that data collected in a standardized, systematic fashion from multiple

  18. Determination of the thermal conductivity of sediment rock from measurements on cuttings; Ermittlung der Gesteinswaermeleitfaehigkeit von Sedimentgesteinen aus Messungen am Bohrklein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troschke, B.; Burkhardt, H. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Angewandte Goephysik

    1997-12-01

    Due to high costs core recovery in many wells is strongly restricted. To determine thermal conductivity in these cases measurements on cuttings are necessary, since in situ measurements are expensive and protracted, too. Therefore cores from three hydrogeothermal wells of the north-east part of the German sedimentary basin were grinded to compare the results of measurements on cuttings with known values of thermal conductivity from the original cores. By a suitable model of the two-phase-system cuttings-water it is possible to calculate the thermal conductivity of the rock-matrix. On the basis of this value and a suitable rock-model an average thermal conductivity for the water saturated rock can be estimated. Certainly all influences of the texture (anisotropy, grain bond) and of the characteristics of the porespace (porosity, internal surface, saturation, permeability) are lost with measurements on cuttings. Therefore for the different systems cuttings-water and rock-porefluid as well as for different rock types different models are necessary. (orig.) [Deutsch] In vielen Bohrungen werden aus Kostengruenden keine Kerne gezogen. Fuer die Ermittlung der Waermeleitfaehigkeit koennen deshalb nur in-situ-Messungen, die ebenfalls zeit- und kostenintensiv sind, oder Messungen am Bohrklein herangezogen werden. Es wurden daher Kerne aus drei Hydrogeothermalbohrungen des nordostdeutschen Beckens aufgemahlen, um so vergleichende Messungen am `Bohrklein` aus Kernen mit bekannter Waermeleitfaehigkeit durzhzufuehren. Durch eine geeignete Modellvorstellung des Zwei-Phasen-Systems Bohrklein/Wasser laesst sich die Waermeleitfaehigkeit der Gesteinsmatrix bestimmen und aus dieser durch ein Gesteinsmodell auch eine mittlere Waermeleitfaehigkeit des wassergesaettigten Festgesteins berechnen. Klar ist, dass bei Messungen am Bohrklein Einfluesse, die durch Gefuege (Anisotropie, Kornbindung) und Porenraumeigenschaften (Porositaet, Saettigung, Permeabilitaet) hervorgerufen werden

  19. Analysis Of The Structure Of A Material Used In The Manufacture Of Thermal Chucks For Fixing Tools Cutting Using Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic stability of machine has its own importance in the quality of the machined product. With the development of new technologies for cutting tools, as the geometries and materials, cutting speeds used today reach values inconceivable for two decades. In the automotive industry steel and cast iron are gradually being replaced by lower density material and even lower costs. In complex shapes tools, heterogeneous material removal in roughing, sudden changes of sections, etc. Stress relieving treatment should be carried out to minimize dimensional variations of form during quenching and tempering. Materials for manufacture of thermal fixing most appropriate for that operating system still needs to be further investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the elastic behavior of the material used in the manufacture of tooling systems for cutting tools. Has been evaluated In fastening system, the temperature variation exerted on the mandrel body region and the thermal expansion where H13 steel can withstand the assembly process by thermal interference. This method can determine the amount of number of cycles until the onset of fatigue that material.

  20. Comparison between analytical and numerical method for estimating the thermal lensing effect in the end-pumped solid states lasers and apply the results to designing of which type lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this working it was used from analytical and numerical (FEM) methods for calculation of thermal lensing effect in the end-pumped solid state lasers rods. These results were applied to designing and realization of an Nd:YVO4 and a Cr4+: YAG laser. The results shown that for direct cut crystals, two methods almost obtained the same results and one can use from analytical method results (that usually obtain very easy) for estimation of thermal lensing effect for designing of the end-pumped solid state lasers and apply for realization of them

  1. Thermal test of noncombustible urethane for applying to type B packages for radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The package to safely transport the radioisotope, which is produced from HANARO, has to be developed to establish the distribution system of the radioisotope from production to consumption. KAERI is developing the type B package for Ir-192 600 ci. The type B package must be able to endure from thermal condition of 800 .deg. C. However, it is very difficult that the polyurethane, which is used as shock absorber, is maintained less than 327 .deg. C that is melting point of lead used as shielding material. Therefore, the specimens, which are applied noncombustible urethane and fireproof materials, are made. The experimental estimation for thermal condition of 800 .deg. C was conducted

  2. Thermal power transfer system using applied potential difference to sustain operating pressure difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep (Inventor); Fujita, Toshio (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A thermal power transfer system using a phase change liquid gas fluid in a closed loop configuration has a heat exchanger member connected to a gas conduit for inputting thermal energy into the fluid. The pressure in the gas conduit is higher than a liquid conduit that is connected to a heat exchanger member for outputting thermal energy. A solid electrolyte member acts as a barrier between the gas conduit and the liquid conduit adjacent to a solid electrolyte member. The solid electrolyte member has the capacity of transmitting ions of a fluid through the electrolyte member. The ions can be recombined with electrons with the assistance of a porous electrode. An electrical field is applied across the solid electrolyte member to force the ions of the fluid from a lower pressure liquid conduit to the higher pressure gas conduit.

  3. The development of thermal and mechanical cutting technology for the dismantlement of the internal core of Fukushima Daiichi NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cutting technologies for removing the fuel debris and the internal core structure in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are needed in consideration of the situation in the core and so on. On the other hand, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), which has been carrying out the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities ending the R and D, has several technologies and knowledge to dismantle the nuclear facilities. In particular, the cutting technologies of the plasma arc, the laser, and the abrasive water jet (AWJ) – which are used for dismantling the reactor of N.P.S. (FUGEN), a heavy water-moderated, light water cooled, pressure-tube-type reactor – and the plasma jet for dismantling the nuclear fuel facilities have been developed. Therefore, based on the above, JAEA has carried out the cutting test for investigating the applicability of those cutting technologies to propose the method for removing the fuel debris and the internal core structure to the national project. This paper outlines the test results of the plasma arc and the AWJ cutting technologies, and the future plan of the test of those technologies and the plasma jet cutting technology. (author)

  4. Conceptos del maquinado con altas velocidades de corte aplicado en moldes y matrices. // Concepts of the machining with high speeds cutting applied in molds and dies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Aneiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La demanda de componentes mecánicos de alta calidad y gran exactitud para sistemas de elevada precisión estaaumentando considerablemente en los últimos años a nivel mundial. Este hecho ha provocado el desarrollo de nuevastecnologías aplicadas a los procesos de corte.El desarrollo integral de las máquinas herramientas (controles, husillos de alta velocidad de las herramientas de corte(nuevos materiales para los substratos y capas y de la tecnología de maquinado posibilitó la aplicación del corte a altasvelocidades (High speed Cutting HSC. El aumento de las velocidades de corte es una de las formas de incrementar laeficiencia de los procesos productivos a través de la reducción de los tiempos de fabricación. La disminución en variasveces de los tiempos de fabricación, se logra no solo por los tiempos de maquinado sino también por la sustitución oreducción de otros procesos de elaboración que forman parte de la cadena productiva, que en ocasiones son relativamentelentos como son la electroerosión, el acabado manual en la producción de moldes y troqueles así como los cambios deoperaciones de la pieza bruta.Por ser un proceso relativamente nuevo, apenas desde los años 90 es que se implementa la introducción del HSC y muchascuestiones tecnológicas aun están sin respuesta. Por otro lado las características ya conocidas de esta nueva tecnologíaindican una buena perspectiva de aplicación en los más diversos segmentos de la industria.Palabras claves: HSC, HSM, velocidad de corte, velocidad de maquinado._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The demand of mechanical components of high quality and great accuracy for systems of high precision, increasingconsiderably in the last years at world level. This fact has caused the development of new applied technologies to thecutting processes.The integral development of machine tools (you control, high-speed spindle of the cutting tools

  5. Extraction of thermal Green's function using diffuse fields: a passive approach applied to thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Margherita; Sternini, Simone; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Mariani, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In the field of non-destructive evaluation, defect detection and visualization can be performed exploiting different techniques relying either on an active or a passive approach. In the following paper the passive technique is investigated due to its numerous advantages and its application to thermography is explored. In previous works, it has been shown that it is possible to reconstruct the Green's function between any pair of points of a sensing grid by using noise originated from diffuse fields in acoustic environments. The extraction of the Green's function can be achieved by cross-correlating these random recorded waves. Averaging, filtering and length of the measured signals play an important role in this process. This concept is here applied in an NDE perspective utilizing thermal fluctuations present on structural materials. Temperature variations interacting with thermal properties of the specimen allow for the characterization of the material and its health condition. The exploitation of the thermographic image resolution as a dense grid of sensors constitutes the basic idea underlying passive thermography. Particular attention will be placed on the creation of a proper diffuse thermal field, studying the number, placement and excitation signal of heat sources. Results from numerical simulations will be presented to assess the capabilities and performances of the passive thermal technique devoted to defect detection and imaging of structural components.

  6. Thermal design of a pressure electroslag remelting furnace applied for 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actual work defines the thermal design methodology for pressure electroslag remelting furnaces (P ESR) of variable capacity, applied for 5 Kg. It begins with classification and description of secondary refining furnaces, after PESR process and the concept of thermal design are described. Next, in base of the steel weight to remelt (5 Kg); ingot, crucible and electrode dimensions are obtained. These elements will be inside of pressure vessel whose thickness are determined according to ASME Code (Section 8, Division 1, U G-27). It was developed a computer program, where the furnace capacity can be modified, so like other conditions, and display principal dimensions of the furnace. Current and voltage are obtained from the heat necessary to remelt the ingot and the heat transfer in the crucible, is analysed because of it is the most critical element. It was selected too the equipment to registry temperatures and pressure in base of thermocouple characteristics. (Author)

  7. New 2D Thermal Model Applied to an LHC Inner Triplet Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Bielert, ER; Ten Kate, HHJ; Verweij, AP

    2011-01-01

    A newly developed numerical model is presented that enables to compute two-dimensional heat transfer and temperature distributions over the cross-section of superconducting accelerator magnets. The entire thermal path from strand-in-cable to heat sink, including helium channels is considered. Superfluid helium properties are combined with temperature- and field-dependent non-linear solid material properties. Interfacial interactions are also taken into account. The model is applied to the cross-section of an inner triplet quadrupole magnet featuring a new concept for the ground insulation. Beam loss profiles are implemented as main heat source. It is concluded that operational margins can be considerably increased by opening additional thermal paths, improving the cooling conditions.

  8. Cutting-tool recycling process with the zinc-melt method for obtaining thermal-spray feedstock powder (WC-Co): Postopek recikliranja orodij za rezanje z metodo taljenja v Zn za pridobivanje prahu WC-Co za termično nabrizgavanje:

    OpenAIRE

    Altuncu, Ekrem; Erdogan, Garip; Ozturk, Savas; Turk, Ahmet; Ustel, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Various recycling processes for WC-Co cermets from cutting tools, such as chemical modification, thermal modification, the cold-stream method and the electrochemical method have been investigated and some of them are actually employed in industry. However, these conventional methods have many problems to be solved and they are not always established technologies. Therefore, a more economical and high-efficiency recycling procedure needs to be developed. In this study we investigated the appli...

  9. Evaluation of naled applied as a thermal fog against Culicoides furens (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, J R; Parsons, R E; Winner, R A

    1987-09-01

    Naled/diesel oil (1:99), applied as a thermal fog, was tested against the biting midge Culicoides furens. The insects were confined in small cages suspended at 4 heights on poles at progressively greater distances from the fog release point. In terms of population survival 24 hr after treatment, a parabolic equation accurately described the regression of percent survival on distance from the release point. If 10% survival is considered as the maximum acceptable, then the equation predicts adequate control up to 19.6 m (64.3 ft) from the fog release point. PMID:3504923

  10. Criticality analysis of thermal reactors for two energy groups applying Monte Carlo and neutron Albedo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Albedo method applied to criticality calculations to nuclear reactors is characterized by following the neutron currents, allowing to make detailed analyses of the physics phenomena about interactions of the neutrons with the core-reflector set, by the determination of the probabilities of reflection, absorption, and transmission. Then, allowing to make detailed appreciations of the variation of the effective neutron multiplication factor, keff. In the present work, motivated for excellent results presented in dissertations applied to thermal reactors and shieldings, was described the methodology to Albedo method for the analysis criticality of thermal reactors by using two energy groups admitting variable core coefficients to each re-entrant current. By using the Monte Carlo KENO IV code was analyzed relation between the total fraction of neutrons absorbed in the core reactor and the fraction of neutrons that never have stayed into the reflector but were absorbed into the core. As parameters of comparison and analysis of the results obtained by the Albedo method were used one dimensional deterministic code ANISN (ANIsotropic SN transport code) and Diffusion method. The keff results determined by the Albedo method, to the type of analyzed reactor, showed excellent agreement. Thus were obtained relative errors of keff values smaller than 0,78% between the Albedo method and code ANISN. In relation to the Diffusion method were obtained errors smaller than 0,35%, showing the effectiveness of the Albedo method applied to criticality analysis. The easiness of application, simplicity and clarity of the Albedo method constitute a valuable instrument to neutronic calculations applied to nonmultiplying and multiplying media. (author)

  11. The application of mechanical and thermal cutting tools for the dismantling of activated internals of the reactor pressure vessels in the Versuchsatomkraftwerk, Kahl and the Gundremmingen Unit A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickelpasch, N. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany); Kalwa, H. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany); Steiner, H. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, D-89355 Gundremmingen (Germany); Priesmeyer, U. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, D-89355 Gundremmingen (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    The Gundremmingen Unit A plant (KRB A) and the Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl (VAK) plant represent the first generation of nuclear reactors in Germany. The 250 MW{sub e} reactor KRB A was the first commercial reactor in Germany and the 16 MW{sub e} reactor VAK was the pilot nuclear power plant, which had to serve mainly scientific purposes. KRB A is under dismantling since 1983, VAK since 1988. Although they are both of the boiling water type, they are rather different to each other, referring to their size and construction. The actual work is the dismantling of high contaminated components inside the reactor buildings and the underwater cutting of activated internals of the reactor pressure vessels. Several cutting techniques have been developed, tested and applied to respective dismantling tasks in the meantime. The experiences made in both projects are not limited to dismantling work only, but also include know-how on effective decontamination and scrap recycling. (orig.)

  12. Surface cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2003-12-01

    The paper reports on mechanical rock cutting in surface mining. Mining technology has moved a long way in recent years and the mining equipments achieved considerable success in direct rock cutting. 3 figs.

  13. Study on the Cross Plane Thermal Transport of Polycrystalline Molybdenum Nanofilms by Applying Picosecond Laser Transient Thermoreflectance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Miao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin metal films are widely used as interconnecting wires and coatings in electronic devices and optical components. Reliable thermophysical properties of the films are required from the viewpoint of thermal management. The cross plane thermal transport of four polycrystalline molybdenum nanofilms with different thickness deposited on glass substrates has been studied by applying the picosecond laser transient thermoreflectance technique. The measurement is performed by applying both front pump-front probe and rear pump-front probe configurations with high quality signal. The determined cross plane thermal diffusivity of the Mo films greatly decreases compared to the corresponding bulk value and tends to increase as films become thicker, exhibiting significant size effect. The main mechanism responsible for the thermal diffusivity decrease of the present polycrystalline Mo nanofilms is the grain boundary scattering on the free electrons. Comparing the cross plane thermal diffusivity and inplane electrical conductivity indicates the anisotropy of the transport properties of the Mo films.

  14. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  15. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  16. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications.

  17. 火电机组快速甩负荷功能的实现%Realization of Thermal Power Units Fast Cut Back Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 刘艳; 张根生; 李瑞东

    2014-01-01

    快速甩负荷(FCB)功能能够为电力系统迅速恢复故障状态提供启动安全保障,加快机组的恢复速度。介绍了火电机组实现甩负荷带厂用电运行的FCB工况,并对此工况下主要电气系统运行参数的变化进行仿真,通过观察FCB发生后各参数变化,证明火电厂通过各相关系统的配合能够成功实现机组甩负荷带厂用电的FCB工况,并在较小损耗下维持稳定运行状态。%Fast cut back (FCB) function can provide start security guarantee for power system in rapid restoration from fault status, quick-ening units restoration speed. Introduction was made to the FCB working conditions in which thermal power units realized FCB with plant power operation. Simulation was carried out for main electric system operation parameters changes under such working conditions. Via observation on various parameters after FCB taking place, it is proved that thermal units plant can realize units FCB plant with power’s FCB working condition via coordination of each related system and maintain stable operation status in little loss.

  18. A simple modification of PCR thermal profile applied to evade persisting contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, Michał; Stanisławska-Sachadyn, Anna; Sachadyn, Paweł

    2016-08-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), one of the most commonly applied methods of diagnostics and molecular biology has a frustrating downside known as the false positive signal or contamination. Several solutions to avoid and to eliminate PCR contaminations have been worked out to date but the implementation of these solutions to laboratory practice may be laborious and time consuming. A simple approach to circumvent the problem of persisting PCR contamination is reported. The principle of this approach lies in shortening the steps of denaturation, annealing, and elongation in the PCR thermal cycle. The modification leads to the radical decline of false positive signals obtained for the no-template controls without affecting the detection of target PCR products. In the model experiments presented here, the signal of negative control was shifted by about ten cycles up above those for the examined samples so that it could be neglected. We do not recommend this solution in PCR diagnostics, where the sensitivity of detection is of the highest priority. However, the approach could be useful to pass by the problem of persisting contamination in quantitative PCR, where the range of quantitation is usually much above the limits of detection.

  19. Relationship Between State Parameters and Thermal Properties of Cut Tobacco During Drying in Cylinder%滚筒干燥过程中叶丝状态变化对其热物性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳保山; 李斌; 刘朝贤; 陈良元; 秦国鑫; 张彩云

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the heat transfer process during tobacco heating and moistening, the thermal properties of cut tobacco during drying in a cylinder were measured with transient plane thermal source method by a self-configured online testing platform, and the effects of temperature and moisture content of cut tobacco on its thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity were investigated and analyzed. The results showed that:1) At the same moisture content, the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of cut tobacco increased, while thermal diffusivity decreased with the raise of cut tobacco temperature. 2) At the same temperature, the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of cut tobacco decreased while thermal diffusivity increased with the decrease of moisture content. 3) During the process of tobacco drying, along with moisture content decreasing and temperature raising, the thermal conductivity of cut tobacco tended to decrease, which indicated that the moisture content affected thermal conductivity more significantly than did temperature.%为了分析烟草热湿加工处理中的传热过程,通过自行搭建的滚筒干燥过程中烟丝热物性在线测试平台,利用瞬态平面热源法测定了滚筒干燥过程中烟丝的热物性,考察分析了该过程中烟丝温度、含水率对烟丝导热系数、热扩散系数、体积热容的影响.结果表明:①当含水率相同时,烟丝导热系数、体积热容随着烟丝温度的升高而增大,热扩散系数随温度的升高而降低;②当烟丝温度相同时,烟丝导热系数、体积热容随含水率的降低而减小,热扩散系数随着含水率的降低而增大;③干燥过程中,烟丝含水率逐渐减小,烟丝温度逐渐升高,烟丝导热系数在温度与含水率的共同作用下整体有减小的趋势,表明烟丝含水率对导热系数的影响较温度显著.

  20. Transport and distribution of basally applied indoleaceticacid-2-/sup 14/C in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) cuttings in relation to interaction of auxin and indole in adventitious root formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh Choudhary, K.; Basu, R.N. (University Coll. of Agriculture, Calcutta (India))

    1981-07-01

    Negative interaction or antagonism between IAA and high concentration of indole in rooting of bean cuttings was associated with significant increase in upward movement and accumulation of radiocarbon of IAA-2-/sup 14/C in upper parts of the cuttings. Positive interaction or synergism observed with lower concentrations of indole was not associated with such increased acropetal transport. There was also no significant difference in total radioactivity per cutting among the different concentrations of indole. The results suggest that non-promotion of upward movement of basally applied auxin from the root forming region or its increased upward movement out of the root forming region may be an important factor in the mechanism of synergism or antagonism respectively.

  1. Online Cake Cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2010-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where players arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some desirable properties that online cake cutting procedures might possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness, and identify which properties are in fact possessed by the different online cake procedures.

  2. On the van der Pauw's method applied to the measurement of low thermal conductivity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C.; Flores, E.; Bodega, J.; Leardini, F.; Ferrer, I. J.; Ares, J. R.; Sánchez, C.

    2016-08-01

    The electrical van der Pauw's method has recently been extended to measure the thermal conductivity of different elements and compounds. This technique provides an easy way to determine the sample in-plane thermal conductivity by avoiding the influence of the thermal contact resistances. However, the reported calculated error values appear to be underestimated when dealing with the materials with low thermal conductivity (resistance wires as well as the resulting modification of the sample temperature map. Both phenomena lead to experimental values of the sample thermal conductivity, which are systematically higher than the tabulated ones. The magnitude of this systematic error is ˜100% dealing with the samples of macroscopic dimensions, and low thermal conductivity indicated that the obtained accurate measurements can be quite challenging.

  3. A disposable laser print-cut-laminate polyester microchip for multiplexed PCR via infra-red-mediated thermal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yiwen; Duarte, Gabriela R M; Poe, Brian L; Riehl, Paul S; dos Santos, Fernando M; Martin-Didonet, Claudia C G; Carrilho, Emanuel; Landers, James P

    2015-12-11

    Infrared (IR)-mediated thermal cycling system, a method proven to be a effective for sub-μL scale polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on microchips, has been integrated with DNA extraction and separation on a glass microchip in a fully integrated micro Total Analysis System by Easley et al., in 2006. IR-PCR has been demonstrated on both glass and PMMA microdevices where the fabrication (bonding) is not trivial. Polyester-toner (PeT) microfluidic devices have significant potential as cost-effective, disposable microdevices as a result of the ease of fabrication (∼$0.25 USD and PCR system. Undesirable IR absorption by the black-toner bonding layer was eliminated with a spatial filter in the form of an aluminum foil mask. The solution heating rate for a black PeT microchip using a tungsten lamp was 10.1 ± 0.7 °C s(-1) with a cooling rate of roughly -12 ± 0.9 °C s(-1) assisted by forced air cooling. Dynamic surface passivation strategies allowed the successful amplification of a 520 bp fragment of the λ-phage genome (in 11 min) and a 1500 bp region of Azospirillum brasilense. Using a centrosymmetric chamber configuration in a multichamber PeT microchip, homogenous temperature distribution over all chambers was achieved with inter-chamber temperature differences at annealing, extension and denaturing steps of less than ±2 °C. The effectiveness of the multichamber system was demonstrated with the simultaneous amplification of a 390 bp amplicon of human β-globin gene in five PeT PCR microchambers. The relative PCR amplification efficiency with a human β-globin DNA fragment ranged from 70% to 90%, in comparison to conventional thermal cyclers, with an inter-chamber standard deviation of ∼10%. Development of PeT microchips for IR-PCR has the potential to provide rapid, low-volume amplification while also integrating PCR with extraction upstream and separation/detection downstream.

  4. 基于热裂法的液晶玻璃基板激光切割技术研究%Research of the technology of laser cutting LCD glass substrates based on thermal cracking method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪旭煌; 姚建华; 周国斌; 楼程华; 杨渊思

    2011-01-01

    为了实现液晶玻璃基板的可控断裂切割,提出了一种液晶玻璃基板激光切割的新方法.采用Nd:YAG激光在液晶玻璃基板上预置初始裂纹,用CO2激光作为热源对其进行加热,并用Ar气进行冷却.分析了激光光斑尺寸和液晶玻璃基板厚度对切割的影响,并与传统机械切割进行了对比.用扫描电子显微镜检测了激光切割后切割表面及断面形貌.结果表明,运用机械切割,其基体内存在大量的微裂纹,而基于热裂法的液晶玻璃基板激光切割表面光滑平直、无毛刺、基体内无微裂纹存在,切割断面影响区小于20μm,优越性明显高于机械切割.%In order to cut liquid crystal display (LCD) glass substrates with controlled crack, a new method was put forward.Firstly, an initial crack was prepared on the surface of LCD substrates with Nd: YAG laser.Then, the substrate was heated up with CO2 laser and cooled with Ar gas.The effect of laser spot size and the thickness of LCD glass substrates on laser cutting quality was analyzed.The surface and performance of the cutting face after laser treatment was tested by means of scanning electronic microscope (SEM).The cutting quality was compared with the traditional mechanical cutting quality.The results show that there are lots of micro cracks in the substrates cut with traditional mechanical method, however, the laser cutting surface based on thermal cracking method is smooth and flat, no micro cracks exists, and the cutting section-affecting zone is less than 20μm.It is better to cut LCD glass substrates with thermal crack laser cutting method than mechanical cutting method.

  5. Application of water jetfor cutting polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stoić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of polymeric materials, during thermal cutting processes it leads to their melting, and therefore appear errors in the final product. This paper presents a “cold” process of cutting polyamide 6 ie. SIPAS 60, where there are given the characteristics of materials and guidelines for satisfactory quality of process. The authors made the cut experiment 32 were they changed the cutting parameters (cutting pressure, cutting feed and abrasive mass flow; the surface roughness was measured by the depth of material, because the roughness changes with the thickness of the material to be cut.

  6. Open Photoacoustic Cell Configuration Applied to the Thermal Characterization of Liquid CdS Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Nastaran; Mahmood Mat Yunus, W.; Kharazmi, Alireza; Saion, Elias; Behzad, Kasra

    2014-01-01

    CdS nanofluids were prepared by the gamma-radiation method at different radiation doses. The samples were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The open cell photoacoustic technique was used to measure the thermal effusivity of the CdS nanocomposites. In this technique a He-Ne laser was used as the excitation source and was operated at 632.8 nm with an output power of 70 mW. The precision and accuracy of this technique were initially established by measuring the thermal effusivity of distilled water and ethylene glycol. The thermal-effusivity values of these two samples were found to be close to the values reported in the literature. The thermal effusivity of CdS nanofluids decreased from (0.453 to 0.268) with increased dosage of gamma radiation.

  7. Multiagent simulation of evolutive plate tectonics applied to the thermal evolution of the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, M. (M.); Grigné, C.; HUSSON, Laurent; Conrad, C. P.; Le Yaouanq, Sébastien; Parenthoën, M.; Tisseau, C.; Tisseau, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    International audience [1] The feedback between plate tectonics and mantle convection controls the Earth's thermal evolution via the seafloor age distribution. We therefore designed the MACMA model to simulate time-dependent plate tectonics in a 2D cylindrical geometry with evolutive plate boundaries, based on multiagent systems that express thermal and mechanical interactions. We compute plate velocities using a local force balance and use explicit parameterizations to treat tectonic proc...

  8. Noninvasive measurement of burn wound depth applying infrared thermal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E.; Maltha, Ilse M.; Klaessens, John H.; Vet, Henrica C.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Zuijlen, Paul P.

    2016-02-01

    In burn wounds early discrimination between the different depths plays an important role in the treatment strategy. The remaining vasculature in the wound determines its healing potential. Non-invasive measurement tools that can identify the vascularization are therefore considered to be of high diagnostic importance. Thermography is a non-invasive technique that can accurately measure the temperature distribution over a large skin or tissue area, the temperature is a measure of the perfusion of that area. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinimetric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of thermography for measuring burn wound depth. In a cross-sectional study with 50 burn wounds of 35 patients, the inter-observer reliability and the validity between thermography and Laser Doppler Imaging were studied. With ROC curve analyses the ΔT cut-off point for different burn wound depths were determined. The inter-observer reliability, expressed by an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99, was found to be excellent. In terms of validity, a ΔT cut-off point of 0.96°C (sensitivity 71%; specificity 79%) differentiates between a superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn. A ΔT cut-off point of -0.80°C (sensitivity 70%; specificity 74%) could differentiate between a deep partial-thickness and a full-thickness burn wound. This study demonstrates that thermography is a reliable method in the assessment of burn wound depths. In addition, thermography was reasonably able to discriminate among different burn wound depths, indicating its potential use as a diagnostic tool in clinical burn practice.

  9. Applying measured reflection from the ground to simulations of thermal perfromance of solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    and the azimuth of the surface in question. The paper will present an analysis of simulations of the thermal performance of solar collectors using the standard description of the albedo and using the albedo determined by the measurements. It will be elucidated how important an accurate description...... of the reflection from the ground is for the thermal performance of solar collectors.......Solar radiation on tilted and vertical surfaces in the Arctic is, in large parts of the year, strongly influenced by reflection from snow. In connection with planning and optimization of energy efficient buildings and solar energy systems in the Arctic, it is important to have an accurate...

  10. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers Applied to High Temperature Plates for Potential Use in the Solar Thermal Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kogia; Liang Cheng; Abbas Mohimi; Vassilios Kappatos; Tat-Hean Gan; Wamadeva Balachandran; Cem Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated Solar Plants (CSPs) are used in solar thermal industry for collecting and converting sunlight into electricity. Parabolic trough CSPs are the most widely used type of CSP and an absorber tube is an essential part of them. The hostile operating environment of the absorber tubes, such as high temperatures (400–550 °C), contraction/expansion, and vibrations, may lead them to suffer from creep, thermo-mechanical fatigue, and hot corrosion. Hence, their condition monitoring is of cruc...

  11. Characteristics of thermally reduced graphene oxide and applied for dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Hong-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from a flake-type of graphite powder, which was then reduced to a few layers of graphene sheets using the thermal reduction method. The surface morphology, phase crystallization, and defect states of the reduced graphene were determined from an electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersion spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectra. After graphene formation, the intercalated defects that existed in the GO were removed, and it became crystalline by observing impurity changes and d-spacing. Dye-sensitized solar cells, using reduced graphene as the counter electrode, were fabricated to evaluate the electrolyte activity and charge transport performance. The electrochemical impedance spectra showed that increasing the thermal reduction temperature could achieve faster electron transport and longer electron lifetime, and result in an energy conversion efficiency of approximately 3.4%. Compared to the Pt counter electrode, the low cost of the thermal reduction method suggests that graphene will enjoy a wide range of potential applications in the field of electronic devices.

  12. Infrared Thermography as Applied to Thermal Testing of Power Systems Circuit Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jonathan James

    All operational electronic equipment dissipates some amount of energy in the form of infrared radiation. Faulty electronic components on a printed circuit board can be categorized as hard (functional) or soft (latent functional). Hard faults are those which are detected during a conventional manufacturing electronic test process. Soft failures, in contrast, are those which are undetectable through conventional testing, but which manifest themselves after a product has been placed into service. Such field defective modules ultimately result in operational failure and subsequently enter a manufacturer's costly repair process. While thermal imaging systems are being used increasingly in the electronic equipment industry as a product-testing tool, applications have primarily been limited to product design or repair processes, with minimal use in a volume manufacturing environment. Use of thermal imaging systems in such an environment has mostly been limited to low-volume products or random screening of high-volume products. Thermal measurements taken in a manufacturing environment are often taken manually, thus defeating their capability of rapid data acquisition and constraining their full potential in a high-volume manufacturing process. Integration of a thermal measurement system with automated testing equipment is essential for optimal use of expensive infrared measurement tools in a high-volume manufacturing environment. However, such a marriage presents problems with respect to both existing manufacturing test processes and infrared measurement techniques. Methods are presented in this dissertation to test automatically for latent faults, those which elude detection during conventional electronic testing, on printed circuit boards. These methods are intended for implementation in a volume manufacturing environment and involve the application of infrared imaging tools. Successful incorporation of infrared testing into existing test processes requires that: PASS

  13. Design Factors for Applying Cryogen Storage and Delivery Technology to Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1996-01-01

    Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) and Multilayer Insulation (MLI) technology, originally developed for long term storage of cryogen propellants in microgravity, is ideally suited for propellant storage and delivery systems for solar thermal propulsion. With this technology the heat-induced pressure rise in the tank provides the propellant delivery pressure without the need for an auxiliary pressurant system, and propellant delivery is used to remove the excess heat to control tank pressure. The factors to consider in designing such a balanced system, are presented. An example of a minimum system design is presented along with examples of laboratory-tested hardware.

  14. Análise térmica aplicada à cosmetologia Thermal analysis applied to cosmetology

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Clementino da Silva; Maria Valéria Robles Velasco de Paola; Jivaldo do Rosário Matos

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta a análise térmica para os estudos das propriedades físicas e químicas de compostos e de suas misturas no contexto da área de cosméticos. Os autores relatam alguns trabalhos da literatura em que diferentes técnicas termoanalíticas são usadas na caracterização de matérias-primas, produtos cosméticos e amostras de cabelo.This paper presents the thermal analysis for the studies of the physical and chemical properties of compounds and their mixtures in the cosmetic area. The ...

  15. Study of weather and thermal comfort influence on sport performance: prognostic analysis applied to Rio de Janeiro's city marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Gonçalves, L. G.

    2013-05-01

    There is nowadays a growing interest in the influence and impacts of weather and climate in human life. The weather conditions analysis shows the utility of this type of tool when applied in sports. These conditions act as a differential in strategy and training, especially for outdoor sports. This study had as aim objective develop weather forecast and thermal comfort evaluation targeted to sports, and hoped that the results can be used to the development of products and weather service in the Olympic Games 2016 in Rio de Janeiro City. The use of weather forecast applied to the sport showed to be efficient for the case of Rio de Janeiro City Marathon, especially due to the high spatial resolution. The WRF simulations for the three marathons studied showed good results for temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. On the other hand, the forecast of the wind showed a pattern of overestimation of the real situation in all cases. It was concluded that the WRF model provides, in general, more representative simulations from 36 hours in advance, and with 18 hours of integration they were even better, describing efficiently the synoptic situation that would be found. A review of weather conditions and thermal comfort at specific points of the marathon route showed that there are significant differences between the stages of the marathon, which makes possible to plan the competition strategy under the thermal comfort. It was concluded that a relationship between a situation more thermally comfortable (uncomfortable) and the best (worst) time in Rio de Janeiro City Marathon

  16. Métodos de conservação aplicados a melão minimamente processado Conservation methods applied to fresh-cut melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaí Peter Batista

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar alguns métodos de conservação que podem ser utilizados para prolongar a vida útil do melão minimamente processado. Dentre os métodos, serão abordados revestimento comestível, irradiação, antimicrobianos naturais, antioxidantes, agentes de firmeza, atmosfera modificada, branqueamento, luz ultravioleta e alta pressão. Dependendo do método pode haver redução das alterações associadas ao processo mínimo do melão, como a perda de água, alteração da cor e firmeza, alteração do metabolismo e crescimento de micro-organismos, sendo o resultado muitas vezes dependente da cultivar do melão utilizado.The objective of this review is to present some conservation methods that can be used to prolong the life of fresh-cut melon. Among the methods, edible coating, irradiation, natural antimicrobials, antioxidants, firmness agent, modified atmosphere, whitening, ultraviolet light and high pressure will be discussed. Depending on the method, the changes associated to minimum process of melon, such as water loss, change in color and firmness, change in the metabolism and growth of micro-organisms can be reduced and the result is often dependent on the melon cultivar used.

  17. Analysis Of The Structure Of A Material Used In The Manufacture Of Thermal Chucks For Fixing Tools Cutting Using Finite Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, P.; J. Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic stability of machine has its own importance in the quality of the machined product. With the development of new technologies for cutting tools, as the geometries and materials, cutting speeds used today reach values inconceivable for two decades. In the automotive industry steel and cast iron are gradually being replaced by lower density material and even lower costs. In complex shapes tools, heterogeneous material removal in roughing, sudden changes of sections, e...

  18. Análise térmica aplicada à cosmetologia Thermal analysis applied to cosmetology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Clementino da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a análise térmica para os estudos das propriedades físicas e químicas de compostos e de suas misturas no contexto da área de cosméticos. Os autores relatam alguns trabalhos da literatura em que diferentes técnicas termoanalíticas são usadas na caracterização de matérias-primas, produtos cosméticos e amostras de cabelo.This paper presents the thermal analysis for the studies of the physical and chemical properties of compounds and their mixtures in the cosmetic area. The authors relate some papers in wich different thermoanalytic techniques have been used for characterization of raw material, cosmetic product and samples of hair.

  19. The cutting properties and wear of the knives with DLC and W-DLC coatings, deposited by PVD methods, applied for wood and wood-based materials machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pancielejko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Performance of DLC and W-DLC coated woodworking knives was investigated. The results of testing DLC and W-DLC coating properties as well as the results of life-time tests in the form of wear of HSS and HM knives with these coatings is presents.Design/methodology/approach: DLC coating was deposited by MCVA method, and W-DLC coating was deposited by pulsed RMS. Tests of knives coated with DLC and W-DLC as uncoated ones was made by machining: MDF board, pinewood slats and floorboard - using a typical industrial milling machine.Findings: DLC coating is significantly harder (33-40 GPa than W-DLC coating (19 GPa. From Rockwell test it can be concluded that both coatings display high adhesion (HF1, whereas in the scratch methods, significantly lower adhesion of DLC coating can be observed (LC2 = 17-21 N in comparison to W-DLC coating (LC2 = 54 N. Influence of the hardness and adhesion of coatings on wear resistance of coated tools is discussed.Practical implications: Wear resistance of planer knives coated with DLC is by approx. 20%, and W-DLC by approx. 30% higher in comparison with uncoated knives during MDF milling. Wear of planer knives with W-DLC coating is approx. by 10%, and DLC by approx. 25% lower in comparison to uncoated HSS knives during pinewood milling. Lifetime of HM shape tools coated DLC and W-DLC is considerably higher (200-300 % during floorboard milling.Originality/value: The industrial tests of cutting wood and wood-based materials indicate that the carbon coatings deposited on the tool generally improve its performance and all wear indexes for the tools are lower than for uncoated. The DLC and W-DLC coatings show good antiwear properties required in industry application.

  20. Characteristics of materials and thermal treatments applied to gearwheels obtained by plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, I.; Dulgheru, V.; Trifan, N.

    2016-08-01

    A variety of materials are used in the manufacture of gearwheels. These materials satisfy various working conditions for gears. Such gears are made of metallic materials - ferrous, non-ferrous and from plastic materials. Among ferrous materials the following are used: irons; cast, forged and rolled steels; among non-ferrous materials the following are used: bronze, aluminium alloys, brass, etc., and of plastics the following are used: textolite, polyamide, polyacetal. In the practice of exploitation and in the process of special research it was established that the permissible load, according to teeth contact resistance, is generally determined by the hardness of the material. The highest hardness and respectively, the smallest sizes and reduced mass of the transmission can be obtained in the manufacture of steel gears via thermal treatment. It is obvious that by plastic deformation at cold it cannot be obtained gearwheels with complicated configuration as deformed plastic metal will form cracks caused by low plasticity. To improve processability by plastic deformation the mouldings for gearwheels are heated. With increasing the heating temperature, plasticity increases and resistance to deformation decreases.

  1. Thermal degradation of gelatin as applied to processing of gel mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W C

    1978-02-01

    The rheological parameters of rigidity and viscosity were studied for gelatin, both as a 6% solution and a 38% gel mass containing glycerin, sorbitol, and water. A compressive test for rigidity and a rotational shear method for viscosity were used to characterize the thermal degradation of several lots of alkali-processed calf-skin gelatin. The objective of this study was to use kinetic data for process predictions in the manufacturing of the gel mass for soft gelatin capsules. Empirical equations relating degradation to time, temperature and pH were derived for dilute gelatin solutions. Through parallel studies with a concentrated gel mass, other empirical equations were developed to predict degradation of the gel mass based on dilute solution data and processing conditions. Analysis of the kinetic data and empirical equations have generally confirmed earlier observations on degradation, except on quantitative aspects. While these equations are adequate for the intended use in process predictions, the study revealed substantial variability both within and among lots of commercial gelatin. These variabilities of uncertain causes contributed to inexact characterization of degradation, as demonstrated by the generally approximate results of process predictions.

  2. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers Applied to High Temperature Plates for Potential Use in the Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kogia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Solar Plants (CSPs are used in solar thermal industry for collecting and converting sunlight into electricity. Parabolic trough CSPs are the most widely used type of CSP and an absorber tube is an essential part of them. The hostile operating environment of the absorber tubes, such as high temperatures (400–550 °C, contraction/expansion, and vibrations, may lead them to suffer from creep, thermo-mechanical fatigue, and hot corrosion. Hence, their condition monitoring is of crucial importance and a very challenging task as well. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs are a promising, non-contact technology of transducers that has the potential to be used for the inspection of large structures at high temperatures by exciting Guided Waves. In this paper, a study regarding the potential use of EMATs in this application and their performance at high temperature is presented. A Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM EMAT with a racetrack coil, designed to excite Shear Horizontal waves (SH0, has been theoretically and experimentally evaluated at both room and high temperatures.

  3. Economic technology of laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  4. Cutting Properties and Wearing Process of Diamond Film Coated Tools in the Dry-Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qimao

    Dry cutting can eliminate a series of negative effects of coolant. Based on tribology principle of coated tool, diamond film coated tool is used to cut the same workpiece under the conditions of dry-cutting and coolant. The tool's cutting properties and wear mechanism are studied by tests. Results imply that this coated tool will be applied more widely day by day in the dry-cutting.

  5. 鲜切果蔬非热杀菌技术的研究与应用%Research and application of non-thermal sterilization technology on fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白露露; 胡文忠; 刘程惠; 何煜波; 刘易伟

    2013-01-01

    With the development of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables industry,minimally processed fruits and vegetables has broad prospects for development due to their fresh,sanitation,nutrition and convenience.However,tissue injury could result in the quick loss of nutrition,the acceleration of microbiological pollution,enzymatic browning and the reduction of shelf-life for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.The non-thermal sterilization technology is more effectively method to ensure fresh quality,color,flavor,and taste of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.This article mainly reviewed that research progress in non-thermal sterilization technologies recently,such as ozone,high pressure,irradiation,high-voltage electrostatic field,ultrasonic,ultraviolet,pulsed electric field as well as in the application on fresh-cut fruits and vegetables industry.%鲜切果蔬因具有即食、即用的优点而有着广阔的发展前景.组织损伤导致鲜切果蔬存在营养物质外流、易受微生物污染、贮藏期短等问题.而非热杀菌技术较热处理技术更能有效的保证鲜切果蔬原有的色、香、味及营养成分,据此本文主要概述了臭氧、超高压、辐照、高压静电场、超声波、紫外线、脉冲电场等非热杀菌技术的机理以及目前在鲜切果蔬行业的应用状况.

  6. Online Cake Cutting (published version)

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2011-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where agents arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some fairness properties that online cake cutting procedures can possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness. We also consider the impact of collusion between agents. Finally, we study theoretically and empirically the competitive ratio of these online cake cutting procedures. Based on its resistance to collusion, and its good performance in practice, our results favour the online version of the cut-and-choose procedure over the online version of the moving knife procedure.

  7. 家用电器标准中非自复位热断路器探讨%Discussion on the Non-self-resetting Thermal Cut-out in the Standard of Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁祺; 华顺宝

    2015-01-01

    本文通过分析比较家用电器GB 4706系列标准第24.101条以及具体案例分析,对家用电器产品中非自复位热断路器的使用情况进行具体分析探讨.%This paper discusses the non-self-resetting thermal cut-out in the household appliances by analyzing the clause 24.101 of GB 4706 series of household appliances and the specific case analysis.

  8. Selection of cutting fluids in machining processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kilickap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During machining operation, friction between workpiece-cutting tool and cutting tool-chip interfaces result high temperature on cutting tool. The effect of this generated heat affects shorter tool life, higher surface roughness and lowers the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This result is more important when machining of difficult-to-cut materials, due to occurrence of higher heat.Design/methodology/approach: Different methods have been reported to protect cutting tool from the generated heat during machining operations. The selection of coated cutting tools are an expensive alternative and generally it is a suitable approach for machining some materials such as titanium alloys, heat resistance alloys etc. Another alternative is to apply cutting fluids in machining operation. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and workpiece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. Hence the influence of generated heat on cutting tool would be prevented.Findings: As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. The selection of cutting fluids should be carefully carried out to obtain optimum result in machining processes. Various factors are affecting the selection of cutting fluid type in machining operation such as type of workpiece materials, cutting tool material and the method of machining processes.Research limitations/implications: In this study, the selection of cutting fluids for machining processes was examined. The effects of workpiece material, cutting tool and machining process type were determined in detail.Originality/value: In this study, the studies about cutting fluid application in machining processes have been evaluated. The selection criteria of cutting fluids have been examined. Suitable cutting fluids for various material machining processes have been determined

  9. Ncut在颅脑 MRI肿瘤提取中的应用研究%ON APPLYING NORMALISED CUT TO BRAIN MRI TUMOUR EXTRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋广军; 赵春兰

    2013-01-01

    颅脑肿瘤自身边缘包含重要的病变信息,提取脑肿瘤区域,对脑部疾病的诊断和治疗具有重要意义。 Ncut ( Normalized Cut)是基于图理的典型分割方法。将Ncut算法应用到颅脑MRI肿瘤图像的分割中,针对不同颅脑MRI肿瘤图像,进行相关参数测试,选择合适的权重及参数,进行颅脑MR肿瘤的提取。通过利用Matlab进行仿真测试可知Ncut方法能够提取出肿瘤所在的基本轮廓,取得较好效果。%The brain tumour edge contains important pathology information itself ;it has the important meaning to extract brain tumour area for brain disease diagnosis and treatment .Ncut algorithm is the typical segmentation method based on graph theory .We apply the Ncut algorithm to MRI brain tumour image segmentation , test the related parameters according to different brain MRI tumour images , and select appropriate weights and parameters to extract MR image brain tumour .Through the use of Matlab in simulation test , we know that the Ncut method can extract the basic outline of tumour and achieve good effect .

  10. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Otto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from on in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006, dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface equivalent spheroids with prolate shape are most realistic: particle non-sphericity only slightly affects single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but may enhance extinction coefficient by up to 10%. At the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA the Saharan mineral dust always leads to a loss of solar radiation, while the sign of the forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA depends on surface albedo: solar cooling/warming over a mean ocean/land surface. In the thermal spectral range the dust inhibits the emission of radiation to space and warms the BOA. The most realistic case of particle non-sphericity causes changes of total (solar plus thermal forcing by 55/5% at the TOA over ocean/land and 15% at the BOA over both land and ocean and enhances total radiative heating within the dust plume by up to 20%. Large dust particles significantly contribute to all the radiative effects reported.

  11. Applied Research on High-Pressure Water Jet Cutting Technology in Anti-Terrorist%高压水射流切割技术在反恐中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙义柯; 龚烈航; 罗晓凯

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the main principle of high-pressure water jet cutting technology is described with focusing on appli-cation of the high-pressure abrasive water jet in counter-terrorism operations. A pre-mixed abrasive high pressure water jet device that is applicative in the counter-terrorism operations is researched and designed so as to provide a kind of protection for the counter-terrorism operations.%介绍了高压水射流切割技术的主要原理,重点介绍了磨料高压水射流在反恐行动中的应用,并研究设计了一种在反恐行动中适用的前混合磨料高压水射流装置,为反恐行动的顺利进行提供一种行动上的保障.

  12. Effects of cutting parameters on tool insert wear in end milling of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Jing; Wu, Baohai; Zhang, Dinghua

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloy is a kind of typical hard-to-cut material due to its low thermal conductivity and high strength at elevated temperatures, this contributes to the fast tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys. The influence of cutting conditions on tool wear has been focused on the turning process, and their influence on tool wear in milling process as well as the influence of tool wear on cutting force coefficients has not been investigated comprehensively. To fully understand the tool wear behavior in milling process with inserts, the influence of cutting parameters on tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys Ti6Al4V by using indexable cutters is investigated. The tool wear rate and trends under different feed per tooth, cutting speed, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut are analyzed. The results show that the feed rate per tooth and the radial depth of cut have a large influence on tool wear in milling Ti6Al4V with coated insert. To reduce tool wear, cutting parameters for coated inserts under experimental cutting conditions are set as: feed rate per tooth less than 0.07 mm, radial depth of cut less than 1.0 mm, and cutting speed sets between 60 and 150 m/min. Investigation on the relationship between tool wear and cutting force coefficients shows that tangential edge constant increases with tool wear and cutter edge chipping can lead to a great variety of tangential cutting force coefficient. The proposed research provides the basic data for evaluating the machinability of milling Ti6Al4V alloy with coated inserts, and the recommend cutting parameters can be immediately applied in practical production.

  13. Estimating cutting front temperature difference in disk and CO2 laser beam fusion cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, L. D.; Tricarico, L.

    2012-07-01

    A three-dimensional, semi-stationary, simplified thermal numerical model was developed. The average cutting front temperature difference in disk and CO2 laser beam fusion cutting of 90MnCrV8 was estimated by computing the conductive power loss. Basing on heat affected zone extension experimentally measured and using an inverse methodology approach, the unknown thermal load on the cutting front during laser cutting was calculated. The accuracy of the numerical power loss estimation was evaluated comparing the results from simulation with the ones from analytical models. A good agreement was found for all the test cases considered in this study. The conduction losses estimation was used for justifying the lower quality of disk laser cuts due to the lower average cut front temperature. This results in the increase of viscosity of molten material and in the subsequent more difficult ejection of the melted material from the cut kerf.

  14. Optical Cutting Interruption Sensor for Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Adelmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.

  15. Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide in Combination with Minimal Thermal Treatment for Reducing Bacterial Populations on Cantaloupe Rind Surfaces and Transfer to Fresh-Cut Pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukuku, Dike O; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Geveke, David; Olanya, Modesto; Niemira, Brendan

    2016-08-01

    Surface structure and biochemical characteristics of bacteria and produce play a major role in how and where bacteria attach, complicating decontamination treatments. Whole cantaloupe rind surfaces were inoculated with Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes at 10(7) CFU/ml. Average population size of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes recovered after surface inoculation was 4.8 ± 0.12, 5.1 ± 0.14, and 3.6 ± 0.13 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Inoculated melons were stored at 5 and 22°C for 7 days before washing treatment interventions. Intervention treatments used were (i) water (H2O) at 22°C, (ii) H2O at 80°C, (iii) 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 22°C, and (iv) a combination of 3% H2O2 and H2O at 80°C for 300 s. The strength of pathogen attachment (SR value) at days 0, 3, and 7 of storage was determined, and then the efficacy of the intervention treatments to detach, kill, and reduce transfer of bacteria to fresh-cut pieces during fresh-cut preparation was investigated. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 attached to the rind surface at significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, but Salmonella exhibited the strongest attachment (SR value) at all days tested. Washing with 3% H2O2 alone led to significant reduction (P < 0.05) of bacteria and caused some changes in bacterial cell morphology. A combination treatment with H2O and 3% H2O2 at 8°C led to an average 4-log reduction of bacterial pathogens, and no bacterial pathogens were detected in fresh-cut pieces prepared from this combination treatment, including enriched fresh-cut samples. The results of this study indicate that the microbial safety of fresh-cut pieces from treated cantaloupes was improved at day 6 of storage at 5°C and day 3 of storage at 10°C.

  16. Laser Cutting of Leather: Tool for Industry or Designers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Manninen, Matti; Pärnänen, Inni; Hirvimäki, Marika; Salminen, Antti

    Currently technologies which are applied for leather cutting include slitting knifes, die press techniques and manual cutting. Use of laser technology has grown significantly during recent years due to number of advantages over conventional cutting methods; flexibility, high production speed, possibility to cut complex geometries, easier cutting of customized parts, and less leftovers of leather makes laser cutting more and more economically attractive to apply for leather cutting. Laser technology provides advantages in cutting complex geometries, stable cutting quality and possibility to utilize leather material in economically best way. Constant quality is important in industrial processes and laser technology fulfills this requirement: properly chosen laser cutting parameters provides identical cuts. Additionally, laser technology is very flexible in terms of geometries: complex geometries, individual designs, prototypes and small scale products can be manufactured by laser cutting. Variety of products, which needed to be cut in small volumes, is also the application where laser cutting can be more beneficial due to possibility to change production from one product to another only by changing geometry without a need to change cutting tool. Disadvantages of laser processing include high initial investment costs and some running costs due to maintenance and required gas supply for the laser. Higher level of operator's expertise is required due to more complicated machinery in case of laser cutting. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting in different areas of application and provides comparison between laser cutting and mechanical cutting of leather.

  17. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Otto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006, dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface equivalent spheroids with prolate shape are most realistic: particle non-sphericity only slightly affects single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but may enhance extinction coefficient by up to 10 %. At the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA the Saharan mineral dust always leads to a loss of solar radiation, while the sign of the forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA depends on surface albedo: solar cooling/warming over a mean ocean/land surface. In the thermal spectral range the dust inhibits the emission of radiation to space and warms the BOA. The most realistic case of particle non-sphericity causes changes of total (solar plus thermal forcing by 55/5 % at the TOA over ocean/land and 15 % at the BOA over both land and ocean and enhances total radiative heating within the dust plume by up to 20 %. Large dust particles significantly contribute to all the radiative effects reported. They strongly enhance the absorbing properties and forward scattering in the solar and increase predominantly, e.g., the total TOA forcing of the dust over land.

  18. A Quality Function Deployment-Based Model for Cutting Fluid Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting fluid is applied for numerous reasons while machining a workpiece, like increasing tool life, minimizing workpiece thermal deformation, enhancing surface finish, flushing away chips from cutting surface, and so on. Hence, choosing a proper cutting fluid for a specific machining application becomes important for enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of a manufacturing process. Cutting fluid selection is a complex procedure as the decision depends on many complicated interactions, including work material’s machinability, rigorousness of operation, cutting tool material, metallurgical, chemical, and human compatibility, reliability and stability of fluid, and cost. In this paper, a decision making model is developed based on quality function deployment technique with a view to respond to the complex character of cutting fluid selection problem and facilitate judicious selection of cutting fluid from a comprehensive list of available alternatives. In the first example, HD-CUTSOL is recognized as the most suitable cutting fluid for drilling holes in titanium alloy with tungsten carbide tool and in the second example, for performing honing operation on stainless steel alloy with cubic boron nitride tool, CF5 emerges out as the best honing fluid. Implementation of this model would result in cost reduction through decreased manpower requirement, enhanced workforce efficiency, and efficient information exploitation.

  19. Corrosion Resistance Properties of Aluminum Coating Applied by Arc Thermal Metal Spray in SAE J2334 Solution with Exposure Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arc thermal metal spray coating provides excellent corrosion, erosion and wear resistance to steel substrates. This paper incorporates some results of aluminum coating applied by this method on plain carbon steel. Thereafter, coated panels were exposed to an environment known to form stable corrosion products with aluminum. The coated panels were immersed in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2334 for different periods of time. This solution consists of an aqueous solution of NaCl, CaCl2 and NaHCO3. Various electrochemical techniques, i.e., corrosion potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and the potentiodynamic were used to determine the performance of stimulants in improving the properties of the coating. EIS studies revealed the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion and potentiodynamic attributed the formation of a passive film, which stifles the penetration of aggressive ions towards the substrate. The corrosion products that formed on the coating surface, identified using Raman spectroscopy, were Dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH2 and Al(OH3. These compounds of aluminum are very sparingly soluble in aqueous solution and protect the substrate from pitting and uniform corrosion. The morphology and composition of corrosion products determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated that the environment plays a decisive role in improving the corrosion resistance of aluminum coating.

  20. Fiber-Optic Temperature and Pressure Sensors Applied to Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation in Liver Phantom: Methodology and Experimental Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA is a procedure aimed at interventional cancer care and is applied to the treatment of small- and midsize tumors in lung, kidney, liver, and other tissues. RFA generates a selective high-temperature field in the tissue; temperature values and their persistency are directly related to the mortality rate of tumor cells. Temperature measurement in up to 3–5 points, using electrical thermocouples, belongs to the present clinical practice of RFA and is the foundation of a physical model of the ablation process. Fiber-optic sensors allow extending the detection of biophysical parameters to a vast plurality of sensing points, using miniature and noninvasive technologies that do not alter the RFA pattern. This work addresses the methodology for optical measurement of temperature distribution and pressure using four different fiber-optic technologies: fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs, linearly chirped FBGs (LCFBGs, Rayleigh scattering-based distributed temperature system (DTS, and extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry (EFPI. For each instrument, methodology for ex vivo sensing, as well as experimental results, is reported, leading to the application of fiber-optic technologies in vivo. The possibility of using a fiber-optic sensor network, in conjunction with a suitable ablation device, can enable smart ablation procedure whereas ablation parameters are dynamically changed.

  1. Applied Research on Medium and Low Power Level Dual-CO2-Laser Cutting Machine%中低功率双CO2激光切割机的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘家梁; 孙红安; 唐海昌

    2011-01-01

    Cutting principles of high-power single-CO2-laser cutting and low-power dual-CO2-laser cutting are discussed. Non-metallic materials such as wood die-boards are cut by using these two laser cutting techniques. The dependences of cutting depth and seam shape on laser power and cutting speed are analyzed. The results show that cutting wood die-boards with low-power dual-CO2-laser cutting has many advantages over high-power single-laser-head cutting in the manufacturing costs, operating costs, cutting precision and seam shape.%研究了大功率单CO2激光切割机和小功率双CO2激光切割机的切割原理,分析了在用这两种形式的激光切割机切割非金属材料木质模切板时,激光功率、切割速度与切割深度、切割的缝形缝宽之间的关系.试验结果表明,用中小功率双CO2激光切割机切割非金属木质板材,无论是设备的制造成本、运行成本,还是切割的精度和缝形缝宽,同用大功率单CO2激光头切割机相比有很多优势.

  2. Quick cut-elimination for strictly positive cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Toshiyasu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that the intuitionistic theory $\\textyen widehat{ID}^{i}_{<\\textyen ome}(SP)$ for finitely many iterations of strictly positive operators is a conservative extension of the Heyting arithmetic. The proof is inspired by the quick cut-elimination due to G. Mints. This technique is also applied to fragments of Heyting arithmetic.

  3. Quick cut-elimination for strictly positive cuts

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Toshiyasu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that the intuitionistic theory for finitely many iterations of strictly positive operators is a conservative extension of the Heyting arithmetic. The proof is inspired by the quick cut-elimination due to G. Mints. This technique is also applied to fragments of Heyting arithmetic.

  4. Recent results in mirror based high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Elvang, Mads;

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, recent results in high power laser cutting, obtained in reseach and development projects are presented. Two types of mirror based focussing systems for laser cutting have been developed and applied in laser cutting studies on CO2-lasers up to 12 kW. In shipyard environment cutting...... speed increase relative to state-of-the-art cutting of over 100 % has been achieved....

  5. Cutting state identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  6. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  7. Thermal quadrupole method applied to flat and spherical semi-transparent multilayers heated up with a modulated laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The thermal quadrupole method for flat and spherical multilayered systems heated up with a modulated laser beam is developed and analyzed. The obtained results take into account the contribution of the thermal properties and optical absorption coefficient of the component semi-transparent layers as well as their interface thermal resistance, under a fully analytical framework. For opaque layers, they reduced to the results reported in the literature. It is shown that the thermal wave fields for spherical layers reduce to the ones for flat layers, under a proper limit on the radius of the layers. By analyzing the features of the normalized amplitude and phase as a function of the normalized frequency for one- and two-layer systems, simple and useful formulas to determine the optical absorption coefficient of flat and spherical layers are derived. The proposed approach extends the applicability of the thermal quadrupole method to deal with modulated internal heat sources, it allows determining the thermal wave field of any number of layers in a simple way, and therefore, it would be useful to perform the thermal and optical characterization of flat and spherical layered systems by means of photothermal techniques.

  8. Thermal analysis of hadron multiplicities from RQMD

    CERN Document Server

    Sollfrank, J; Sorge, H; Xu, N

    1999-01-01

    Some questions arising in the application of the thermal model to hadron production in heavy ion collisions are studied. We do so by applying the thermal model of hadron production to particle yields calculated by the microscopic transport model RQMD(v2.3). We study the bias of incomplete information about the final hadronic state on the extraction of thermal parameters.It is found that the subset of particles measured typically in the experiments looks more thermal than the complete set of stable particles. The hadrons which show the largest deviations from thermal behaviour in RQMD(v2.3) are the multi-strange baryons and anti-baryons. We also looked on the influence of rapidity cuts on the extraction of thermal parameters and found that they lead to different thermal parameters and larger disagreement between the RQMD yields and the thermal model.

  9. Simplified methods applied to the complete thermal and mechanical behaviour of a pressure vessel during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has developed a software package of simplified methods (proprietary ones from literature) in order to study the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a PWR pressure vessel during a severe accident involving a corium localization in the vessel lower head. Using a part of this package, we can evaluate for instance successively: the heat flux at the inner surface of the vessel (conductive or convective pool of corium); the thermal exchange coefficient between the vessel and the outside (dry pit or flooded pit, watertight thermal insulation or not); the complete thermal evolution of the vessel (temperature profile, melting); the possible global plastic failure of the vessel; the creep behaviour in the vessel. These simplified methods are low cost alternative to finite element calculations which are yet used to validate the previous methods, waiting for experimental results to come. (authors)

  10. Experimental Study on the Electrochemical Anti-Corrosion Properties of Steel Structures Applying the Arc Thermal Metal Spraying Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Bok Choe; Han-Seung Lee; Jun-Ho Shin

    2014-01-01

    The arc thermal metal spraying method (ATMSM) provides proven long-term protective coating systems using zinc, aluminum and their alloys for steel work in a marine environment. This paper focuses on studying experimentally the anti-corrosion criteria of ATMSM on steel specimens. The effects of the types of spraying metal and the presence or absence of sealing treatment from the thermal spraying of film on the anti-corrosion performance of TMSM were quantitatively evaluated by electrochemical ...

  11. The perfect cut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scozzafava, G.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Corsi, A.;

    There are a large number of different beef cuts, which are produced in a complementary relationship. Research so far has mainly focused on single cuts and is often limited to either T-bone steaks or ground beef separately. Although the cuts are produced complementary, they compete against each ot...

  12. Laser cutting technology which use the water jet guiding the laser beam. Application examination for the thick plate cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increase of aged nuclear reactors, reduction of radioactive wastes is expected and cutting technology for thick structure would be necessary. Thermal cutting technology would be convenient for cutting thick materials, but generation of radioactive fume is one of the problems. A water jet-guided laser cutting is one of the suitable technologies for this application, because radioactive fume would be confined in the water and dose level won't be increased. However, this technology was developed for precision machining like dicing and slotting of silicon wafers, it is difficult to cut thick materials. In this study, cutting technology for thick material with a water jet-guided laser was discussed. Phenomenon during cutting thick stainless steel was observed by using high speed camera and optimum conditions for both water jet and laser cutting were derived. Finally, 50 mm thick stainless steel plate was successfully cut by using this technology. (author)

  13. A Simulation Tool for Steady State Thermal Performance Applied to the SPL Double-Walled Tube RF Power Coupler

    CERN Document Server

    Bonomi, R

    2014-01-01

    This note reports on the study carried out to design a tool for steady-state thermal performance of the RF power coupler inside the SPL cryostat. To reduce the amount of heat penetrating into the helium bath where the cavity is placed, the main coupler is actively cooled by means of an adequate flow rate of helium gas. The knowledge of the temperature profiles and the overall thermal performance of the power coupler are fundamental for the estimation of the total heat load budget of the cryostat.

  14. Why I like power cuts...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Accidental power cuts - a permanent nuisance when running accelerators or computing services, since it takes a lot of time to recover from them. While I feel very sorry for those who are under pressure to get their service running again and deeply regret the loss of down-time and availability, I must admit that I like power cuts: power cuts make computers reboot! And rebooting computers at CERN means all the pending software patches are automatically applied.   But don’t think I am egotistic enough to endorse power cuts. Not necessarily! I am already happy if you regularly patch your computer(s) yourself, where regularly means at least once a month: · If you run a centrally or locally managed Windows computer, give that small orange blinking “CMF” icon in the taskbar a chance in the evening to apply all the pending patches. Also, let it initiate a reboot at the end! · If you have a personal computer with your own Windows operating system, ...

  15. Two pass method and radiation interchange processing when applied to thermal-structural analysis of large space truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Andrew H.; Arelt, Joseph E.; Lalicata, Anthony L.; Rogers, Karen M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of efficient and automated thermal-structural processing of very large space structures is presented. The method interfaces the finite element and finite difference techniques. It also results in a pronounced reduction of the quantity of computations, computer resources and manpower required for the task, while assuring the desired accuracy of the results.

  16. Fine Distributed Moderating Material with Improved Thermal Stability Applied to Enhance the Feedback Effects in SFR Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fine distributed moderating material to enhance the feedback effects and to reduce the sodium void effect in sodium-cooled fast reactor cores is described. The influence of the moderating material on the fuel assembly geometry, the neutron spectrum, the feedback effects, the power and burnup distribution, and the transmutation performance is given. An overview on possible materials is provided and the relationship between hydrogen content and thermal stability is described. A solution for the problem of the limited thermal stability of primarily proposed hydrogen-bearing moderating material ZrH1.6 is developed by the use of yttrium-mono-hydride. The similarity in the effects reached by ZrH and YH is demonstrated by comparison calculations. The topic is closed by an overview on material properties, manufacturing issues, experience in fast reactors, and a comparison of raw material costs.

  17. 热阻可调式断桥复合保温砌块的研制%Development of a bridge-cut-off composite insulation block with the adjustable thermal resistance feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永权; 任增茂; 罗天祥; 陈延军

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a bridge-cut-off composite insulation block with the adjustable thermal resistance feature,which structure is constituted by a new force block and insulating material.Regulating the proportion size of the insulation material and air interlayer on the basis of constant force main structure,the block can meet the demand of the wall thermal performance in different climatic regions with an economical way, and the performance price ratio of the block enhances at the same time.The block can use many kinds of waste in its production,e.g.,fly ash,construction waste.It has many advantages,such as environmental protection,energy conservation,fire preventing and so on,which can be generalized in nationwide.%介绍了一种热阻可调式断桥复合保温砌块,该砌块采用新型受力块体与绝热材料复合构造,在受力主体结构不变的基础上,可以通过调节绝热材料和空气间层配合尺寸,以最经济的方式满足不同气候环境区域对墙体热工性能的要求,增强了复合保温砌块节能性价比。该砌块在生产过程中可以利用粉煤灰、建筑垃圾等多种废弃物,具有经济、环保、节能和防火性能好等特点,适合在全国范围内推广应用。

  18. Implementation of cutting tool management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Svinjarević

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to show the benefits of implementation of management of cutting tools in the company which specializes in metal cutting process, after which the production conditions alows new possibilities for improvement of the tool management.Design/methodology/approach: applied in this paper was identification current state and exploatation conditions of cutting tools on lathes and milling machines and organization of the departments and other services, which are directly involved in the cutting tools management system.Findings: of the controlled testings and analyses in every phase of tool management in departments and other services which are directly involved in the tool management system will help to reduce stock and costs. It is possible to identify which operator makes errors and is responsible for inappropriate use of cutting tool. Some disadvantages have been identified and a few suggestions for the improvement in the tool management system have been given. A result of research is easy to apply in company with developed informatic infrastructure and is mostly interesting for CNC workshops. Small companies and specialized low volume productions have to made additional effort to integrate in clusters.Practical implications: are reduction of cutting tool on stock, reduction of employee, quick access to the necessary cutting tools and data, simplicity in tool order and supply. The most important is possibility to monitor and to identify which cutting tools and employees are weakest parts of chain in tool management system. Management activity should be foreseeable in all its segments, which includes both the appropriate choice and use of cutting tools, and monitoring of unwanted phenomena during the cutting process and usage of these data for further purchase of tools.Originality/value: in the paper is turnover methodology applied for determination of management efficacy and formation of employees from different departments in

  19. Experimental investigation of effect of heat load on thermal performance of natural circulation steam generation system as applied to PTC-based solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effects of heat load on flow pattern, thermal efficiency and two phase heat transfer coefficient was analyzed. • An extended correlation equation was fitted for two flow patterns. • The critical RHP for flow transition was identified to be between 34.37 K/kW and 33.35 K/kW. - Abstract: An indoor experimental test rig of parabolic trough collector (PTC)-based natural circulation steam generation system consisting in a thermosyphon loop was presented. A series of five heat loads (0.6–1.2 kW) were applied to investigate effect of heat load on thermal performance of the system. Effect of heat load on flow pattern, thermal efficiency and two phase heat transfer coefficient was discussed, respectively. An extended correlation equation was provided for two flow patterns, which is characterized by heat pipe thermal resistance. The critical heat pipe thermal resistance for flow pattern transition was ranged from 34.37 K/kW to 33.35 K/kW. Simultaneously, thermal efficiency shows a continuous increase as heat load kept rising. The effect of backflow was found to be negligible when heat load increased to 1.1 kW. Additionally, the average two-phase heat transfer coefficient in receiver also went up with the rising of heat load for the same flow pattern. Due to the flow pattern transition, which resulted in a dryness fraction drop in receiver, a maximum heat transfer coefficient of 285.86 W/m2 K was obtained at heat load of 1.0 kW under a steam discharging pressure of 0.15 MPa

  20. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  1. Effects of ultra-low volume and thermal fog malathion, Scourge and naled applied against caged adult Culicoides furens and Culex quinquefasciatus in open and vegetated terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, J R; Jordan, S

    1992-03-01

    The adulticidal effect of ULV and thermal fog malathion, Scourge and naled was tested at 2x label dosage (1.42, 0.22, 0.39 oz/acre, respectively) against caged Culicoides furens and Culex quinquefasciatus in open and vegetated (orange grove) terrain. Cages were at 122 cm elevation and positioned at 15.2, 45.7, 76.2, 106.7, 137.2 and 167.6 m from the line of insecticide release. Ultra-low volume applications of all 3 insecticides were markedly more effective than thermal fog under all conditions, especially in vegetated terrain. Of the 3 insecticides, malathion performed the poorest, especially against Cx. quinquefasciatus (in which there was some resistance) and particularly when applied as thermal fog. Scourge and naled were about equally effective. The best adulticide against C. furens was naled, which was clearly superior applied as ULV. It yielded 75% mortality out to 283 m in the open, and to 38 m in the presence of dense vegetation. PMID:1583493

  2. Photo induced dissociation of amino acids free from thermal degradation effects: A case study applied to DL-Valine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Á. Miranda da; Mocellin, A. [Instituto, Universidade de Brasília, Box 04455, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Farrokhpour, H. [Chemistry Department, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mundim, M.S.P. [Instituto, Universidade de Brasília, Box 04455, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Brito, A. Naves de, E-mail: arnaldo.naves@gmail.com [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin”, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    We present a careful study of the thermal degradation effects in the mass spectrum of DL-Valine using a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a time of flight – mass spectrometer. This allows setting the temperature of 95 ± 10 °C as threshold for the sublimation of our solid sample. Based on the assignments for each ionic fragment detected, it is possible to separate the mass peaks in groups, explaining what are the principal bond breaks involved in the specific ionic yield, whose procedure can be extended to other amino acids.

  3. Impact of facially applied air movement on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting occupant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.;

    2011-01-01

    In the future the implementation of low power office equipment in practice will make thermal plumes generated by occupants one of the dominant flows affecting the air distribution in spaces. Advanced air distribution methods, such as personalized ventilation, are expected to become widely...... convection boundary layer enveloping the body and caused scattering in the measured values of air speed and temperature excess in the plume. In comparison with the case without airflow, the integral characteristics including volume flux, momentum flux, buoyancy force density and enthalpy flux were greater...

  4. Non-uniform temperature gradients and thermal stresses produced by a moving heat flux applied on a hollow sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hüseyin Yapici; Gülşah Özişik; M Serdar Genç

    2010-04-01

    This work presents numerical analyses of transient temperature and thermally-induced stress distributions in a hollow steel sphere heated by a moving uniform heat source applied on a certain zenithal segment (the heated zenithal segment, $\\Theta_H$) of its outer surface (the processed surface) under stagnant ambient conditions. Along the process, the moving heat source (MHS) moves angularly from the first zenithal segment to the last zenithal segment on the processed surface with a constant angular speed,, and then returns backward to the first zenithal segment with the same speed. It is assumed that the inner surface is heat-isolated and that the outer surface except the heated segment is under stagnant ambient conditions. The numerical calculations are performed individually for a wide range of thermal conductivity, , of steel and for the different $\\Theta_Hs$. The maximum effective thermal stress ratio calculated as per the heat flux intensity $(q0)$ can be reduced in considerable amounts. By increasing (∼ 75%) and (∼ 63%) the maximum effective thermal stress ratio calculated can be significantly reduced.

  5. A parallel multi-domain solution methodology applied to nonlinear thermal transport problems in nuclear fuel pins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A.; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P.; Sampath, Rahul S.; Clarno, Kevin T.; Dilts, Gary A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors is described. Details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstrating the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Furthermore, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods. Finally, we demonstrate the power of the coupling methodology by considering problems with couplings between surface and volume physics and coupling of nonlinear thermal transport in fuel rods to an external radiation transport code.

  6. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  7. Thermal design of a pressure electroslag remelting furnace applied for 5; Diseno termico de un horno presurizado de refusion por electroescoria de 5 Kg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz M, J.P

    1999-07-01

    Actual work defines the thermal design methodology for pressure electroslag remelting furnaces (P ESR) of variable capacity, applied for 5 Kg. It begins with classification and description of secondary refining furnaces, after PESR process and the concept of thermal design are described. Next, in base of the steel weight to remelt (5 Kg); ingot, crucible and electrode dimensions are obtained. These elements will be inside of pressure vessel whose thickness are determined according to ASMECode (Section 8, Division 1, U G-27). It was developed a computer program, where the furnace capacity can be modified, so like other conditions, and display principal dimensions of the furnace. Current and voltage are obtained from the heat necessary to remelt the ingot and the heat transfer in the crucible, is analysed because of it is the most critical element. It was selected too the equipment to registry temperatures and pressure in base of thermocouple characteristics. (Author)

  8. Saving Seal Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On April 20, the graduation ceremony of China’s seal-cutting art postgraduates and visiting experts from the Institute of Seal Cutting Art under the China Art Academy was held in Beijing. On the same day, the exhibition of the works of the teachers and graduates of the institute was also held.

  9. A Parallel Multi-Domain Solution Methodology Applied to Nonlinear Thermal Transport Problems in Nuclear Fuel Pins

    CERN Document Server

    Philip, Bobby; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P; Sampath, Rahul S; Clarno, Kevin T; Dilts, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors is described. Details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstrating the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Furthermore, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods...

  10. Thermal protection of β-carotene in re-assembled casein micelles during different processing technologies applied in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz-Abajo, María-José; González-Ferrero, Carolina; Moreno-Ruiz, Ana; Romo-Hualde, Ana; González-Navarro, Carlos J

    2013-06-01

    β-Carotene is a carotenoid usually applied in the food industry as a precursor of vitamin A or as a colourant. β-Carotene is a labile compound easily degraded by light, heat and oxygen. Casein micelles were used as nanostructures to encapsulate, stabilise and protect β-carotene from degradation during processing in the food industry. Self-assembly method was applied to re-assemble nanomicelles containing β-carotene. The protective effect of the nanostructures against degradation during the most common industrial treatments (sterilisation, pasteurisation, high hydrostatic pressure and baking) was proven. Casein micelles protected β-carotene from degradation during heat stabilisation, high pressure processing and the processes most commonly used in the food industry including baking. This opens new possibilities for introducing thermolabile ingredients in bakery products.

  11. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, S.; Trautmann, T.; M. Wendisch

    2011-01-01

    Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006), dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface ...

  12. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, S.; Trautmann, T.; M. Wendisch

    2010-01-01

    Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from on in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006), dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surfa...

  13. Digestion of cattle manure under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions: characterization of organic matter applying thermal analysis and 1H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, X; Blanco, D; Lobato, A; Calleja, A; Martínez-Núñez, F; Martin-Villacorta, J

    2011-06-01

    Digestion of cattle manure collected from a livestock farm together with bedding material (straw) has been studied under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in batch reactors. The digestion was carried out for a prolonged period with the aim of evaluating the changes undergone by the organic matter. The mesophilic digestion carried out revealed a greater capacity to produce gas and transform organic matter, while a higher conversion rate, but a lower gas yield, was obtained under thermophilic conditions. Degradation of the organic matter was evaluated by means of thermal analysis and (1)H NMR. Stabilisation through anaerobic digestion (either mesophilic or thermophilic) resulted in an increase in the quality of the organic matter, as characterised by an enrichment in thermostable compounds, and an accumulation of long chain aliphatic materials. The experiments performed demonstrated the transformation of organic matter into complex materials under anaerobic conditions with an accumulation of aliphatic components under both types of conditions tested. Degradation through mesophilic digestion, in comparison to the thermophilic process, resulted in a greater destruction of straw particles. PMID:21082330

  14. Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics Theory and Expected Experimental Errors when Applied to a Scramjet Isolator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert Jeffrey; Baurle, Robert A.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2011-01-01

    A scramjet isolator model test apparatus is being assembled in the Isolator Dynamics Research Lab (IDRL) at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The test apparatus is designed to support multiple measurement techniques for investigating the flow field in a scramjet isolator model. The test section is 1-inch high by 2-inch wide by 24-inch long and simulates a scramjet isolator with an aspect ratio of two. Unheated, dry air at a constant stagnation pressure and temperature is delivered to the isolator test section through a Mach 2.5 planar nozzle. The isolator test section is mechanically back-pressured to contain the resulting shock train within the 24-inch isolator length and supports temperature, static pressure, and high frequency pressure measurements at the wall. Additionally, nonintrusive methods including laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), spontaneous Raman scattering, particle image velocimetry, and schlieren imaging are being incorporated to measure off-wall fluid dynamic, thermodynamic, and transport properties of the flow field. Interchangeable glass and metallic sidewalls and optical access appendages permit making multiple measurements simultaneously. The measurements will be used to calibrate computational fluid dynamics turbulence models and characterize the back-pressured flow of a scramjet isolator. This paper describes the test apparatus, including the optical access appendages; the physics of the LITA method; and estimates of LITA measurement uncertainty for measurements of the speed of sound and temperature.

  15. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  16. A review of the current options for the treatment and safe disposal of drill cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Andrew S; Stewart, Richard J; Schliephake, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Drilling for the exploration and extraction of oil requires the use of drilling fluids which are continuously pumped down and returned carrying the rock phase that is extracted from the well. The potential environmental impacts of contaminated fluids from drilling operations have attracted increasing community awareness and scrutiny. This review article highlights current advances in the treatment of drill cuttings and compares the technologies in terms of cost, time and space requirements. Traditionally, a range of non-biological methods have been employed for the disposal of drill cuttings including burial pits, landfills and re-injection, chemical stabilization and solidification and thermal treatments such as incineration and thermal desorption. More recently, bioremediation has been successfully applied as a treatment process for cuttings. This review provides a current comparison of bioremediation technologies and non-biological technologies for the treatment of contaminated drill cuttings providing information on a number of factors that need to be taken into account when choosing the best technology for drilling waste management including the environmental risks associated with disposal of drilling wastes. PMID:22071177

  17. Cutting Cakes Correctly

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Theodore P

    2008-01-01

    Without additional hypotheses, Proposition 7.1 in Brams and Taylor's book "Fair Division" (Cambridge University Press, 1996) is false, as are several related Pareto-optimality theorems of Brams, Jones and Klamler in their 2006 cake-cutting paper.

  18. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  19. Cuts and puncture wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needed. The person has been bitten by a human or animal. A cut or puncture is caused by a fishhook or rusty object. You step on a nail or other similar object. An object or debris is stuck. Do ...

  20. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  1. Salary cuts and competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Haliassos, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There is a prevalent view outside Greece that promotion of competitiveness is tantamount with price reductions for Greek goods and services. Massive horizontal salary cuts appear, at first, to promote competitiveness by reducing unit labor costs and to reduce fiscal deficits by reducing the wage bill of the public sector. Upon closer look, however, horizontal salary cuts have been much greater than needed for Greek competitiveness, providing an alibi vis a vis the Troika for reforms that are ...

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  3. Cutting capacity of PDC cutters in very hard rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental programm of investigating the cutting capacity of PDC flat cutters in very hard rock has been performed.Experiments include both the cutting of PDC fixed at different angles on the granite core or bar and linear cutting with different static thrust on the block of granite.The effects of the rough degree of rock surface,cutting angles,and static thrust on the cutting capacity of PDC in very hard rock were investigated and analyzed.The results show that the single mode of rotary drilling using PDC cutters is not applied for very hard rocks.

  4. Development of plasma cutting process at observation of environmental requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma cutting is one of the basic methods for thermal cutting of metals. It is characterized by high productivity and quality of the cut surface. However, the plasma cutting process is one of the most harmful processes for environment and human health. It results from many agents being a potential environmental risk The large amount of dust and gases emitted during the process as well as an intensive radiation of electric arc and excessive noise are considered as the most harmful hazards. The existing ventilation and filtration systems are not able to solve all problems resulting from the process. Plasma cutting under water is worthy of notice, especially during an advancement of plasma cutting process, because of human safety and environment protection. Such a solution allows to reduce considerably the emission of dust and gases, as well as to decrease the noise level and ultraviolet radiation. An additional advantage of underwater plasma cutting is a reduction in the width of material heating zone and a decrease in strains of elements being cut. However, the productivity of this process is a little lower what results in an increase in cutting cost. In the paper, it has been presented the results of the investigations made at the Institute of Welding in Gliwice on the area of plasma cutting equipment with energy-saving inverter power supplies used in automated processes of underwater plasma cutting as well as the results of testing of welding environment contamination and safety hazards. (author)

  5. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  6. The Effects of Cutting Tool Coating on the Surface Roughness of AISI 1015 Steel Depending on Cutting Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan GÖKKAYA

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a number of cutting tool coating materials on the surface quality of workpieces, depending on various cutting parameters, were investigated. AISI 1015 steel was processed without cooling on a lathe using 4 different cemented carbide cutting tools, i.e. uncoated, coated with AlTiN and coated with TiAlN using the PVD technique, and one with 3-layer coatings (outermost being TiN) applied by the CVD technique. Among the cutting parameters, the depth of cut was kept constan...

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  8. 29 CFR 1915.53 - Welding, cutting and heating in way of preservative coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting and heating in way of preservative... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Welding, Cutting and Heating § 1915.53 Welding, cutting and heating in way of... and shipbulding and shall not apply to shipbreaking. (b) Before welding, cutting or heating...

  9. Quality and performance of laser cutting with a high power SM fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Selchau, Jacob; Olsen, F. O.;

    2013-01-01

    mode fiber laser to study the performance of such lasers in terms of cut quality and process performance. Linear cut experiments have been performed applying a 3kW single mode fiber laser and varying the following parameters: laser power, cutting speed, focal length, focus position, cutting gas...

  10. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  11. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2002-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  13. "Heart-cut" bidimensional achiral-chiral liquid chromatography applied to the evaluation of stereoselective metabolism, in vivo biological activity and brain response to chiral drug candidates targeting the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Umberto M; Citti, Cinzia; Larini, Martina; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Stasiak, Natalia; Troisi, Luigino; Braghiroli, Daniela; Parenti, Carlo; Zoli, Michele; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2016-04-22

    A "heart-cut" two-dimensional achiral-chiral liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method (LC-LC-MS/MS) was developed and coupled to in vivo cerebral microdialysis to evaluate the brain response to the chiral compound (±)-7-chloro-5-(3-furanyl)-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide ((±)-1), a potent positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of AMPA receptor. The method was successfully employed to evaluate also its stereoselective metabolism and in vitro biological activity. In particular, the LC achiral method developed, employs a pentafluorinated silica based column (Discovery HS-F5) to separate dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, (±)-1 and its two hepatic metabolites. In the "heart-cut" two-dimension achiral-chiral configuration, (±)-1 and (±)-1-d4 eluted from the achiral column (1st dimension), were transferred to a polysaccharide-based chiral column (2nd dimension, Chiralcel OD-RH) by using an automatic six-port valve. Single enantiomers of (±)-1 were separated and detected using electrospray positive ionization mode and quantified in selected reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated and showed good performance in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. The new method employed showed several possible applications in the evaluation of: (a) brain response to neuroactive compounds by measuring variations in the brain extracellular levels of selected neurotransmitters and other biomarkers; (b) blood brain barrier penetration of drug candidates by measuring the free concentration of the drug in selected brain areas; (c) the presence of drug metabolites in the brain extracellular fluid that could prove very useful during drug discovery; (d) a possible stereoselective metabolization or blood brain barrier stereoselective crossing of chiral drugs. Finally, compared to the methods reported in the literature, this technique avoids the necessity of euthanizing an animal at each time point to measure drug

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  15. New Cutting Force Modeling Approach for Flat End Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new mechanistic cutting force model for flat end milling using the instantaneous cutting force coefficients is proposed. An in-depth analysis shows that the total cutting forces can be separated into two terms: a nominal component independent of the runout and a perturbation component induced by the runout. The instantaneous value of the nominal component is used to calibrate the cutting force coefficients. With the help of the perturbation component and the cutting force coeffcients obtained above, the cutter runout is identified.Based on simulation and experimental results, the validity of the identification approach is demonstrated. The advantage of the proposed method lies in that the calibration performed with data of one cutting test under a specific regime can be applied for a great range of cutting conditions.

  16. Rooting greenwood tip cuttings of several Populus clones hydroponically (hydroponic rooting of Populus cuttings)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, H.M.; Hansen, E.A.; Tolsted, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Greenwood cuttings of several Populus clones were successfully rooted with a relatively simple hydroponic method. Indolebutyric acid and naphthaleneacetic acid at concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppM applied as a quick dip to the cutting bases, a complete nutrient solution at 20 to 40% of full strength, and a solution temperature between 27 and 30/sup 0/C generally produced the best rooting performance of most clones. Cuttings propagated by the hydroponic procedure rooted faster and generally outgrew those produced by a standard method after being transplanted to pots and grown in the greenhouse.

  17. A comparison of micro-structured flat-plate and cross-cut heat sinks for thermoelectric generation application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezania, Alireza; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Heat sink configuration has strong impact on net power output from thermoelectric generators (TEGs). A weak cooling strategy can even cause negative net power output from the thermoelectric device. However, the net power output can be significantly improved by optimal design of the heat sink. In...... this study, a micro-structured plate-fin heat sink is compared to a modified design of cross-cut heat sink applied to TEGs over a range of temperatures and thermal conductivities. The particular focus of this study is to explore the net power output from the TEG module. The three-dimensional governing......-fin heat sink is higher, while the TEG with cross-cut heat sink has higher maximum net power output at high flow inlet velocity. The maximum net power output is equal in the TEGs with plate-fin heat sink and cross-cut heat sink....

  18. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  19. Selected Malaysian Wood CO2 -Laser Cutting Parameters And Cut Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Yusoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser has been used to cut most non-metallic materials very efficiently and successfully because these materials are highly absorptive by the CO2 laser wavelength of 10.6µm. Laser cutting process has been found to be reliable in loads of applications, with several advantages over other mechanical means in producing successful cut of even thermally sensitive materials such as wood. Various works which have been conducted to resolve the interaction between laser and wood but an ultimate guideline to produce the best cutting results are still undecided. This latest experiment was performed on Malaysian light hardwood namely, Nyatoh (Palaquium spp., Kembang Semangkok (Scaphium spp., Meranti (Shorea spp. and normal Plywood using low power carbon dioxide laser machine with 500 Watt maximum output. The low power laser machine (Zech Laser model ZL 1010, equipped with a slow flow CO2 laser producing maximum output power of 500 watt on beam mode of TEM01 is employed. The processing variables taken into investigation were laser power, nozzle-standoff distance (SOD or focal point position, nozzle size, assist gas pressure, types of assist gas, cutting speed and delay time. The wood properties observed were thickness, density and moisture content of the wood. The analyses considered were of the geometric and dimensional accuracy (straight sideline length, diameter of circle, kerf width, and percent over cut, material removal rate, and severity of burns of the matters upon machining with compressed air or any assist gases. The relationship between processing parameters and types of wood with different properties were outlined in terms of optimum cutting conditions, the minimum burnt-effect achievable and the best cut quality obtained with minimal surface deterioration and acceptable in accuracy. From this present study a guideline for cutting a wide range of Malaysian wood has been outlined.

  20. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  1. Cuts endanger more services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2016-06-01

    WHEN BARNSLEY council put out its tender for the 0-19 service last autumn, it laid down strict criteria. A ceiling of £4.8 million a year was put on any bids for the service, which incorporates school nursing teams and health visitors. That represented a cut of more than £1 million on the existing contract. PMID:27266736

  2. Kids Who Cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)

  3. Application of water jet cutting for tunnel boring

    OpenAIRE

    Nygårdsvoll, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Water jet cutting has proven to be an effective technology for machining various materials, and providing a distinctive advantage over other cutting methods. Its application in the engineering industry is evolving and improving annually, and is one of the fastest growing machining processes. This thesis addresses the idea of applying water jet cutting technology as a new method for boring through rock in the construction of infrastructural tunnels. So far water jets have only b...

  4. Cutting Method of the CAD model of the Nuclear facility for Dismantling Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current methods for process simulation cannot simulate the cutting operation flexibly. As is, to simulate a cutting operation, user needs to prepare the result models of cutting operation based on pre-define cutting path, depth and thickness with respect to a dismantle scenario in advance. And those preparations should be built again as scenario changes. To be, user can change parameters and scenarios dynamically within a simulation configuration process so that the user saves time and efforts to simulate cutting operations. This study presents the methodology of cutting operation which can be applied to all the procedure in the simulation of dismantling of nuclear facilities. We developed the cutting simulation module for cutting operation in the dismantling of the nuclear facilities based on proposed cutting methodology. We defined the requirement of model cutting methodology based on the requirement of the dismantling of nuclear facilities. And we implemented cutting simulation module based on API of the commercial CAD system

  5. 蜂群遗传算法在一维下料问题中的应用%Bee-swarm genetic algorithm is applied to one-dimensional cutting problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓伟; 刘林; 周谧

    2012-01-01

    According to the one-dimensional cutting-stock optimization problem, this article considers the actual situation-- meet or no-meet production, for this problem to create a new optimization model and use bee-swarm genetic algorithm to solve the problem. With the parts arranged as a chromosome, the length of each part of the chromosome is as a gene, and according to the principles of bees to set two different populations, population one is for global searching, population two is for local searching. Ex- perimental results show that the model has some practical value.%针对一维下料优化问题,根据企业的实际生产情况,考虑能够满足和不满足生产两种情况,建立一个新的优化模型,并使用蜂群遗传算法求解方案。用各零件长度的一个排列作为一个染色体,每个零件的长度作为染色体的一个基因,根据蜂群原理设置两个不同的种群,种群1用于全局搜索,种群2用于局部搜索。实验结果表明,该模型具有一定的实用价值。

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  7. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity......). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists...

  8. The use of cutting temperature to evaluate the machinability of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the machinability of titanium, two commercial titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb) and free-cutting brass using the cutting temperature. The cutting temperature was estimated by measuring the thermal electromotive force of the tool-workpiece thermocouple during cutting. The thermoelectric power of each metal relative to the tool had previously been determined. The metals were slotted using a milling machine and carbide square end mills under four cutting conditions. The cutting temperatures of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb were significantly higher than that of the titanium, while that of the free-cutting brass was lower. This result coincided with the relationship of the magnitude of the cutting forces measured in a previous study. For each metal, the cutting temperature became higher when the depth of cut or the cutting speed and feed increased. The increase in the cutting speed and feed was more influential on the value than the increase in the depth of cut when two cutting conditions with the same removal rates were compared. The results demonstrated that cutting temperature measurement can be utilized to develop a new material for dental CAD/CAM applications and to optimize the cutting conditions.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  10. Methods of Cut-Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Baaz, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book on cut-elimination in first-order predicate logic from an algorithmic point of view. Instead of just proving the existence of cut-free proofs, it focuses on the algorithmic methods transforming proofs with arbitrary cuts to proofs with only atomic cuts (atomic cut normal forms, so-called ACNFs). The first part investigates traditional reductive methods from the point of view of proof rewriting. Within this general framework, generalizations of Gentzen's and Sch\\"utte-Tait's cut-elimination methods are defined and shown terminating with ACNFs of the original proof. M

  11. Cutting line determination for plant propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Li-Yun; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Sun, Hua-Hong; Chen, Hsiang-Ju; Wu, Xin-Ting; Hu, Min-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Investigating an efficient method for plant propagation can help not only prevent extinction of plants but also facilitate the development of botanical industries. In this paper, we propose to use image processing techniques to determine the cutting-line for the propagation of two kinds of plants, i.e. Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel and Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay, which have quite different characteristics in terms of shape, structure, and propagation way (e.g. propagation by seeding and rooting, respectively). The proposed cutting line determination methods can be further applied to develop an automatic control system to reduce labor cost and increase the effectiveness of plant propagation.

  12. Position-space cuts for Wilson line correlators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laenen, Eric; Larsen, Kasper J.; Rietkerk, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    We further develop the formalism for taking position-space cuts of eikonal diagrams introduced in ref. [1]. These cuts are applied directly to the position-space representation of any such diagram and compute its discontinuity to the leading order in the dimensional regulator. We provide algorithms

  13. Laser cutting nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  15. Making the cut

    OpenAIRE

    Millard, Chris

    2013-01-01

    ‘Deliberate self-harm’, ‘self-mutilation’ and ‘self-injury’ are just some of the terms used to describe one of the most prominent issues in British mental health policy in recent years. This article demonstrates that contemporary literature on ‘self-harm’ produces this phenomenon (to varying extents) around two key characteristics. First, this behaviour is predominantly performed by those identified as female. Second, this behaviour primarily involves cutting the skin. These constitutive char...

  16. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  18. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  19. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Teens Talk About Cutting Do People Who Self-Injure Have to Be Hospitalized? Stress & Coping Center Stress Cutting How Can I Help a ...

  20. Photonic mesophases from cut rod rotators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelson, Angela C.; Liddell Watson, Chekesha M., E-mail: cml66@cornell.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Avendano, Carlos [Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-14

    The photonic band properties of random rotator mesophases are calculated using supercell methods applied to cut rods on a hexagonal lattice. Inspired by the thermodynamic mesophase for anisotropic building blocks, we vary the shape factor of cut fraction for the randomly oriented basis. We find large, stable bandgaps with high gap isotropy in the inverted and direct structures as a function of cut fraction, dielectric contrast, and filling fraction. Bandgap sizes up to 34.5% are maximized at high dielectric contrast for rods separated in a matrix. The bandgaps open at dielectric contrasts as low as 2.0 for the transverse magnetic polarization and 2.25 for the transverse electric polarization. Additionally, the type of scattering that promotes the bandgap is correlated with the effect of disorder on bandgap size. Slow light properties are investigated in waveguide geometry and slowdown factors up to 5 × 10{sup 4} are found.

  1. Rooting cuttings of yam (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Rocha e Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The culture of yams (Dioscorea spp. has great importance for the entire Brazilian population, mainly in the Northeast, either by its nutritional or commercial value. This work aimed to study a new method of seedling production of yams by stem cuttings collected from plants with age of 120 days. The experiment was carried out in the CECA/UFAL, in a green house with intermittent fogging, in a fully randomized block design with a factorial 3 × 2 × 2, 12 treatments and 4 replications. Three factors were evaluated: height of the cuttings collection in plant (top, center and bottom, position of the cuttings on the branch (proximal and distal and concentration of Indolebutyric acid (IBA applied (0 and 1 mg/L. The cuttings were planted in plastic trays of 32 cells, containing commercial Bioplant ® substrate. After 30 days, the presence, the number and length of roots was acessed. All variables were subjected to analysis of variance and averages were compared by Tukey test. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of IBA (1 g/L did not influence the rooting process. Cuttings collected in the basal third of the plants in the proximal part of the branches, independent of the concentration of IBA, presented the best results for the percentage of rooting, root number and length of roots per stake.

  2. Cutting work in thick section cryomicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubermann, A J; Riley, W D; Beeuwkes, R

    1977-09-01

    The forces during cryosectioning were measured using miniature strain gauges attached to a load cell fitted to the drive arm of the Porter-Blum MT-2 cryomicrotome. Work was calculated and the data normalized to a standard (1 mm X 1 mm X 0.5 micrometer) section. Thermal energy generated was also calculated. Five parameters were studied: cutting angle, thickness, temperature, hardness, and block shape. Force patterns could be divided into three major groups thought to represent cutting (Type I), large fracture planes greater than 10 micrometer in length (Type II), and small fracture planes less than 10 micrometer in length (Type III). Type I and Type II produced satisfactory sections. Work in cutting ranged from an average of 78.4 muJ to 568.8 muJ. Cutting angle and temperature had the greatest effect on sectioning. Heat generated would be sufficient to cause through-section melting for 0.5 micrometer thick sections assuming the worst possible case, namely that all heat went into the section without loss. Presence of a Type II pattern (large fracture pattern) is thought to be presumptive evidence against thawing. PMID:606833

  3. Large Chip Production Mechanism under the Extreme Load Cutting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianli; HE Genghuang; YAN Fugang; CHENG Yaonan; LIU Li

    2015-01-01

    There has existed a great deal of theory researches in term of chip production and chip breaking characteristics under conventional cutting and high speed cutting conditions, however, there isn’t sufficient research on chip formation mechanism as well as its influence on cutting state regarding large workpieces under extreme load cutting. This paper presents a model of large saw-tooth chip through applying finite element simulation method, which gives a profound analysis about the characteristics of the extreme load cutting as well as morphology and removal of the large chip. In the meantime, a calculation formula that gives a quantitative description of the saw-tooth level regarding the large chip is established on the basis of cutting experiments on high temperature and high strength steel 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V. The cutting experiments are carried out by using the scanning electron microscope and super depth of field electron microscope to measure and calculate the large chip produced under different cutting parameters, which can verify the validity of the established model. The calculating results show that the large saw-toothed chip is produced under the squeezing action between workpiece and cutting tools. In the meanwhile, the chip develops a hardened layer where contacts the cutting tool and the saw-tooth of the chip tend to form in transverse direction. This research creates the theoretical model for large chip and performs the cutting experiments under the extreme load cutting condition, as well as analyzes the production mechanism of the large chip in the macro and micro conditions. Therefore, the proposed research could provide theoretical guidance and technical support in improving productivity and cutting technology research.

  4. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David;

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...... fairness notion — using a protocol that circumvents a standard lower bound via parallel information elicitation. Cake divisions satisfying another prominent fairness notion, envy-freeness, are impossible to compute in the simultaneous model, but admit arbitrarily good approximations....

  5. Drilling cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  6. Thermal-comfort analysis and simulation for various low-energy cooling-technologies applied to an office building in a subtropical climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Ashfaque Ahmed; Rasul, M.G.; Khan, M.M.K. [College of Engineering and the Built Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Health, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Qld 4702 (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Simulation of buildings' thermal-performances is necessary to predict comfort of the occupants in buildings and to identify alternate cooling control-systems for achieving better indoor thermal environments. An analysis and prediction of thermal-comfort using DesignBuilder, based on the state-of-the-art building performance simulation software EnergyPlus, is carried out in an air-conditioned multi-storeyed building in the city of Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia. Rockhampton is located in a hot humid-region; therefore, indoor thermal-comfort is strongly affected by the outdoor climate. This study evaluates the actual thermal conditions of the Information Technology Division (ITD) building at Central Queensland University during winter and summer seasons and identifies the thermal comfort level of the occupants using low-energy cooling technologies namely, chilled ceiling (CC), economiser usages and pre-cooling. The Fanger comfort-model, Pierce two-node model and KSU two-node model were used to predict thermal performance of the building. A sophisticated building-analysis tool was integrated with the thermal comfort models for determining appropriate cooling-technologies for the occupants to be thermally comfortable while achieving sufficient energy savings. This study compares the predicted mean-vote (PMV) index on a seven-point thermal-sensation scale, calculated using the effective temperature and relative humidity for those cooling techniques. Simulated results show that systems using a chilled ceiling offer the best thermal comfort for the occupants during summer and winter in subtropical climates. The validity of the simulation results was checked with measured values of temperature and humidity for typical days in both summer and winter. The predicted results show a reasonable agreement with the measured data. (author)

  7. The size effect in metal cutting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Milton C Shaw

    2003-10-01

    When metal is removed by machining there is substantial increase in the specific energy required with decrease in chip size. It is generally believed this is due to the fact that all metals contain defects (grain boundaries, missing and impurity atoms, etc.), and when the size of the material removed decreases, the probability of encountering a stress-reducing defect decreases. Since the shear stress and strain in metal cutting is unusually high, discontinuous microcracks usually form on the metal-cutting shear plane. If the material being cut is very brittle, or the compressive stress on the shear plane is relatively low, microcracks grow into gross cracks giving rise to discontinuous chip formation. When discontinuous microcracks form on the shear plane they weld and reform as strain proceeds, thus joining the transport of dislocations in accounting for the total slip of the shear plane. In the presence of a contaminant, such as CCl4 vapour at a low cutting speed, the rewelding of microcracks decreases, resulting in decrease in the cutting force required for chip formation. A number of special experiments are described in the paper that support the transport of microcracks across the shear plane, and the important role compressive stress plays on the shear plane. Relatively recently, an alternative explanation for the size effect in cutting was provided based on the premise that shear stress increases with increase in strain rate. When an attempt is made to apply this to metal cutting by Dinesh et al (2001) it is assumed in the analysis that the von Mises criterion pertains to the shear plane. This is inconsistent with the experimental findings of Merchant. Until this difficulty is taken care of, together with the promised experimental verification of the strain rate approach, it should be assumed that the strain rate effect may be responsible for some notion of the size effect in metal cutting. However, based on the many experiments discussed here, it is

  8. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  9. Parametric studies of cutting zircaloy-2 sheets with a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly reactive and pyrophoric nature of zirconium alloys limits the use of conventional thermal sources (e.g., plasma arc cutting, oxygen flame cutting, etc.) for the cutting and drilling of these alloys. In this context, a highly coherent laser beam provides a good alternative for the cutting and drilling. In the present paper, laser beam cutting of zircaloy-2 sheets of 1.1 mm and 0.74 mm thickness is performed using a 300 W average power pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, nozzle gap, gas pressure and cutting speed were varied to give different laser cutting conditions. Metallographic study of the cut surfaces showed the presence of transformed beta phase in the heat affected zone (HAZ) near the cut surface. The microhardness value across the cut surface was also measured. It showed a gradual increase in microhardness from the base metal (160 VHN) towards the HAZ having a maximum value of 365 VHN. The results of parametric studies of the cutting indicated that, with proper selection of process parameters, very narrow cuts can be easily made in zircaloy-2 using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a saving in material and at a much faster rate than alternative processes such as plasma arc cutting and oxygen flame cutting

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  11. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  12. Recent Results in High Power CO2-Laser Cutting for Shipbuilding Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2003-01-01

    In 1997 a high power laser cutting and welding test facility was established at the Danish shipyard Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Research and development projects were initiated in order to establish the basis for applying the full power of the laser for laser-cutting, by developing mirror based...... cutting systems. In this paper the results of these projects will be presented....

  13. Design of Hierarchically Cut Hinges for Highly Stretchable and Reconfigurable Metamaterials with Enhanced Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Han, Lin; Qiu, Songgang; Yang, Shu; Yin, Jie

    2015-11-25

    Applying hierarchical cuts to thin sheets of elastomer generates super-stretchable and reconfigurable metamaterials, exhibiting highly nonlinear stress-strain behaviors and tunable phononic bandgaps. The cut concept fails on brittle thin sheets due to severe stress concentration in the rotating hinges. By engineering the local hinge shapes and global hierarchical structure, cut-based reconfigurable metamaterials with largely enhanced strength are realized.

  14. Laser Cutting of Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÇAVDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting

  15. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  16. Self thermal insulation fired block and cutting-setting-conveying system for drying single-layer body%自保温烧结砌块与单层干燥切码运系统的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁嘉琪

    2012-01-01

      分析了我国现行二次码烧干燥工艺的主要形式及存在的问题。详细介绍了新型二次码烧工艺——大型室式干燥室为核心技术的新型自动化切码运干燥系统的特点及应用情况。%  The paper analyses the double-setting-firing process and problems in china brick and tile industry, and introduces the characteristics and applications of the new automatic cutting-setting-conveying dry system for large chamber dryer.

  17. Electro-thermal Modeling for Junction Temperature Cycling-Based Lifetime Prediction of a Press-Pack IGBT 3L-NPC-VSC Applied to Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2011-01-01

    reliability is investigated regarding IGBT lifetime based on junction temperature cycling for the grid-side press-pack IGBT 3L-NPC-VSC, which is a state-of-the art high reliability solution. In order to acquire IGBT junction temperatures for given wind power profiles and to use them in IGBT lifetime......Reliability is a critical criterion for multi-MW wind turbines, which are being employed with increasing numbers in wind power plants, since they operate under harsh conditions and have high maintenance cost due to their remote locations. In this study, the wind turbine grid-side converter...... prediction, the converter electro-thermal model including electrical, power loss, and dynamical thermal models is developed with the main focus on the thermal modeling regarding converter topology, switch technology, and physical structure. Moreover, these models are simplified for their practical...

  18. Will Intel Grow Through Cuts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAN; STEINBOCK

    2006-01-01

    Short-term cuts, perhaps, but long-term growth in China may be inevitable T he world's largest chipmaker, Intel, is sending a ripple effect through its pool of labor globally, including in China, with the announcement of deep workforce cuts.

  19. Experimental investigation of the effect of thermal hysteresis in MnFeP1-x Asx materials applied in an AMR device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    The magnetocaloric material series MnFeP1-xAsx, exhibiting a 1st order phase transition are possibly good candidates for magnetic refrigeration devices operating at room temperature (Brück et al., 2005). These materials have intrinsic hysteresis (thermal and magnetic) and the impact of this on ma......The magnetocaloric material series MnFeP1-xAsx, exhibiting a 1st order phase transition are possibly good candidates for magnetic refrigeration devices operating at room temperature (Brück et al., 2005). These materials have intrinsic hysteresis (thermal and magnetic) and the impact...

  20. China Vows Tangible Steps to Save Energy and Cut Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China will take tangible measures to save energy and cut pollution in 2008. The country will continue eliminating outdated production facilities, including small thermal power generating units with a combined capacity of 13 million kilowatts, and facilities with 50 million tons of cement, 6 million tons of steel and 14 million tons ofiron.

  1. Improving axial depth of cut accuracy in micromilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    In order to maintain an optimum cutting speed, the reduction of mill diameters requires machine tools with high rotational speed capabilities. A solution to update existing machine tools is the use of high speed attached spindles. Major drawbacks of these attachments are the high thermal expansio...

  2. Curved-Line Cutting Using a Flexible Circular Saw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yohei; Osumi, Nobuyuki; Takasugi, Akio; Sasahara, Hiroyuki

    We propose a flexible circular saw for high-speed cutting of curved lines in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP). A conventional circular saw is appropriate for straight line cutting, but it cannot be applied to curved line cutting because of the interference between the saw body and the machined surface. To eliminate this problem, the flexible circular saw is deflected into a bowl shape by circular forced displacement, and the cross-section of the saw becomes a circular arc. A curved line can be cut by the bowl-like-deflection. The deflection shape is very important to realize the curved-line cutting without interference. We investigated the deflection of the flexible circular saw by a finite element method (FEM) analysis. Suitable slit shapes for the saw body are also proposed, based on the FEM results regarding stress in the saw body, the minimum radius of curvature, and the effects of cutting force and centrifugal force and eigenvalue. We also conducted a curved-line cutting test on a CFRP plate, and we found that the flexible circular saw can cut curved lines with high accuracy and high speed without interference between the saw body and the machined surface.

  3. The Inlet Engine Valves Grinding Using Different Types of Cutting Fluids and Grinding Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Jannone da Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental research is presented in which different types of cutting fluids (a cutting oil and three different types of soluble oils and grinding wheels (alumina and vitrified CBN were tested in the inlet engine valves grinding. As evaluation parameters the workpiece residual stress and the grinding wheel wear were analyzed. The cutting fluid and the grinding wheel types adopted resulted in changes in all the parameters, due to the different lubricant abilities among the fluids and due to the differences in the mechanical and thermal properties among the abrasives tested. For grinding this steel, the CBN wheel is the best choice, mainly due to compressive residual stress results obtained for all cutting fluids tested. The cutting oil is the most adequate cutting fluid to be used, due to its higher lubricity and ability in keeping the wheel sharp for longer periods of time, reducing the overall grinding energy and the thermal damage.

  4. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMISATION OF LASER CUTTING USING CUCKOO SEARCH ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MADIĆ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining of optimal laser cutting conditions for improving cut quality characteristics is of great importance in process planning. This paper presents multi-objective optimisation of the CO2 laser cutting process considering three cut quality characteristics such as surface roughness, heat affected zone (HAZ and kerf width. It combines an experimental design by using Taguchi’s method, modelling the relationships between the laser cutting factors (laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position and cut quality characteristics by artificial neural networks (ANNs, formulation of the multiobjective optimisation problem using weighting sum method, and solving it by the novel meta-heuristic cuckoo search algorithm (CSA. The objective is to obtain optimal cutting conditions dependent on the importance order of the cut quality characteristics for each of four different case studies presented in this paper. The case studies considered in this study are: minimisation of cut quality characteristics with equal priority, minimisation of cut quality characteristics with priority given to surface roughness, minimisation of cut quality characteristics with priority given to HAZ, and minimisation of cut quality characteristics with priority given to kerf width. The results indicate that the applied CSA for solving the multi-objective optimisation problem is effective, and that the proposed approach can be used for selecting the optimal laser cutting factors for specific production requirements.

  5. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF CNC CUTTING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The intelligent optimizing method of cutting parameters and the cutting stable districts searching method are set up. The cutting parameters of each cutting pass could be optimized automatically, the cutting chatter is predicted through setting up the dynamic cutting force AR(2) model on-line, the spindle rotation speed is adjusted according to the predicting results so as to ensure the cutting system work in stable district.

  6. Error compensation for tool-tip trace during cutting of laminated paper for rapid prototyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucheng DING; Changhe LI; Dichen LI; Guoxin YU

    2009-01-01

    Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) is one of the commercialized rapid prototyping (RP) processes,where a focused laser is usually used to cut the crosssection contours of a 3 D part and the grid hatchings of the partexterior region on a sheet paper stackwise. Using a laser beam as a cutter can be costly, and the thermal burning of a sheet paper along a laser scanning path can also cause an environment-polluting smoke. This paper presents a paper laminating RP system using a knife as the paper cutter instead of a laser beam. The knife holder is mounted through a radial bearing on the X-Y positioning mechanism in such a way that the knife tip is eccentric to the bearing axis by a small distance (so-called offset). Therefore, the knife tip, which engages into the sheet paper during cutting, tends to follow the path of the XY-driven bearing axis by the error that depends on the path tangential and the eccentricity of the knife tip. A tractrix model is applied to describe the kinetic motion of the knife tip and a method is formulated to compensate for the tracing error of the eccentric knife tip by modifying the original cross-section contours of the part for each layer based on the tractrix equation. A study has also been performed regarding the effect of the knife tip geometry on the cutting notch of the sheet paper and on the roughness of the finished part.

  7. Applied study on the chinese medicine - micro-magnetic field - thermal radiation coupling fitness theory%MMT 耦合健身理论应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪诺; 陈洪凯; 唐红梅

    2013-01-01

    It is an important scientific way to stimulate activity of acupoints in human body. This paper introduces MMT coupling fitness theory (the chinese medicine -micro-magnetic field - thermal radiation coupling fitness theory), which pays at ention to fitness of accupoints in areas such as head, waist and foot. Based on the MMT coupling fitness theory, three steps to develop an fitness waistband for human bod are discussed in detail in the paper, firstly, the fitness waistband for human body is designed with waistband, tourmaline ceramic powder at aching in the waistband, magnetic iron oxide, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) package. From exterior to interior close to the body, tourmaline ceramic powder , magnetic iron oxide and TCM package are set in the fitness waistband. Secondly, paying at ention to 19 acupoints in area of waistband, dominant fitness positions at the front and the back of the fitness waistband are set, definitely, the front position includes 13 acupoints such as life-gate and yin chiao, and the back position includes 6 acupoints such as Shangliao and shenshu. Thirdly, TCM package in the fitness waistband is composed of radix dipsaci, ricinus communis, marjoram, evodiae feuctus, tuckahoe, zhuifeng umbrel a, semen cassiae, gynostemma, dreams take root, epimedium, and drynaria rhizome, and the optimal weight ratio by these traditional Chinese medicines achieved. Clinical trials identify effectiveness of the fitness waistband, to 85.9% under the experimental conditions. Results in the paper are valuable in promoting applied researches of the MMT coupling fitness theory.%激发穴位经脉活性是人体保健的重要科学途径。介绍了 MMT 耦合健身理论,该理论重视人体头部、腰部和脚底穴位的保健功能。基于 MMT 耦合健身理论,详细论述了健身腰带的研发过程:1)人体保健腰带包括腰带、附着在腰带上的电气石陶瓷粉、磁性氧化铁和药包,腰带从外侧到靠近人体

  8. Position-space cuts for Wilson line correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Laenen, Eric; Rietkerk, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    We further develop the formalism for taking position-space cuts of eikonal diagrams introduced in [Phys.Rev.Lett. 114 (2015), no. 18 181602, arXiv:1410.5681]. These cuts are applied directly to the position-space representation of any such diagram and compute its discontinuity to the leading order in the dimensional regulator. We provide algorithms for computing the position-space cuts and apply them to several two- and three-loop eikonal diagrams, finding agreement with results previously obtained in the literature. We discuss a non-trivial interplay between the cutting prescription and non-Abelian exponentiation. We furthermore discuss the relation of the imaginary part of the cusp anomalous dimension to the static interquark potential.

  9. 适用于井下矿工热舒适性的评价方法%Evaluation Method Applying to Miner Thermal Comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志权

    2012-01-01

    By establishing the mathematical model of body thermal equilibrium, the paper analyzed the relevant factors which affect min- er thermal comfort. It is thought that the skin average temperature is determinant to control the heat exchange between body and environ- ment. Taking three representative miners in Dongtan coal mine working face for example, the PMV and PPD values are calculated when the miners are in different positions. Miner thermal comfort is evaluated by the corresponding thermal sensation.%通过建立人体热平衡的数学模型,分析了影响井下矿工热舒适性的相关因素,认为皮肤平均温度是控制人体与环境热交换的决定因素。以东滩煤矿工作面内3位有代表性的矿工为例,计算矿工在不同位置处的尸My和尸PD值,利用其对应的热感觉评价矿工的热舒适性。

  10. Comment on 'Artificial neural network based modeling of heated catalytic converter performance' by M. Ali Akcayol and Can Cinar [Applied Thermal Engineering 25 (2005) 2341

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, W. [Metals Research Group, School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    A paper has been published in Applied Thermal Engineering, using feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) in the modeling of heated catalytic converter performance. The present paper attempts to discuss and comment on the paper. The amount of data used in the paper are not enough to determine the number of fitting parameters in the network. Therefore, the model is not mathematically sound or justified. The conclusion is that ANN modeling should be used with care and enough data. (author)

  11. Design and analysis of the internally cooled smart cutting tools with the applications to adaptive machining

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Che Ghani, Saiful Anwar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Adaptive machining with internally cooled smart cutting tools is a smart solution for industrial applications, which have stringent manufacturing requirements such as contamination free machining (CFM), high material removal rate, low tool wear and better surface integrity. The absence of cutting fluid in CFM causes the cutting tool and the workpiece subject to great thermal loads owing to hi...

  12. Method for recovering elemental silicon from cutting remains.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulset, Torgeir; Julrud, Stein; Cassayre, Laurent; Chamelot, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Taxil, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for recovering elemental silicon cutting remains containing silicon particles, wherein the method comprises manufacturing solid anodes from the cutting remains, arranging one or more manufactured anode (s) in an electrolytic cell with a molten salt electrolyte and one or more cathode (s), and applying a potential difference between the one or more anode (s) and cathode (s) to obtain an oxidation of metallic silicon in the one or more anode (s), tran...

  13. Ann modeling of kerf transfer in Co2 laser cutting and optimization of cutting parameters using monte carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a mathematical model in order to study the relationship between laser cutting parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position, and kerf taper angle obtained in CO2 laser cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel. To this aim, a single hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN trained with gradient descent with momentum algorithm was used. To obtain an experimental database for the ANN training, laser cutting experiment was planned as per Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with three levels for each of the cutting parameters. Statistically assessed as adequate, ANN model was then used to investigate the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the kerf taper angle by generating 2D and 3D plots. It was observed that the kerf taper angle was highly sensitive to the selected laser cutting parameters, as well as their interactions. In addition to modeling, by applying the Monte Carlo method on the developed kerf taper angle ANN model, the near optimal laser cutting parameter settings, which minimize kerf taper angle, were determined.

  14. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-01

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz-100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10-273 ps for DC voltages and 189-813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250-2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115-1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  15. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment

  16. Wear and cutting performance of diamond composite material-a comparison with tungsten carbide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-sheng; J. N. Boland

    2004-01-01

    A series of wear and rock cutting tests were undertaken to assess the wear and cutting performance of a thermally stable diamond composite (TSDC). The wear tests were conducted on a newly designed wear testing rig in which a rotating aluminium oxide grinding wheel is turned (also known as machined) by the testing tool element.The rock cutting tests were performed on a linear rock-cutting planer. The thrust and cutting forces acting on the tool were measured during these tests. A tungsten carbide element was also studied for comparative purposes. The wear coefficients of both materials were used to evaluate wear performance while cutting performance was assessed by tool wear and the rates of increase in forces with cutting distance.

  17. Investigations into fibre laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemzadeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Fibre laser cutting of mild steel using oxygen and nitrogen is widely used in industries throughout the world. An IPG YLR-2000 Ytterbium fibre machine with a maximum power of 2 kW and a wavelength of 1.06 µm is used throughout this research. The effects of oxygen and nitrogen as assist gases on the feature of laser cutting process are different in terms of kerf width, surface roughness, heat affected zone and striation pattern. The kerf width in oxygen laser cutting is wider than that for nit...

  18. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF CUTTING PARAMETERS ON THE BASIS OF SEMANTIC NETWORK USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pashkevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on accuracy assurance of machine component cutting while using edge tools. An approach based on artificial intelligence technologies in particular technologies of functional semantic networks. The paper analyzes a possibility to apply functional semantic networks for optimization of cutting parameters. An intellectual system intended for solution of applied problems is described in the paper. The paper reveals a system structure and an example for setting optimal cutting speed is cited in the paper. 

  20. Increasing of tool resistance to high-speed machining by cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chernobay; Sergey; P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most popular task of modern science of materials is searching of the such structural states that provide a high level of design strength, including wear resistance, thermal resistance and impact elasticity for cutting tool.……

  1. Increasing of tool resistance to high-speed machining by cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ One of the most popular task of modern science of materials is searching of the such structural states that provide a high level of design strength, including wear resistance, thermal resistance and impact elasticity for cutting tool.

  2. Converter Structure-Based Power Loss and Static Thermal Modeling of The Press-Pack IGBT Three-Level ANPC VSC Applied to Multi-MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;

    2011-01-01

    performance, the converter structure-based power loss and thermal models are developed in this study for the medium-voltage (MV) three-level active neutral-point-clamped voltage source converter (3L-ANPC-VSC) utilizing 4500 V-1800 A press-pack insulated-gate bipolar transistor-diode pairs and interfacing a 6...... MW wind turbine to a MV grid. The switching power loss models are built using the experimental switching power loss data acquired via the double-pulse tests conducted on a full-scale 3L-ANPC-VSC prototype. The converter static thermal model is developed based on the double-sided water-cooled press-pack...

  3. Evaluation of adhesion strength of Er2O3 coating layer for an advanced breeding blanket system applied to thermal cycles using nano-scratch method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical insulator and hydrogen permeation barrier coatings are important materials to realize the liquid metal and molten-salt typed breeding blanket systems. We found that erbium oxide (Er2O3) is one of the promising materials as the electrical insulator and hydrogen permeation restraint coatings. Establishing the mechanical property evaluation method for these coating is extremely important to certify the durability of coating material in the blanket systems. The adhesion strength property, which is one of the key mechanical properties of coating materials, was investigated using the nano-scratch method. From the results, it was found that the nano-scratch test was able to evaluate the adhesion strength of the Er2O3 coating synthesized by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process with high reproducibility. Furthermore, the adhesion strength of the Er2O3 coating before and after thermal cycling was evaluated using this method. The adhesion strength after 50 thermal cycles at 700degC was kept around 70% compared with that before thermal cycling. (author)

  4. Laser Cutting Tool Path Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dewil, Reginald; Cattrysse, Dirk; VANSTEENWEGEN, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Given a set of irregular parts nested on a metal sheet, minimize the total non- cutting time for the cutter head, cutting all the required elements and returning to the starting location. The problem is modeled as a generalized traveling sales- person problem with special precedence constraints. An initial feasible solution is generated and improved by local moves embedded in a tabu search framework. The proposed algorithm shows promising results in comparison with a commercial...

  5. New process for screen cutting: water-jet guided laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Amorosi, Simone; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2005-07-01

    Today's OLED manufacturers need high-precision, fast tools to cut the metal screens used to deposit the electroluminescent layers onto the substrate. Conventional methods -tching and dry laser cutting - are not satisfying regarding the demands of high-definition OLED displays. A new micro machining technology, the water jet guided laser - a hybrid of laser and water jet technologies that has been actively used in recent years in the electronic and semiconductor field - is now available to OLED manufacturers. This technology represents a significant improvement in screen, mask and stencil cutting, as it combines high precision and high speed. It is able to cut small apertures with totally clean edges (no dross or slag), as the water jet removes the particles and a thin water film is maintained on the material surface during the process. Because the water jet cools the material between the laser pulses, the cut material is free of any thermal stress. The water jet guided laser is also a very fast process: as an example, rectangular slots can be cut in 30 to 50 microns thick stainless steel or nickel at a rate between 25'000 and 30'000 holes per hour.

  6. Optimization of Cutting Variables in Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xueyan; Wu Zhenye; Zhou Guohua

    1996-01-01

    With the three criteria for cutting variables proposed by W. W. Gilbert and K.Hitomi, th is paper analyzes the reasonable selection of cutting variables, and further states the relations among maximum profit-oriented cutting speed,minimum cost-oriented cutting speed and maximum productivity-oriented cutting speed. It puts forward a mathematical model for the optimization of cutting variables in machining.

  7. Selection Of Cutting Inserts For Aluminum Alloys Machining By Using MCDM Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madić, Miloš; Radovanović, Miroslav; Petković, Dušan; Nedić, Bogdan

    2015-07-01

    Machining of aluminum and its alloys requires the use of cutting tools with special geometry and material. Since there exists a number of cutting tools for aluminum machining, each with unique characteristics, selection of the most appropriate cutting tool for a given application is very complex task which can be viewed as a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. This paper is focused on multi-criteria analysis of VCGT cutting inserts for aluminum alloys turning by applying recently developed MCDM method, i.e. weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) method. The MCDM model was defined using the available catalogue data from cutting tool manufacturers.

  8. Application research on hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xinglin

    2014-06-01

    With the development of the optical fiber sensing technology, the acoustic emission sensor has become one of the focal research topics. On the basis of studying the traditional hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system, the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system for the first time, researching the monitoring signal of the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor in the system. The actual test results show that using the acoustic emission sensor in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system can get the real-time and accurate hydraulic coke cutting state and the effective realization of hydraulic coke cutting automatic monitoring in the Wuhan Branch of Sinopec.

  9. Finishing Titanium Alloy Cutting Zone Analysis Via Multifunction Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrej, Czán; Michal, Šajgalík; Drbúl, Mário; Holubják, Jozef; Mrázik, Jozef; Babík, Ondrej; Zaušková, Lucia; Piešová, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    With the development of automotive, aerospace and biomedical industry, there is higher demand for exotic alloys, often based on titanium or nickel, though they are hard to machine. Therefore, it is essential to thoroughly understand their behavior during machining. Processes in the cutting zone of said materials are due to the complexity and dynamics defined by specific models. These include some deviations, thus it is essential to improve machining observation methodology, so exhibited errors and deviations are minimal or none. Based on the observations, multifunction measuring system has been designed, which allows simultaneous observation of characteristics such as e.g. cutting forces, deformations and thermal spread without uninterrupting machining process.

  10. Experimental investigation of the effect of thermal hysteresis in first order material MnFe(P,As) applied in an AMR device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    The magnetocaloric first order material MnFe(P,As) is a candidate for room temperature magnetic refrigeration. However, these materials have intrinsic hysteresis and the impact on the refrigeration performance has not yet been thoroughly investigated in the literature.Here, the magnetocaloric...... effect (MCE) and the thermal hysteresis are studied using vibrating sample magnetometry. The influence on actual refrigeration performance is investigated with an established active magnetic regenerator (AMR) test device (Bahl et al., 2008), utilizing a flat plate regenerator of a single Curie...

  11. Development of spent-control rod cutting equipment by abrasive water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usui, Shinichi; Komiya, Toshihiro [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. developed the cutting apparatus for spent-control rods and channel boxes, which utilized Abrasive Water Jet, and delivered them to Japan Atomic Power Company, Ltd. An abrasive water jet cutting is cutting method by abrasive ejecting with very high pressurized water (300 Mpa) and has merit not affecting to the objects thermally. The cutting operation carries out remotely in underwater and ejected abrasives are collected and reused in order to decrease secondary wastes. The spent-control rods and channel boxes are divided into two or three pieces and stored in the can in layers. (author)

  12. An investigation of Au/Ti multilayer thin-films: surface morphology, structure and interfacial/surface migration of constituents under applied thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senevirathne, Indrajith; Kemble, Eric; Lavoie, John

    2014-03-01

    Multilayer thin films are ubiquitous in industry. Au/Ti/substrate is unique due to possible biological applications in proof of concept devices. Material used for substrates include borosilicate glass, and quartz. Typical Ti depositions on substrates give rise to Stanski-Krastonov (SK) like growth while Frank-van der Merwe (FM) like growth is preferred. Ti films with thickness of ~ 100nm were deposited onto varying substrates using a thermal evaporator. The additional Au layer is then deposited via magnetron sputter deposition at 100mtorr at low deposition rates (~ 1ML/min) onto the Ti thin film. These systems were annealed at varying temperatures and at different durations. Systems were investigated via AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) probes to examine the surface morphology, and structure. Further, the ambient contamination and elemental distribution/diffusion at annealing was investigated via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). PASSHE FPDC Annual Grant (LOU # 2010-LHU-03)

  13. ADAPTIVE LEARNING CONTROL OF CUTTING PARAMETERS FOR SCULPTURED SURFACE CUTTING BASED ON GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An adaptive learning control scheme intended to the on-line optimization of sculptured surface cutting process is presented. The scheme uses a back-propagation neural network to learn the relationships between process inputs and process states. The cutting parameters of the process model are optimized through a genetic algorithms(GA). The capacity of the proposed scheme for determining optimum process inputs under a variety of process conditions and optimization strategies is evaluated on the basis of milling of a sculptured surface using a ball-end mill. The experimental results show that the neural network could model the cutting process efficiently, and the cutting conditions such as spindle speed could be regulated for achieving high efficiency and high quality. Therefore the proposed approach can be well applied to the manufacturing of dies and molds.

  14. Laser cutting of lightweight alloys sheets with 1μm laser wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, Leonardo Daniele; Tricarico, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    High power fiber laser sources, with a radiation wavelength equal to about 1 μm, offer a great potential in improving the productivity and quality of thin aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys sheets cutting. This is due to their benefits that are of special interest for this application: power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. In this work, an overview regarding the phenomena that for different reasons affect the laser cutting of these materials was given. These phenomena include the formation of a heat affected zone, the chemical contamination, the change of corrosion resistance, the thermal reactivity, the effects of thermal conductivity, reflectivity and viscosity of molten material. The influence of processing parameters on 1 mm thick Al 1050, AZ31 and Ti6Al4V lightweight alloys were experimentally investigated and cutting performances in terms of cut quality, maximum processing speeds and severance energies were evaluated. The advantages of using 1 μm laser wavelength for thin sheets lightweight alloys cutting due to the good cut quality, high productivity and the easily delivery of the beam through the optical fiber, were demonstrated. Results showed that fiber lasers open up new solutions for cutting lightweight alloys for applications like coil sheet cutting, laser blanking, trimming and cutting-welding combination in tailor welded blanks applications.

  15. Mechanistic identification of cutting force coefficients in bull-nose milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ge; Wu Baohai; Zhang Dinghua; Luo Ming

    2013-01-01

    An improved method to determine cutting force coefficients for bull-nose cutters is proposed based on the semi-mechanistic cutting force model.Due to variations of cutting speed along the tool axis in bull-nose milling,they affect coefficients significantly and may bring remarkable discrepancies in the prediction of cutting forces.Firstly,the bull-nose cutter is regarded as a finite number of axial discs piled up along the tool axis,and the rigid cutting force model is exerted.Then through discretization along cutting edges,the cutting force related to each element is recalculated,which equals to differential force value between the current and previous elements.In addition,coefficient identification adopts the cubic polynomial fitting method with the slice elevation as its horizontal axis.By calculating relations of cutting speed and cutting depth,the influences of speed variations on cutting force can be derived.Thereby,several tests are conducted to calibrate the coefficients using the improved method,which are applied to later force predictions.Eventually,experimental evaluations are discussed to verify the effectiveness.Compared to the conventional method,the results are more accurate and show satisfactory consistency with the simulations.For further applications,the method is instructive to predict the cutting forces in bull-nose milling with lead or tilt angles and can be extended to the selection of cutting parameters.

  16. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  17. Cutting inlays with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaczyna, Irena; Grabczewski, Zbigniew

    1995-03-01

    To cut inlay from a stack of glued veneer a CO2 HEBAR-1A laser was used. For setting optimal working parameters of the set used in industrial production of inlay the following elements were defined: the shape and dimensions of the cutting fissure, the dependence between the width of the cutting fissure and the speed with which the laser beam moves and the total thickness of the stack of veneer sheets, the application of the laser for cutting various patterns. Computer aided designing and computer steering of the laser beam enables fast and precise production of large numbers of inlay elements not only from wood but also from other materials like glass, stone, metal, etc. Taking into consideration the high running cost of such a laser set and its very big production only few factories or even one factory in the given area could produce inlay ready for gluing. Further investigation should be carried out on this field particularly considering the lowering of costs not only in inlay production but generally where cutting of wood is concerned.

  18. Cutting NiTi with Femtosecond Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superelastic shape memory alloys are difficult to machine by thermal processes due to the facility for Ti oxidation and by mechanical processes due to their superelastic behavior. In this study, femtosecond lasers were tested to analyze the potential for machining NiTi since femtosecond lasers allow nonthermal processing of materials by ablation. The effect of processing parameters on machining depth was studied, and material removal rates were computed. Surfaces produced were analyzed under SEM which shows a resolidified thin layer with minimal heat affected zones. However, for high cutting speeds, that is, for short interaction times, this layer was not observed. A depletion of Ni was seen which may be beneficial in biomedical applications since Ni is known to produce human tissue reactions in biophysical environments.

  19. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...

  20. Cutting Characteristics of Force Controllable Milling Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirakashi; Takahiro; Shibuya; Wataru

    2002-01-01

    In order to control cutting force and its direction i n milling operation, a new milling head was developed. The head has two milling cutters, which are connected by a pair of gears and rotate in opposite direction respectively. Both up-cut and down-cut can be carried out simultaneously by t hese milling cutters. The each depth of cut, the ratio of up/down cutting depth , by these cutters can be also selected. The cutting force characteristics were experimentally discussed by changing the ratio. The cut...

  1. Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton;

    2016-01-01

    The constructions of advanced architectural designs are presently very labour intensive, time consuming, and expensive. They are therefore only applied to a few prestige projects, and it is a major challenge for the building industry to bring the costs down and thereby offer the architects more....... The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...... by driving an Euler elastica through a block of EPS. This paper will be centered around the mathematical challenges encountered in the implementation of this idea. Since the elastica themselves are well known and described in the works of Euler et al. already in eighteenth century, these new challenges...

  2. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

  3. Preliminary development of an integrated approach to the evaluation of pressurized thermal shock as applied to the Oconee Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the risk to the Oconee-1 nuclear plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been Completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This evaluaion was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants: Oconee-1, a Babcock and Wilco reactor plant owned and operated by Duke Power Company; Calvert Cliffs-1, a Combustion Engineering reactor plant owned and operated by Baltimore Gas and Electric company; and H.B. Robinson-2, a Westinghouse reactor plant owned and operated by Carolina Power and Light Company. Studies of Calvert Cliffs-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 are still underway. The specific objectives of the Oconee-1 study were to: (1) provide a best estimate of the probability of a through-the-wall crack (TWC) occurring in the reactor pressure vessel as a result of PTS; (2) determine dominant accident sequences, plant features, operator and control actions and uncertainty in the PTS risk; and (3) evaluate effectiveness of potential corrective measures

  4. Applying the High-Temperature TL in LiF:Mg,Ti to Mixed Thermal Neutron-Gamma Dosimetry - a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent review article on the subject of High Temperature TL (HTTL) characteristics, criticized the attempts to use the two peak method in mixed field neutron-gamma ray dosimetry, promoting their firm conviction, as also published in an earlier survey by that this issue is unworthy to be investigated. Although it should have been a review, the article concentrates in the corresponding section only on one of our publications on the subject , trying to prove their view through our highly problematic results, as they define it. The ''problematics'' will be dealt with in specific future publications, but in order to present a realistic and balanced range of views on this issue, a comprehensive review of the results published on this topic is to be given. Many works deal with mixed field dosimetric application of the two-peak method, but for the sake of clarity we will concentrate only on the applications of 6LiF for thermal neutron fields, as presented in our publications(

  5. A Novel Algorithm Applied to Common Thermal-Optical Transmission Data for Determining Mass Absorption Cross Sections of Atmospheric Black Carbon: Applications to the Indian Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, A.; Sheesley, R. J.; Kirillova, E.; Gustafsson, O.

    2010-12-01

    High wintertime concentrations of black carbon aerosols (BCA) over South Asia and the Northern Indian Ocean are thought to have a large impact on the regional climate. Direct absorption of sunlight by BCAs causes heating of the atmosphere and cooling at the surface. To quantify such effects it is important to characterize a number of different properties of the aerosols. Here we present a novel application of the thermal-optical (OCEC) instrument in which the laser beam is used to obtain optical information about the aerosols. In particular, the novel algorithm accounts for non-carbon contributions to the light extinction. Combining these light extinction coefficients with the simultaneously constrained Elemental Carbon (EC) concentrations, the Mass Absorption Cross Section (MAC) is computed. Samples were collected during a continuous 14-month campaign Dec 2008 - Mar 2009 at Sinaghad in Western India and on Hanimaadhoo, the Northernmost Island in the Maldives. This data set suggests that the MAC of the BCAs are variable, sometimes by a factor of 3 compared to the mean. This observation adds to the complexity of calculating the radiative forcing for BCAs, reinforcing previous observations that parameters such as aerosol mixing state and sources need to be taken into account.

  6. EVALUATION OF PIPE CUTTING TECHNOLOGIES IN SHIPBUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Kafali, Mustafa; Ozkok, Murat; Cebi, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Pipes are the most significant ones of the components which constitutes the vessel body. Pipes are fabricated in piping plant at shipyard and exposed to some processes such as cutting, bending, hydrostatic tests, galvanizing and so on. Cutting operation is also vital process among the other ones since it is very crucial that the cutting surfaces are flat and the right angles. In shipyards, there are various pipe cutting methods such as plasma, oxygen, metal saw, band saw and abrasive cutting ...

  7. Effect of reinforcement on the cutting forces while machining metal matrix composites–An experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Shoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are of great interest for researchers in recent years, because of their attractive superior properties over traditional materials and single reinforced composites. The machinabilty of hybrid composites becomes vital for manufacturing industries. The need to study the influence of process parameters on the cutting forces in turning such hybrid composite under dry environment is essentially required. In the present study, the influence of machining parameters, e.g. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the cutting force components, namely feed force (Ff, cutting force (Fc, and radial force (Fd has been investigated. Investigations were performed on 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt% Silicon carbide (SiC and rice husk ash (RHA reinforced composite specimens. A comparison was made between the reinforced and unreinforced composites. The results proved that all the cutting force components decrease with the increase in the weight percentage of the reinforcement: this was probably due to the dislocation densities generated from the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix. Experimental evidence also showed that built-up edge (BUE is formed during machining of low percentage reinforced composites at high speed and high depth of cut. The formation of BUE was captured by SEM, therefore confirming the result. The decrease of cutting force components with lower cutting speed and higher feed and depth of cut was also highlighted. The related mechanisms are explained and presented.

  8. THE STUDY OF CUTTING FORCES AND THEIR AMPLITUDES DURING HIGH-SPEED DRY MILLING MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Ireneusz Zagórski; Józef Kuczmaszewski

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the state of knowledge on cutting forces values during milling of different magnesium alloy types. Additionally, the results of own research on cutting forces and their amplitudes after milling magnesium alloys used for manufacturing elements applied in the aerospace industry are included. The subject of the analysis was the influence of technological parameters and the tool type on cutting forces and their amplitudes. The analysis is important due to the correlation betwe...

  9. Vineyard Colonization by Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) Induced by Stinging Nettle Cut Along Surrounding Ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, N; Pozzebon, A; Duso, C; Reggiani, N; Pavan, F

    2016-02-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is the most important host plant for both phytoplasma associated with Bois noir disease of the grapevine and its vector Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Vector abundance in vineyards is favored by stinging nettle growing in surrounding areas. Nettle control by herbicides or cutting can reduce vector population in vineyards. However, chemical weeding can cause environmental problems. Many authors suggest that stinging nettle control applied during H. obsoletus flight could force adults to migrate into vineyards. We evaluate if cutting of nettle growing along ditches during adult flight favors vineyard colonization by H. obsoletus. Three different weed management regimes ("no cuts," "one cut" just before the beginning of adult flight, and "frequent cuts" over the whole vegetative season) were applied to the herbaceous vegetation in ditches bordering two vineyards. The flight dynamics of H. obsoletus were recorded by placing yellow sticky traps on the vegetation along the ditches and at different positions in the vineyards. Frequent stinging nettle cuts (compared with a single cut) in surrounding areas favored the dispersion of vectors inside the vineyards. Stinging nettle control should be based on an integration of a single herbicide application before H. obsoletus emergence followed by frequent cuts to minimize negative side effects of chemical weeding. In organic viticulture, a frequent-cuts strategy should avoid cuts during H. obsoletus flight period, at least in the first year of adoption. PMID:26352752

  10. On the computational complexity of cut-reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Aehlig, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Using appropriate notation systems for proofs, cut-reduction can often be rendered feasible on these notations, and explicit bounds can be given. Developing a suitable notation system for Bounded Arithmetic, and applying these bounds, all the known results on definable functions of certain such theories can be reobtained in a uniform way.

  11. CutFEM : Discretizing geometry and partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Burman, Erik; Claus, Susanne; Hansbo, Peter; Larson, Mats G.; Massing, Andre

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent advances on robust unfitted finite element methods on cut meshes. These methods are designed to facilitate computations on complex geometries obtained, for example, from computer-aided design or image data from applied sciences. Both the treatment of boundaries and interfaces and the discretization of PDEs on surfaces are discussed and illustrated numerically.

  12. Expression and cut parser for CMS event data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Luca; Jones, Christopher D.; Petrucciani, Giovanni

    2010-04-01

    We present a parser to evaluate expressions and Boolean selections that is applied on CMS event data for event filtering and analysis purposes. The parser is based on Boost Spirit grammar definition, and uses Reflex dictionaries for class introspection. The parser allows for a natural definition of expressions and cuts in users' configurations, and provides good runtime performance compared to other existing parsers.

  13. Cryogenic turning of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with modified cutting tool inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananchezian, M.; Pradeep Kumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Productivity in the machining of titanium alloys is adversely affected by rapid tool wear as a consequence of high cutting zone temperature. Conventional cutting fluids are ineffective in controlling the cutting temperature in the cutting zone. In this research work, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of liquid nitrogen when it is applied to the rake surface, and the main and auxiliary flank surfaces through holes made in the cutting tool insert during the turning of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The cryogenic results of the cutting temperature, cutting forces, surface roughness and tool wear of the modified cutting tool insert have been compared with those of wet machining. It has been observed that in the cryogenic cooling method, the cutting temperature was reduced by 61-66% and the surface roughness was reduced to a maximum of 36% over wet machining. The cutting force was decreased by 35-42% and the flank wear was reduced by 27-39% in cryogenic cooling over that of wet machining. Cryogenic cooling enabled a substantial reduction in the geometry of tool wear through the control of the tool wear mechanisms. The application of liquid nitrogen to the heat generation zones through holes made in the cutting tool insert was considered to be more effective over conventional machining.

  14. Control and exploitation of thermal distortions in welded T-joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the DISCO (Control and Exploitation of Thermal Distortions) project was the creation of an overall concept for the control of thermal distortions. The domain of the project was at this stage limited to structural steels and to the processes most important to the participating industry. The project explored the possibility to apply the inherent strain method for modelling thermal deformations by establishing an inherent strain database for major arc welding and thermal cutting situations. The project was executed in close co-operation with Osaka University, Japan, Lappeenranta University of Technology and four Finnish enterprises. The work focused on structural steels representing two strength levels, and GMAW, FCAW, SAW and restrictedly on tandem MAG welding processes. The computational practices were revealed for treating thermal distortions. Further actions included testing and modelling of welded T-joint with various plate thicknesses

  15. Control and exploitation of thermal distortions in welded T-joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keinaenen, H.; Alhainen, J.; Karppi, R.; Verho, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of the DISCO (Control and Exploitation of Thermal Distortions) project was the creation of an overall concept for the control of thermal distortions. The domain of the project was at this stage limited to structural steels and to the processes most important to the participating industry. The project explored the possibility to apply the inherent strain method for modelling thermal deformations by establishing an inherent strain database for major arc welding and thermal cutting situations. The project was executed in close co-operation with Osaka University, Japan, Lappeenranta University of Technology and four Finnish enterprises. The work focused on structural steels representing two strength levels, and GMAW, FCAW, SAW and restrictedly on tandem MAG welding processes. The computational practices were revealed for treating thermal distortions. Further actions included testing and modelling of welded T-joint with various plate thicknesses

  16. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  18. CO2-Laser Cutting Fiber Reinforced Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.; Nuss, Rudolf; Geiger, Manfred

    1989-10-01

    Guided by experimental investigations laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced reactive injection moulded (RRIM)-polyurethanes which are used e.g. in car industry for bumpers, spoilers, and further components is described. A Comparison with other cutting techniques as there are water jet cutting, milling, punching, sawing, cutting with conventional knife and with ultrasonic excited knife is given. Parameters which mainly influence cutting results e.g. laser power, cutting speed, gas nature and pressure will be discussed. The problematic nature in characterising micro and macro geometry of laser cut edges of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) is explained. The topography of cut edges is described and several characteristic values are introduced to specify the obtained working quality. The surface roughness of laser cut edges is measured by both, an optical and a mechanical sensor and their reliabilities are compared.

  19. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but not always) associated with depression, bipolar disorder , eating disorders, obsessive thinking, or compulsive behaviors. It can also be a sign of mental health problems that cause people to have trouble controlling their impulses or ...

  20. DT-MRI segmentation using graph cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2007-03-01

    An important problem in medical image analysis is the segmentation of anatomical regions of interest. Once regions of interest are segmented, one can extract shape, appearance, and structural features that can be analyzed for disease diagnosis or treatment evaluation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a relatively new medical imaging modality that captures unique water diffusion properties and fiber orientation information of the imaged tissues. In this paper, we extend the interactive multidimensional graph cuts segmentation technique to operate on DT-MRI data by utilizing latest advances in tensor calculus and diffusion tensor dissimilarity metrics. The user interactively selects certain tensors as object ("obj") or background ("bkg") to provide hard constraints for the segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate information about both regional tissue diffusion as well as boundaries between tissues of different diffusion properties. Graph cuts are used to find globally optimal segmentation of the underlying 3D DT-MR image among all segmentations satisfying the constraints. We develop a graph structure from the underlying DT-MR image with the tensor voxels corresponding to the graph vertices and with graph edge weights computed using either Log-Euclidean or the J-divergence tensor dissimilarity metric. The topology of our segmentation is unrestricted and both obj and bkg segments may consist of several isolated parts. We test our method on synthetic DT data and apply it to real 2D and 3D MRI, providing segmentations of the corpus callosum in the brain and the ventricles of the heart.

  1. Cutting and Welding of Nanomaterials with an Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Y.Xu; M.L.Tian

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope have been applied to manipulate individual atoms or clusters on a clean surface.Focused ion beam technique is routinely used to cut materials down to sub-100 nm dimension.However,in between the atomic and the sub-100 nm scales,i.e.,at the nanometer scale,to date there is no well-established physical modification technique.Here we demonstrate that localized,impurity-free nano-welding and nano-cutting techniques with a high-intensity elec...

  2. Comparison of heat effects associated with metal cutting method on ST 37 alloy steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by examining effects of the heat on the cut surface of material formed by the processes, such as Plasma, Laser, Wire Erosion applied on St 37 alloy steel material, it has been determined that minimum cutting damage occurs in wire erosion process.

  3. Influence of the Magnetic High-speed Steel Cutting Tool on Cutting Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed steel cutting tool has advantaged i n modern cutting tool for its preferable synthetical performance, especially, in a pplication of complicated cutting tools. Therefore, the study of the high-speed steel cutting tools that occupied half of cutting tools has become an importa nt way of studying on modern cutting technology. The cutting performance of hi gh speed-steel cutting tools will be improved by magnetization treating method. Microstructure of high-speed steel will be changed as a ...

  4. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  5. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  6. Matrix Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Nguyen, Kévin

    2016-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  7. Experimental investigation of transient temperature characteristic in high power fiber laser cutting of a thick steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Long, Nguyen; Matsunaga, Yukihiro; Hanari, Toshihide; Yamada, Tomonori; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2016-10-01

    Experiment of temperature measurement was performed to investigate the transient temperature characteristics of molten metal during laser cutting. The aim of this study was to establish a method for measuring the surface temperature variation near the molten pool correlated with changes in cutting parameters. The relationship between temperature inside the kerf cut and characteristic of the cut surface was investigated by using thermography and thermocouples. Results show strong correlations between the transient temperatures and the thermal image for different cutting conditions. In addition, two-color thermometer has been used to obtain radiation intensity emitted from the irradiating zone as a function of operating conditions. Experiments have shown that one can detect the cutting quality by characterization of the surface temperature during laser cutting process.

  8. A Novel Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Heating for Cut Tobacco Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel parabolic trough concentrating solar heating for cut tobacco drying system was established. The opening width effect of V type metal cavity absorber was investigated. A cut tobacco drying mathematical model calculated by fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method was used to simulate the cut tobacco drying process. And finally the orthogonal test method was used to optimize the parameters of cut tobacco drying process. The result shows that the heating rate, acquisition factor, and collector system efficiency increase with increasing the opening width of the absorber. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for cut tobacco drying process. The relative errors between simulated and experimental values are less than 8%, indicating that this mathematical model is accurate for the cut tobacco airflow drying process. The optimum preparation conditions are an inlet airflow velocity of 15 m/s, an initial cut tobacco moisture content of 26%, and an inlet airflow temperature of 200°C. The thermal efficiency of the dryer and the final cut tobacco moisture content are 66.32% and 14.15%, respectively. The result shows that this parabolic trough concentrating solar heating will be one of the heat recourse candidates for cut tobacco drying system.

  9. European labs fight back against cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1997-01-01

    Germany's 1997 budget contains cuts amounting to 3.7% in funding of domestic research programs and in contributions to international labs. Contributions will be cut to the European Space Agency, the European Synchrotron facility and CERN.

  10. Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...

  11. Using inpainting to construct accurate cut-sky CMB estimators

    CERN Document Server

    Gruetjen, H F; Liguori, M; Shellard, E P S

    2015-01-01

    The direct evaluation of manifestly optimal, cut-sky CMB power spectrum and bispectrum estimators is numerically very costly, due to the presence of inverse-covariance filtering operations. This justifies the investigation of alternative approaches. In this work, we mostly focus on an inpainting algorithm that was introduced in recent CMB analyses to cure cut-sky suboptimalities of bispectrum estimators. First, we show that inpainting can equally be applied to the problem of unbiased estimation of power spectra. We then compare the performance of a novel inpainted CMB temperature power spectrum estimator to the popular apodised pseudo-$C_l$ (PCL) method and demonstrate, both numerically and with analytic arguments, that inpainted power spectrum estimates significantly outperform PCL estimates. Finally, we study the case of cut-sky bispectrum estimators, comparing the performance of three different approaches: inpainting, apodisation and a novel low-l leaning scheme. Providing an analytic argument why the loca...

  12. Chip-ejection interference in cutting processes of modern cutting tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师汉民

    1999-01-01

    Based on the “principle of minimum energy”, the basic characteristics of non-free cutting are studied; the phenomenon and the nature of chip-ejection interference commonly existing in the cutting process of modem cutting tools are explored. A "synthesis method of elementary cutting tools" is suggested for modeling the cutting process of modem complex cutting tools. The general equation governing the chip-ejection motion is deduced. Real examples of non-free cutting are analyzed and the theoretically predicted results are supported by the experimental data or facts. The sufficient and necessary conditions for eliminating chip-ejection interference and for realizing free cutting are given; the idea and the technical approach of "the principle of free cutting" are also discussed, and a feasible way for improving or optimizing the cutting performance of modem cutting tools is, therefore, found.

  13. AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN CO2 LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOŠ MADIĆ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In laser cutting, the cut quality is of great importance. Multiple non-linear effects of process parameters and their interactions make very difficult to predict cut quality. In this paper, artificial intelligence (AI approach was applied to predict the surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting. To this aim, artificial neural network (ANN model of surface roughness was developed in terms of cutting speed, laser power and assist gas pressure. The experimental results obtained from Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array were used to develop ANN model. The ANN mathematical model of surface roughness was expressed as explicit nonlinear function of the selected input parameters. Statistical results indicate that the ANN model can predict the surface roughness with good accuracy. It was showed that ANNs may be used as a good alternative in analyzing the effects of cutting parameters on the surface roughness.

  14. Effects of auxin and boron on the rooting of Laurus nobilis L. stem cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Perez Leal

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA, applied with or without boric acid, on rooting laurel (Laurus nobilis L. stem cuttings. The cuttings (15cm that presented two apical leaves were collected from the apexes. They were treated with IBA 0, 50, 150 and 300 mg L-1, with or without boron 150 mg mL-1, for 24 hours. After the treatments, the cuttings were cultivated in polystyrene trays with carbonized rice linings and maintained under intermittent nebulization for 70 days when the percentages for rooting, stem cuttings with callus, and live and dead cuttings, root numbers and root lengths were evaluated. The results showed that IBA 50 mg L-1, IBA 150 and 300mg L-1 with boron enhanced the rooting percentage. The treatment with IBA 150 mg L-1 showed the highest root number in stem cuttings.

  15. Multiple Regression Prediction Model for Cutting Forces in Turning Carbon-Reinforced PEEK CF30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the thermoplastic polymers available, the reinforced polyetheretherketone with 30% of carbon fibres (PEEK CF 30 demonstrates a particularly good combination of strength, rigidity, and hardness, which prove ideal for industrial applications. Considering these properties and potential areas of application, it is necessary to investigate the machining of PEEK CF30. In this study, response surface methodology was applied to predict the cutting forces in turning operations using TiN-coated cutting tools under dry conditions where the machining parameters are cutting speed ranges, feed rate, and depth of cut. For this study, the experiments have been conducted using full factorial design in the design of experiments (DOEs on CNC turning machine. Based on statistical analysis, multiple quadratic regression model for cutting forces was derived with satisfactory 2-squared correlation. This model proved to be highly preferment for predicting cutting forces.

  16. Defect reduction for fabric cutting process to produce polo shirts : a case study of garment factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panicha Suttanako

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the factors affecting the crooked fabric cutting and to present the new cutting procedure that complies with the factors affecting the crooked fabric cutting of a case study. The defect in fabric cutting process was crooked fabric making nonconforming product. The cause and effect diagram was utilized to analyze and suggest related factors leading to the problem. It was showed that the number of times of knife sharpening and the number of layers in fabric paving would affect the crooked fabric cutting the design of experiment was applied to determine appropriate the level of these factors. The main factor significantly affected the crooked fabric cutting (p < 0.05 was the number of times of knife sharpening, but the number of layers in fabric paving and interaction between both factors would not significantly affect the crooked fabric cutting. The number of times of knife sharpening in the level 4 had been sharpened twenty times in each cutting round. The least average defective proportion was 0.0173. Then the new cutting procedure would significantly reduce average defective proportion. It could reduce the average number of defective items as 5.74 pieces in each cutting round or 70.52 percents.

  17. New oxide-composite coatings for difficult metal-cutting tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in today's metal working technology are driven by increasing cutting speeds, heavy/hard machining and an enormous amount by changes in work piece materials. These applications are asking for more tailor made cutting tool solutions. Together with the well established multi component coating technology a new approach of composite coatings is giving solutions for the tough demands of the cutting tool market. In this paper is presented composite coatings of AI2O3/ZrO-2/TiOx made by CVD. The coating is like high performance oxide ceramics for cutting applications. The coating is used in combination with MT CVD coatings and different carbide substrates. The CVD coating has optimum stress for cutting applications, low friction and very high thermal isolation. The outstanding performance of this coating is demonstrated in different applications. (author)

  18. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's budget was…

  19. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats,...

  20. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor;

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking into...... account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  1. Laser ablative cutting of ceramics for electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, B. E., LLNL

    1996-03-01

    Pulsed, high-beam quality lasers offer unique materials processing characteristics. In processing metals, copper vapor and pulsed Nd:YAG lasers have produced micron-scale cuts and holes with submicron heat-affected zones. Since the cost of laser photons is high and average material removal rates can be slow with ablation, high value-added applications are necessary to justify processing costs. Ceramics present a special challenge for manufacturing because of their high hardness, relatively low thermal conductivity, and brittle nature. Surface damage typically limits the strength of a ceramic part to a small fraction of its bulk strength. This work investigates the use of copper vapor and pulsed diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to cut precision features in ceramic substrates. Variations in laser wavelength and power, processing speed, ceramic type, and assist gas were investigated with the goal of producing <100-{mu}m wide by 600-{mu}m deep cuts through silicon-carbide and alumina/titanium-carbide substrates for potential use in electronics. Silicon-carbide bars 250-{mu}m wide by 600-{mu}m high by 2.5-cm long were laser cut from substrates without fracture.

  2. A comparison of micro-structured flat-plate and cross-cut heat sinks for thermoelectric generation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Plate-fin and cross-cut heat sinks (PFHS, CCHS) are compared for TEG application. • The three-dimensional governing equations for flow and thermoelectrics are solved. • Power generation, pumping power and optimal thermoelectric net power are studied. • Overall net power in the TEG with PFHS is slightly superior to that with CCHS. • Results are in a good agreement with the previous computational studies. - Abstract: Heat sink configuration has strong impact on net power output from thermoelectric generators (TEGs). A weak cooling strategy can even cause negative net power output from the thermoelectric device. However, the net power output can be significantly improved by optimal design of the heat sink. In this study, a micro-structured plate-fin heat sink is compared to a modified design of cross-cut heat sink applied to TEGs over a range of temperatures and thermal conductivities. The particular focus of this study is to explore the net power output from the TEG module. The three-dimensional governing equations for the flow and heat transfer are solved using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in conjunction with the thermoelectric characteristics of the TEG over a wide range of flow inlet velocities. The results show that at small flow inlet velocity, the maximum net power output in TEG with plate-fin heat sink is higher, while the TEG with cross-cut heat sink has higher maximum net power output at high flow inlet velocity. The maximum net power output is equal in the TEGs with plate-fin heat sink and cross-cut heat sink

  3. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.

  4. Low Conductive Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced by Ion Beam Assisted EB-PVD with Controlled Porosity, Microstructure Refinement and Alloying Additions for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Douglas E.; Singh, Jogender

    2005-01-01

    Various advanced Hafnia-based thermal barrier coatings (TBC) were applied on nickel-based superalloy coupons by electron beam physical vapor deposition. In addition, microstructural modifications to the coating material were made in an effort to reduce the thermal conductivity of the coating materials. Various processing parameters and coating system modifications were made in order to deposit the alloyed TBC with the desired microstructure and thus coating performance, some of which include applying coatings at substrate temperatures of 1150 C on both PtAl and CoNiCrAlY bond coated samples, as well as using 8YSZ as a bond layer. In addition, various characterization techniques including thermal cyclic tests, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity measurements were performed. Although the coating microstructure was never fully optimized due to funding being cut short, significant reductions in thermal conductivity were accomplished through both chemistry changes (composition) and microstructural modifications.

  5. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  6. Effect of Type of Cutting Tips on Cutting Forces in Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polák Pavel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to demonstrate the efect of cutting materials and geometry of cutting tips on cutting forces in turning as well as the quality and precision of machined surface. The experiment focuses on measuring cutting forces when turning a sample of steel 11 523 at a constant feed rate and cut depth and at varying speeds of a spindle. Measurements were made using exchangeable cutting tips of diferent types. The results will be evaluated in terms of the impact of diferent characteristics of cutting tips and variable spindle speeds.

  7. Apply of Automatic Generation Technology Segment Tool Electrode Blank Geometry and Cutting Dimension%花纹块工具电极毛坯几何体及下料尺寸图自动生成技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海明; 张浩

    2013-01-01

    To solve the inefficient problem of relying on traditional manual drawing the tool electrode blank geometry and cutting dimension separately,it write the tool electrode blank geometry and cutting dimension generated procedures automatically and simultaneously are writed using GRIP language.Users need only directly to select the three-dimensional model of the tool electrode and enter the unilateral margin,the tool electrode blank geometry and cutting dimension could be generated automatically.This improves greatly work efficiency.%为了解决传统手工单独绘制工具电极毛坯几何体及下料尺寸图效率低的问题,应用GRIP语言编写了工具电极毛坯几何体及下料尺寸图自动同时生成程序.用户只需选择工具电极的三维模型并输入单边余量值,便可自动生成该工具电极的毛坯几何体及其下料尺寸图,大大提高了工作效率.

  8. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicate that if these coatings reach a temperature above 1100 C

  9. [Water jet cutting for bones and bone cement--parameter study of possibilities and limits of a new method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honl, M; Rentzsch, R; Lampe, F; Müller, V; Dierk, O; Hille, E; Louis, H; Morlock, M

    2000-09-01

    Water jet techniques have been used in industrial cutting, drilling and cleaning applications for more than 30 years. Plain water is typically used for the cutting of non-metallic materials. The addition of abrasive substances to the stream allows almost any material to be cut. The first medical applications were reported in the early 1980s, when the water jet was used to cut organs. The present study investigates the use of water jet cutting technology for endoprosthesis revision surgery. Bone and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) samples were cut at different pressures using an industrial water jet cutting device. Using plain water at 400 bar, PMMA was cut selectively without damaging the bone; above 400 bar, bone was also cut, but the cutting depths in PMMA were significantly greater (p process is essentially cold, thus eliminating a thermal effect, and the jet reaction forces are relatively low. Accurate manipulation of the hydro jet nozzle is possible both manually and by robot. The results obtained show that it is possible to remove prostheses with this cutting technique, rapidly and with little damage to the surrounding tissue. Problem areas are the development of sterile pumps and the "depth control" of the jet.

  10. Chemical scissors cut phosphorene nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xihong; Wei, Qun

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorene, a recently fabricated two-dimensional puckered honeycomb structure of phosphorus, showed promising properties for applications in nano-electronics. In this work, we report a chemical scissors effect on phosphorene, using first-principles method. It was found that chemical species, such as H, OH, F, and Cl, can act as scissors to cut phosphorene. Phosphorus nanochains and nanoribbons can be obtained. The scissors effect results from the strong bonding between the chemical species and phosphorus atoms. Other species such as O, S and Se fail to cut phosphorene nanostructures due to their weak bonding with phosphorus. The electronic structures of the produced P-chains reveal that the hydrogenated chain is an insulator while the pristine chain is a one-dimensional Dirac material, in which the charge carriers are massless fermions travelling at an effective speed of light ˜8 × 105 m s-1. The obtained zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons show either metallic or semiconducting behaviors, depending on the treatment of the edge phosphorus atoms.

  11. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  12. The effect of indole-butyric acid and kinetin on rooting of rose cuttings in winter and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of indole-butyric acid, both alone and with a low concentration of kinetin, on the rooting of rose cuttings in winter and summer, is presented in this paper. The experiments were conducted using 500 and 1000 mg/l IBA with or without the addition of 5 mg/l kinetin. The growth regulators were applied by dipping the base of a cutting for 5 s in an aqueous solution of these substances. Cuttings 5-6 cm in length were made from the mid-part of a stem of a rose grown in a greenhouse. The experiments were carried out using 'Queen of Bermuda' and 'Baccara' cuttings. The investigations showed that treating rose cuttings rooted in winter with an IBA solution had a significant promotive effect on the quantity of rooted cuttings, number of formed roots on the cutting, as well as on the length of the longest root. A distinctive increase in the number of breaking buds was also seen on the cuttings treated with IBA. The IBA solution applied to cuttings rooted in the summer significantly decreased the number of rooted cuttings and breaking buds. However, no significant influence on the number and length of formed roots was found. Addition of kinetin to the IBA solutions did not have any effect on the rooting of rose cuttings either in winter or summer.

  13. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  14. Optimización de la Eficiencia Térmica de un Motor Robinson Aplicando el Modelo Senft-Schmidt-Petrescu Optimization of the Thermal Efficiency of a Robinson Engine Applying the Senft-Schmidt-Petrescu Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Carvajal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la optimización de la eficiencia térmica de un motor Robinson aplicando el modelo Senft-Schmidt-Petrescu. Este se fundamenta en el acoplamiento de los modelos de Senft-Schmidt y de Petrescu, usados para el cálculo de la potencia en motores de ciclo Stirling. El modelo propuesto involucra tanto parámetros termodinámicos como geométricos y permite estimar en su conjunto las pérdidas de presión por fricción y por estrangulamiento del flujo. Tomando como base los datos del prototipo de un motor Robinson de aproximadamente 2 W de potencia, se analizaron teóricamente sus parámetros principales y se optimizó su eficiencia térmica en función de la mínima generación de entropía. Después de realizada la optimización, la eficiencia térmica del motor aumentó a más del doble. Se concluye que el modelo Senft-Schmidt-Petrescu propuesto puede ser útil en el análisis y rediseño de motores Robinson.The results of the optimization of the thermal efficiency of a Robinson engine applying the Senft-Petrescu-Schmidt model are presented. This is based on the coupling of the Senft-Schmidt and the Petrescu models, used for the calculation of power in Stirling cycle engines. The proposed model involves both thermodynamic and geometric parameters and allows estimating the overall pressure losses by friction and by flow throttling. Based on data from a prototype of a Robinson engine of about 2 W of power, a theoretical analysis of its main parameters and the optimization of thermal efficiency, based on the minimum entropy generation, were performed. After the optimization was done, the thermal efficiency of the engine increased to more than the double. It is concluded that the proposed Senft-Schmidt-Petrescu model may be useful in the analysis and redesign of Robinson engines.

  15. Analysis of fabric materials cut using ultraviolet laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Andrew Yeh, J.

    2016-04-01

    Laser ablation technology has widely been applied in the clothing industry in recent years. However, the laser mechanism would affect the quality of fabric contours and its components. Hence, this study examined carbonization and oxidation conditions and contour variation in nonwoven, cotton, and composite leather fabrics cut by using an ultraviolet laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. Processing parameters such as laser power, pulse frequency, scanning speed, and number of pulses per spot were adjusted to investigate component variation of the materials and to determine suitable cutting parameters for the fabrics. The experimental results showed that the weights of the component changed substantially by pulse frequency but slightly by laser power, so pulse frequency of 100 kHz and laser power of 14 W were the approximate parameters for three fabrics for the smaller carbonization and a sufficient energy for rapidly cutting, which the pulse duration of laser system was fixed at 300 μs and laser irradiance was 0.98 J/mm2 simultaneously. In addition, the etiolate phenomenon of nonwoven was reduced, and the component weight of cotton and composite leather was closed to the value of knife-cut fabric as the scanning speed increased. The approximate scanning speed for nonwoven and composite leather was 200 mm/s, and one for cotton was 150 mm/s, respectively. The sharper and firmer edge is obtained by laser ablation mechanism in comparison with traditional knife cutting. Experimental results can serve as the reference for laser cutting in the clothing industry, for rapidly providing smoother patterns with lower carbonization and oxidation edge in the fashion industry.

  16. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schirmer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism is important for avalanche formation. Even when gradients appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart, faceting close to a~crust can still be observed. Recent studies that visualized small scale (< 10 cm thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within the studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and at artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or a shovel produced small concavities (holes even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which is only observed at times with large temperature differences between air and snow. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed slower compared with convex areas (bumps when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative transfer or convection by air at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of the use of a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly in scenarios where large gradients exist between air and snow and the interaction of snow

  17. Cut performance levels and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job. PMID:22135955

  18. Testing of Commercial Cutting Heads for Abrasive Water Jet Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Klich, J. (Jiří); Hlaváček, P.; M. Zeleňák; Sitek, L. (Libor); Foldyna, J.

    2013-01-01

    Five different cutting heads designed for cutting by high-speed abrasive water jet technology were tested from cutting ability point of view. Straight kerfs were cut in several metal materials by abrasive water jet. Material removal volume was determined as a measure of performance of specific cutting head. Quality of cutting surface was observed, too. Results are compared and discussed.

  19. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  20. Towards high cutting speed in wood milling

    OpenAIRE

    COSTES, Jean-Philippe; Larricq, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    International audience High cutting speed machining processes have been used for about 10 years for metals. This technology presents many advantages related to output and surface quality. For timber machining, commonly used velocities are already high. However, literature about cutting velocity function during a machining process is rare. Nevertheless, some published results have shown the effect of speed on chip formation. In order to perform experiments at high cutting speeds, we used a ...

  1. Performance Enhancement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Vu Ngoc Pi

    2008-01-01

    Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. This technology is widely used in industry for cutting difficult-to-machine-materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials etc. AWJ machining has many advantages, e.g. it can cut net-shape parts, no heat is generated during the cutting process, it is particularly environmentally friendly as it is clean and it does not create dust. Although AWJ machining has many advantages, a big disadvantage of this technolo...

  2. Applied probability and stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Sumita, Ushio

    1999-01-01

    Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes is an edited work written in honor of Julien Keilson. This volume has attracted a host of scholars in applied probability, who have made major contributions to the field, and have written survey and state-of-the-art papers on a variety of applied probability topics, including, but not limited to: perturbation method, time reversible Markov chains, Poisson processes, Brownian techniques, Bayesian probability, optimal quality control, Markov decision processes, random matrices, queueing theory and a variety of applications of stochastic processes. The book has a mixture of theoretical, algorithmic, and application chapters providing examples of the cutting-edge work that Professor Keilson has done or influenced over the course of his highly-productive and energetic career in applied probability and stochastic processes. The book will be of interest to academic researchers, students, and industrial practitioners who seek to use the mathematics of applied probability i...

  3. 红外热像技术在建筑外墙检测中的应用技巧%The Skills for Applying Infrared Thermal Imaging Technology in Architecture Exterior Wall Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡江东; 胡洪宝; 丁百湛; 蔡玥

    2015-01-01

    在建筑墙体质量检测中,应用红外热成像技术的关键之一在于把握目标体与背景物之间的温度场差异。经验表明,选择适宜时机,合理利用阳光、风、雨水等自然条件,可以显著增强目标体与背景区域间的差异,从而增强影像分辨率,达到准确识别外墙质量甚至是细小质量问题的目的。%In the test of architecture exterior wall, the key to apply infrared thermal imaging technology is to grasp the difference between target object and background object of temperature field. Experience indicates that the selection of appropriate period and reasonable employment of natural conditions like sunshine, wind and rainy water, etc. can outstandingly increase the difference between the target object and background region, thereby enhancing image resolution and realizing the goal of accurate identiifcation of exterior wall quality and even tiny quality problem.

  4. Sketching Cuts in Graphs and Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, Dmitry; Krauthgamer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sketching and streaming algorithms are in the forefront of current research directions for cut problems in graphs. In the streaming model, we show that $(1-\\epsilon)$-approximation for Max-Cut must use $n^{1-O(\\epsilon)}$ space; moreover, beating $4/5$-approximation requires polynomial space. For the sketching model, we show that $r$-uniform hypergraphs admit a $(1+\\epsilon)$-cut-sparsifier (i.e., a weighted subhypergraph that approximately preserves all the cuts) with $O(\\epsilon^{-2} n (r+\\...

  5. A cutting force model for micromilling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius.......In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius....

  6. Laser cutting of sheets for Tailored Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    by the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed mode laser...... cutting instead of continuous wave cutting at average power settings of approximately 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 W were analysed. Furthermore the optimum assist gas pressure and optimum cutting speeds were identified. The results showed that the highest qualities are obtained with a 7.5" focusing lens...

  7. A finite element model for ultrasonic cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Margaret; MacBeath, Alan; McCulloch, Euan; Cardoni, Andrea

    2006-12-22

    Using a single-blade ultrasonic cutting device, a study of ultrasonic cutting of three very different materials is conducted using specimens of cheese, polyurethane foam and epoxy resin. Initial finite element models are created, based on the assumption that the ultrasonic blade causes a crack to propagate in a controlled mode 1 opening, and these are validated against experimental data from three point bend fracture tests and ultrasonic cutting experiments on the materials. Subsequently, the finite element model is developed to represent ultrasonic cutting of a multi-layered material. Materials are chosen whose properties allow a model to be developed that could represent a multi-layer food product or biological structure, to enable ultrasonic cutting systems to be designed for applications both in the field of food processing and surgical procedures. The model incorporates an estimation of the friction condition between the cutting blade and the material to be cut and allows adjustment of the frequency, cutting amplitude and cutting speed. PMID:16814351

  8. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  9. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer

  10. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer.

  11. Cutting Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Laser Cutting Process without Assist Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ozaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laser cutting is used in many industries. Generally, in laser cutting of metallic materials, suitable assist gas and its nozzle are needed to remove the molten metal. However, because of the gas nozzle should be set closer to the surface of a workpiece, existence of the nozzle seems to prevent laser cutting from being used flexible. Therefore, the new cutting process, Assist Gas Free laser cutting or AGF laser cutting, has been developed. In this process, the pressure at the bottom side of a workpiece is reduced by a vacuum pump, and the molten metal can be removed by the air flow caused by the pressure difference between both sides of the specimen. In this study, cutting properties of austenitic stainless steel by using AGF laser cutting with 2 kW CO2 laser were investigated. Laser power and cutting speed were varied in order to study the effect of these parameters on cutting properties. As a result, austenitic stainless steel could be cut with dross-free by AGF laser cutting. When laser power was 2.0 kW, cutting speed could be increased up to 100 mm/s, and kerf width at specimen surface was 0.28 mm.

  12. Underwater plasma arc cutting of in-reactor tube of In-Pile Creep Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-reactor tube of the In-Pile Creep Facility had been irradiated periodically for over 6 years in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to the end of 1978 under an operating condition of high temperature and high pressure identical to that of the Prototype Advanced Thermal Reactor, FUGEN, to gain the basic data for estimating the amount of creep which would occur in the pressure tubes of FUGEN. Following the removal of the in-reactor tube out of the JMTR, the test sections in the tube which were to be subjected to post irradiation examination were cut out. Underwater plasma arc cutting was employed to prevent the spread of contamination to the work area, to confine the heat affected zone in the test pieces to a minimum and to simplify disposal of the unneeded portions of the pressure tube. Setup of the cutting machine, cutting operations, radiological conditions during cutting of the highly radioactive portion of the tube and disassembly of the cutting equipment are described. In addition a brief description of the underwater plasma arc cutting machine is presented. The hot-cutting operations were done remotely to control personal exposure. The containment envelope prevented the spread of contamination to the environment and radioactive particles deposited on the cutting machine were removed without any difficulties. External exposure received by cutting personnel was small. Internal radionuclide deposit examinations were conducted, determining no crew member inhaled radioactive substances. Contamination spreads to the work area were minimal and release of radionuclide was well controlled. (author)

  13. Development of real-time monitoring and control in COIL laser cutting for joint R and D between Korea and U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser monitoring and control technique investigated to experiment for cutting kerf width and result of laser cutting for D and D of nuclear facility. The demands for this laser monitoring and control technique were applied to process control in laser cutting and to fabricate monitoring and control system, focusing lens assembly. This system can had a advantage to monitor and control the laser cutting on real time. KAERI investigated the COIL laser and monitored 2 kW laser power

  14. Reachability cuts for the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a class of cuts, called reachability cuts, for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). Reachability cuts are closely related to cuts derived from precedence constraints in the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows and to k-path cuts for the...... VRPTW. In particular, any reachability cut dominates one or more k-path cuts. The paper presents separation procedures for reachability cuts and reports computational experiments on well-known VRPTW instances. The computational results suggest that reachability cuts can be highly useful as cutting...

  15. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  16. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed

  17. On Graphs of the Cone Decompositions for the Min-Cut and Max-Cut Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bondarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider maximum and minimum cut problems with nonnegative weights of edges. We define the graphs of the cone decompositions and find a linear clique number for the min-cut problem and a superpolynomial clique number for the max-cut problem. These values characterize the time complexity in a broad class of algorithms based on linear comparisons.

  18. Don't Camouflage Budget Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Nicholas M.

    1982-01-01

    Instead of shielding the public from the effects of budget cuts by making small across-the-board cuts on many programs, school administrators should slash whole programs. This will maintain the system's overall educational effectiveness while making clear the consequences of the public's political actions. (Author/RW)

  19. Laser cutting - trends in the development,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2002-01-01

    Since the laser was invented in 1960, the industrial applications of this tool has grown and grown. And - since the beginning of the 1980'ies, the major industrial application of lasers in production has been laser cutting. In this paper a short review of the development of the laser cutting...

  20. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...

  1. Overhead and operations: cutting where it counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    To remain a profitable entity, whether a retail operation, manufacturing plant, or a medical practice, the common denominator is the same: where can you cut your costs, increase your revenue, and maintain additional profitability? Learning where to cut your operational expenses is as important to your business's profit-ability as bringing in additional dollars. PMID:25807622

  2. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  3. President's Budget Would Cut Education Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's budget cut on education spending. The president's blueprint for federal education spending in the next fiscal year includes a high-profile plan to boost math and science education, new money for private school vouchers, a renewed push to improve high schools--and the most drastic cut in Department of…

  4. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  5. Performance Enhancement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Ngoc Pi

    2008-01-01

    Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. This technology is widely used in industry for cutting difficult-to-machine-materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials etc. AWJ machining has many advantages, e.g. it can cut net-shape parts, no heat is generate

  6. Cutting the L3 torque tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Workers cut the torque tube, with a plasma-cutting device on the L3 experiment, which closed with the LEP accelerator in 2000. L3 was housed in a huge red solenoid, which will be taken over by the ALICE detector when the new LHC is completed.

  7. Plywood Inlays Thourgh CO2 Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Margarida C.; Araujo, J. L.; Teixeira, M. Ribau; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho

    1989-07-01

    Furniture with inlays is rather expensive. This is so on two accounts: Firstly, furniture with inlays is generally manufactured with solid wood.Secondly,wood carving and figure cutting are both time consuming and they produce a high rate of rejections. To add to it all the cutting and carving of minute figures requires an outstanding craftmanship. In fact the craftman is in most instance the artist and also the manufacturer. While desiring that the high artistic level is maintained in the industry the search for new method to produce inlays for furniture in not son expensive materials and to produce them in a repetitive and flexible way laser cutting of plywood was found to be quite suitable. This paper presents the charts for CO2 laser cutting of both positive and negatives in several types of plywood. The main problem is not so much the cutting of the positive and negatives pieces but to be able to cut the piece in a way that the fitting is done without any problems caused by the ever present charring effect, which takes palce at the edges of the cut pieces. To minimise this aspect positive and negative pieces have to be cut under stringent focusing conditions and with slight different scales. The condittions for our machine are presented.

  8. Cutting tool form compensation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Klages, E.J.

    1993-10-19

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed. 9 figures.

  9. Cutting tool form compensaton system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, William E.; Babelay, Jr., Edwin F.; Klages, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed.

  10. Finite element simulation of conventional and prestressed cutting of Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ruitao; Tang, Xinzi; Tan, Yuanqiang; Liu, Xiongwei

    2013-05-01

    Titanium alloys are known as difficult-to-machine materials, chip morphology plays a predominant role in determining machinability and tool wear during the machining of titanium alloys. Based on the finite element analysis and experimental validation, the cutting processes in conventional cutting and prestressed cutting of titanium alloy ring parts were explored respectively. The Johnson-Cook model expressed by equivalent plastic strain flow stress is utilized to describe the constitutive properties. A ductile fracture criterion based on the strain energy is applied to model the crack initiation and evolution during the chip segmentation. Cutting force as well as distributions of stress, temperature and equivalent plastic strain along cutting time were numerically compared. The results indicate that in conventional cutting and prestressed cutting, chips show the similar characteristic of continuous and regular serrated shape. Initial stress distribution of workpiece was changed by prestress, which correspondingly leads to the alteration of stress distribution in the subsurface layer. Prestress hardly influences the distributions of temperature and equivalent plastic strain on workpiece. The cutting force curves share the same average amplitude and analogous undulating rhythm.

  11. Influence of Water-jet Nozzle Geometry on Cutting Ability of Soft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwansyah Irwansyah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hygiene is main reason for food processor to use waterjet cutting system. Traditionally food cutting process is low-quality, unsafe products, procedures and direct contact between product and labor. This paper introduced a low cost waterjet system for cutting soft material as identic food material. The low cost waterjet system has been developed by using a commercial pressure pump for cleaning purposes and modified nozzle. In order to enhance waterjet pressure for cutting products, a modified waterjet nozzle was designed. Paramater design of waterjet system was setup on nozzle orifice diameter 0.5 mm, standoff distance 15 mm, length of nozzle cylindrical tube 2.5 mm. Polycarbonate, polysterene, and polyethelene materials are used as sample product with thickness 2 mm, to represent similar properties with agriculture products. The experimental results indicate good possibilities of waterjet system to cut material in appropriate profile surface. The waterjet also can be used to improve cutting finished surface of food products. Therefore, utilizing a low cost commercial pump and modified nozzle for waterjet system reduces equipment price, operational cost and environmental hazards. It indicates viable technology applied to substitute traditional cutting technology in post harvest agriculture products. Keywords: cutting ability, modified nozzle, polymer material, water-jet system

  12. Propose for systematization of data applied to bioclimatic architecture: acoustic, high ling and thermal; Propuesta para la sistematizacion de ecotecnicas y datos de vegetacion aplicables a la arquitectura bioclimatica desde un enfoque energetico global. Luminico. Acustico y Termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, G. R.

    2004-07-01

    In Environmental Design or Solar Architecture, vegetation may be used to modify the micro climate surrounding a building. However, books on this subject only state the way vegetation may be used to control thermal conditions within buildings, considering thermal energy the only one present. In buildings, there is always a simultaneous presence of three kinds of energy: thermal energy, acoustics and illumination. Therefore, this paper will propose: (1) a holistic approach to the use of vegetation in Environmental Design, using all parameters of thermal, acoustic and luminal comfort, and (2) a holistic approach to Environmental Design guidelines that use vegetation. (Author)

  13. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.;

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  14. A State-of-the-Art Report on Cutting Technologies for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the status of the cryogenic cutting technology as a new dismantling technology for dismantling radioactive nuclear facilities and also presents the direction of study to apply it to a radioactive nuclear facility research aim of its nuclear. This report consists of four chapter : - 1. Background and objectives of dismantling technology for dismantling a radioactive nuclear facility. - 2. Analysis of the status of conventional cutting technologies - 3. Analysis of the status of cryogenic cutting technology - 4. Discussion, conclusion, and future work on state-of-the-art technology of dismantling for nuclear facilities

  15. Fatigue Testing of Abrasive Water Jet Cut Titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E.; Williford, Ralph E.

    2009-06-08

    Battelle Memorial Institute as part of its U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 to operate the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provides technology assistance to qualifying small businesses in association with a Technology Assistance Program (TAP). Qualifying companies are eligible to receive a set quantity of labor associated with specific technical assistance. Having applied for a TAP agreement to assist with fatigue characterization of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cut titanium specimens, the OMAX Corporation was awarded TAP agreement 09-02. This program was specified to cover dynamic testing and analysis of fatigue specimens cut from titanium alloy Ti-6%Al-4%V via AWJ technologies. In association with the TAP agreement, a best effort agreement was made to characterize fatigue specimens based on test conditions supplied by OMAX.

  16. Use of genetic algorithms for solving problems of optimal cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergievskiy Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting and packing problem is one of the most common optimization problem. Even a small space or material savings allow obtaining substantial advantages on an industrial scale. This paper proposes the genetic algorithm to solve this problem. It includes multipoint operators of crossing, mutation and selection. To use these operators, the special encoding of cutting card is applied, that can be transformed to the real coordinates by using decoder. This is a block typed decoder, which substitution strategy is “first-fit”. Efficiency of the solutions, obtained by the algorithm, depends on its parameters and on dimension of a task, but on average it decreases under the logarithmic law from dimension of a task. Temporary complexity of algorithm shows square dependence on the task dimension.

  17. Calculation of mass transfer in the remote cutting of metals by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of remote cutting of steel plates by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser is theoretically studied. The models of melt removal by the gravity force and the recoil pressure of material vapour are proposed and the sufficient conditions for the initiation of cutting are determined. A numerical model of a thermally thin plate was employed to describe the cutting for large focal spots. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  18. A Method and Device for 3D Recognition of Cutting Edge Micro Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Palubicki; Michal Szulc; Gerhard Sinn; Kazimierz Orlowski; Jakub Sandak

    2014-01-01

    A very useful method was successfully applied in the investigation of tools for machining wood and wood based composites. It allows scanning of the cutting edge micro geometry in three dimensions and reproducing it in a virtual space as a 3D surface. The application of the method opens new possibilities of studying tool wear by scanning, including the calculation of volume loss and other analysis of tool wedge geometry along and perpendicularly to the cutting edge. Effectiveness of the method...

  19. Microstructural analysis of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) for postharvest quality optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Susana C.; Silva, Cristina L.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microstructure of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) after cutting, when maintained (for 0,4 and 7 d) under refrigerated storage (2°C). In order to assess the microstructure of the product, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied; however, to improve this technique, preparation procedures and quantitative image analysis were specifically developed. Since sample preparation affects deeply image quality, three sample p...

  20. Ethylene and rooting of mung bean cuttings. The role of auxin induced ethylene synthesis and phase-dependent effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Hanecakova, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have re-examined the role of ethylene during rooting of mung bean cuttings. Cuttings were treated for 5 days with a low or a high concentration of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid). During this 5 days period, we also applied STS (silverthiosulfate, an inhibitor of ethylene action) or ACC (1-aminocyclo

  1. Research progress of machine tool thermal error modeling technology

    OpenAIRE

    Qianjian GUO; Wang, Hongmei; Li, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    During cutting, machine tools are influenced by different heat sources, which induces machine thermal deformation, deviation and thermal error. In different machine errors, thermal error accounts for 40%~70% of total machine errors, which is the main influence factor of machining accuracy. In order to reduce machine thermal error and improve machining precision, there are mainly 3 ways at present: 1) Improving machine thermal stiffness by optimal design of machine structure; 2) Separating hea...

  2. The mechanics of slitting and cutting webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Richard Raymond

    The quality of edges formed during cutting and slitting of thin polymer webs is important for many industrial applications. In order to control the edge quality of the separated material, it is necessary to understand cutting. A model is proposed and the mechanics of cutting are described. An apparatus was constructed to instrument, monitor and control the web slitting process. The slitting speed, tension in the web, blade sharpness and angle of cut were varied during tests. This allowed a quantitative understanding of the cutting mechanisms to be established. The results of the experiments showed the in-plane cutting forces were minimally affected by changes in rate or speed and independent of web tension for sharp blades. The angle of cut had a pronounced effect on the in-plane cutting forces and the stability of the cut. Further experimentation was designed to relate force to plastic deformation caused by a wedge indenting the edge surface of a polymer sample. These experiments clearly revealed the shape of the plastic deformation zone ahead of and around the wedges. Data from the experiments showed increasing cutting force with wedge displacement until the sample fractured. Plastic deformation of the samples was then examined in detail. The results showed out-of-plane plastic volume was equal to the volume displaced by the wedge. Samples also exhibited constant hardness during initial phases of wedge indenting. A finite element model concurred with the empirical plastic zone data. An innovative method was developed to take a dynamic "snapshot" of web displacement around the blade. The results clearly showed the web buckling ahead of the blade producing major instability during the cutting and slitting of thin webs. A finite element model supported the characteristics of the buckling phenomena observed in thin webs. An understanding of the interaction of cutting parameters and the buckling instability will allow quality web edges with minimal deformation and

  3. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  4. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  5. Who Cuts Back and When?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the politics of delays in social spending cutbacks in OECD democracies. In the context of fiscal austerity, policymakers are assumed to have a strong incentive to manipulate the timing of cutbacks strategically. Applying event history analysis to small and large cutbacks...

  6. A New Regularization Mechanism for the Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Luis

    2016-11-01

    We apply recent results on regularity for general integro-differential equations to derive a priori estimates in Hölder spaces for the space homogeneous Boltzmann equation in the non cut-off case. We also show an a priori estimate in {L^∞} which applies in the space inhomogeneous case as well, provided that the macroscopic quantities remain bounded.

  7. Rejuvenated sycamore cuttings for energy plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, S.B. Jr.; Elam, W.W. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Khan, Mohammad [Pakistan Forest Inst., Peshawar (Pakistan). Forestry Research Div.

    1995-12-31

    Rejuvination of mature, progeny tested American sycamore trees is needed to increase rooting success of cuttings for energy plantations. Studies conducted in Mississippi (U.S.A.) indicated that hedging of stock plants and spraying the stock plants with benzyl adenine may rejuvinate the cuttings. Percentages of cuttings with early bud break in one study and with sprouts and roots after nine months in another study were increased. The rooted cuttings grew rapidly like juvenile material and showed no plagiotrophic effects during the first year after transplanting. At the end of that year the dry weight was 2.13 Mg ha{sup -1} (1.2 m x 3.6 m spacing) and was distributed in stems (31%), branches (14%), leaves (24%) and roots (31%). An IBA rooting powder decreased rooting success. Planting cuttings directly in the nursery, rather than first in the greenhouse, increased success when frost was absent. Use of cuttings of greater than 14 m diameter with a node within 2 cm of the base increased success. Clonal differences in frost susceptibility of sprouting cuttings were observed. (author)

  8. New Tool Coatings for Light Metal Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DaveDoerwald; ThomasKrug; RoelTietema; Wei-MingSim; QuanshunLuo; PapkenHovsepian

    2004-01-01

    New carbon based coatings have been developed for cutting of light metals such as aluminum. These coatings can be used either directly on the tool or as topcoating combined with another hard base coating. Cutting tests show that the coating gives good performance for materials that tend to stick to the cutting tools, such as aluminium alloys, because of the substantial reduction of appearance of the so-called built-up edge (BUE). This results in a longer life time of the tool and smoother surface finish of the cut made in the work-piece material. Especially in dry machining and deep hole drilling this coating performed very well. An overview of the properties and initial cutting results of this coating will be presented. This paper will also present results from recent industrial field tests carried out by a leading European aerospace manufacturer. Cutting forces, BUE formation and surface roughness data will be presented to explain the cutting process during dry machining.

  9. New Tool Coatings for Light Metal Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dave Doerwald; Thomas Krug; Roel Tietema; Wei-Ming Sim; Quanshun Luo; Papken Hovsepian

    2004-01-01

    New carbon based coatings have been developed for cutting of light metals such as aluminum. These coatings can be used either directly on the tool or as topcoating combined with another hard base coating. Cutting tests show that the coating gives good performance for materials that tend to stick to the cutting tools, such as aluminium alloys, because of the substantial reduction of appearance of the so-called built-up edge (BUE). This results in a longer life time of the tool and smoother surface finish of the cut made in the work-piece material. Especially in dry machining and deep hole drilling this coating performed very well. An overview of the properties and initial cutting results of this coating will be presented. This paper will also present results from recent industrial field tests carried out by a leading European aerospace manufacturer.Cutting forces, BUE formation and surface roughness data will be presented to explain the cutting process during dry machining.

  10. Cutting Balloon angioplasty for cardiac transplant vasculopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Y.; Currier, JW; Yeatman, LA; Kobashigawa, JA; Rogers, AD; Cianfichi, LJ; Fishbein, MC; Tobis, JM

    2002-01-01

    We performed Cutting Balloon angioplasty on 20 lesions in 11 heart transplant recipients 7.5 +/- 3.8 years after transplantation. The mean percentage of diameter stenosis decreased from 88.3% +/- 13.8% to 19.6% +/- 13.7% after Cutting Balloon angioplasty without complication. Seven patients underwent follow-up angiography at 4.9 +/- 1.7 months in a total of 12 lesions, and all lesions showed restenosis with a mean diameter stenosis of 84.4% +/- 19.2%. Cutting Balloon angioplasty can be used t...

  11. Equilibria of Generalized Cut and Choose Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Kurokawa, David;

    Classic cake cutting protocols — which fairly allocate a divisible good among agents with heterogeneous preferences — are susceptible to manipulation. Do their strategic outcomes still guarantee fairness? To answer this question we adopt a novel algo rithmic approach, proposing a concrete...... computational model and reasoning about the game-theoretic properties of algorithms that operate in this model. Specifically, we show that each protocol in the class of generalized cut and choose (GCC) protocols — which includes the most important discrete cake cutting protocols — is guaranteed to have...

  12. Auditing to the cutting edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, L.; Wirdzek, P.

    1999-07-01

    Equipment? System? Building? Campus? Neighborhood? Community? Region? What is to be audited and what needs to be corrected? Can the energy management professional decide, or should the customer? Over the last few decades, energy professionals have been evaluating energy use in order to balance clients' expenditures with acceptable levels of service. Traditionally, professional expertise and creativity have been limited more by budget than any other single element. Today, energy and the environment are tightly intertwined. In the future, effective energy management may not be possible without considering the relationships between them. Conversely, environmental protection cannot be achieved without considering energy production, distribution, and use. To this end, two powerful federal organizations, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), have been engaged in defining the interrelationships of these areas and fashioning national energy policies aimed at awakening Americans to these facts. Environmental demands are becoming a factor in efficiency equations. Energy management professionals should prepare a response. They will face demands for cutting-edge audits that reach further than giving utility power just a trim in the energy barber shop. Survival in the business of energy management will require a broader perspective. One need only look to current advertisements by national and international corporations which praise the environmental benefits of their products and even their places of business as cleaner than their competitors'. For the energy management professional then, energy diversity and source versus site considerations are opportunities to be identified in the audit process, in addition to replacement of inefficient equipment. The country is rich with technology choices, with documented experience, and with the knowledge to create systems that can mine deep savings. True, some have niche

  13. Innovation Study for Laser Cutting of Complex Geometries with Paper Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happonen, A.; Stepanov, A.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.

    Even though technology for laser cutting of paper materials has existed for over 30 years, it seems that results of applications of this technology and possibilities of laser cutting systems are not easily available. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of the complex geometry laser cutting of paper materials and to analyze the innovation challenges and potential of current laser cutting technologies offer. This research studied the potential and possible challenges in applying CO2 laser cutting technology for cutting of paper materials in current supply chains trying to fulfil the changing needs of customer in respect of shape, fast response during rapid delivery cycle. The study is focused on examining and analyzing the different possibilities of laser cutting of paper material in application area of complex low volume geometry cutting. The goal of this case was to analyze the feasibility of the laser cutting from technical, quality and implementation points of view and to discuss availability of new business opportunities. It was noticed that there are new business models still available within laser technology applications in complex geometry cutting. Application of laser technology, in business-to-consume markets, in synergy with Internet service platforms can widen the customer base and offer new value streams for technology and service companies. Because of this, existing markets and competition has to be identified, and appropriate new and innovative business model needs to be developed. And to be competitive in the markets, models like these need to include the earning logic and the stages from production to delivery as discussed in the paper.

  14. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Martawirya, Y. Y.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule.

  15. Rational cutting height for large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Bingxiang; Li Hongtao; Liu Changyou; Xing Shijun; Xue Weichao

    2011-01-01

    Large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving is a new mining method that improves recovery ratio and single-pass production.It also allows safe and efficient mining.A rational cutting height is one key parameter of this technique.Numerical simulation and a granular-media model experiment were used to analyze the effect of cutting height on the rock pressure of a fully mechanized top-coal caving work face.The recovery ratio was also studied.As the cutting height increases the top-coal thickness is reduced.Changing the ratio of cutting to drawing height intensifies the face pressure and the top-coal shattering.A maximum cutting height exists under a given set of conditions due to issues with surrounding rock-mass control.An increase in cutting height makes the top-coal cave better and the recovery ratio when drawing top-coal is then improved.A method of adjusting the face rock pressure is presented.Changing the cutting to drawing height ratio is the technique used to control face rock pressure.The recovery ratio when cutting coal exceeds that when caving top-coal so the face recovery ratio may be improved by over sizing the cutting height and increasing the top-coal drawing ratio.An optimum ratio of cutting to drawing height exists that maximizes the face recovery ratio.A rational cutting height is determined by comprehensively considering the surrounding rock-mass control and the recovery ratio.At the same time increasing the cutting height can improve single pass mining during fully mechanized top-coal caving.

  16. Thermal backflow in CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Elliot; Gauntlett, Jerome P; Griffin, Tom; Melgar, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermal transport properties of general CFTs on curved spacetimes in the leading order viscous hydrodynamic limit. At the level of linear response, we show that the thermal transport is governed by a system of forced linearised Navier-Stokes equations on a curved space. Our setup includes CFTs in flat spacetime that have been deformed by spatially dependent temperature gradients or strains that have been applied to the CFT, and hence is relevant to CFTs arising in condensed matter systems at zero charge density. We provide specific examples of deformations which lead to thermal backflow driven by a DC source: that is, the thermal currents locally flow in the opposite direction to the applied DC thermal source.

  17. Oil Refining Giants to Cut Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dingmin

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's refined oil product output rose slightly in the first five months of this year on strong demand,but the two biggest domestic producers plan to cut production rates in an attempt to bolster the sluggish price.

  18. Development of CRT's corner cutting repair systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Hui-ming; CHEN Qian

    2005-01-01

    CRT Corner cutting tube is considered as a definitive reject and will be sent to reclaim at all times. It caused lots of material loss. In this paper, a novel technology used to save CRTs corner cutting tube is presented firstly. A set of repair system has been successfully developed to repair CRTs corner cutting tube. Then, the process technology for corner cutting repair has been excogitated by empirical studies.Finally,the correlative performances of repaired tube are evaluated. The experimental results show that the quality of repaired tube has no difference with that of normal product. The repair yield has reached above 97 percent. This new technology has contributed to improving the production yield,reducing the material consumption and decreasing the cost of color CRT production.

  19. Laser cutting system for nuclear fuel disassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant advancement in fuel reprocessing technology has been made by utilizing a multikilowatt, carbon dioxide laser to perform cutting operations necessary to remove unprocessible hardware from reactor fuel assemblies. 10 figs

  20. Throat-cutting of accidental origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2008-07-01

    Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

  1. Climate science hit by job cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Climate researchers in Australia are bracing themselves for heavy job cuts as the country's national scientific agency - the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - said last month it will reprioritize towards innovation.

  2. Facets and cuts from additive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araoz, J.

    1994-12-31

    Integer Program Facets with non-negative entries could be derived from Additive System Problems, like Semigroup or Gomory`s Group Problems. These facets can be used as cuts for Branch and Cuts Algorithms. In fact, any Master Problem facet with some equal coefficients came from lifting a facet of a easily related Multivalued Additive System. A morphism type relation between problems allow us to obtain facets for Master Problems or cuts for Integer Programs. We use Knapsack Problems as examples either to present results about sequential lifting for non-Master Problems, pseudo-morphisms for facet generation for Master Problems and cut generation for Integer Programs solving small subadditive linear programs or to state open problems.

  3. A non-linear branch and cut method for solving discrete minimum compliance problems to global optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2007-01-01

    finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities...

  4. Link between chips and cutting moments evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cahuc, Olivier; Gérard, Alain; 10.4028/WWW.scientific.net/AMR.423.89

    2012-01-01

    The better understanding of the material cutting process has been shown with the benefit of the forces and moments measurement since some years ago. In paper, simultaneous six mechanical components and chip orientation measurements were realized during turning tests. During these tests, the influence of the depth of cut or feed rate has been observed and a link between the chip orientation and the moment vector orientation or the central axis characteristics has been shown.

  5. Plasma arc cutting optimization parameters for aluminum alloy with two thickness by using Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnasser, B.; Bhuvenesh, R.

    2016-07-01

    Manufacturing companies define the qualities of thermal removing process based on the dimension and physical appearance of the cutting material surface. The surface roughness of the cutting area for the material and the material removal rate being removed during the manual plasma arc cutting process were importantly considered. Plasma arc cutter machine model PS-100 was used to cut the specimens made from aluminium alloy 1100 manually based on the selected parameters setting. Two different thicknesses of specimens, 3mm and 6mm were used. The material removal rate (MRR) was measured by determining the difference between the weight of specimens before and after the cutting process. The surface roughness (Ra) was measured by using MITUTOYO CS-3100 machine and analysis was conducted to determine the average roughness (Ra) value, Taguchi method was utilized as an experimental layout to obtain MRR and Ra values. The results indicate that the current and cutting speed is the most significant parameters, followed by the arc gap for both rate of material removal and surface roughness.

  6. Hierarchical Overlapping Clustering of Network Data Using Cut Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Fernando; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to obtain hierarchical and overlapping clusters from network data -i.e., a set of nodes endowed with pairwise dissimilarities- is presented. The introduced method is hierarchical in the sense that it outputs a nested collection of groupings of the node set depending on the resolution or degree of similarity desired, and it is overlapping since it allows nodes to belong to more than one group. Our construction is rooted on the facts that a hierarchical (non-overlapping) clustering of a network can be equivalently represented by a finite ultrametric space and that a convex combination of ultrametrics results in a cut metric. By applying a hierarchical (non-overlapping) clustering method to multiple dithered versions of a given network and then convexly combining the resulting ultrametrics, we obtain a cut metric associated to the network of interest. We then show how to extract a hierarchical overlapping clustering structure from the aforementioned cut metric. Furthermore, the so-called overlappi...

  7. Splitting PMMA with Mini Cutting Explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiqiang; LIU Xiaomin; XIAO Yin; ZHAO Yonggang; ZHAO Longmao

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the present aviation ejection escape system,the application of explosion cutting technique to aviation escape system is proposed to weaken the strength of canopy before ejecting it.A series of mini cutting explosives are designed to investigate the process of splitting PMMA plate.The phenomenon of spallation in PMMA is observed.The effects of different parameters of mini cutting explosives on the cutting depth are obtained.Consequently the appropriate material of half-circular metal covers,explosive types and the ranges of charge quantities are determined.On the other hand,the cutting process of aviation PMMA plate by mini cutting explosives is simulated by means of nonlinear dynamic analysis code LS-DYNA.In finite element analysis,Arbitrary Lagrangian Euler (ALE) algorithm is used to depict the fluid property of high energy explosives.Continuous damage material model is used to simulate the complicate dynamic damage behavior of PMMA due to explosion shock waves.Only sliding contact option is defined to fulfill the fluid-structure interaction between explosives and PMMA plate by distributed parameter methods.Phenomenon of spallation observed in the experiment is presented in the simulation.The relationship between the penetration depth of PMMA plate and charge linear density obtained by numerical simulation agrees well with experimental result.

  8. New law to cut 1986 budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are among the agencies whose budgets are likely to be cut 4.3% on March 1, 1986, when the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 makes its first impact.Under the law, the cuts will be implemented across the board by an order from the president. Unless Congress passes legislation to make its own cuts sometime between now and March 1, these cuts will automatically take an equal percentage from every nondefense program, project, and activity not protected from “sequestration” of funds and will automatically take a slightly higher percentage from the unprotected portions of the defense budget. Individual agencies could circumvent the across-the-board cuts by formulating their own plans to distribute their share of the reductions; however, these plans would need congressional approval. These cuts will affect budgets for the federal government in fiscal year (FY) 1986, which began on October 1, 1985. Unless revenues increase substantially, additional and mone severe belt-tightening is in store for FY 1987 and beyond.

  9. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard; Minton, Greg

    2016-06-01

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  10. LASER CUTTING MACHINES FOR 3-D THIN SHEET PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav RADOVANOVIC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting machines are used for precise contour cutting thin sheet. In industrial application nowadays various types and construction of laser cutting machines can be met. For contour cutting 3-D thin sheet parts laser cutting machines with rotation movements and laser robots are used. Laser generates the light beam, that presents a tool in working process. Application of laser cutting machines made possible good quality of products, flexibility of production and enlargement of economy

  11. Influence of leaf retention on cutting propagation of Lavandula dentata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation of lavender offers several advantages over sexual propagation, among them crop homogeneity and yield of higher quality essential oil. However, Lavandula species have been propagated mostly by seeds and are said to be recalcitrant to rooting when propagated by cuttings. During cutting propagation, one of the important variables that influence the rooting capacity of cuttings is the leaf retention. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of leaf retention on rooting of L. dentata cuttings. Apical cuttings of L. dentata of 10 cm in length, keeping approximately 1/3, 1/2 or 2/3 of their leaves were planted in commercial substrate Plantmax HT® under intermittent mist. After two months, averages of root number, length of the longest root, root fresh and dry weights, and the survival percentage were evaluated. Root length and fresh weight were statistically greater with 2/3 of leaf retention and when fewer leaves were kept on the cuttings, lower means of root dry weight was observed. Under the conditions applied in this study, greater leaf retention was better for rooting of L. dentata cuttings.

  12. Parametric optimization during machining of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel using CVD coated DURATOMIC cutting insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaladhar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Taguchi method is applied to determine the optimum process parameters for turning of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel on CNC lathe. A Chemical vapour deposition (CVD coated cemented carbide cutting insert is used which is produced by DuratomicTM technology of 0.4 and 0.8 mm nose radii. The tests are conducted at four levels of Cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. The influence of these parameters are investigated on the surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR. The Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA is also used to analyze the influence of cutting parameters during machining. The results revealed that cutting speed significantly (46.05% affected the machined surface roughness values followed by nose radius (23.7%. The influence of the depth of cut (61.31% in affecting material removal rate (MRR is significantly large. The cutting speed (20.40% is the next significant factor. Optimal range and optimal level of parameters are also predicted for responses.

  13. Polarizabilities of an Annular Cut in the Thick Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    1996-05-01

    The electric and magnetic polarizabilities of an aperture are its important characteristics used in the theory of aperture coupling and diffraction of EM waves. The polarizabilities of the aperture having a form of a ring-shaped cut in the plane wall of an arbitrary thickness are calculated by solving corresponding electrostatic or magnetostatic problems using a combination of analytical, variational and numerical methods. The dependences of the polarizabilities on the aperture parameters and on the wall thickness are presented. The results are applied to estimate the beam coupling impedances of button-type beam position monitors.

  14. Color Restoration Method Based on Spectral Information Using Normalized Cut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuro Morimoto; Tohru Mihashi; Katsushi Ikeuchi

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for color restoration that can effectively apply accurate color based on spectral information to a segmented image using the normalized cut technique. Using the proposed method, we can obtain a digital still camera image and spectral information in different environments. Also, it is not necessary to estimate reflectance spectra using a spectral database such as other methods. The synthesized images are accurate and high resolution. The proposed method effectively works in making digital archive contents. Some experimental results are demonstrated in this paper.

  15. Cutting inserts effect on heat generation in turning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Žitňanský

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on confirmation of an effect of cutting materials and cutting inserts geometry on cutting forces and temperature, quality and accuracy of machined surface in turning. The main part is devoted to description of advanced turning tools and cutting materials. The experimental part is focused on cutting forces and temperature measurement and machined surface quality in turning of steel grade 11 523 samples with one feed and depth of cut value and varying spindle speed. Measurements were performed with various types of indexable cutting inserts used. Measured values were evaluated in terms of the effect of different properties of cutting inserts and various spindle speed values.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF TOOL WEAR AND CUTTING TEMPERATURES IN MQL USING CUTTING FLUIDS WITH CNT INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NARAYANA RAO,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Machining often witnesses frequent interruption caused by friction and heat. Cutting fluids are being used in machining for centuries to counter the effects of friction and temperatures. However, because of many disadvantages, MQL has emerged. MQL demands fluids with high performance. This work tries to estimate tool wear and cutting temperatures while using cutting fluids, prepared with carbon nano tube (CNT inclusion.

  17. Surface Detection using Round Cut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We propose an iterative method for detecting closed surfaces in a volumetric data, where an optimal search is performed in a graph build upon a triangular mesh. Our approach is based on previous techniques for detecting an optimal terrain-like or tubular surface employing a regular grid. Unlike...... similar adaptations for triangle meshes, our method is capable of capturing complex geometries by iteratively refining the surface, where we obtain a high level of robustness by applying explicit mesh processing to intermediate results. Our method uses on-surface data support, but it also exploits data...... information about the region inside and outside the surface. This provides additional robustness to the algorithm. We demonstrate the capabilities of the approach by detecting surfaces of CT scanned objects....

  18. Hybridization of Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm optimization for CO2 laser cutting parameter on AA6061 material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Parthiban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of laser cutting parameters on aluminium alloy (AA6061 is important due to its high reflectivity and thermal conductivity. Generally Aluminium alloy is a widely used material in aeronautical and automation industries for its inherent properties. Although the main problem during laser cutting is occurrence of recasting layer and laser beam incidence that affecting the cutting quality is known as kerf dimensions. In a sense the relationship between the laser cutting parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, gas pressure and focal position with kerf dimensions are having important role in laser cutting operation. So this work considers the response surface methodology (RSM, for making empirical relationship between dependent and independent variables. Simultaneously, this work reveals that laser power, cutting speed, gas pressure and focal position have significant effects on kerf dimension. Thus the development of empirical model and the selection of best parameters are important for manufacturing industries. Hence this work develops the statistical model with RSM and optimizes the cutting parameters with genetic algorithm (GA.

  19. Force Relations and Dynamics of Cutting Knife in a Vertical Disc Mobile Wood Chipper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun R. BELLO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The force relations and dynamics of cutting knife in a vertical disc wood chipper were investigated. The tool geometry determined include: rake angle (20 deg C; Shear angle, (fi= 52.15 deg C; the mean frictional angle, (t = 5.71 deg C. The analysis and comparison of the cutting forces has shown that the chips separated from the wood are being formed by off cutting, since normal applied force N is compressive in nature, the magnitude of the forces used by the knife on the wood is expected to increase as the cutting edge of the knife goes deeper into the wood until the value of the resisting force acting against the cut wood Ff is reached and exceeded. The evaluated forces acting on the knife and the chip are: F = 3.63Nmm^-1; N = 34.7 Nmm^-1; Fs= 27.45Nmm^-1; Fn =31.92 Nmm^-1; Ft = -8.46Nmm^-1; Fc = 33.85Nmm^-1. The resultant force acting on the tool face, Pr = 34.89Nmm^-1. The specific cutting pressure, Pc and cutting force needed to cut the timber, Fc, are 1.79 × 10^6 N/m2 and 644.84N respectively. The energy consumed in removing a unit volume of material is 69.96kJ/mm^-3 and the maximum power developed in cutting the chip is 3591.77W (4.82hp. The chipper efficiency (86.6% was evaluated by the highest percentage of accepted chip sizes.

  20. 固体吸附式空调/热泵在火电厂中的应用研究%STUDY ON APPLYING SOLID-ADSORPTION AIR CONDITIONING / HEAT PUMP IN THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中华; 王如竹; 刘建军; 柳正军; 刘洪文

    2001-01-01

    采用新型固体吸附式制冷技术开发了电站锅炉排污热回收系统。该系统可直接回收排污热进行空调制冷,并对电厂热力系统进行热泵供热,不但节约大量空调用电,而且提高了机组热经济性,具有显著的节能效果。%A heat recovery system of discharged waste water from boilers in thermal power plant was developed. The recovered heat can be used to drive solid-adsorption refrigerator for air conditioning and supply heat to heat-pump for thermal system, reducing greatly the electricity consumption of air conditioning, improving thermal efficiency of generating units, resulting in obvious energy-saving effect.

  1. Converter structure-based power loss and static thermal modeling of the press-pack IGBT-based three-level ANPC and HB VSCs applied to Multi-MW wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2010-01-01

    and the switch thermal performance which is determined by the converter load profile and the converter structure. In this study, the converter-structure based power loss and thermal models are developed for the medium voltage full-scale 3LANPC- VSC and 3L-HB-VSC utilizing press-pack IGBT-diode pairs......The wind turbine converters demand high power density due to nacelle space limitation and high reliability due to high maintenance cost. Once the converter topology with the semiconductor switch technology is selected, the converter power density and reliability are dependent on the component count...... and interfacing a 6MW wind turbine to a medium voltage grid. The switching power loss models are built using the experimentally obtained switching power loss data from a fullscale 3L-ANPC-VSC leg. The static thermal models are developed considering the double-sided cooling of the switches by the cooling plates...

  2. Thermal Diffusivity Measurements in Edible Oils using Transient Thermal Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R. Carbajal.; Pérez, J. L. Jiménez.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Martín-Martínez, E. San.

    2006-11-01

    Time resolved thermal lens (TL) spectrometry is applied to the study of the thermal diffusivity of edible oils such as olive, and refined and thermally treated avocado oils. A two laser mismatched-mode experimental configuration was used, with a He Ne laser as a probe beam and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical expression for a transient thermal lens. The results showed that virgin olive oil has a higher thermal diffusivity than for refined and thermally treated avocado oils. This measured thermal property may contribute to a better understanding of the quality of edible oils, which is very important in the food industry. The thermal diffusivity results for virgin olive oil, obtained from this technique, agree with those reported in the literature.

  3. Análise térmica aplicada à caracterização da sinvastatina em formulações farmacêuticas Thermal analysis applied to simvastatin characterization in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonio de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC are used in pharmaceutical studies for drugs characterization, purity, formulations compatibility, polymorphism identification, stability evaluation, and thermal decomposition of drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. Simvastatin showed fusion at 138.5 ºC and thermal stability up to 248 ºC. Simvastatin was incompatible with preservative excipient butylhydroxyanisole (BHA performing a process of crystal amorphization. The drug showed morphological polymorphism, where it has the same unit cell but with different crystal habits according to the recrystallization solvent.

  4. Converter structure-based power loss and static thermal modeling of the press-pack IGBT-based three-level ANPC and HB VSCs applied to Multi-MW wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Senturk, Osman S.; Helle, L.; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the converter-structure based power loss and thermal models are developed for the medium voltage full-scale 3LANPC- VSC and 3L-HB-VSC utilizing press-pack IGBT-diode pairs and interfacing a 6MW wind turbine to a medium voltage grid. The switching power loss models are built using the experimentally obtained switching power loss data from a fullscale 3L-ANPC-VSC leg. The static thermal models are developed considering the double-sided cooling of the switc...

  5. Development of a plasma-arc-cutting technology like a mechanical saw for dismantling nuclear components of greater thickness under water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Status of research: Cutting steel with the plasma-arc-saw (saw disk diameter 600 mm) with a thickness up to 100 mm is possible. The cutting process works discontinuously. For the ignition of the special constructed plasma torches it is necessary to stop the rotation of the saw disk so the cutting process works discontinuously. 2. Aim of research work: Plasma arc cutting technology should be developed to enable cutting component parts continuous and computer aided. 3. Method of research: Cutting results of the plasma-arc-saw (saw disk diameter 600 mm) gives design data for the construction of a plasma arc saw with a diameter of 850 mm and a diameter of 1000 mm. To develop and optimize the special nozzles of the plasma-arc-saw experiments with the submerged combustion burner have been performed. 4. Results: There are no problems of thermal cutting a plate of steel and a heat exchanger up to a thickness of 300 mm. The cuttable sheet thickness only depends on the diameter of the saw blade. The emission of dust and aerosol only depends on the melted material. Computer aided cutting is possible. 5. The plasma-arc-saw enables thermal cutting of component parts independent of their thickness in a water depth of 20 m without requiring a force. The remote control dismantling of a reactor vessel and other components with greater wall thickness is possible. (orig.) With 34 refs., 2 tabs., 101 figs

  6. A Study on the Allowable Safety Factor of Cut-Slopes for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Soo; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the issues of allowable safety factor design criteria for cut-slopes in nuclear facilities is derived through case analysis, a proposed construction work slope design criteria that provides relatively detailed conditions can be applied in case of the dry season and some unclear parts of slope design criteria be modified in case of the rainy season. This safety factor can be further subdivided into two; normal and earthquake factors, a factor of 1.5 is applied for normal conditions and a factor of 1.2 is applied for seismic conditions. This safety factor takes into consideration the effect of ground water and rainfall conditions. However, no criteria for the case of cut-slope in nuclear facilities and its response to seismic conditions is clearly defined, this can cause uncertainty in design. Therefore, this paper investigates the allowable safety factor for cut-slopes in nuclear facilities, reviews conditions of both local and international cut-slope models and finally suggests an alternative method of analysis. It is expected that the new design criteria adequately ensures the stability of the cut-slope to reflect clear conditions for both the supervising and design engineers.

  7. IBFAN: on the cutting edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, A

    1989-01-01

    The story of IBFAN, the International Baby Food Action Network, from its beginning with 6 members in 1979, to its status of 140 groups worldwide in 1989 is told by its founder, Annelies Allain. IBFAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in October 1989 with a week-long Forum of 350 organizers from 67 countries. IBFAN is a single-tissue grass-roots organization, almost entirely women: the issue is that bottle-feeding kills babies. It has mounted a successful campaign ending in passage of the WHO/UNICEF International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in 1981. With this success, the political power of the "third system," of people, as opposed to government and transnational corporations, was recognized. The most important fundamental activity of IBFAN is to amass information to make its point that million of babies, primarily in developing countries, have died from consuming powdered formula instead of breast milk. IBFAN also set out to show that milk companies have influenced medical school training, health care providers, UN and WHO policies, and governments of developing countries through advertising and tax income. IBFAN's methods are boycott, corporate marketing analysis, shareholder, resolutions, and numerous strategies invented by local activists. The baby food industry responded by forming the International Council of Infant Food Industries, headed by a former WHO Assistant Director General, and applied for registration as an official NGO with the WHO. Again in 1987 they formed the Infant Food Manufacturers Associations, headed by a former WHO staff member, and gained WHO NGO status, claiming to advance infant nutrition and adhere to the WHO Code. Ibfan's current emphasis is on combatting free infant formula given out at maternity hospitals, the most effective way to block successful lactation, is developed as well as developing countries. An effort to monitor this activity will mark the 10th anniversary of the Code in 1991. PMID:12343253

  8. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  9. Effects of cutting and maturity on antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the changes in total antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits harvested at three different stages of maturity were cut into 7-mm thick slices and stored at 5 °C. Intact fruits were stored in the same conditions as a control. The antioxidant activity was e

  10. Effects of cutting and maturity on antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the changes in total antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits harvested at three different stages of maturity were cut into 7-mm thick slices and stored at 5°C. Intact (control) fruits were stored in the same conditions. The antioxidant activity was evalu

  11. Manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomanipulation plays an important role in nanofabrication, it is also a technology necessary in exploring the secrets of nanoworld, and it thus beco mesa start point to research future nanomachine. In this study, manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes have been conducted in order to examine whether we can move a nanocomponent from one site to another by using the tip of atomic fo rce microscope (AFM). The technique may also be valuable for providing the const ructive materials of nanofabrication. While exploring the method for manipulatin g and cutting of nanotubes, some new phenomena have been observed during the process. Results show that carbon nanotubes present a feature of deformation combin ing bending and distortion when subjected to large mechanical forces exerted by the tip of AFM. In special cases, long carbon nanotubes can be cut into two part s, by which we can remove the part where crystal lattice is flawed, and therefor e a perfect nanocomponent can be obtained.

  12. Bayesian network learning with cutting planes

    CERN Document Server

    Cussens, James

    2012-01-01

    The problem of learning the structure of Bayesian networks from complete discrete data with a limit on parent set size is considered. Learning is cast explicitly as an optimisation problem where the goal is to find a BN structure which maximises log marginal likelihood (BDe score). Integer programming, specifically the SCIP framework, is used to solve this optimisation problem. Acyclicity constraints are added to the integer program (IP) during solving in the form of cutting planes. Finding good cutting planes is the key to the success of the approach -the search for such cutting planes is effected using a sub-IP. Results show that this is a particularly fast method for exact BN learning.

  13. Laser Cutting of Materials of Various Thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grepl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thise paper deals with the application of laser technology and optimizing the parameters for cutting nickel alloy. The theoretical part of the paper describes various types of lasers, their principles and usage. The experimental part focuses on optimizing the section parameteres of Haynes 718 alloy using a CO2 gas laser. This alloy is employed in the production of components for the aircraft industry. The experiment was performed on the Wibro Delta laser system designed for sizable parts. The actual section is measured with respect to its quality and any accompanying side effects that occur during the process. In this case, laser output and cutting speed were the parameters with most influence on the final cut. The summary explains the results achieved in a metallographic laboratory.

  14. Cut Locus Construction using Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, François;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for appproximating cut loci for a given point p on Riemannian 2D manifolds, closely related to the notion of Voronoi diagrams. Our method finds the cut locus by advecting a front of points equally distant from p along the geodesics originating at p and finding...... the domain to have disk topology. We test our method for tori of revolution and compare our results to the benchmark ones from [2]. The method, however, is generic and can be easily adapted to construct cut loci for other manifolds of genera other than 1....... the lines of self-intersections of the front in the parametric space. This becomes possible by using the deformable simplicial complexes (DSC, [1]) method for deformable interface tracking. DSC provide a simple collision detection mechanism, allows for interface topology control, and does not require...

  15. ENVIRONMENTALLY REDUCING OF COOLANTS IN METAL CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veijo KAUPPINEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Strained environment is a global problem. In metal industries the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8 - 16 % of the total production costs.The traditional methods that use coolants are now obviously becoming obsolete. Hence, it is clear that using a dry cutting system has great implications for resource preservation and waste reduction. For this purpose, a new cooling system is designed for dry cutting. This paper presents the new eco-friendly cooling innovation and the benefits gained by using this method. The new cooling system relies on a unit for ionising ejected air. In order to compare the performance of using this system, cutting experiments were carried out. A series of tests were performed on a horizontal turning machine and on a horizontal machining centre.

  16. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Matuszak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Correct and stable machining process requires an appropriate cutting tool. In most cases the tool can be selected by using special tool catalogs often available in online version. But in some cases there is a need to design unusual tools, for special treatment, which are not available in tool manufacturers’ catalogs. Proper tool design requires strength and geometric calculations. Moreover, in many cases specific technical documentation is required. By using Computer Aided Design of cutting tools this task can be carried out quickly and with high accuracy. Cutting tool visualization in CAD programs gives a clear overview of the design process. Besides, these programs provide the ability to simulate real machining process. Nowadays, 3D modeling in CAD programs is a fundamental tool for engineers. Therefore, it is important to use them in the education process.

  17. Basics of cutting and abrasive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Toenshoff, Hans Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing is the basic industrial activity generating real value. Cutting and abrasive technologies are the backbone of precision production in machine, automotive and aircraft building as well as of production of consumer goods. We present the knowledge of modern manufacturing in these technologies on the basis of scientific research. The theory of cutting and abrasive processes and the knowledge about their application in industrial practice are a prerequisite for the studies of manufacturing science and an important part of the curriculum of the master study in German mechanical engineering. The basis of this book is our lecture “Basics of cutting and abrasive processes” (4 semester hours/3 credit hours) at the Leibniz University Hannover, which we offer to the diploma and master students specializing in manufacturing science.

  18. Evaluation of Cutting Fluids in Multiple Reaming of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; Zeng, Z.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of different cutting fluids in reaming is presented. The performance of three water based cutting fluids and one cutting oil was compared to that of a reference water based commercial product by measurement of cutting forces, surface roughness and part accuracy. Three...

  19. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms... outward to minimize the entrance of unfiltered air into the cutting and packaging room. The...

  20. STUDY ON SUB-DRY CUTTING GCr12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Through the comparison study on cutting force, cutting temperature and machined surface quality with the sub-dry cutting traditional cooling method, it is shown that sub-dry cutting can retard the wear of the tooled parts. It is beneficial to realize the production without pollution and meet the demand of clean environment.

  1. 21 CFR 882.4275 - Dowel cutting instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dowel cutting instrument. 882.4275 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4275 Dowel cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A dowel cutting instrument is a device used to cut dowels of bone for bone grafting....

  2. Influence of cutting conditions on chip side curl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool...

  3. Laser cutting technology using water jet waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser with water jet is examined to cut in-vessel structure. However, it is necessary to increase the break-up length of water jet to cut a thick plate. Therefore, the effects of the water jet parameter (water pressure, assist gas, laser power) on break-up length were investigated. It was found from observation results of water jet that the longest break-up length is about 135mm under condition of water pressure 40 MPa, laser power 30W and helium assist gas 1L/min. (author)

  4. Nonabelian cut diagrams and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, C S

    1996-01-01

    A new kind of cut diagram is introduced to sum Feynman diagrams with nonabelian vertices. Unlike the Cutkosky diagrams which compute the discontinuity of single Feynman diagrams, the nonabelian cut diagrams represent a resummation of both the real and the imaginary parts of Feynman diagrams related by permutations. Several applications of the technique are reported, including a resolution of the apparent inconsistency of the baryon problem in large-N_c QCD, a simplified calculation of high-energy low-order QCD diagrams, and progress made with this technique on the unitarization of the BFKL equation.

  5. Cutting balloon angioplasty for intrastent restenosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Orávio de Freitas Jr

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe here two patients with angiographic diagnosis of intrastent restenosis and regional myocardial ischemia. One stent restenosis was located in a native coronary artery and the other in a vein graft. Both were treated with cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA, inflated at low pressures. Angiographic success was obtained and both patients were discharged in the day after the procedure. Cutting balloon angioplasty using low inflation pressures achieved important luminal gains, in these two cases of intrastent restenosis. Further studies are necessary before the effectiveness of this procedure can be precisely defined.

  6. A case of "atypical homicidal" cut-throat injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar S, Ajay; Kumar Ms, Vinay; Babu, Yp Raghavendra; Prasad, Mahadeshwara

    2016-09-01

    Cut-throats can be of homicidal, suicidal or accidental origin. In cases of death from a cut-throat, distinguishing the cause is one of the important functions in crime investigation. The features that differentiate suicidal and homicidal cut-throat injuries are the presence of hesitation cuts, depth of wound, signs of struggle, edges of the wound, etc. In the case of a suicidal cut-throat, it is not uncommon to find hesitation cuts but in a homicidal cut-throat, it is uncommon. We present a case of a homicidal cut-throat injury but with hesitation cuts and tailing over the neck, unlike the classical description of homicidal cut-throat injury. This resulted from a curved, sharp and moderately heavy weapon. PMID:27381317

  7. Analysis of striation formation mechanism in abrasive water jet cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Junkar, Mihael; Orbanić, Henri

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the macro-mechanism of abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting is studied from the point of cutting front and striation formation analysis. The striation on the surface cut with AWJ is a characteristic phenomena which is strongly present when cutting with high traverse velocities for particular material type and thickness of workpiece. The connection between the cutting front step formation and striation formation is explained through series of experiments, which include visual observa...

  8. Cutting resistance and load analysis on excavating equipment. Schneidwiderstands- und Belastungsanalysen an Gewinnungsgeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, D. (Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau); Neumann, R. (Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau)

    1993-08-01

    The present paper gives a survey of the research project on the subject ''Prognosis of the cutting resistance of rocks'', which is being carried out at the Institute of Mining of the Technical University Mining Academy of Freiberg at the request of the TAKRAF Lauchhammer Company in Leipzig. It is stressed in the introduction that a thorough knowledge of the specific cutting resistance of rocks is already necessary in the preliminary stage of technological drafts of mining systems. In addition to the essential fundamentals for the definition and calculation of specific cutting resistances, various aspects of the systematic research methods applied in laboratory analyses as well as in cutting resistance and load analyses on site, which make a prognosis of the cutting resistances possible, are discussed. Examples of measurement analyses on excavating equipment illustrate the significant test results obtained. Special tests include inter alia the analysis of individual components of the cutting resistance as well as the development of a simulation programme for the purpose of calculating the drive rating functions and assessing the dynamic reactions of the excavating machine. At the same time, the laboratory equipment used for these analyses also serves as an instructive and effective means of training students in this field of research. (orig.)

  9. Applied Sciences—Connecting Theories with Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Kobayashi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Applied sciences cover many interdisciplinary fields that put basic sciences to application and make big changes by taking the one not-so-small step from “knowing how” to “knowing how-to”, the serendipity of which is often intriguing. Applied sciences are so deeply entrenched in almost all aspects of our daily lives. To provide an advanced forum for scholars all over the world to discuss and communicate the cutting-edge development in this field, on behalf of the Editorial Board members, I am honored to introduce Applied Sciences, a scholarly, peer-reviewed open access journal. [...

  10. Use of Pressure for Improving Storage Quality of Fresh-Cut Produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    The microflora of fresh-cut produce is comprised primarily of phytopathogenic and soilborne organisms, but the product could be contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Populations of bacteria, molds, and yeasts associated with fresh-cut produce decreased to non-detectable levels following a high pressure (HP) treatment of 400 MPa for 10 min at room temperature, except for spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus spp. which were inactivated when subjected to 600 MPa at 60 °C for 10 min. The HP treatment of 400 MPa for 5-10 min at room temperature for fresh-cut lotus root and pineapple may be commercially feasible as an alternative to chemical sterilization and thermal blanching, respectively. The HP treatment reduced the epiphytic microorganisms of the products to non-detectable levels, and the microbial counts remained at the initial levels during storage at 1 °C with minimal changes in physicochemical and visual quality of the products. However, the HP treatment induced cellular disruption in plant tissue that contributed to the changes in appearance of several fresh-cut vegetables. To improve storage quality, combining lower pressures with complementary technologies should be useful for successful application of HP for other fresh-cut produce. PMID:26174398

  11. Radiation-induced frequency transients in AT, BT, and SC cut quartz resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies of transient frequency changes in high-purity swept AT quartz resonators led to the conclusion that impurity-induced effects were small, while the observed changes were qualitatively and quantitatively well characterized in terms of the time changing temperature of the vibrating quartz and its effect on frequency. 5 MHz, AT cut fifth overtone, and BT and SC cut third overtone resonators were prepared from a single stone of Sawyer swept Premium-Q quartz. The resonators were operated in precision ovenized oscillators at or near their turnover temperatures. Pulsed irradiation, at dose levels of the order of 104 rads (Si) per pulse, was accomplished at Sandia. The experimental data display negative frequency transients for the AT cut resonators, positive frequency transients for the BT cut resonators, and very small transient effects for the SC cut resonators. From these experimental results, it is concluded that no measurable impurity-induced frequency changes are observed in this high-purity swept-quartz and that the frequency transients are accurately modelled in terms of transient temperature effects stemming from the thermal characteristics of the resonator structure

  12. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  13. Thermal history and age of geological regions obtained by applying the fission track method in apatite samples; Historia termica e idades de regioes geologicas obtidas atraves de tracos de fissao em apatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Cleber J.; Tello Saenz, Carlos A.; Balan, Ana M. Osorio A.; Dias, Airton N.C.; Novaes, Felipe P.; Oliveira, Roger D.; Barra, Beatriz C., E-mail: pccj13@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: amoa@fct.unesp.b [UNESP, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this work is dating apatite samples using the Fission Track Method (FTM). Samples were collected from different altitudes in Serra da Mantiqueira (Brazil): High Mantiqueira (above 1,000 m) and Low Mantiqueira (below 1,000 m). Data obtained for the ages and thermal history of the samples via FTM have been interpreted and, according to the geological point of view, can be associated with the uplifting of Serra da Mantiqueira after the opening of the Atlantic Ocean

  14. Influence of particle size on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness in Machining of B4Cp - 6061 Aluminium Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Vijaykumar; Badiger, Pradeep; Auradi, V.; Dundur, S. T.; Kori, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Amongst advanced materials, metal matrix composites (MMC) are gaining importance as materials for structural applications in particular, particulate reinforced aluminium MMCs have received considerable attention due to their superior properties such as high strength to weight ratio, excellent low-temperature performance, high wear resistance, high thermal conductivity. The present study aims at studying and comparing the machinability aspects of B4Cp reinforced 6061Al alloy metal matrix composites reinforced with 37μm and 88μm particulates produced by stir casting method. The micro structural characterization of the prepared composites is done using Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with EDX analysis (Hitachi Su-1500 model) to identify morphology and distribution of B4C particles in the 6061Al matrix. The specimens are turned on a conventional lathe machine using a Polly crystalline Diamond (PCD) tool to study the effect of particle size on the cutting forces and the surface roughness under varying machinability parameters viz., Cutting speed (29-45 m/min.), Feed rate (0.11-0.33 mm/rev.) and depth of cut (0.5-1mm). Results of micro structural characterization revealed fairly uniform distribution of B4C particles (in both cases i.e., 37μm and 88μm) in 6061Al matrix. The surface roughness of the composite is influenced by cutting speed. The feed rate and depth of cut have a negative influence on surface roughness. The cutting forces decreased with increase in cutting speed whereas cutting forces increased with increase in feed and depth of cut. Higher cutting forces are noticed while machining Al6061 base alloy compared to reinforced composites. Surface finish is high during turning of the 6061Al base alloy and surface roughness is high with 88μm size particle reinforced composites. As the particle size increases Surface roughness also increases.

  15. Spending and Cutting Are Two Different Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    to Danish local councillors, who are randomly assigned to a decision-making situation, where the block grant provided to their municipality is either increased or reduced. The results show that the politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending are asymmetric, in the sense that the policy areas, which...

  16. Nanopillar Fabrication with Focused Ion Beam Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, Oleksii V.; Pei, Yutao T.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.

    2014-01-01

    A versatile method to fabricate taper-free micro-/nanopillars of large aspect ratio was developed with focused ion beam (FIB) cutting. The key features of the fabrication are a FIB with an incident angle of 90 degrees to the long axis of the pillar that enables milling of the pillar sideways avoidin

  17. Optimisation of the Laser Cutting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    The problem in optimising the laser cutting process is outlined. Basic optimisation criteria and principles for adapting an optimisation method, the simplex method, are presented. The results of implementing a response function in the optimisation are discussed with respect to the quality as well...

  18. Gravitropism in cut flower stalks of snapdragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philosoph-Hadas, S.; Friedman, H.; Meir, S.; Berkovitz-SimanTov, R.; Rosenberger, I.; Halevy, A.H.; Kaufman, P.B.; Balk, P.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The negative gravitropic response of cut flower stalks is a complex multistep process that requires the participation of various cellular components acting in succession or in parallel. The process was particularly characterized in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) spikes with regard to (1) gravity

  19. Power Price Cuts to Drive Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Lei

    2002-01-01

    @@ The economy of South China's Guangdong Province should developed more rapidly thanks to recent cuts in electricity prices, Lin Lin, deputy director of Guangdong Price Bureau, predicted in an interview with news media in early June, adding that the reduction in electricity prices would benefit economic development in Guangdong Province.

  20. Max Cut and the Smallest Eigenvalue

    CERN Document Server

    Trevisan, Luca

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new approximation algorithm for Max Cut. Our algorithm runs in nearly quadratic time and achieves an approximation ratio of .50769. On instances in which an optimal solution cuts a $1-\\epsilon$ fraction of edges, our algorithm finds a solution that cuts a $1-4\\epsilon^{1/3}-o(1)$ fraction of edges. Our main result is a variant of spectral partitioning, which can be implemented in nearly linear time, that, given a graph in which the Max Cut optimum is a $1-\\epsilon$ fraction of edges, finds a set S of vertices and a bipartition L, R=S-L, of S such that at least a $1-4\\sqrt \\epsilon$ fraction of the edges incident on S have one endpoint in L and one endpoint in R. (This can be seen as an analog of Cheeger's inequality for the smallest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a graph.) Iterating this procedure yields the approximation results stated above. The algorithm of Goemans and Williamson, together with the SDP solver of Arora and Kale, give an approximation ratio of $.878$ in nearly linear tim...

  1. Science Funding cuts threaten scientific research

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Page 1 of 3 Researchers are in uproar after a recently established quango unveiled a series of cuts and abandoned some projects altogether because of an estimated 80m funding shortfall. Martin Rees, the Astronomer Royal, argues that Britain will pay a far higher price if it scraps vital projects now

  2. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  3. Operation and maintenance cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingshead, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Timothy W. Hollingshead, Technical Services Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric, is about cutting costs in the Operation and Maintenance phase of geothermal energy production. The necessity of cost control, keeping workers well-trained and avoiding OSHA fines, taking advantages of new technologies, and establishing predictive maintenance programs are some of the issues discussed in this article.

  4. Breeding lettuce for fresh-cut processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed in fresh-cut packaged salads. New cultivars specifically bred for this use can enhance production and processing efficiency and extend shelf life. Cultivars with novel head architectures and leaf traits are being released by private and public breeding programs with ...

  5. Fatigue Lives of Materials Cut by Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Laser machining helps to balance high-speed rotating machinery. Report describes continuing studies of fatigue lives of materials cut by lasers. One long-term objective of such studies is use of laser machining to balance rotors operating at high speeds. To achieve objective, necessary to know relationship between effects of conventional and laser machining on fatigue lives of machined materials.

  6. Generalized fractional programming and cutting plane algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); A.I. Barros (Ana)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we introduce a variant of a cutting plane algorithm and show that this algorithm reduces to the well-known Dinkelbach-type procedure of Crouzeix, Ferland, and Schaible if the optimization problem is a generalized fractional program. By this observation, an easy geometrical

  7. Indirect Revelation Mechanisms for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  8. Optimal Wafer Cutting in Shuttle Layout Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisted, Lasse; Pisinger, David; Altman, Avri

    2011-01-01

    . The shuttle layout problem is frequently solved in two phases: first, a floorplan of the shuttle is generated. Then, a cutting plan is found which minimizes the overall number of wafers needed to satisfy the demand of each die type. Since some die types require special production technologies, only compatible...

  9. Enhanced performance thermal diode via thermal boundary resistance at nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Padilla, M.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Pérez-Garcia, S. A.; Alvarez-Quintana, J.

    2015-08-01

    Hypothetically, a thermal rectifier is a device which leads a greater heat flux in one direction than another one, similarly as the electrical diode works for the electrical flux. Here, a drastic increment in the rectification factor has been obtained in nanoscale layered thermal diodes due to the effect of thermal boundary resistance present on an asymmetrical stack of nanofilms. Measurements show a thermal rectification factor as large as 3.3 under a temperature bias well below 1 K, which is the biggest thermal rectification factor reported at room temperature compared to previously reported thermal diodes so far. According to the direction of the applied heat flux, the observed impact of the thermal boundary resistance on the device is manifested through the presence of an asymmetric temperature rise along the heat transfer axis. Such effect provides an alternative route for the development of high performance thermal diodes.

  10. Research progress of machine tool thermal error modeling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianjian GUO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During cutting, machine tools are influenced by different heat sources, which induces machine thermal deformation, deviation and thermal error. In different machine errors, thermal error accounts for 40%~70% of total machine errors, which is the main influence factor of machining accuracy. In order to reduce machine thermal error and improve machining precision, there are mainly 3 ways at present: 1 Improving machine thermal stiffness by optimal design of machine structure; 2 Separating heat sources from machine tools; 3 Thermal error compensation, which reduces the influence of thermal distortions by predicting and compensating measures. In order to compensate thermal errors, thermal error modeling is the premise and foundation. Therefore, thermal error modeling technology is introduced in this paper firstly, and its recent development both at home and abroad is analyzed. The main obstacles in thermal error modeling field at present are summerized, and the future of the technology are presented.

  11. Relative thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, Lídia; Hutter, Adrian; Renner, Renato; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Locally thermal quantum systems may contradict traditional thermodynamics: heat can flow from a cold body to a hotter one, if the two are highly entangled. We show that to recover thermodynamic laws, we must use a stronger notion of thermalization: a system S is thermal relative to a reference R if S is both locally thermal and uncorrelated with R . Considering a general quantum reference is particularly relevant for a thermodynamic treatment of nanoscale quantum systems. We derive a technical condition for relative thermalization in terms of conditional entropies. Established results on local thermalization, which implicitly assume a classical reference, follow as special cases.

  12. Influence of cutting parameters on surface characteristics of cut section in cutting of Inconel 718 sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Gyu AHN; Kyung-Won BYUN

    2009-01-01

    Recently, laser cutting technologies begin to use for manufacturing mechanical parts of lnconel super-alloy sheet due to difficulties of machining of the Inconel material as a results of its extremely tough nature. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters on surface characteristics of the cut section in the cutting of Inconel 718 super-alloy sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser through laser cutting experiments. Normal cutting experiments were performed using a laser cutting system with six-axis controlled automatic robot and auto-tracking system of the focal distance. From the results of the experiments, the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness, the striation formation and the microstructure of the cut section were examined. In addition, an optimal cutting condition, at which the surface roughness is minimized and both the delayed cutting phenomenon and the micro-cracking are not initiated, is estimated to improve both the part quality and the cutting efficiency.

  13. Fluctuations of different endogenous phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid in the first days of the rooting process of cherry rootstock 'GiSelA 5' leafy cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobec, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Osterc, Gregor

    2005-05-01

    The relationship between the phenol composition of rooting zones and rootability was studied in the first days after the establishment of cuttings. The trial included two different types of cuttings (basal and terminal). Additionally, the influence of exogenously applied auxin (IBA) was observed. The best rooting results (55.6%) were achieved with terminal IBA treated cuttings, while only 1.9% of basal cuttings formed roots. The auxin treatment increased the root formation in terminal, but not in basal cuttings. Low rooting rate of basal cuttings was probably due to higher lignification rate of the basal tissue which can represent a mechanical barrier for root emergence. When measuring phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid, terminal cuttings contained higher (rutin, vanillic acid, (-)-epicatechin, caffeic acid and sinapinic acid) or equal concentrations of detected phenols as basal cuttings, while applied auxin did not influence the level of any of discussed phenolics, neither of cinnamic acid. It is to assume that cuttings for starting of root induction phase should contain certain levels of several phenolic compounds, but higher influence on rooting success is to be ascribed to the impact of the auxin level. During the time of the experiment concentrations of monophenols sinapinic acid and vanillic acid rapidly decreased. This decrease was more pronounced in terminal cuttings, which might have a better mechanism of lowering those two compounds to which a negative influence on rooting is ascribed. Fluctuations and differences between treatments of other phenolics were not significant enough to influence the rooting process.

  14. Effect of cutting management and nitrogen supply on yield and quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Wouters, A.P.; Kariuki, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of cutting experiments, average apparent nitrogen recovery of applied fertilizer N by Napier grass was approximately 50%. Incorporation of cattle manure improved nitrogen utilization. Mixtures with Desmodium intortum substantially improved yield and protein content. There was a fair to good relation between morphology and crude protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Napier grass.

  15. Effect of cutting management and nitrogen supply on yield and quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Wouters, A.P.; Kariuki, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of cutting experiments, average apparent nitrogen recovery of applied fertilizer N by Napier grass was approximately 50%. Incorporation of cattle manure improved nitrogen utilization. Mixtures with Desmodium intortum substantially improved yield and protein content. There was a fair to g

  16. A Preliminary Study on Ultrasonic Cutting Process for Carbon Fibre Prepreg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In ultrasonic cutting process, the cutting pressure is still essential for achieving good quality cut edge compared with traditional mechanical cutting process. With the increase of the cutting power, the cutting pressure demand decreases. The cutting velocity range is extended broadly. The experiment results show that ultrasonic cutting technique is an effective, clean and controllable method for machining of carbon fibre prepreg.

  17. Performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation

    OpenAIRE

    João Vieira Neto; Adelson Francisco de Oliveira; Csaignon Mariano Caproni; Fabíola Villa; Luiz Fernando de Oliveira da Silva

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation. The clonal garden was installed in March 2006, in grooves 40 cm deep. Two cultivars (Ascolano 315 and Arbequina) were evaluated and cut in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The test was carried out in split plot in time in a randomized block design with five replications. The plots were composed of three lines, one meter spaced between them, three plants in each line, spaced 0,5 m from each othe...

  18. Development and application of fiber laser cutting technology%光纤激光切割技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈海平; 陈欣; 陈阳

    2013-01-01

    The laser cutting technology has been widely applied in cutting industry due to its perfect cutting quality,high dimension accuracy and small heat influence area.The advantages of fiber laser cutting machine in technology,structure and cost are analyzed by the description of fiber laser cutting and comparison with carbon dioxide laser cutting technology.In addition,relatively faster cutting speed,higher conversion rate from electricity to laser and flexible manufacturing ability promote fiber laser cuter to be advanced equipment in cutting industry.The intensive research topic about fiber laser cutting is introduced.Lastly,the current challenges with fiber laser cutting technology such as body security and the limit for thick steel plate cutting are discussed.%激光切割质量好,尺寸精度高,热影响小,在切割行业应用越来越广泛.通过对光纤激光切割机的介绍及其与二氧化碳激光切割机的对比,分析了光纤激光切割机在未来切割行业中的技术优势、结构优势、成本优势.光纤激光具有切割薄板速度快、能量集中、电光转化率高、柔性加工等众多优点.同时指出了目前光纤激光切割技术存在的安全问题及厚板切割局限性问题,提出了当前的一些解决方案及研究热点,并展望了光纤激光切割技术的发展前景.

  19. Comparison of CO2 Laser Cutting with Different Laser Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketting, Hans-Ole; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains CO2 laser cutting results in mild and stainless steel with different laser sources. The main factors which affect the cutting speed and quality are the power, the cutting gas and focal point conditions. Keeping the power and cutting gas constant, the focal point conditions have...... is proven at least for oxyfuel cutting of mild steel, whereas fusion cutting of stainless steel is more complicated.Cutting results from 7 different indus-trial laser sources connected to different moving systems, were used to get information about the importance of the Beam Quality Number K and focal spot...... size,for the maximum cutting speed. One of the 7 laser sources with different focal length and thus different minimum spot size, was then used to investigate more in details the importance of the focal spot size cutting stainless steel with high pressure nitrogen. It looks as if there is a strong...

  20. Thermal Imaging in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal cameras are useful tools for use in scientific investigation and for teaching scientific concepts to students in the classroom. Demonstrations of scientific phenomena can be greatly enhanced visually by the use of this cutting-edge technology. (Contains 7 figures.)

  1. "Cut wires grating – single longitudinal wire" planar metastructure to achieve microwave magnetic resonance in a single wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kraftmakher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we present metastructures containing cut-wire grating and a single longitudinal cut-wire orthogonal to grating’s wires. Experimental investigations at microwaves show these structures can provide strong magnetic resonant response of a single nonmagnetic cut-wire in dependence on configuration and sizes in the case when metastructures are oriented along the direction of wave propagation and cut-wires of grating are parallel to the electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is suggested a concept of magnetic response based on antiparallel resonant currents excited by magnetic field of surface polaritons in many spatial LC-circuits created from cut-wire pairs of a grating and section of longitudinal cut-wire. Three separately observed resonant effects connected with grating, LC-circuits and with longitudinal cut-wire have been identified applying measurements in waveguides, cutoff waveguides and free space. To tune and mark resonance split cut-wires are loaded with varactor diodes.

  2. Color changes in wood during heating: kinetic analysis by applying a time-temperature superposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Miyuki; Yokoyama, Misao; Umemura, Kenji; Gril, Joseph; Yano, Ken'ichiro; Kawai, Shuichi

    2010-04-01

    This paper deals with the kinetics of the color properties of hinoki ( Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood. Specimens cut from the wood were heated at 90-180°C as accelerated aging treatment. The specimens completely dried and heated in the presence of oxygen allowed us to evaluate the effects of thermal oxidation on wood color change. Color properties measured by a spectrophotometer showed similar behavior irrespective of the treatment temperature with each time scale. Kinetic analysis using the time-temperature superposition principle, which uses the whole data set, was successfully applied to the color changes. The calculated values of the apparent activation energy in terms of L *, a *, b *, and Δ E^{*}_{ab} were 117, 95, 114, and 113 kJ/mol, respectively, which are similar to the values of the literature obtained for other properties such as the physical and mechanical properties of wood.

  3. Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks (STICT) is a thermal management system applied by either an automated or manual spraying process with less...

  4. Multi-Cell Thermal Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-cell thermal battery (MCTB) is a device that can recover a large fraction of the thermal energy from heated regolith and subsequently apply this energy to...

  5. Multiscale Multisensor Data Fusion and Application in High Precision Marking and Cutting Robot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The multisensor online measure system for high precision marking and cutting robot system is designed and the data fusion method is introduced, which combines augment state multiscale process with extend Kalman filter. The technology measuring the three-dimensional deforming information of profiled bars is applied. The experimental result shows that applying the multisensor data fusion technology can enhance the measure precision and the reliability of measure system.

  6. The Application of Specific Point Energy Analysis to Laser Cutting with 1 μm Laser Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh, M.; Suder, W.; Williams, S.; Powell, J.; Kaplan, A. F. H.; Voisey, K. T.

    Specific point energy (SPE) is a concept that has been successfully used in laser welding where SPE and power density determine penetration depth. This type of analysis allows the welding characteristics of different laser systems to be directly compared. This paper investigates if the SPE concept can usefully be applied to laser cutting. In order to provide data for the analysis laser cutting of various thicknesses of mild steel with a 2 kW fibre laser was carried out over a wide range of parameter combinations. It was found that the SPE concept is applicable to laser cutting within the range of parameters investigated here.

  7. Tenderness charactherization of ostrich meat commercial cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Conte Hadlich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich meat has become an interesting source of protein as well as being an alternative to red meat, because of its healthy fatty acid profile, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low content of intramuscular fat, which arouses the interest of people who want a low animal fat diet. Ostrich meat is also appreciated by the tenderness, since it is one of the larger impact characteristics on the acceptance of a meat product for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of different ostrich meat commercial cuts and certificate that all studied cuts present tenderness acceptable by consumers. The laboratory tests were performed at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins (FMVZ, being measured shear force of seven commercial cuts of ostrich meat. The cuts were: internal thigh, external thigh, filet plan, filet out, filet small, rump and filet fan. The samples were boiled in water bath controlled by time and temperature. After chilling, fragments of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 cm were removed from samples. Shear force measurements were performed using a mechanical Warner-Bratzler Shear Force equipment. The shear force means were: internal thigh (3.5 kg, external thigh (2.8 kg, filet plan (2.4 kg, filet out (1.6 kg, filet small (3.5 kg, rump (3.3 kg and filet fan (2.0 kg. All the commercial cuts evaluated had very low values of shear force, denoting meat extremely tender. The classification of meat tenderness is based on shear force values, being values below 4.6 kg considered meat with desirable tenderness. All ostrich meat commercial cuts analyzed had shear force values lower than 4.6 kg, being classified as meat of extreme tenderness. The results found in this work allow concluding that ostrich meat can be considered tender. These findings lead us to consider the ostrich meat as an interesting alternative to red meat, in relation to tenderness and healthy fatty acid profile, being favorable for people suffering from

  8. Optimal pressure-sensitive cuts for surface acoustic waves on langasite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The crystal langasite manifests its unique advantages and potentials for high temperature applications due to a high electromechanical coupling coefficient, temperature compensated orientations for surface acoustic wave (SAW), and temperature stability. In order to analyze the pressure-induced frequency shift in SAW resonator type sensors at high temperature, this paper presents the electroelastic wave equations employing the effective material constants for small vibrations superimposed on biases originated from homogeneous temperature and external pressure fields in the Lagrangian description. Incorporated with the first-order perturbation integration, a model including both the mechanical and electrical perturbation items originating from thermal biases and small pressure fields is proposed. This universal model is suitable for substrate with high piezoelectricity and can be applied at either room temperature or high temperature circumstance. The criteria of optimal cuts for SAW pressure sensitivity, I.e., high electromechanical coupling coefficient and low temperature coefficient of delay, are proposed. A thorough investigation in trebly rotated cuts has shown that optimal pressure sensitive crystallographic areas can be obtained. The areas suitable for pressure sensors at room temperature are defined with Euler anglesThe areas suitable for pressure sensors at high temperature are defined with Euler anglesΩ1: φ= 0°―0.6°,θ= 144.4°―145.8°, ψ= 23.2°―24.1°,Ω2: φ=59.4°―61°,θ= 34.2°―36.2°, ψ= 24.1°―22.3°,Ω3: φ=119°―120°,θ = 143.8°―145.5°, ψ= 22.3°―23.5°.The areas suitable for pressure sensors at high temperature are defined with Euler anglesI:φ= 8°―30°,θ= 24°―36°,ψ= 4°―25°,II:φ = 30°―55°,θ= 144°―158°,ψ= 4°―28°.A set of experiments employing LGS (0, 150°, 22°) and (0, 90°, 0) has been performed to check the validity of the proposed calculation. The experimental relative sensitivity is

  9. Visualization of Water Jet Cutting by Means of Ultrasonic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warisawa, Shin'Ichi; Kida, Ayumi; Ito, Yoshimi

    It has been recognized from many investigations on water jet cutting mechanism that visualization of a cutting front is very effective to deepen understanding of the mechanism. However, an in-process visualization method, especially those applicable to opaque materials such as metals has not been established even now. This paper newly proposes a method of visualization of cutting front using ultrasonic waves. Several experiments have shown that in-process visualisation of a shape of the cutting front, inclination and profile waviness of cutting surface can be realized using the proposed method. Furthermore, this paper also proposes a water jet cutting process model based on detail analyses of visualization results.

  10. Evaluation of cutting force uncertainty components in turning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is proposed for the evaluation of those uncertainty components of a single cutting force measurement in turning that are related to the contributions of the dynamometer calibration and the cutting process itself. Based on an empirical model including errors form both sources......, the uncertainty for a single measurement of cutting force is presented, and expressions for the expected uncertainty vs. cutting parameters are proposed. This approach gives the possibility of evaluating cutting force uncertainty components in turning, for a defined range of cutting parameters, based on few...

  11. Edge Cut Domination, Irredundance, and Independence in Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Fenstermacher, Todd; Hedetniemi, Stephen; Laskar, Renu

    2016-01-01

    An edge dominating set $F$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is an \\textit{edge cut dominating set} if the subgraph $\\langle V,G-F \\rangle$ is disconnected. The \\textit{edge cut domination number} $\\gamma_{ct}(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum cardinality of an edge cut dominating set of $G.$ In this paper we study the edge cut domination number and investigate its relationships with other parameters of graphs. We also introduce the properties edge cut irredundance and edge cut independence.

  12. Development of lathe tool dynamometer and finding cutting forces using negative and positive rake angle cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most output parameters in machining, such as cutting forces, temperatures, strains and the work-hardening of the chip material, are directly related to the chip formation process. The characteristics of machining processes can be well understood if the forces and strains during chip formation are known. In this research a lathe tool dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces involved in machining of Steel 1045 and Aluminum 2219 T62. High Speed Steel (HSS), cutting tools with positive and negative rake angles were used. It was observed that more cutting forces are experienced by the cutting tool with positive rake angle as compared to the forces experienced by the cutting tool with negative rake angle. For steel 1045 the cutting forces using positive rake angle cutting tool were much higher. This suggested that for harder materials using a negative rake angle is more suitable for cutting. (author)

  13. Computing multiway cut within the given excess over the largest minimum isolating cut

    CERN Document Server

    Razgon, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Let $(G,T)$ be an instance of the (vertex) multiway cut problem where $G$ is a graph and $T$ is a set of terminals. For $t \\in T$, a set of nonterminal vertices separating $t$ from $T \\setminus \\{T\\}$ is called an \\emph{isolating cut} of $t$. The largest among all the smallest isolating cuts is a natural lower bound for a multiway cut of $(G,T)$. Denote this lower bound by $m$ and let $k$ be an integer. In this paper we propose an $O(kn^{k+3})$ algorithm that computes a multiway cut of $(G,T)$ of size at most $m+k$ or reports that there is no such multiway cut. The core of the proposed algorithm is the following combinatorial result. Let $G$ be a graph and let $X,Y$ be two disjoint subsets of vertices of $G$. Let $m$ be the smallest size of a vertex $X-Y$ separator. Then, for the given integer $k$, the number of \\emph{important} $X-Y$ separators \\cite{MarxTCS} of size at most $m+k$ is at most $\\sum_{i=0}^k{n \\choose i}$.

  14. Cutting techniques of reinforced concrete by wire sawing rear cutting tests for separation of radioactive concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological shielding wall of the reactor is very thick and high density reinforced concrete structures. The wall is partially activated by neutron exposure, and the activation level gradually decrease from the reactor side to outside and then the outermost side is not activated quite. Activated part and non-activated part should be separately dismantled, so that high activated and low activated area is also rationally discriminated on the point of radioactive waste management. Moreover, waste treatment and disposal of dismantled blocks will become ready to reuse or disposal in comparison with the trash from smash techniques, controlled pyrotechnical explosion, excavator and rock drill. A rear cutting technique is necessary in order to cut off the activated concrete block from the biological shielding wall. Therefore, devising and manufacturing by way of trial the unrestricted pulley, the practicability of rear cutting technique has been confirmed. On the rear cutting, wire saw has to be set up into the about 11 mm kerf width at the determined depth point. Assistant arm and pulley allowed for remote set up of the wire saw. The cutting efficiency of the rear cutting method is about 1 m2/h almost equal to the pushing method. (author)

  15. Phase Change Thermal Storage Applied in Heat Recovery of Condensation System%相变蓄热在冷凝热回收系统中的应用研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任喜悦; 王田; 王恒; 崔爽; 谭凯中; 陈华

    2013-01-01

    The demand of domestic hot water for people is increasingly growing with the rapid development of society. Using primary en-ergy to heat water directly makes a huge waste, and the technology of condensing heat recovery has been widely concerned. Two forms of the condensing heat recovery are expounded, including traditional water heat storage and phase change thermal storage, comparing these two dif-ferent types, and exploring the phase change material and the thermal storage system application.%随着社会的急速发展,人们对生活热水的需求越来越大,一次能源用于直接加热热水是极大的浪费,冷凝热回收技术也受到广泛的关注。介绍了冷凝热回收的两种形式,即传统水蓄热和相变蓄热,比较两者的不同,并探究了相变蓄热的相变材料及其系统应用。

  16. Demystifying umklapp vs normal scattering in lattice thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznev, A. A.; Wright, O. B.

    2014-11-01

    We discuss the textbook presentation of the concept of umklapp vs normal phonon-phonon scattering processes in the context of lattice thermal conductivity. A simplistic picture, in which the "momentum conservation" in a normal process leads to the conservation of the heat flux, is only valid within the single-velocity Debye model of phonon dispersion. Outside this model, the simple "momentum conservation" argument is demonstrably inaccurate and leads to conceptual confusion. Whether or not an individual scattering event changes the direction of the energy flow is determined by the phonon group velocity, which, unlike the quasimomentum, is a uniquely defined quantity independent of the choice of the primitive cell in reciprocal space. Furthermore, the statement that normal processes do not lead to a finite thermal conductivity when umklapp processes are absent is a statistical statement that applies to a phonon distribution rather than to individual scattering events. It is also important to understand that once umklapp processes are present, both normal and umklapp processes contribute to thermal resistance. A nuanced explanation of the subject would help avoid confusion of the student and establish a connection with cutting edge research.

  17. Identification of chaos in a cutting process by the 0-1 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the cutting process by using a two degrees of freedom non-smooth model with a friction component. Instead of the standard Lyapunov exponent treatment a statistical '0-1' test based on the asymptotic properties of a non-harmonic Brownian motion chain has been successively applied to reveal the nature of the cutting process. In this test we calculated the control parameter K which is approaching asymptotically to 0 or 1 for regular and chaotic motions, respectively. The presented approach is independent on the integration procedure as we defined a characteristic distance between the points forming the time series used in the test separately.

  18. A Method and Device for 3D Recognition of Cutting Edge Micro Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Palubicki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A very useful method was successfully applied in the investigation of tools for machining wood and wood based composites. It allows scanning of the cutting edge micro geometry in three dimensions and reproducing it in a virtual space as a 3D surface. The application of the method opens new possibilities of studying tool wear by scanning, including the calculation of volume loss and other analysis of tool wedge geometry along and perpendicularly to the cutting edge. Effectiveness of the method and scanner were successfully verified by a reference ESEM (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy method.

  19. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Calculation of mass transfer in the remote cutting of metals by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladush, G. G.; Rodionov, N. B.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of remote cutting of steel plates by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser is theoretically studied. The models of melt removal by the gravity force and the recoil pressure of material vapour are proposed and the sufficient conditions for the initiation of cutting are determined. A numerical model of a thermally thin plate was employed to describe the cutting for large focal spots.

  20. Cubic boron nitride based composites for cutting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Klimczyk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of our work was to obtain durable fined-grained cBN-Si3N4 composite with high values of hardness and fracture toughness, which can be successfully used as a cutting tool. Little quantity of the Si3N4 nanopowder fills up the porous between cBN grains thus result in resistance to crack propagation by means so called “crack deflection” mechanism.Design/methodology/approach: Two variants of the cBN-Si3N4 composites („I” – with micropowder cBN and „II” – with mixture of micro- and nanopowdes cBN contained 3% of nanodispersed Si3N4 powder, have been sintered at High Pressure – High Temperature (HPHT conditions. Basic physical-mechanical properties, phase composition and microstructure of sintered materials have been investigated.Findings: The comparison of the mechanical properties of cBN-Si3N4 (I and cBN-Si3N4 (II composites showed that the addition of 10% cBN nanopowder to mixture caused small increase in hardness from 4750 up to 4855 HV10 and decrease in Young’s modulus from 842 to 812 GPa. Fracture toughness of both type of composites is on the same level above 10 MPa∙m1/2.Research limitations/implications: High hardness of cBN-Si3N4 composites present a technical challenge in shaping of them. Commercial application of presented materials, e.g. cutting tools production, needs to develop a high efficient cutting, lapping and grinding techniques.Practical implications: The material obtained could be successfully applied for different cutting applications due to its favourable combination of hardness and fracture toughness.Originality/value: Commercial superhard materials, so called “high content cBN composites”, have usually 10-20 vol% of binding phase, often in the form of Ti or/and Al compounds. In the presented work only 3% of Si3N4 phase was used as a sintering aid. The high content of cBN phase allows to keep Young’s modulus and hardness values close to the theoretical ones for pure PcBN.

  1. Female genital mutilation/cutting: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls. PMID:26151997

  2. Skin Segmentation Based on Graph Cuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhilan; WANG Guijin; LIN Xinggang; YAN Hong

    2009-01-01

    Skin segmentation is widely used in many computer vision tasks to improve automated visualiza-tion. This paper presents a graph cuts algorithm to segment arbitrary skin regions from images. The detected face is used to determine the foreground skin seeds and the background non-skin seeds with the color probability distributions for the foreground represented by a single Gaussian model and for the background by a Gaussian mixture model. The probability distribution of the image is used for noise suppression to alle-viate the influence of the background regions having skin-like colors. Finally, the skin is segmented by graph cuts, with the regional parameter y optimally selected to adapt to different images. Tests of the algorithm on many real wodd photographs show that the scheme accurately segments skin regions and is robust against illumination variations, individual skin variations, and cluttered backgrounds.

  3. Quality assessment of forest cutting with chainsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of forest harvest using chainsaw, in farms in the south of Espirito Santo state, Brazil, considering aspects of quality and loss of wood left in the strains. A total of 250 m² plots were launched to collect data of forest cut with chainsaw, for evaluating the quality of the cut related mto: presence of skewers; crack damage; strains burst range nonstandard; strains without the notch directional, and the remaining height of the strain, in order to measure the loss of wood held in the strains. The main results were: the spike was present in 21.9% of the strains, the cracks in 17.2% of the strains, non-standard strains in 44.6% of them and unnotched directional strains in 34.5% of the evaluations. To check the influence of the realization of the directional notch on the height of the strains t-test, at 5% probability, has shown that there is an increased contribution to height of the strains, where the cut was made without the directional notch. The amount of wood held in the strains above the recommended maximum was, on average, 2.43 m³.ha-1, representing a loss of R$ 172.53 ha-1. It was verified that the loss of timber remaining in eucalyptus strains was higher in places where, for the logging, there was not done the directional notch. The items evaluated showed uneven quality, indicating the need to improve cutting with chainsaw.

  4. Cutting tool materials for high speed machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhanqiang; AI Xing

    2005-01-01

    High speed machining (HSM) is one of the emerging cutting processes, which is machining at a speed significantlyhigher than the speed commonly in use on the shop floor. In the last twenty years, high speed machining has received great attentions as a technological solution for high productivity in manufacturing. This article reviews the developments of tool materials in high speed machining operations, and the properties, applications and prospective developments of tool materials in HSM are also presented.

  5. A Dictatorship Theorem for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2015-01-01

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...... the entire cake. In contrast, we exhibit randomized protocols that are truthful in expectation and compute approximately fair allocations....

  6. Race-To-The-Bottom Tariff Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Vézina, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of race-to-the-bottom unilateralism. It suggests that decades of unilateral tariff cutting in Asia's emerging economies have been driven by a competition to attract FDI from Japan. Using spatial econometrics, I show that tariffs on parts and components, a crucial locational determinant for Japanese firms, converged across countries following a contagion pattern. Tariffs followed those of competing countries if the latter were lower, if FDI jealousy ...

  7. Radioisotope-applied measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji Electric developed a new type detector for gamma thickness gauges, inner-mill housing gamma thickness gauges at hot plate mills and tube-wall thickness gauges at hot seamless tube mills. This detector attained much higher gamma counting and much lower drift than our former detectors. We plan to apply this detector to our new type thickness gauges and also renewal of now working thickness gauges at customer's site. In addition, we developed a soil mass measuring instrument for on-line measurement of cutting soil mass in a waste water tube in shield tunneling. This instrument is free from legal control and can be used in every field of civil engineering. (author)

  8. 应用于反应堆热工水力程序的核态沸腾传热关系式评价%Assessment of Nucleate Boiling Correlations Applied to Thermal-hydraulic Code of Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美琳; 林萌; 杨燕华; 张昊; 龚湛

    2015-01-01

    This article is set in development of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis code-COSINE,studies variation characteristic of results of nucleate boiling correlations usually used for thermal-hydraulic analysis codes with variable changing,compares difference degree of different correlations and sensitivity in different ranges based on fuel rod wall heat transfer and external reactor vessel coolant conditions,in order to provide advice on setting of code user options and further experiment researches. It draws a conclusion that the condition of high superheat degree is mostly needed experimental demonstration and Chen,Schrock-Grossman1,Wright and Schrock-Grossman2 correlations are more suitable for calculating these conditions in reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis code.%本文以反应堆热工水力分析程序 COSINE 开发为背景,针对燃料棒和冷却剂换热及压力容器外部冷却时的核态沸腾两种特殊的工况,研究常用于计算热工水力程序的核态沸腾传热关系式的计算结果随影响参数的变化关系,比较不同范围内各关系式计算结果的差异程度和敏感性,为程序中用户选项的设置和进一步实验验证提供参考意见,研究表明高过热度工况最需进行实验验证,反应堆热工水力分析程序计算这两种工况下的核态沸腾传热更适宜选用 Chen、Schrock-Grossman1、Wright 和 Schrock-Grossman2公式。

  9. Modeling and optimization of laser cutting operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadallah Mohamed Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser beam cutting is one important nontraditional machining process. This paper optimizes the parameters of laser beam cutting parameters of stainless steel (316L considering the effect of input parameters such as power, oxygen pressure, frequency and cutting speed. Statistical design of experiments is carried in three different levels and process responses such as average kerf taper (Ta, surface roughness (Ra and heat affected zones are measured accordingly. A response surface model is developed as a function of the process parameters. Responses predicted by the models (as per Taguchi’s L27OA are employed to search for an optimal combination to achieve desired process yield. Response Surface Models (RSMs are developed for mean responses, S/N ratio, and standard deviation of responses. Optimization models are formulated as single objective optimization problem subject to process constraints. Models are formulated based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and optimized using Matlab developed environment. Optimum solutions are compared with Taguchi Methodology results. As such, practicing engineers have means to model, analyze and optimize nontraditional machining processes. Validation experiments are carried to verify the developed models with success.

  10. Multiplication of Patio roses by cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysko Iryna Leonidivna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment involved plants of 10 Patio rose cultivars of the National Dendrological Park "Sofiyivka" collection. The methods of propagation by cuttings worked out by Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy were assumed as a basis. Callogenesis and regenerative capacity were estimated in accordance with Z.J. Ivanova scale (1982. The fact is ascertained that the success of rooting substantially depends on particularities of certain Patio rose cultivar. It is advisable to use cuttings from basal and medial parts of stems, with remaining leaves, taken within the last ten-day period of May – the first ten-day period of June. The pretreatment with rhizogenic medium "Kornevin" (reactant — indolebutyric acid is the most effective for rooting cuttings. The optimal for rooting is the two-layered substrate: the lower layer is a multicomponent soil compound of peat, perlite, sod soil and humus in ratio 1:1:1:1; the upper layer consists of sand. Seedlings of Patio roses cultivated in open ground during vegetation period form stems 1.8 times more vigorously than ones grown on the same place where they were rooted. The optimal period to transfer into bed is May. It is reasonable to use top removal in order to form vigorous stem system.

  11. Multidimensional Brain MRI segmentation using graph cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the segmentation of multimodal brain MRIs by graph cuts method. First, we propose a method that utilizes three MRI modalities by merging them. The border information given by the spectral gradient is then challenged by a region information, given by the seeds selected by the user, using a graph cut algorithm. Then, we propose three enhancements of this method. The first consists in finding an optimal spectral space because the spectral gradient is based on natural images and then inadequate for multimodal medical images. This results in a learning based segmentation method. We then explore the automation of the graph cut method. Here, the various pieces of information usually given by the user are inferred from a robust expectation-maximization algorithm. We show the performance of these two enhanced versions on multiple sclerosis lesions. Finally, we integrate atlases for the automatic segmentation of deep brain structures. These three new techniques show the adaptability of our method to various problems. Our different segmentation methods are better than most of nowadays techniques, speaking of computation time or segmentation accuracy. (authors)

  12. Cutting Path Planning for Ruled Surface Impellers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Quan; Wang Yongzhang; Fu Hongya; Han Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    At present, most commercial computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems are deficient in efficiency and performances on generating tool path during machining impellers. To solve the problem, this article develops a special software to plan cutting path for ruled surface impellers. An approximation algorithm to generate cutting path for machining integral ruled surface impellers is proposed. By fitting sampling data points of an impeller blade into a curve, a model of ruled surface blade of an impeller is built up. Furthermore, by calculating the points where the cutter axis vector intersects the flee-form hub surface of an impeller, problems about, for instance, the ambiguity in calculation and machining the wide blade surface with a short flute cutter are solved. Finally, an integral impeller cutting path is planned by way of an integrated cutter location control algorithm. Simulation and machining tests with an impeller are performed on a 5-axis computer numerically controlled (CNC) mill machine, which shows the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Development of a technique for dismantling geometric complicated and thick components of closed down nuclear power plants with the principle of arc-waterjet cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Status of research: With arc waterjet cutting it is possible to cut stainless steel up to a wall thickness of 30 mm under water. An application of this technique in 20 m water depth is possible. 2. Aim of research work: A thermal cutting process which is empolyed in a water depth of 20 m is to be developed. Stainless steel up to a wall thickness of 100 mm must be sectile. Cutting of plane parts with variable wall thickness and geometric must be possible. Pipes and pipe assemblies are to be cut from inside or outside. 3. Method of research: A torch was developed which can melt the work piece with a wire electrode. The ignition of cutting will be done with short circuit with a concentrial around the wire out going water jet the liquid metal will be washed away. 4. Results: It is possible to cut stainless steel under water up to a wall thickness of 100 mm. There is no influence to the cutting process in a water depth of 20 m. 5. Suitability: With arc waterjet cutting remote controlled dismantling of thick-walled components of closed down nuclear power plants under water is possible. (orig.) With 35 refs., 6 tabs., 65 figs

  14. Labour Management on Contemporary Kenyan Cut Flower Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the labour management system applied since around 2005 on farms accounting for the bulk of the output of the Kenyan cut flower sector, and provides an analysis of the foundations of this system. Using categories drawn from convention theory, this system is characterized...... in terms of specific approaches to hiring, training and promotion; labour retention; work organization and worker deployment; payment systems and supervision, as well as to collective bargaining. In convention theory terms, the combination of approaches identified in Kenya embodies a mixture of ‘industrial......’ and ‘civic’ orientations – in contrast to both more traditional paternalist and unbridled market-oriented ones. The material and political foundations of this ‘industrial–civic compromise’ are explored at length, with particular attention to stabilization of the production system (in the case of industrial...

  15. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashir Ahmed Tahir; Rashid Ahmed; M. G. B. Ashiq; Afaq Ahmed; M. A. Saeed

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials,which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser.The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed.For approximate cutting depth,a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed.Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy.There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s.An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting.It is inferred that as the laser power increases,cutting depth increases.The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results.This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting,scribing,trimming,engraving,and marking nonmetallic materials.

  16. Cutting Force in Stone Machining by Diamond Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Turchetta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone machining by diamond disk is a widespread process to manufacture standard products, such as tiles, slabs, and kerbs. Cutting force and energy may be used to monitor stone machining. Empirical models are required to guide the selection of cutting conditions. In this paper, the effects of cutting conditions on cutting force and cutting energy are related to the shape of the idealized chip thickness. The empirical models developed in this paper can be used to predict the variation of the cutting energy. Therefore these models can be used to guide the selection of cutting conditions. The chip generation and removal process has been quantified with the intention of assisting both the toolmaker and the stonemason in optimising the tool composition and cutting process parameters, respectively.

  17. Investigation of Surface Micro Waviness in Single Point Diamond Fly Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShengFei Wang; PengQiang Fu; FeiHu Zhang; ChenHui An; Yong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Single point diamond fly cutting is widely used in the manufacture of large⁃aperture ultra⁃precision optical elements. However, some micro waviness ( amplitude about 30 nm, wavelength about 15 mm) along the cutting direction which will decrease the quality of the optical elements can always be found in the processed surface, and the axial vibration of the spindle caused by the cut⁃in process is speculated as the immediate cause of this waviness. In this paper, the analytical method of dynamic mesh is applied for simulating the dynamic behavior of the vertical spindle. The consequence is then exerted to the fly cutter and the processed surface profile is simulated. The wavelength of the simulation result coincides well with the experimental result which proves the importance of the cut⁃in process during the single point diamond fly cutting.

  18. Vegetative propagation of Aesculus indica through stem cuttings treated with plant growth regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mumtaz Majeed; M.A.Khan; A.H.Mughal

    2009-01-01

    Cuttage propagation of Aesculus indica was tested by treatments with different concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) @ 2000, 4000 (ppm), indolebutyric acid (IBA) @ 2000, 4000 (ppm) and naphthlcetic acid (NAA) @ 2000, 4000 (ppm) in dry formulation in the Forest Nursery, Faculty of Forestry, SKUAST-K, Shalimar. The cuttings treated with IBA @ 4000 ppm and IBA @ 2000 ppm had a sprouting rate of 75% and 50%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of control and other treatments. The highest rooting rate (50%) was recorded in the cuttings with the application of IBA @ 4000 ppm. The cuttings treated with IBA @ 2000 ppm had 25% rooting rate. All other treatments along with control (talc powder) failed to induce rooting. It was concluded that IBA @ 4000 ppm was a better-applied concentration for vegetative propagation of A. indica under Kashmir conditions.

  19. A Simple Method to Derive Minimal Cut Sets for a Non-coherent Fault Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takehisa Kohda

    2006-01-01

    Minimal cut sets (or prime implicants: minimal combinations of basic event conditions leading to system failure)are important information for reliability/safety analysis and design. To obtain minimal cut sets for general non-coherent fault trees, including negative basic events or multi-valued basic events, a special procedure such as the consensus rule must be applied to the results obtained by logical operations for coherent fault trees, which will require more steps and time.This paper proposes a simple method for a non-coherent fault tree, whose top event is represented as an AND combination of monotonic sub-trees. A "monotonic" sub-tree means that it does not have both positive and negative representations for each basic event. It is proven that minimal cut sets can be obtained by a conventional method for coherent fault trees. An illustrative example of a simple event tree analysis shows the detail and characteristics of the proposed method.

  20. Case modifying of high-speed cutting database based on CSP and similarity theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kejun XIANG; Zhanqiang LIU; Xing AI

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing the reasoning of a high-speed cutting database system, a case modifying method is put forward. According to the variables' difference of the solution part in a case, a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) and similarity calculation are used to modify a case. The constraint relationship of discrete variables is described by establishing a rule knowledge base. The algorithm of CSP is used to solve the discrete variable constraint problem. On the basis of the high-speed cutting theory, a similarity calculation formula is deduced to calculate the consecutive variables. The CSP and similarity calculation are applied to case modifying, which is possible to automatically modify cases in the high-speed cutting database system.