WorldWideScience

Sample records for applied thermal cutting

  1. Remotely controlled cutting techniques in the field of nuclear decommissioning. Overview of effectively applied thermal cutting methods; Techniques de decoupage tele-operees dans le domaine du declassement nucleaire. Apercu des methodes de decoupage thermique appliquees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienia, H.; Klotz, B. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    This article describes 3 thermal cutting technologies that are effectively used in nuclear decommissioning projects: the autonomous flame cutting, the plasma arc cutting and the contact arc metal cutting. The autonomous flame cutting technology is based on a high pressure oxygen jet oxidizing the material in a small kerf. Not all metal types are appropriate for this technology. The plasma arc cutting, in contrast to the previous technology, uses an electronically induced plasma arc to melt a kerf in the material. Inside the plasma arc temperatures up to 30.000 K exist, so in theory, this temperature is sufficient to cut all materials. Contact arc metal cutting is a new thermal cutting technology for under-water cutting works. Here, a carbon blade cuts the components. An electric arc between the cutting blade and component melts a kerf into the material easing the cutting. This technology allows the cutting of complex structures with hollows. The applications in nuclear facility dismantling of these 3 cutting technologies and their limits are reported and their requirements (staff, investment) listed in a table. (A.C.)

  2. Reduction of emission when applying thermal separation processes in the dismantling of nuclear facilities - oxy-fuel gas and plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma arc cutting and laser beam cutting was used for the studies with the goal of significantly reducing material emission by changing the operating and equipment parameters. Some separations using the oxy-fuel gas cutting process served the purpose of providing a guide for determining which factors can most effectively reduce emission. The separation experiments were carried out with specimens of R-St 37-2, 10 mm thick, as well as of X 6 CrNi 18 10 steel 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm thick. In all cases, lowering speed and the amount of gas proved at first to be effective measures to check material emission. It was also possible to achieve adherence of molten mass and slag on the flank of the joint with excessive icicling. When the plasma separates the CrNi steel, it is possible to increase emission reduction additionally by using an argon/hydrogen mixture instead of nitrogen as a cutting gas. (orig./DG)

  3. Fabrication of low cost cutting wheel via thermal spray process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anasyida, A. S.; Nurulakmal, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study is mainly focused on development of metal cutting wheel. The process involved hard particles (abrasives) being bonded on the wheel to enhance the cutting capability by thermal spraying process and followed by polymer bonding. The purpose of this work is to produce low cost cutting wheel and study the performance of cutting behavior. Two different types of powders; silicon carbide (SiC) as bonding agent and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) as abrasives were used. Wear loss and depth of cut as function of load, cutting time and cutting speed were evaluated. The results showed that the speed and load were the main factors that affected the cutting efficiency and the optimum cutting process can be performed at low cutting speed and high load or at high cutting speed and low load.

  4. Thermal properties of cutting tool coatings at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermal properties of coatings for cutting tools measured in range from 20 to 500 °C. ► Coatings were based on nitrides of Ti, Al, Cr and Si. ► Thermal conductivity varies from 2.8 to 25 W m−1 K−1 and grows with temperature. ► Lowest thermal conductivity was observed for CrAlSiN coating. - Abstract: Cutting tools with coated inserts are widely used in high-speed cutting and in the cutting of hard-to-machine materials. The thermal properties of the coatings (or thin films) have a major impact on the cutting process and tool life. As there is a lack of data for high temperatures, we are presenting an experimental study of thermal conductivity and volumetric specific heat of different coatings in the range from room temperature to 500 °C. The coatings under investigation were TiN, TiAlCN, TiAlN, AlTiN, TiAlSiN and CrAlSiN. The thermal properties were measured using the pulsed photothermal radiometry method. The thermal conductivity of the coatings under investigation varied from 2.8 to 25 W m−1 K−1 and increased with the rise in temperature. The lowest thermal conductivity was observed for the CrAlSiN coating.

  5. Building waterproofing remediation applying the 'total cut' method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Dragan J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the specific problems of construction of a waterproofing system with an absolute control of the vertical penetration of ground water and dampness from the ground into higher levels of building masonry structure. This method can very suitably be applied in rehabilitation of old brick buildings where the usual waterproofing remediation systems cannot be implemented because of specific structure system The 'total cut' method is very suitable for use in the old traditional masonry buildings, which do not have reinforced concrete vertical beams and where using this method would not interfere with the continuous stability of the building.

  6. Thermal and mechanical cutting of concrete and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various thermal and mechanical processes for dismantling radioactive large components and concrete structures were investigated in order to determine the optimal handling conditions and their respective efficiency. For the thermal processes, the separation of heavy concrete and steel components by means of oxygen lances, powder cutting, ocyacetylene cutting, and plasma cutting processes were tested. In order to gain the necessary data for designing filtering equipment with regard to use in nuclear power stations, the amount of dust deposition and particle size distribution for these thermal processes were measured. The largest particle size proportion occurs for a particle size of ca. 0.3 μm. For the mechanical processes, stationary saws were used. Due to the large dimensions of the components which are to be found in a nuclear installation, it is not possible to use such saws for the initial dismantling. These saws can be used for both low-alloy and austenitic types of steel, and for separating materials not containing iron. In order to compare the efficiency of the saws with that of the thermal processes, to some extent the same test pieces were used that were used for the thermal tests. The advantage of the saw technique in comparison to the thermal separation processes lies in that next to no gas or dust contamination can become released. Also, the amount of shavings produced (secondary waste) is low. Furthermore, some of the saws can be used under remote control

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of thermal effects in nanometric cutting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the basic action of how material removing in nanoscale is a critical issue of producing well-formed components.In order to clarify thermal effects on material removal at atomic level,molecular dynamics(MD)simulations of nanometric cutting of mono-crystalline copper are performed with Morse,EAM and Tersoff potential.The effects of cutting speed on temperature distribution are investigated.The simulation results demonstrate that the temperature distribution shows a roughly concentric shape around shear zone and a steep temperature gradient lies in diamond tool,a relative high temperature is located in shear zone and machined surface,but the highest temperature is found in chip.At a high cutting speed mode,the atoms in shear zone with high temperature implies a large stress is built up in a local region.

  8. Under Water Thermal Cutting of the Moderator Vessel and Thermal Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the segmentation of the in 8 meter depth of water and for cutting through super alloyed moderator vessel and of the thermal shield of the MZFR stainless steel up to 130 mm wall thickness. Depending on the research reactor by means of under water plasma and contact arc metal cutting. The moderator vessel and the thermal shield are the most essential parts of the MZFR reactor vessel internals. These components have been segmented in 2005 by means of remotely controlled under water cutting utilizing a special manipulator system, a plasma torch and CAMC (Contact Arc Metal Cutting) as cutting tools. The engineered equipment used is a highly advanced design developed in a two years R and D program. It was qualified to cut through steel walls of more than 100 mm thickness in 8 meters water depth. Both the moderator vessel and the thermal shield had to be cut into such size that the segments could afterwards be packed into shielded waste containers each with a volume of roughly 1 m3. Segmentation of the moderator vessel and of the thermal shield was performed within 15 months. (author)

  9. Thermal modelling of cooling tool cutting when milling by electrical analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmoussa H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement temperatures by (some devises are applied immediately after shut-down and may be corrected for the temperature drop that occurs in the interval between shut-down and measurement. This paper presents a new procedure for thermal modelling of the tool cutting used just after machining; when the tool is out off the chip in order to extrapolate the cutting temperature from the temperature measured when the tool is at stand still. A fin approximation is made in enhancing heat loss (by conduction and convection to air stream is used. In the modelling we introduce an equivalent thermal network to estimate the cutting temperature as a function of specific energy. In another hand, a local modified element lumped conduction equation is used to predict the temperature gradient with time when the tool is being cooled, with initial and boundary conditions. These predictions provide a detailed view of the global heat transfer coefficient as a function of cutting speed because the heat loss for the tool in air stream is an order of magnitude larger than in normal environment. Finally we deduct the cutting temperature by inverse method.

  10. Thermal lensing in diode-pumped [001]-cut tetragonal crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumashev, Konstantin; Loiko, Pavel

    2015-11-01

    Thermal lensing is theoretically studied for laser discs from [001]-cut tetragonal crystals under the plane stress approximation, considering anisotropy of their elastic and photo-elastic properties. Analytical description of the stress-induced birefringence is presented. This allows us to derive analytical expressions for the photo-elastic term χ″, "generalized" thermo-optic coefficient (TOC), sensitivity factors of the thermal lens and its astigmatism degree, as well as discuss orientation of the principal meridional planes of the lens. These parameters are determined for the discs from tetragonal scheelite-type molydbate crystals, Nd:PbMoO4, Nd:CaMoO4 and Nd:NaBi(MoO4)2 at ~1 μm. It is shown that the photo-elastic effect plays an important role in the formation of the thermal lens for tetragonal crystals, and χ″ value can be either positive or negative. We also predict theoretically that for anisotropic crystals the orientation of the principal meridional planes of the thermal lens is not linked to the polarization direction.

  11. Performance Testing of Thermal Cutting Systems for Sweet Pepper Harvesting Robot in Greenhouse Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachche, Shivaji; Oka, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes design of end-effector and prototype of thermal cutting system for harvesting sweet peppers. The design consists of two parallel gripper bars mounted on a frame connected by specially designed notch plate and operated by servo motor. Based on voltage and current, two different types of thermal cutting system prototypes; electric arc and temperature arc respectively were developed and tested for performance. In electric arc, a special electric device was developed to obtain high voltage to perform cutting operation. At higher voltage, electrodes generate thermal arc which helps to cut stem of sweet pepper. In temperature arc, nichrome wire was mounted between two electrodes and current was provided directly to electrodes which results in generation of high temperature arc between two electrodes that help to perform cutting operation. In both prototypes, diameters of basic elements were varied and the effect of this variation on cutting operation was investigated. The temperature arc thermal system was found significantly suitable for cutting operation than electric arc thermal system. In temperature arc thermal cutting system, 0.5 mm nichrome wire shows significant results by accomplishing harvesting operation in 1.5 seconds. Also, thermal cutting system found suitable to increase shelf life of fruits by avoiding virus and fungal transformation during cutting process and sealing the fruit stem. The harvested sweet peppers by thermal cutting system can be preserved at normal room temperature for more than 15 days without any contamination.

  12. FEM–based thermal modelling of the cutting process using power law-temperature dependent concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Grzesik

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this study is to compare two variants of the FEM simulation model of orthogonal cuttingprocess of AISI 1045 carbon steel with uncoated and multilayer-coated carbide tools i.e. standard and Power Law–Temperature Dependent (PL-TD options. The primary reason for undertaking this problem was unsatisfactoryaccuracy of the predictions of cutting temperature especially for coated cutting tools.Design/methodology/approach: Methodology used employs the Lagrangian-FEM model with more accuratethermophysical properties of the substrate and coating materials. All thermal properties (thermal conductivity anddiffusivity and specific heat are expressed in the forms of polynomial models of the 5th degree. Multi-layercoating is substituted by homogeneous monolithic layer with equivalent thermal properties. In addition, thesesimulation algorithms use the Johnson-Cook constitutive law.Findings: Basically, the FEM package applied allows the temperature distribution and heat flux intensity to bepredicted closer to appropriate measurements and computations.Research limitations/implications: Research limitations deal with the lack of reliable data and models forboth cutting tool and workpiece material. Future research should be focused on other coatings which are commonlyused in cutting tool industry.Practical implications: They can be related to more detailed inputs from research and developing centerswhich exist in many leading branches of industry. Unfortunately, academic approach is sometimes very narrowand does not consider real machining conditions.Originality/value: Originality of this simulation approach can be seen in elaborating more accurate modelsfor thermal properties. Moreover, it contributes to finding some fundamental relationships between all physicalphenomena involved into tool-chip contact behaviour.

  13. Plasma arc and thermal lance techniques for cutting concrete and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma arc technique is used today in industrial practice for any metal, but mainly for cutting stainless steel, carbon steel and aluminium. In air the maximum thickness that was cut in the performed tests was 150 mm, both with ferritic and austenitic steel. Underwater the maximum thickness cut was 103 mm. The two types of torch used in the tests are those used today: the plasma-shaped electrode torch (WIPC) and the pointed electrode torch (DMC-GRUEN). Two different types of gas were compared: an argon-nitrogen mixture and an argon-hydrogen mixture. The second mixture adopted results in less dust emission. The production of dust and aerosols also depends on the cutting speed, on the kind of steel, but mainly on the environmental conditions; it is reduced up to 500 times under water. Dust and aerosols can, jeopardize the efficiency of the system; moreover, the ambient air can have high-level radiation fields. Indirect and direct protections are needed (shields, remote control, robots, etc.). Tentative procedures for dismantling two types of BWR reactor are examined. Two series of tests demonstrated the feasibility of cutting the most geometrically difficult parts of the reactor internals. The thermal lance technique is used in industrial practice mainly for dismantling large reinforced concrete structures. This technique can be applied to dismantle nuclear facilities, even though it can cause some problems due to the gases, fumes and lapilli produced. In addition, the cost of this technique seems to be generally higher than the cost of other techniques. From the analyses done, the conclusion seems that both the above techniques are feasible for dismantling a nuclear power plant (NPP). The best solution is probably to analyse the different dismantling possibilities and problems and problems of each case

  14. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horibe Takanori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific radioactivity of sucrose and glucose in leaves, but specific radioactivity of sucrose in petals was much higher than that of glucose. These results suggested that most of the exogenously applied glucose first moved to the leaves, where it was converted into sucrose and then the synthesised sucrose was translocated to the petals. Our results showed that the leaves of cut rose flowers play an important role in the metabolism and transportation of exogenously applied soluble carbohydrates toward the petals, thus contributing to sustaining the post-harvest quality.

  15. Hot Stuff? Thermal Imaging Applied to Cryocrystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, E. H.

    2004-01-01

    In the past we have used thermal imaging techniques to visualize the cryocooling processes of macromolecular crystals. From these images it was clear that a cold wave progresses through a crystal starting at the face closest to the origin of the cold stream and ending at the point furthest away. During these studies we used large volume crystals, which were clearly distinguished fiom the loop holding them. These large crystals, originally grown for neutron diffiaction studies, were chosen deliberately to enhance the imaging. As an extension to this work, we present used thermal imaging to study small crystals, held in a cryo-loop, in the presence of vitrified mother liquor. The different d a r e d transmission and reflectance properties of the crystal in comparison to the mother liquor surrounding it are thought to be the parameter that produces the contrast that makes the crystal visible. An application of this technology may be the determination of the exact location of small crystals in a cryo-loop. Data fkom initial tests in support of application development was recorded for lysozyme crystals and for bFGF/dna complex crystals, which were cryocooled and imaged in large loops, both with visible light mad with h i k e d rdi&tion. The crystals were clearly distinguished from the vitrified solution in the infiared spectrum, while in the case of the bFGF/dna complex the illumination had to be carefully manipulated to make the crystal visible in the visible spectrum. These results suggest that the thermal imaging may be more sensitive than visual imaging for automated location of small crystals. However, further work on small crystals robotically mounted at SSRL did not clearly visualize those crystals. The depth of field of the camera proved to be limiting and a different cooling geometry was used, compared to the previous, successful experiments. Analysis to exploit multiple images to improve depth of field and experimental work to understand cooling geometry

  16. Cost minimizing of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaeva, Anastasia; Kurennov, Dmitry

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with optimization problem of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines. The accuracy of objective function parameters calculation for optimization problem is investigated. This paper shows that working tool path speed is not constant value. One depends on some parameters that are described in this paper. The relations of working tool path speed depending on the numbers of NC programs frames, length of straight cut, configuration part are presented. Based on received results the correction coefficients for working tool speed are defined. Additionally the optimization problem may be solved by using mathematical model. Model takes into account the additional restrictions of thermal cutting (choice of piercing and output tool point, precedence condition, thermal deformations). At the second part of paper the non-standard cutting techniques are considered. Ones may lead to minimizing of cutting cost and time compared with standard cutting techniques. This paper considers the effectiveness of non-standard cutting techniques application. At the end of the paper the future research works are indicated.

  17. Optoacoustic monitoring of cutting efficiency and thermal damage during laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Erwin; Douplik, Alexandre; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Successful laser surgery is characterized by a precise cut and effective hemostasis with minimal collateral thermal damage to the adjacent tissues. Consequently, the surgeon needs to control several parameters, such as power, pulse repetition rate, and velocity of movements. In this study we propose utilizing optoacoustics for providing the necessary real-time feedback of cutting efficiency and collateral thermal damage. Laser ablation was performed on a bovine meat slab using a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (532 nm, 4 kHz, 18 W). Due to the short pulse duration of 7.6 ns, the same laser has also been used for generation of optoacoustic signals. Both the shockwaves, generated due to tissue removal, as well as the normal optoacoustic responses from the surrounding tissue were detected using a single broadband piezoelectric transducer. It has been observed that the rapid reduction in the shockwave amplitude occurs as more material is being removed, indicating decrease in cutting efficiency, whereas gradual decrease in the optoacoustic signal likely corresponds to coagulation around the ablation crater. Further heating of the surrounding tissue leads to carbonization accompanied by a significant shift in the optoacoustic spectra. Our results hold promise for real-time monitoring of cutting efficiency and collateral thermal damage during laser surgery. In practice, this could eventually facilitate development of automatic cut-off mechanisms that will guarantee an optimal tradeoff between cutting and heating while avoiding severe thermal damage to the surrounding tissues. PMID:24146235

  18. EVALUATION OF THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS FOR SIDE WALLS OF CUT-AND-COVER TUNNELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Motoi; Sadato, Seiichiro; Ikarashi, Yuki

    Cracks due to thermal stresses that occur in the side walls of large cut-and-cover tunnels adversely affect tunnel durability. In many cases, therefore, thermal stress is analyzed to control thermal stress cracking. However, the analytical accuracy is not good enough for estimation. This paper discusses methods for improvmg the accuracy of thermal stress analyses, taking as an example a side wall about 1.0 m thick of a large cut-and-cover tunnel. The methods involve the following three points: consideration of drying shrinkage, utilization of the diagrams in the Standard Specifications for Concrete Structures-Design(JSCE), and three dimensional thermal stress analysis considering drying shrinkage induced by humidity migration.

  19. Preliminary results on dose-effect relationships of thermally treated, oil-containing drilled cuttings in boxcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans to reduce emission of oil prescribe the development of testing techniques to judge effects on the marine environment. In the Netherlands, a technique with the potential to be applied in offshore operations, is based on thermal treatment and grinding of the cutting in order to recover the base oil. The resulting cuttings form a very fine hydrophobic powder with an oil content of ca. 7.5 g kg-1 dry weight. In order to assess the dose-effect relationships and no-effect concentration of these cuttings at the ecological community level, boxcosm experiments were set-up. This study is a joint effort of the Dutch Government and the Dutch E and P Industry (NOGEPA). Clean marine sediments were inoculated in duplo with 50 concentrations of pretreated cuttings with a 3.2 factor stepwise dilution of concentration. The results were compared with two blancs: one without addition of cuttings and one with addition of cuttings which had been made oil-free by heating at 500 degrees C. The incubation period was 3 months. The minimal dose of the cuttings was calculated to amount to ca. 1.2 mg oil kg-1 dry weight, the maximal dose to ca. 120 mg oil kg-1 dry sediment in the top 10 cm sediment layer. The results, however, showed that the initial background concentration of oil was at least 10 times as high as expected from previous measurements with a mean calculated value of 110 ± 50 mg oil kg-1 dry sediment (n = 10). A parameter indicative for impact on biological activity in the sediment is the depth of the oxygen present in the sediment and the overlying water. Oxygen concentrations at the sediment/water interface were always near saturation, but the thickness of the aerobic layer differed markedly

  20. Application of Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) to treat low-toxicity mineral oil base cuttings in Barinas District, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon, Ruben [Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Luzardo, Janeth; Alcoba, Alcides [M-I SWACO, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The potential environmental impact of oil-based drill cuttings is generating increased scrutiny in the oil and gas industry. If left untreated, oil-based cuttings not only increase the risk of environmental liabilities, but also affect revenue, as drilling generates wastes that in most cases require special treatment before disposal. Consequently, the oil industry is looking for technologies to help minimize environmental liabilities. Accordingly, the Barinas District of PDVSA has started a pilot trial to treat oil-based drilling cuttings by applying thermal desorption technology. The main objective of this technology is recovering trapped hydrocarbons, while minimizing wastes and preparing solids to be disposed of through a mobile treatment plant. This novel technology has been used worldwide to treat organic pollutants in soil. Thermal desorption is a technology based on the application of heat in soils polluted with organic compounds. With this technology, target temperatures vary according to the type and concentration of detected pollutants along with its characterization, in such a way that compounds are disposed of by volatilization. As part of the integral waste management development along with the pilot trial for hydrocarbon-contaminated solid waste treatment, trials on soils were undertaken by applying process-generated ashes in equally-sized bins, with different mixtures (ashes, ashes organic material, ashes-organic material-sand, ashes-land). The resulting process offers an immediate soil remediation and final disposal solution for toxic and dangerous waste. (author)

  1. Photo-elastic effect, thermal lensing and depolarization in a-cut tetragonal laser crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumashev, K. V.; Zakharova, A. N.; Loiko, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    We report on analytical description of thermal lensing effect in tetragonal crystals cut along the [1 0 0] crystallographic axis, for the two principal light polarizations, E ┴ c and E || c, under diode-pumping (plane stress approximation). Within this approach, we take into account anisotropy of elastic, photo-elastic, thermal and optical properties of the material. Expressions for the ‘generalized’ thermo-optic coefficient χ are presented. It is shown that astigmatism of thermal lens is determined both by the photo-elastic and end-bulging effects. The sign of the photo-elastic term χ″ can be either positive or negative affecting significantly the sign of the thermal lens. Depolarization loss in a-cut tetragonal crystals is few orders of magnitude lower than that in cubic crystals. Calculations are performed for a-cut tetragonal molybdates, Nd:CaMoO4, Nd:PbMoO4 and Nd:NaBi(MoO4)2.

  2. Ventilation and filtration techniques for handling aerosols produced by thermal cutting operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work done to characterize aerosols from thermal cutting operations and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out under a research contract between the Windscale Laboratory and the Commission of the European Communities. The contract started in October 1984 and was completed in June 1988. The total cost of the work was UKL 132 000 of which 50% was funded by the Commission. This report has been compiled from the several progress reports submitted during the work period and details the main findings from the work programme. By working with colleagues from Commissariat a l'energie atomique, Saclay, France, additional useful data were collected. The bimodal size distribution of aerosols from oxypropane cutting was confirmed. Trials on various prefilters showed that the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and the cartridge filter had excellent collection properties. From these trials the ESP was selected as the prefilter for the windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project. This work is presented in Appendix 1 to this report. Details are given of the proposals to modify the ESP to enable the safe removal of radioactive dust and contamined collector plates. Tests are described on aerosols generated by laser cutting and also trials on the ESP and high gradient magnetic separation prefilters. Finally, the measurement of filter burdens, aerosol concentrations and dust deposition rates from thermal cutting in a full-size ventilation rig are reported

  3. Micro-cutting of silicon implanted with hydrogen and post-implantation thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenković, Emil V.; To, Suet; Sundaravel, B.; Xiao, Gaobo; Huang, Hu

    2016-07-01

    It was reported that non-amorphizing implantation by hydrogen has a potential in improving silicon machining. Post-implantation high-temperature treatment will affect implantation-induced damage, which can have impact on silicon machining. In this article, a relation of a thermal annealing of hydrogen implanted in silicon to micro-cutting experiment is investigated. Hydrogen ions were implanted into 4″ silicon wafers with 175 keV, 150 keV, 125 keV and doses of 2 × 1016 cm-2, 2 × 1016 cm-2 and 3 × 1016 cm-2, respectively. In this way, low hydrogen atom-low defect concentration was created in the region less than ~0.8 μm deep and high hydrogen atom-high defect concentration was obtained at silicon depth of ~0.8-1.5 μm. The post-implantation annealing was carried out at 300 and 400 °C in nitrogen for 1 h. Physical and electrical properties of implanted and annealed samples were characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nanoindentation. Plunge cutting experiment was carried out in and silicon crystal direction. The critical depth of cut and cutting force were monitored and found to be influenced by the annealing. The limits of hydrogen implantation annealing contribution to the cutting characteristics of silicon are discussed in light of implantation process and redistribution of hydrogen and defects generation during annealing process.

  4. Animal abolitionism meets moral abolitionism : cutting the Gordian knot of applied ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Joel

    2013-12-01

    The use of other animals for human purposes is as contentious an issue as one is likely to find in ethics. And this is so not only because there are both passionate defenders and opponents of such use, but also because even among the latter there are adamant and diametric differences about the bases of their opposition. In both disputes, the approach taken tends to be that of applied ethics, by which a position on the issue is derived from a fundamental moral commitment. This commitment in turn depends on normative ethics, which investigates the various moral theories for the best fit to our moral intuitions. Thus it is that the use of animals in biomedical research is typically defended by appeal to a utilitarian theory, which legitimates harm to some for the greater good of others; while the opposition condemns that use either by appeal to the same theory, but disagreeing about the actual efficacy of animal experimentation, or by appeal to an alternative theory, such as the right of all sentient beings not to be exploited. Unfortunately, the normative issue seems likely never to be resolved, hence leaving the applied issue in limbo. The present essay seeks to circumvent this impasse by dispensing altogether with any moral claim or argument, thereby cutting the Gordian knot of animal ethics with a meta-ethical sword. The alternative schema defended is simply to advance relevant considerations, whereupon "there is nothing left but to feel." In a word, motivation replaces justification. PMID:24092403

  5. Pengaruh Penambahan Paladium Terhadap Perilaku Thermal Amalgam Tembaga Tinggi Tipe Lathe Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Ellyza Herda

    2015-01-01

    Effects of additing 1 percent (w/o) palladium (Pd) on the thermal behavior of a lathe cut type high copper amalgam (13 w/o copper) were studied. The identical alloys, with and without 1% Pd were fabricated. X-ray diffraction studies of the amalgams revealed the elimination of the γ2-phase by Pd addition DSC thermogram of non-Pd containing amalgam indicated the existence of two γ1-phaseone with the transition temperature (endothermic peak) at 88◦C and the other at 109◦C. The thermogram data of...

  6. Laser cutting silicon-glass double layer wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yecheng; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed at introducing the laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) technology to solve the silicon-glass double layer wafer dicing problems in the packaging procedure of silicon-glass device packaged by WLCSP technology, investigating the feasibility of this idea, and studying the crack propagation process of LITP cutting double layer wafer. In this paper, the physical process of the 1064 nm laser beam interact with the double layer wafer during the cutting process was studied theoretically. A mathematical model consists the volumetric heating source and the surface heating source has been established. The temperature and stress distribution was simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The extended finite element method (XFEM) was added to the simulation as the supplementary features to simulate the crack propagation process and the crack propagation profile. The silicon-glass double layer wafer cutting verification experiment under typical parameters was conducted by using the 1064 nm semiconductor laser. The crack propagation profile on the fracture surface was examined by optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and XFEM status. It was concluded that the quality of the finished fracture surface has been greatly improved, and the experiment results were well supported by the numerical simulation results.

  7. Thermal Behavior of Green Roofs Applied to Tropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Tibério Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present results on an experimental field about the green roofs thermal behavior, compared to other traditional roof covering systems. On the one hand, it intends to describe shortly the constructive system of a green roof with a lightweight building system, which has a sustainable building materials character and, on the other, it worries with the water reuse and with the run-off delay. The main methodological procedure adopted to study the thermal behavior of green roof was installing thermocouples to collect surface temperatures and indoor air, later comparing them with existing prototypes in an experimental plot. The thermal behavior analysis of cover systems was assessed by a representative episode of the climate fact, based on the dynamic climate approach. The experimental results from internal air temperature measurements show that the green roofs applied to warm and dry climates also provide an interesting time lag with surface and internal air temperature reduction.

  8. Evaluation of hand applied naled thermal fog for Wyeomyia control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, G A; Carlson, D B

    1990-09-01

    Tests on the effect of hand applied naled thermal fog, both as a single treatment on one day/week and a single treatment on 3 successive days, did not control Wyeomyia vanduzeei and Wy. mitchellii. Five-min landing/biting counts in a native oak/palm woodland demonstrated that single applications produced an average landing rate decrease of 13%. Treatments 3 days in succession did not suppress the landing rate. PMID:1977876

  9. Thermal and fluid flow characteristics in a tube equipped with peripherally-cut dual twisted tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changcharoen, W.; Somravysin, P.; Eiamsa-ard, S.

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an experimental analysis of the turbulent flow of water in a heat exchanger tube fitted with peripherally-cut dual twisted tapes (PDTs) under a constant wall heat-flux condition. The peripherallycut dual twisted tapes with different cutting pitch ratios (l/y = 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0) were tested for Reynolds numbers in the range of 5400 to 14,000. The experimental results showed thatNusselt number and friction factor of the tubes fitted with PDTswere considerably higher than those of the plain tube and those of the tubes with single twisted tape (ST) and dual twisted tapes (DTs). It was found that PDTs with l/y = 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 gave higher heat transfer rate than the typical DTs, with average Nusselt numbers greater by 12.1%, 7.8% and 3.8%, respectively. For the range investigated, PDTs with the smallest l/y ratio offered the highest thermal performance factor of 1.14.

  10. Pengaruh Penambahan Paladium Terhadap Perilaku Thermal Amalgam Tembaga Tinggi Tipe Lathe Cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellyza Herda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of additing 1 percent (w/o palladium (Pd on the thermal behavior of a lathe cut type high copper amalgam (13 w/o copper were studied. The identical alloys, with and without 1% Pd were fabricated. X-ray diffraction studies of the amalgams revealed the elimination of the γ2-phase by Pd addition DSC thermogram of non-Pd containing amalgam indicated the existence of two γ1-phaseone with the transition temperature (endothermic peak at 88◦C and the other at 109◦C. The thermogram data of the Pd containing amalgam showed an endothermic peak at 110.7◦C. The transition temperature of the n phase of the palladium containing amalgam is 4.9◦C lower than the transition temperature of the n phase of the non Pd containing amalgam. This result indicates that the n phase of the Pd containing amalgam includes more of Tin (Sn than the non-Pd containing amalgam. The thermogravimetri diagram showed that the phase decomposition occurred at about 390◦C for the non-Pd containing amalgam and at about 410◦C for the Pd containing amalgam. It is concluded that the addition of 1% Pd into a lathe cut type of high copper amalgam (13% could eliminate the formation of γ2 phase as well as an unstable γ1 phase, promoting strong mercury bonding to Silver.

  11. An optimal guarding scheme for thermal conductivity measurement using a guarded cut-bar technique, part 1 experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the guarded cut-bar technique, a guard surrounding the measured sample and reference (meter) bars is temperature controlled to carefully regulate heat losses from the sample and reference bars. Guarding is typically carried out by matching the temperature profiles between the guard and the test stack of sample and meter bars. Problems arise in matching the profiles, especially when the thermal conductivities of the meter bars and of the sample differ, as is usually the case. In a previous numerical study, the applied guarding condition (guard temperature profile) was found to be an important factor in measurement accuracy. Different from the linear-matched or isothermal schemes recommended in literature, the optimal guarding condition is dependent on the system geometry and thermal conductivity ratio of sample to meter bar. To validate the numerical results, an experimental study was performed to investigate the resulting error under different guarding conditions using stainless steel 304 as both the sample and meter bars. The optimal guarding condition was further verified on a certified reference material, pyroceram 9606, and 99.95% pure iron whose thermal conductivities are much smaller and much larger, respectively, than that of the stainless steel meter bars. Additionally, measurements are performed using three different inert gases to show the effect of the insulation effective thermal conductivity on measurement error, revealing low conductivity, argon gas, gives the lowest error sensitivity when deviating from the optimal condition. The result of this study provides a general guideline for the specific measurement method and for methods requiring optimal guarding or insulation

  12. Plasticity in soil-structure interaction applied to cut-and-cover tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Plumey, Sylvain; Muttoni, Aurelio; Vulliet, Laurent; Labiouse, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Cut-and-cover tunnels behavior at ultimate limit state depends strongly on the interactions between the foundation soil, the backfill and the reinforced concrete structure. Characterization of the potential failure modes of these types of structure necessitates taking into account every major mechanical property of each components. The influence of the structure plastic behavior on the ultimate limit state of the soil-structure system is discussed through a basic case study of soil mechanics....

  13. Cutting glass by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyoung-Shik; Hong, Soon-Kug; Oh, Seok-Chang; Choi, Jong-Yoon; Song, Min-Gyu

    2002-02-01

    In FPD (Flat Panel Display) devices, the diamond wheel has been used to scribe glass by means of mechanical contact which needs grinding and cleaning processes to remove particles, glass chips, surface cracks and sharp edges. In recent years, laser glass technology that is different from the conventional method of cutting glass by melting, has been researched and utilizes cutting glass by thermal shock. Laser glass cutting by thermal shock can produce cracks in glass by surface cooling after laser heating on glass by means of stress slope on glass surface. When this technology is applied in FPD manufacturing devices, it has several advantages compared to conventional methods as follows: a) non-contact glass cutting: almost no glass chip occurs. b) according to circumstances, grinding and cleaning can be omitted. c) system maintenance can be simplified.

  14. The Constant Intensity Cut Method applied to the KASCADE-Grande muon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C., E-mail: arteaga@ifm.umich.m [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box Mg-6, RO-7690 Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, 10133 Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Souza, V. de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The constant intensity cut method is a very useful tool to reconstruct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in order to combine or compare extensive air shower data measured for different attenuation depths independently of the MC model. In this contribution the method is used to explore the muon data of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. In particular, with this technique, the measured muon number spectra for different zenith angle ranges are compared and summed up to obtain a single muon spectrum for the measured showers. Preliminary results are presented, along with estimations of the systematic uncertainties associated with the analysis technique.

  15. The Constant Intensity Cut Method applied to the KASCADE-Grande muon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constant intensity cut method is a very useful tool to reconstruct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in order to combine or compare extensive air shower data measured for different attenuation depths independently of the MC model. In this contribution the method is used to explore the muon data of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. In particular, with this technique, the measured muon number spectra for different zenith angle ranges are compared and summed up to obtain a single muon spectrum for the measured showers. Preliminary results are presented, along with estimations of the systematic uncertainties associated with the analysis technique.

  16. Representation of thermal information in the antennal lobe of leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eRuchty

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Insects are equipped with various types of antennal sensilla, which house thermosensitive neurons adapted to receive different parameters of the thermal environment for a variety of temperature-guided behaviors. In the leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri, the physiology and the morphology of the thermosensitive sensillum coeloconicum (Sc has been thoroughly investigated. However, the central projections of its receptor neurons are unknown. Here we selectively stained the three neurons found in single Sc and tracked their axons into the brain of Atta vollenweideri workers. Each of the three axons terminates in a single glomerulus of the antennal lobe (Sc-glomeruli. Two of the innervated glomeruli are adjacent to each other and are located laterally, while the third one is clearly separated and located medially in the antennal lobe. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging of antennal lobe projection neurons, we studied where in the antennal lobe thermal information is represented. In the 11 investigated antennal lobes, we found up to 10 different glomeruli in a single specimen responding to temperature stimulation. Both, warm- and cold-sensitive glomeruli could be identified. The thermosensitive glomeruli were mainly located in the medial part of the antennal lobe. Based on the general representation of thermal information in the antennal lobe and functional data on the Sc-glomeruli we conclude that temperature stimuli received by Sc are processed in the medial of the three target glomeruli. The present study reveals an important role of the antennal lobe in temperature processing and links a specific thermosensitive neuron to its central target glomerulus.

  17. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  18. Thermal lensing in Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals cut along the optical indicatrix axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal lensing is studied in Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals cut along the three optical indicatrix axes, Np, Nm and Ng. The cut along the Ng-axis is the only one that provides a pure positive thermal lens with the sensitivity factors M = 3.5 and 2.8 m−1 W−1 (wp = 100 μm) for the mg- and pg-planes, respectively, and a low astigmatism degree, S/M < 20%. Both Np-cut and Nm-cut crystals produce different-signed lens with at least six-times stronger astigmatism. This behavior is related to the anisotropy of the photo-elastic effect. A CW Yb:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser delivering a maximum output power of 992 mW at 1051 nm with a slope efficiency of 40%, and possessing low spatial distortions of the laser beam and M2 < 1.1, is realized on the basis of Ng-cut crystal. (letter)

  19. Large-scaled non-thermal laser peeling, cutting and drilling in nuclear decommissioning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JAERI FEL has recently discovered the new FEL lasing of 255fs ultra fast pulse, 6-9% high-efficiency, one gigawatt high peak power, a few kilowatts average power, and wide tunability of medium and far infrared wavelength regions at the same time. Using the new lasing and energy-recovery linac technology, we could extend a more powerful and more efficient free-electron laser (FEL) than 10kW and 25%, respectively, for nuclear industry, pharmacy, medical, defense, shipbuilding, semiconductor industry, chemical industries, environmental sciences, space-debris, power beaming and so on. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, we need the efficient and powerful FEL driven by the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero boil-off super-conducting RF linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the FEL will cover the application of non-thermal peeling, cutting, and drilling to decommission the nuclear power plants, and to prevent stress-corrosion cracking in nuclear industry and roadmap for the industrial FELs, the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero-boil-off cryostat concept and operational experience, the new, highly-efficient, high-power, and ultra fast pulse lasing mode, and the energy-recovery geometry. (authors)

  20. Stress dependence of thermally driven pyroelectric charge release during FER-FEO phase transformations in [011] cut relaxor ferroelectric crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen D.; Finkel, Peter; Amin, Ahmed; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2012-06-01

    The stress dependence of thermally driven polarization change is reported for a ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric orthorhombic phase transformation in [011] cut and poled Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT). A jump in polarization and strain is associated with a phase transformation of the ferroelectric material. The phase transformation temperature can be tuned, over a broad temperature range, through the application of bias stress. This phenomenon has applications in the field of energy harvesting and thermal sensing.

  1. Sensitivity theory applied to a transient thermal-hydraulics problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Oblow, E.M.

    1979-10-01

    A new method for sensitivity analysis of transient nonlinear problems is developed and applied to a reactor thermal-hydraulics problem. The method resembles the differential sensitivity methods currently used in the linear problems of reactor physics, but it is applicable to nonlinear systems as well. The equations governing heat transfer and fluid flow in a fuel pin and surrounding coolant are given and used to derive a second set of equations (commonly known as the adjoint equations) used in the sensitivity analysis. Both systems contain one second-order parabolic and one first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation. Difference equations are derived to approximate both systems and the convergence properties of these discrete systems are evaluated, yielding a useful analysis of the numerical solution. The solution functions are used to derive sensitivity coefficients for any desired integral response. These sensitivity coefficients are used in a first-order perturbation theory to predict changes in a response resulting from changes in parameter values. The results of a test problem are shown, verifying that this procedure is indeed useful for a wide variety of sensitivity calculations.

  2. FEM–based thermal modelling of the cutting process using power law-temperature dependent concept

    OpenAIRE

    W. Grzesik; P. Niesłony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this study is to compare two variants of the FEM simulation model of orthogonal cuttingprocess of AISI 1045 carbon steel with uncoated and multilayer-coated carbide tools i.e. standard and Power Law–Temperature Dependent (PL-TD) options. The primary reason for undertaking this problem was unsatisfactoryaccuracy of the predictions of cutting temperature especially for coated cutting tools.Design/methodology/approach: Methodology used employs the Lagrangian-FEM model with mo...

  3. The entropy functional measure on trajectories of a Markov diffusion process and its estimation by the process' cut off applying the impulse control

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Vladimir S

    2012-01-01

    The paper extends conventional Shannon entropy' measure of a random state on an integral information measure of the Markov diffusion process on its trajectories- solutions of Ito's controllable stochastic equation. The introduced method of cutting off the process by applying an impulse control estimates the cut off information, accumulated by the process' inner connections between its states. It has shown that such a functional information measure contains more information than the sum of Shannon's entropies counted for all process' separated states.

  4. Photoacoustic microscopy by photodeformation applied to thermal diffusivity determination

    OpenAIRE

    Balageas, Daniel; Boscher, Daniel; Déom, Alain; Enguehard, Franck

    1991-01-01

    International audience In this paper, an original technique is proposed to measure the thermal diffusivity at local scale using a photoacoustic microscopy set-up. Several experimental results collected on thin metallic layers are presented.

  5. Thermal Behavior of Green Roofs Applied to Tropical Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Tibério Cardoso; Francisco Vecchia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present results on an experimental field about the green roofs thermal behavior, compared to other traditional roof covering systems. On the one hand, it intends to describe shortly the constructive system of a green roof with a lightweight building system, which has a sustainable building materials character and, on the other, it worries with the water reuse and with the run-off delay. The main methodological procedure adopted to study the thermal behavior o...

  6. On the control of structures by applied thermal gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Don; Chen, JAY-C.

    1987-01-01

    Some preliminary results of research on control of flexible structures performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are presented. It was shown that the thermoelectric device is a feasible actuator and may effectively be used to control structures, provided the structure has a relatively low thermal inertia. The control law only depends on the open-loop system natural frequency.

  7. Mathematical Optimization Applied to Thermal and Electrical Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bordin, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    This Thesis aims at building and discussing mathematical models applications focused on Energy problems, both on the thermal and electrical side. The objective is to show how mathematical programming techniques developed within Operational Research can give useful answers in the Energy Sector, how they can provide tools to support decision making processes of Companies operating in the Energy production and distribution and how they can be successfully used to make simulations and sensiti...

  8. Inductive thermal plasma generation applied for the materials coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coatings by thermal plasma are carried out introducing particles into a plasma system where they are accelerated and melted (total or partially) before striking the substrate to which they adhere and are suddenly cooled down. The nature of consolidation and solidification of the particles allows to have control upon the microstructure of the deposit. This technique is able to deposit any kind of material that is suitable to be merged (metal, alloy, ceramic, glass) upon any type of substrate (metal, graphite, ceramic, wood) with an adjustable thickness ranging from a few microns up to several millimeters. The applications are particularly focused to the coating of materials in order to improve their properties of resistance to corrosion, thermal and mechanical efforts as well as to preserve the properties of the so formed compound. In this work the electromagnetic induction phenomenon in an ionized medium by means of electric conductivity, is described. Emphasis is made on the devices and control systems employed in order to generate the thermal plasma and in carrying out the coatings of surfaces by the projection of particles based on plasma

  9. THERMAL SIGNATURES OF TETHER-CUTTING RECONNECTIONS IN PRE-ERUPTION CORONAL FLUX ROPES: HOT CENTRAL VOIDS IN CORONAL CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Using a three-dimensional MHD simulation, we model the quasi-static evolution and the onset of eruption of a coronal flux rope. The simulation begins with a twisted flux rope emerging at the lower boundary and pushing into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. At a chosen time the emergence is stopped with the lower boundary taken to be rigid. Then the coronal flux rope settles into a quasi-static rise phase during which an underlying, central sigmoid-shaped current layer forms along the so-called hyperbolic flux tube (HFT), a generalization of the X-line configuration. Reconnections in the dissipating current layer effectively add twisted flux to the flux rope and thus allow it to rise quasi-statically, even though the magnetic energy is decreasing as the system relaxes. We examine the thermal features produced by the current layer formation and the associated 'tether-cutting' reconnections as a result of heating and field aligned thermal conduction. It is found that a central hot, low-density channel containing reconnected, twisted flux threading under the flux rope axis forms on top of the central current layer. When viewed in the line of sight roughly aligned with the hot channel (which is roughly along the neutral line), the central current layer appears as a high-density vertical column with upward extensions as a {sup U-}shaped dense shell enclosing a central hot, low-density void. Such thermal features have been observed within coronal prominence cavities. Our MHD simulation suggests that they are the signatures of the development of the HFT topology and the associated tether-cutting reconnections, and that the central void grows and rises with the reconnections, until the flux rope reaches the critical height for the onset of the torus instability and dynamic eruption ensues.

  10. THERMAL SIGNATURES OF TETHER-CUTTING RECONNECTIONS IN PRE-ERUPTION CORONAL FLUX ROPES: HOT CENTRAL VOIDS IN CORONAL CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a three-dimensional MHD simulation, we model the quasi-static evolution and the onset of eruption of a coronal flux rope. The simulation begins with a twisted flux rope emerging at the lower boundary and pushing into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. At a chosen time the emergence is stopped with the lower boundary taken to be rigid. Then the coronal flux rope settles into a quasi-static rise phase during which an underlying, central sigmoid-shaped current layer forms along the so-called hyperbolic flux tube (HFT), a generalization of the X-line configuration. Reconnections in the dissipating current layer effectively add twisted flux to the flux rope and thus allow it to rise quasi-statically, even though the magnetic energy is decreasing as the system relaxes. We examine the thermal features produced by the current layer formation and the associated 'tether-cutting' reconnections as a result of heating and field aligned thermal conduction. It is found that a central hot, low-density channel containing reconnected, twisted flux threading under the flux rope axis forms on top of the central current layer. When viewed in the line of sight roughly aligned with the hot channel (which is roughly along the neutral line), the central current layer appears as a high-density vertical column with upward extensions as a U-shaped dense shell enclosing a central hot, low-density void. Such thermal features have been observed within coronal prominence cavities. Our MHD simulation suggests that they are the signatures of the development of the HFT topology and the associated tether-cutting reconnections, and that the central void grows and rises with the reconnections, until the flux rope reaches the critical height for the onset of the torus instability and dynamic eruption ensues.

  11. Thermal Signatures of Tether-cutting Reconnections in Pre-eruption Coronal Flux Ropes: Hot Central Voids in Coronal Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Using a three-dimensional MHD simulation, we model the quasi-static evolution and the onset of eruption of a coronal flux rope. The simulation begins with a twisted flux rope emerging at the lower boundary and pushing into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. At a chosen time the emergence is stopped with the lower boundary taken to be rigid. Then the coronal flux rope settles into a quasi-static rise phase during which an underlying, central sigmoid-shaped current layer forms along the so-called hyperbolic flux tube (HFT), a generalization of the X-line configuration. Reconnections in the dissipating current layer effectively add twisted flux to the flux rope and thus allow it to rise quasi-statically, even though the magnetic energy is decreasing as the system relaxes. We examine the thermal features produced by the current layer formation and the associated "tether-cutting" reconnections as a result of heating and field aligned thermal conduction. It is found that a central hot, low-density channel containing reconnected, twisted flux threading under the flux rope axis forms on top of the central current layer. When viewed in the line of sight roughly aligned with the hot channel (which is roughly along the neutral line), the central current layer appears as a high-density vertical column with upward extensions as a "U"-shaped dense shell enclosing a central hot, low-density void. Such thermal features have been observed within coronal prominence cavities. Our MHD simulation suggests that they are the signatures of the development of the HFT topology and the associated tether-cutting reconnections, and that the central void grows and rises with the reconnections, until the flux rope reaches the critical height for the onset of the torus instability and dynamic eruption ensues.

  12. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (∼7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (∼12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10−3 cm2/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s0.5/cm2 K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm3 K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water)

  13. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.; Bento, A. C.

    2013-11-01

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (˜7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (˜12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10-3 cm2/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s0.5/cm2 K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm3 K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water).

  14. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Bento, A. C., E-mail: acbento@uem.br [Departamento de Física, Grupo de Espectroscopia Fotoacústica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná (Brazil); Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S. [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho – UNESP, Av. Brasil 56, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-21

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (∼7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (∼12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s{sup 0.5}/cm{sup 2} K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm{sup 3} K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water)

  15. Thermal behavior of the duct applied functionally graded material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), the high temperature results from friction among the air, combustion of fuel in engine and combustion gas of a nozzle. The high temperature may cause serious damages in UAV structure. The Functionally Graded Material(FGM) is chosen as a material of the engine duct structure. Thermal stress analysis of FGM is performed in this paper. FGM is composed of two constituent materials that are mixed up according to the specific volume fraction distribution in order to withstand high temperature. Therefore, hoop stress, axial stress and shear stress of duct with 2 layers, 4 layers and 8 layers FGM are compared and analyzed respectively. In addition, the creep behavior of FGM used in duct structure of an engine is analyzed for better understanding of FGM characteristics

  16. Comparative Studies on Thermal Performance of Conic Cut Twist Tape Inserts with SiO2 and TiO2 Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami D. Salman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison study on thermal performance conic cut twist tape inserts in laminar flow of nanofluids through a constant heat fluxed tube. Three tape configurations, namely, quadrant cut twisted tape (QCT, parabolic half cut twisted tape (PCT, and triangular cut twisted (VCT of twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth de = 0.5 cm were used with 1% and 2% volume concentration of SiO2/water and TiO2/water nanofluids. Typical twist tape with twist ratio of y = 2.93 was used for comparison. The results show that the heat transfer was enhanced by increasing of Reynolds number and nanoparticles concentration of nanofluid. The results have also revealed that the use of twist tape enhanced the heat transfer coefficient significantly and maximum heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the presence of triangular cut twist tape insert with 2% volume concentration of SiO2 nanofluid. Over the range investigated, the maximum thermal performance factor of 5.13 is found with the simultaneous use of the SiO2 nanofluid at 2% volume concentration VCT at Reynolds number of 220. Furthermore, new empirical correlations for Nusselt number, friction factor, and thermal performance factor are developed and reported.

  17. Uncertainty analysis on the design of thermal conductivity measurement by a guarded cut-bar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique adapted from the guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow method was selected for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of a nuclear fuel compact over a temperature range characteristic of its usage. This technique fulfills the requirement for non-destructive measurement of the composite compact. Although numerous measurement systems have been created based on the guarded-comparative method, comprehensive systematic (bias) and measurement (precision) uncertainty associated with this technique have not been fully analyzed. In addition to the geometric effect in the bias error, which has been analyzed previously, this paper studies the working condition which is another potential error source. Using finite element analysis, this study showed the effect of these two types of error sources in the thermal conductivity measurement process and the limitations in the design selection of various parameters by considering their effect on the precision error. The results and conclusions provide valuable reference for designing and operating an experimental measurement system using this technique

  18. Uncertainty Analysis on the Design of Thermal Conductivity Measurement by a Guarded Cut-Bar Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique adapted from the guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow method was selected for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of a nuclear fuel compact over a temperature range characteristic of its usage. This technique fulfills the requirement for non-destructive measurement of the composite compact. Although numerous measurement systems have been created based on the guarded comparative method, comprehensive systematic (bias) and measurement (precision) uncertainty associated with this technique have not been fully analyzed. In addition to the geometric effect in the bias error, which has been analyzed previously, this paper studies the working condition which is another potential error source. Using finite element analysis, this study showed the effect of these two types of error sources in the thermal conductivity measurement process and the limitations in the design selection of various parameters by considering their effect on the precision error. The results and conclusions provide valuable reference for designing and operating an experimental measurement system using this technique.

  19. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  20. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  1. Evaluation of the thermal damages in inlet engine valves varying the grinding wheels and the cutting fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carlos Bianchi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental research in which the thermal damage in inlet engine valves grinding was evaluated. Four different cutting fluids and two grinding wheel were tested and were analyzed the workpiece residual stress, the micro hardness and the optical observation of the workpiece microstructure. The cutting fluid and the grinding wheel types adopted resulted in different types of residual stress. The cutting oil resulted in compressive residual stresses, even using the conventional wheel. The CBN wheel, due to the best proprieties of its grains resulted in compressive residual stresses for all fluids tested by the reducing of the grinding energy and its easier dissipation from the grinding zone. The microstructure investigations showed that the source of the tensile residual stresses observed was the thermal cycles imposed. No microstructure alterations were detected. Although, the absence of microstructure alterations not always suggests that favorable residual stresses can be obtained.Nesse artigo é apresentada uma pesquisa experimental sobre os danos térmicos que aparecem nas válvulas de admissão dos motores após passarem pelo processo de retificação. Foram utilizados, nessa experimentação, quatro tipos de fluidos de corte e dois rebolos (CBN e Al2O3, sendo analisadas a tensão residual, a microdureza e a microestrutrura das peças fabricadas com esses materiais. Esses fluidos e rebolos resultaram em diferentes tipos de tensões residuais. O óleo de corte, por exemplo, induziu nas peças tensões residuais de compressão. Em relação ao rebolo de CBN, devido às melhores propriedades de seus grãos abrasivos, estes proporcionaram tensões de compressão para todos os fluidos testados. Em relação às alterações microestruturais, notou-se que nenhuma alteração térmica foi detectada nas peças, embora a inexistência de alterações microestruturais nem sempre sugerem que tensões residuais favoráveis foram

  2. Production of volatiles in fresh-cut apple: effect of applying alginate coatings containing linoleic acid or isoleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Meraz, Irma O; Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Molina-Corral, Francisco J; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Jacobo-Cuellar, Juan L; Sepulveda, David R; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2014-11-01

    One of the main quality parameters in apples is aroma, its main precursors are fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). In this study, alginate edible coatings were used as carriers of linoleic acid or isoleucine to serve as precursors for the production of aroma in cut apples. Apple wedges were immersed in a CaCl2 solution and coated with one of the following formulations: alginate solution (Alg-Ca), Alg-Ca-low-level linoleic acid (0.61 g/Lt), (LFA), Alg-Ca-high-level linoleic acid (2.44 g/L; HFA), Alg-Ca-low-level isoleucine (0.61 g/L; LAA), and Alg-Ca-high-level isoleucine (2.44 g/L; HAA). Apple wedges were stored at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity for 21 d and key volatiles were studied during storage. Addition of precursors, mainly isoleucine, showed to increase the production of some key volatiles on coated fresh-cut apples during storage. The concentration of 2-methyl-1-butanol was 4 times higher from day 12 to day 21 in HAA, while 2-methyl butyl acetate increased from day 12 to day 21 in HAA. After 21 d, HAA-apples presented a 40-fold value of 2-methyl-butyl acetate, compared to Alg-Ca cut apples. Values of hexanal increased during cut apple storage when the coating carried linoleic acid, mainly on HFA, from 3 to 12 d. The ability of apples to metabolize AA and FA depends on the concentration of precursors, but also depends on key enzymes, previous apple storage, among others. Further studies should be done to better clarify the behavior of fresh-cut apples as living tissue to metabolize precursors contained in edible coatings for the production of volatiles. PMID:25296624

  3. Thermal ignition theory applied to diesel engine autoignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor, A.M.; Russell, S.C. [Vanderbilt Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Nashville, TN (United States); Humer, S.; Seshadri, K. [California Univ., Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The diesel community has used one-equation models for ignition delay in engines for decades. The inverse Arrhenius forms characterizing many of these expressions thus lump together liquid fuel evaporation, mixing of the vapour with the charge and the chemical delay. As a result, correlations apply only to the injector, engine and operating conditions tested. Additionally, they typically exhibit energies or temperatures of activation that can be as much as ten times lower than those obtained in well-mixed, controlled systems that isolate and study the chemical delay. Here the latter system is modelled first, using classical analysis techniques. The result is then extended to the relatively straightforward fluid mechanic environment of a laminar counterflow burner to clarify how both chemistry and mixing can be included in a more general one-equation model. This new model is validated with ignition limit data for ethane or ethene with O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} either premixed or unmixed in the counterflow arrangement and liquid diesel fuel in a pool configuration. Since the overall mixing time in this burner is known a priori, the data can be manipulated to yield global chemical ignition delay activation temperatures for these fuels. As expected, the results are equivalent to those measured in shock tubes and combustion tunnels where reactants are premixed before ignition. (Author)

  4. Status of thermal imaging technology as applied to conservation-update 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, F.J.; Wood, J.T.; Barthle, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    This document updates the 1978 report on the status of thermal imaging technology as applied to energy conservation in buildings. Thermal imaging technology is discussed in terms of airborne surveys, ground survey programs, and application needs such as standards development and lower cost equipment. Information on the various thermal imaging devices was obtained from manufacturer's standard product literature. Listings are provided of infrared projects of the DOE building diagnostics program, of aerial thermographic firms, and of aerial survey programs. (LCL)

  5. Laser Surface Thermal Treatment Applied to Stainless Steel X5 CrNi 18 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amariei

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper propose to mark out the influence of different control parameters of laser beam light over the entire surface thermal treatment applied and, also, the physical and technological proprieties of the stainless steel obtained layer

  6. Laser Surface Thermal Treatment Applied to Stainless Steel X5 CrNi 18 10

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Amariei; Florin Breaban; Constantin Marta

    2006-01-01

    The paper propose to mark out the influence of different control parameters of laser beam light over the entire surface thermal treatment applied and, also, the physical and technological proprieties of the stainless steel obtained layer

  7. Evaluation of Water Repellency in Petroleum Drilling Cuttings Treated by Thermal Desorption: Implications for Use in Construction and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodríguez, Verónica I.; Guzmán-Osorio, Francisco J.; Adams Schroeder, Randy H.; Bautista-Margulis, Raúl G.

    2010-05-01

    Thermal desorption is one of many methods used for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and similar materials. It has several advantages over competing technologies, especially with respect to treatment times. While the biological treatment of contaminated soils may take several months depending principally on the type of hydrocarbons and starting concentration, thermal desorption typically takes less than one month, depending on the treatment capacities of the equipment involved, and the volume of material requiring treatment. In the petroleum producing region of southeastern Mexico, this has been one of the principal methods used for the treatment of drilling cuttings, due mostly to the short time required. As with most remediation projects, as well as in the treatment of exploration and production (E&P) wastes, the criteria used to consider the remediation finalized is the concentration of hydrocarbons in the treated material. This is based on the supposition that at some (relatively low) hydrocarbon concentration, the toxicological affects are reduced to acceptable levels. However, little attention has been paid to the physical-chemical properties of supposedly treated material, which may suffer from water repellency, especially in thermal treatment methods. This could greatly reduce the options for final use of treated materials, especially to support plant growth. Conversely, there may be some construction uses of treated material in which some water repellence could be beneficial (caps for land fills, for example). Considering the relevance of the physical-chemical impacts of petroleum on soil and similar materials, we felt it was important to evaluate the efficiency of the principal method used to treat E&P wastes in Mexico (thermal desporption) based on these factors. In this study different operating conditions (temperature and residence time) of a sub-pilot scale thermal desorption unit were evaluated with respect not only to reduction in

  8. Thermal Dimensioning of SiC Canister Applied A-KRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inyoung; Choi, Heuijoo; Yoo, Malgobalgebitnala [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Reducing toxicity and volume of SNF and reusing valuable fissile materials, pyro-processing connected with SFR is under-developing. The A-KRS is composed of 1 cm thick copper cold-spray-coated cast iron canisters, buffer blocks, disposal holes and disposal tunnels, etc. To manufacture disposal canisters, massive un-reusable copper and iron resources are required. Recently, SiC which has high thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties is investigated as a substitute material of metal canister to save metal resources. In this study, thermal performance of SiC canister is investigated and thermal dimensioning of SiC canister applied A-KRS is conducted to estimate thermal applicability of SiC canister in repository. In this study, thermal applicability of SiC as a substitute material of copper and cast iron canister is assessed. Due to higher thermal conductivity of SiC, calculated maximum temperature of SiC applied system is lower than original metal canister applied system and estimated minimum disposal hole pitch of SiC canister system is narrower than metal canister system. But decrease of distance between disposal hole pitch by adopting SiC canister is negligible considering engineering and safety margin. As a result, it is confirmed that SiC could be used as a substitute materials of metal in respect of thermal aspect. To apply SiC canister in deep geological repository, however, thermal-mechanical assessment need to be conducted as future studies. Especially thermally induced stress and intactness of canister must be estimated because SiC is fragile material and its thermal conductivity is highly dependent on temperature.

  9. Thermal Dimensioning of SiC Canister Applied A-KRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing toxicity and volume of SNF and reusing valuable fissile materials, pyro-processing connected with SFR is under-developing. The A-KRS is composed of 1 cm thick copper cold-spray-coated cast iron canisters, buffer blocks, disposal holes and disposal tunnels, etc. To manufacture disposal canisters, massive un-reusable copper and iron resources are required. Recently, SiC which has high thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties is investigated as a substitute material of metal canister to save metal resources. In this study, thermal performance of SiC canister is investigated and thermal dimensioning of SiC canister applied A-KRS is conducted to estimate thermal applicability of SiC canister in repository. In this study, thermal applicability of SiC as a substitute material of copper and cast iron canister is assessed. Due to higher thermal conductivity of SiC, calculated maximum temperature of SiC applied system is lower than original metal canister applied system and estimated minimum disposal hole pitch of SiC canister system is narrower than metal canister system. But decrease of distance between disposal hole pitch by adopting SiC canister is negligible considering engineering and safety margin. As a result, it is confirmed that SiC could be used as a substitute materials of metal in respect of thermal aspect. To apply SiC canister in deep geological repository, however, thermal-mechanical assessment need to be conducted as future studies. Especially thermally induced stress and intactness of canister must be estimated because SiC is fragile material and its thermal conductivity is highly dependent on temperature

  10. Thermally activated relaxation behaviour of shot-peened tool steels for cutting tool body applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Different shot-peened tool steels had different thermal surface stress relaxation. → Hot-work tool steel had better stress relaxation resistance than low-alloyed steel. → Stress relaxation mechanism was diffusion-controlled. → Relaxation rate determining exponent was time and temperature dependent. - Abstract: Surface residual stress, microstrain and domain size were determined using X-ray diffraction in shot-peened low-alloyed and hot-work tool steels subjected to varying temperatures (200-600 deg. C) and times (0.5-50 h). The stress relaxation was directly related to microstrain decrease and domain size increase.The Zener-Wert-Avrami function was used to model the relaxation behaviour. The mechanism responsible for the relaxation behaviour is proposed to be diffusion-controlled as the activation energies for stress and microstrain relaxation were close to the activation enthalpy for lattice self-diffusion of alpha-iron.The relaxation rate varied over time and temperature. At temperatures up to 300 deg. C, the relaxation rate was insignificant in all the steels. In the temperature range of 300-400 deg. C and 400-550 deg. C for low-alloyed and hot-work tool steels, respectively, the stresses decreased at a similar rate with increasing time and temperature. At the tempering temperatures of the steels, the stress relaxation was controlled by microstructure transformations. A stress relaxation stabilization was found in one of hot-work steels between 450 and 500 deg. C at annealing times longer than 3 h.

  11. Photothermal Techniques Applied to the Thermal Characterization of l-Cysteine Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, E. Maldonado; Ramón-Gallegos, E.; Jiménez Pérez, J. L.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández Rosas, J.

    2013-05-01

    Thermal-diffusivity ( D) and thermal-effusivity ( e) measurements were carried out in l-cysteine nanoliquids l-cysteine in combination with Au nanoparticles and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) nanofluid) by using thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) and photopyroelectric (PPE) techniques. The TLS technique was used in the two mismatched mode experimental configuration to obtain the thermal-diffusivity of the samples. On the other hand, the sample thermal effusivity ( e) was obtained by using the PPE technique where the temperature variation of a sample, exposed to modulated radiation, is measured with a pyrolectric sensor. From the obtained thermal-diffusivity and thermal-effusivity values, the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the sample were calculated. The obtained thermal parameters were compared with the thermal parameters of water. The results of this study could be applied to the detection of tumors by using the l-cysteine in combination with Au nanoparticles and PpIX nanofluid, called conjugated in this study.

  12. The use of a task-based exposure assessment model (T-BEAM) for assessment of metal fume exposures during welding and thermal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, P; Goldberg, M; Barnes, P; Stafford, E

    2000-01-01

    Elevated disease rates have been documented among construction workers for cancer, pneumonoconiosis, asbestosis, and silicosis. However, methodologies for exposure assessment in construction are not well described in the U.S. literature. Working through a cooperative agreement with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Center to Protect Workers' Rights--a research arm of the Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO--has developed and used a "Task-Based Exposure Assessment Model (T-BEAM)" for construction. The characteristic elements of T-BEAM are: (1) an emphasis on the identification, implementation, and evaluation of engineering and work practice controls; and (2) use of experienced, specially trained construction workers (construction safety and health specialists) in the exposure assessment process. A task-based approach was used because tasks, or specialized skills, form the single greatest thread of continuity in the dynamic environment of construction. Workers in the construction industry come from several crafts and are typically employed by a large number of contractors throughout their career. Project types (e.g., residential or industrial rehabilitation) are also highly variable and present unique health risks. Finally, because construction involves building, renovating, or dismantling physical surroundings, the work site is constantly changing. Between 1995 and 1996, T-BEAM was applied to the collection of approximately 200 personal exposure measurements associated with "hot work tasks"--welding and thermal cutting. Data were collected with the assistance of specially trained, journeyman ironworkers, pipe fitters, and boilermakers on nine construction sites located throughout the United States. Portable local exhaust ventilation was provided to participating contractors with the intent of measuring its impact on exposure. Results indicate that data collected in a standardized, systematic fashion from multiple

  13. Determination of the thermal conductivity of sediment rock from measurements on cuttings; Ermittlung der Gesteinswaermeleitfaehigkeit von Sedimentgesteinen aus Messungen am Bohrklein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troschke, B.; Burkhardt, H. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Angewandte Goephysik

    1997-12-01

    Due to high costs core recovery in many wells is strongly restricted. To determine thermal conductivity in these cases measurements on cuttings are necessary, since in situ measurements are expensive and protracted, too. Therefore cores from three hydrogeothermal wells of the north-east part of the German sedimentary basin were grinded to compare the results of measurements on cuttings with known values of thermal conductivity from the original cores. By a suitable model of the two-phase-system cuttings-water it is possible to calculate the thermal conductivity of the rock-matrix. On the basis of this value and a suitable rock-model an average thermal conductivity for the water saturated rock can be estimated. Certainly all influences of the texture (anisotropy, grain bond) and of the characteristics of the porespace (porosity, internal surface, saturation, permeability) are lost with measurements on cuttings. Therefore for the different systems cuttings-water and rock-porefluid as well as for different rock types different models are necessary. (orig.) [Deutsch] In vielen Bohrungen werden aus Kostengruenden keine Kerne gezogen. Fuer die Ermittlung der Waermeleitfaehigkeit koennen deshalb nur in-situ-Messungen, die ebenfalls zeit- und kostenintensiv sind, oder Messungen am Bohrklein herangezogen werden. Es wurden daher Kerne aus drei Hydrogeothermalbohrungen des nordostdeutschen Beckens aufgemahlen, um so vergleichende Messungen am `Bohrklein` aus Kernen mit bekannter Waermeleitfaehigkeit durzhzufuehren. Durch eine geeignete Modellvorstellung des Zwei-Phasen-Systems Bohrklein/Wasser laesst sich die Waermeleitfaehigkeit der Gesteinsmatrix bestimmen und aus dieser durch ein Gesteinsmodell auch eine mittlere Waermeleitfaehigkeit des wassergesaettigten Festgesteins berechnen. Klar ist, dass bei Messungen am Bohrklein Einfluesse, die durch Gefuege (Anisotropie, Kornbindung) und Porenraumeigenschaften (Porositaet, Saettigung, Permeabilitaet) hervorgerufen werden

  14. Resistance of Si3N4 ceramic tools to thermal and mechanical loading in cutting of iron alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, R F; Gomes, J. R.; Miranda, A. S.; J. M. Vieira

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of wear in two extreme cases relating to the performance of Si3N4-based cutting tools in machining iron alloys were investigated, with the corresponding wear rates correlated with cutting speed, tool and alloy composition and seizure. The sources of discrepancy between the cutting tests and conventional pin-on-disk tests are discussed on the basis of loads, surface speed, wear debris accumulation, reaction with atmospheric oxygen and solid lubrication. The distinct interacti...

  15. Implications and considerations of thermal effects when applying irreversible electroporation tissue ablation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davalos, Rafael V; Bhonsle, Suyashree; Neal, Robert E

    2015-07-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) describes a cellular response to electric field exposure, resulting in the formation of nanoscale defects that can lead to cell death. While this behavior occurs independently of thermally-induced processes, therapeutic ablation of targeted tissues with IRE uses a series of brief electric pulses, whose parameters result in secondary Joule heating of the tissue. Where contemporary clinical pulse protocols use aggressive energy regimes, additional evidence is supplementing original studies that assert care must be taken in clinical ablation protocols to ensure the cumulative thermal effects do not induce damage that will alter outcomes for therapies using the IRE non-thermal cell death process for tissue ablation. In this letter, we seek to clarify the nomenclature regarding IRE as a non-thermal ablation technique, as well as identify existing literature that uses experimental, clinical, and numerical results to discretely address and evaluate the thermal considerations relevant when applying IRE in clinical scenarios, including several approaches for reducing these effects. Existing evidence in the literature describes cell response to electric fields, suggesting cell death from IRE is a unique process, independent from traditional thermal damage. Numerical simulations, as well as preclinical and clinical findings demonstrate the ability to deliver therapeutic IRE ablation without occurrence of morbidity associated with thermal therapies. Clinical IRE therapy generates thermal effects, which may moderate the non-thermal aspects of IRE ablation. Appropriate protocol development, utilization, and pulse delivery devices may be implemented to restrain these effects and maintain IRE as the vastly predominant tissue death modality, reducing therapy-mitigating thermal damage. Clinical applications of IRE should consider thermal effects and employ protocols to ensure safe and effective therapy delivery. PMID:25809014

  16. Analysis Of The Structure Of A Material Used In The Manufacture Of Thermal Chucks For Fixing Tools Cutting Using Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic stability of machine has its own importance in the quality of the machined product. With the development of new technologies for cutting tools, as the geometries and materials, cutting speeds used today reach values inconceivable for two decades. In the automotive industry steel and cast iron are gradually being replaced by lower density material and even lower costs. In complex shapes tools, heterogeneous material removal in roughing, sudden changes of sections, etc. Stress relieving treatment should be carried out to minimize dimensional variations of form during quenching and tempering. Materials for manufacture of thermal fixing most appropriate for that operating system still needs to be further investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the elastic behavior of the material used in the manufacture of tooling systems for cutting tools. Has been evaluated In fastening system, the temperature variation exerted on the mandrel body region and the thermal expansion where H13 steel can withstand the assembly process by thermal interference. This method can determine the amount of number of cycles until the onset of fatigue that material.

  17. Comparison between analytical and numerical method for estimating the thermal lensing effect in the end-pumped solid states lasers and apply the results to designing of which type lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this working it was used from analytical and numerical (FEM) methods for calculation of thermal lensing effect in the end-pumped solid state lasers rods. These results were applied to designing and realization of an Nd:YVO4 and a Cr4+: YAG laser. The results shown that for direct cut crystals, two methods almost obtained the same results and one can use from analytical method results (that usually obtain very easy) for estimation of thermal lensing effect for designing of the end-pumped solid state lasers and apply for realization of them

  18. Conceptos del maquinado con altas velocidades de corte aplicado en moldes y matrices. // Concepts of the machining with high speeds cutting applied in molds and dies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Aneiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La demanda de componentes mecánicos de alta calidad y gran exactitud para sistemas de elevada precisión estaaumentando considerablemente en los últimos años a nivel mundial. Este hecho ha provocado el desarrollo de nuevastecnologías aplicadas a los procesos de corte.El desarrollo integral de las máquinas herramientas (controles, husillos de alta velocidad de las herramientas de corte(nuevos materiales para los substratos y capas y de la tecnología de maquinado posibilitó la aplicación del corte a altasvelocidades (High speed Cutting HSC. El aumento de las velocidades de corte es una de las formas de incrementar laeficiencia de los procesos productivos a través de la reducción de los tiempos de fabricación. La disminución en variasveces de los tiempos de fabricación, se logra no solo por los tiempos de maquinado sino también por la sustitución oreducción de otros procesos de elaboración que forman parte de la cadena productiva, que en ocasiones son relativamentelentos como son la electroerosión, el acabado manual en la producción de moldes y troqueles así como los cambios deoperaciones de la pieza bruta.Por ser un proceso relativamente nuevo, apenas desde los años 90 es que se implementa la introducción del HSC y muchascuestiones tecnológicas aun están sin respuesta. Por otro lado las características ya conocidas de esta nueva tecnologíaindican una buena perspectiva de aplicación en los más diversos segmentos de la industria.Palabras claves: HSC, HSM, velocidad de corte, velocidad de maquinado._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The demand of mechanical components of high quality and great accuracy for systems of high precision, increasingconsiderably in the last years at world level. This fact has caused the development of new applied technologies to thecutting processes.The integral development of machine tools (you control, high-speed spindle of the cutting tools

  19. MODVOLC2: A Hybrid Time Series Analysis for Detecting Thermal Anomalies Applied to Thermal Infrared Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Wright, R.; Pilger, E.

    2009-12-01

    We developed and tested a new, automated algorithm, MODVOLC2, which analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes, fires, and gas flares. MODVOLC2 combines two previously developed algorithms, a simple point operation algorithm (MODVOLC) and a more complex time series analysis (Robust AVHRR Techniques, or RAT) to overcome the limitations of using each approach alone. MODVOLC2 has four main steps: (1) it uses the original MODVOLC algorithm to process the satellite data on a pixel-by-pixel basis and remove thermal outliers, (2) it uses the remaining data to calculate reference and variability images for each calendar month, (3) it compares the original satellite data and any newly acquired data to the reference images normalized by their variability, and it detects pixels that fall outside the envelope of normal thermal behavior, (4) it adds any pixels detected by MODVOLC to those detected in the time series analysis. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kilauea volcanoes, we show that MODVOLC2 was able to detect ~15% more thermal anomalies than using MODVOLC alone, with very few, if any, known false detections. Using gas flares from the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico, we show that MODVOLC2 provided results that were unattainable using a time series-only approach. Some thermal anomalies (e.g., Cantarell oil field flares) are so persistent that an additional, semi-automated 12-µm correction must be applied in order to correctly estimate both the number of anomalies and the total excess radiance being emitted by them. Although all available data should be included to make the best possible reference and variability images necessary for the MODVOLC2, we estimate that at least 80 images per calendar month are required to generate relatively good statistics from which to run MODVOLC2, a condition now globally met by a decade of MODIS observations. We also found

  20. Thermal test of noncombustible urethane for applying to type B packages for radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The package to safely transport the radioisotope, which is produced from HANARO, has to be developed to establish the distribution system of the radioisotope from production to consumption. KAERI is developing the type B package for Ir-192 600 ci. The type B package must be able to endure from thermal condition of 800 .deg. C. However, it is very difficult that the polyurethane, which is used as shock absorber, is maintained less than 327 .deg. C that is melting point of lead used as shielding material. Therefore, the specimens, which are applied noncombustible urethane and fireproof materials, are made. The experimental estimation for thermal condition of 800 .deg. C was conducted

  1. The development of thermal and mechanical cutting technology for the dismantlement of the internal core of Fukushima Daiichi NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cutting technologies for removing the fuel debris and the internal core structure in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are needed in consideration of the situation in the core and so on. On the other hand, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), which has been carrying out the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities ending the R and D, has several technologies and knowledge to dismantle the nuclear facilities. In particular, the cutting technologies of the plasma arc, the laser, and the abrasive water jet (AWJ) – which are used for dismantling the reactor of N.P.S. (FUGEN), a heavy water-moderated, light water cooled, pressure-tube-type reactor – and the plasma jet for dismantling the nuclear fuel facilities have been developed. Therefore, based on the above, JAEA has carried out the cutting test for investigating the applicability of those cutting technologies to propose the method for removing the fuel debris and the internal core structure to the national project. This paper outlines the test results of the plasma arc and the AWJ cutting technologies, and the future plan of the test of those technologies and the plasma jet cutting technology. (author)

  2. Thermal power transfer system using applied potential difference to sustain operating pressure difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep (Inventor); Fujita, Toshio (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A thermal power transfer system using a phase change liquid gas fluid in a closed loop configuration has a heat exchanger member connected to a gas conduit for inputting thermal energy into the fluid. The pressure in the gas conduit is higher than a liquid conduit that is connected to a heat exchanger member for outputting thermal energy. A solid electrolyte member acts as a barrier between the gas conduit and the liquid conduit adjacent to a solid electrolyte member. The solid electrolyte member has the capacity of transmitting ions of a fluid through the electrolyte member. The ions can be recombined with electrons with the assistance of a porous electrode. An electrical field is applied across the solid electrolyte member to force the ions of the fluid from a lower pressure liquid conduit to the higher pressure gas conduit.

  3. Electro-thermal impedance spectroscopy applied to an open-cathode polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Erik; Robinson, James B.; Obeisun, Oluwamayowa; Mason, Tom; Finegan, Donal; Hinds, Gareth; Shearing, Paul R.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of in-situ diagnostic techniques is critical to ensure safe and effective operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems. Infrared thermal imaging is an established technique which has been extensively applied to fuel cells; however, the technique is limited to measuring surface temperatures and is prone to errors arising from emissivity variations and reflections. Here we demonstrate that electro-thermal impedance spectroscopy can be applied to enhance infrared thermal imaging and mitigate its limitations. An open-cathode polymer electrolyte fuel cell is used as a case study. The technique operates by imposing a periodic electrical stimulus to the fuel cell and measuring the consequent surface temperature response (phase and amplitude). In this way, the location of heat generation from within the component can be determined and the thermal conduction properties of the materials and structure between the point of heat generation and the point of measurement can be determined. By selectively 'locking-in' to a suitable modulation frequency, spatially resolved images of the relative amplitude between the current stimulus and temperature can be generated that provide complementary information to conventional temporal domain thermograms.

  4. What are the contemporary trends in more widely comprehended fields of thermodynamics and applied thermal analysis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jaroslav

    Warszawa : Institute of Physical Chemistry of PAS, 2005 - (Gierycz, P.; Zieborak-Tomaszkiewicz, I.), s. 239-259 ISBN 83-920719-4-8. [Third Summer School of Thermodynamics. Zakopane (PL), 11.09.2005-17.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/04/0384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : applied thermal analysis Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics

  5. Finite element simulation of welding based deposition process as applied to layered manufacturing: thermal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Layered Manufacturing (LM), the CAD model of a part is sliced into layers using the conventional STL file format. This Layer wise data is fed into a deposition system, which then builds up the part, depositing the required material, layer by layer. The manufacturing of form-fit-function component rather then form-fit component is a major issue in Layered Manufacturing based Rapid Proto typing systems. As the deposition method, Gas Metal Arc welding (GMAW) has shown potential, for LM of metallic components, due to its inherent feature of high inter-layer and metallurgical bonding. Residual Stress induced warping is a major concern in a variety of LM processes, particularly those seeking to build parts directly without post processing steps. Welding is one of those processes where high heat input results in large thermal gradients; these thermal gradients along with the mechanical constraints cause the build up of residual stresses. In order to reduce the residual stresses and deformation, the first step is to correctly model the thermal cycle associated with the deposition process. More over important deposition parameters like re-melting depth, heat affected zone can also be predicted from the thermal model This paper presents a 3D finite element based thermal model of a novel welding based deposition process as applied to layered manufacturing. A Commercial finite element software ANSYS is coupled with a user programmed subroutine to implement the main welding features like Goldak Double Ellipsoidal Heat source, material addition, temperature dependent material properties along with the deposition features like deposition patterns and dimensions. Simulations have been carried out with various patterns and inter pass time and it has been found that different deposition patterns cause change in Remelting depth and thermal gradients. (author)

  6. Cutting-tool recycling process with the zinc-melt method for obtaining thermal-spray feedstock powder (WC-Co): Postopek recikliranja orodij za rezanje z metodo taljenja v Zn za pridobivanje prahu WC-Co za termično nabrizgavanje:

    OpenAIRE

    Altuncu, Ekrem; Erdogan, Garip; Ozturk, Savas; Turk, Ahmet; Ustel, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Various recycling processes for WC-Co cermets from cutting tools, such as chemical modification, thermal modification, the cold-stream method and the electrochemical method have been investigated and some of them are actually employed in industry. However, these conventional methods have many problems to be solved and they are not always established technologies. Therefore, a more economical and high-efficiency recycling procedure needs to be developed. In this study we investigated the appli...

  7. Thermal design of a pressure electroslag remelting furnace applied for 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actual work defines the thermal design methodology for pressure electroslag remelting furnaces (P ESR) of variable capacity, applied for 5 Kg. It begins with classification and description of secondary refining furnaces, after PESR process and the concept of thermal design are described. Next, in base of the steel weight to remelt (5 Kg); ingot, crucible and electrode dimensions are obtained. These elements will be inside of pressure vessel whose thickness are determined according to ASME Code (Section 8, Division 1, U G-27). It was developed a computer program, where the furnace capacity can be modified, so like other conditions, and display principal dimensions of the furnace. Current and voltage are obtained from the heat necessary to remelt the ingot and the heat transfer in the crucible, is analysed because of it is the most critical element. It was selected too the equipment to registry temperatures and pressure in base of thermocouple characteristics. (Author)

  8. New 2D Thermal Model Applied to an LHC Inner Triplet Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Bielert, ER; Ten Kate, HHJ; Verweij, AP

    2011-01-01

    A newly developed numerical model is presented that enables to compute two-dimensional heat transfer and temperature distributions over the cross-section of superconducting accelerator magnets. The entire thermal path from strand-in-cable to heat sink, including helium channels is considered. Superfluid helium properties are combined with temperature- and field-dependent non-linear solid material properties. Interfacial interactions are also taken into account. The model is applied to the cross-section of an inner triplet quadrupole magnet featuring a new concept for the ground insulation. Beam loss profiles are implemented as main heat source. It is concluded that operational margins can be considerably increased by opening additional thermal paths, improving the cooling conditions.

  9. Evaluation of naled applied as a thermal fog against Culicoides furens (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, J R; Parsons, R E; Winner, R A

    1987-09-01

    Naled/diesel oil (1:99), applied as a thermal fog, was tested against the biting midge Culicoides furens. The insects were confined in small cages suspended at 4 heights on poles at progressively greater distances from the fog release point. In terms of population survival 24 hr after treatment, a parabolic equation accurately described the regression of percent survival on distance from the release point. If 10% survival is considered as the maximum acceptable, then the equation predicts adequate control up to 19.6 m (64.3 ft) from the fog release point. PMID:3504923

  10. Integrated processing for the treatment of materials applied to thermal compression of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, AB5 intermetallics are synthesized by low energy mechanical alloying according to: AB5 + AB5 = AB5. The obtained intermetallics are annealed at 600 oC to optimize both the microstructural and hydrogen sorption properties. Then, the material is applied to the design of schemes for thermal compression of hydrogen (TCH). These results are obtained within the frame of a research project related to Energy and Environment and focused on the replacement on fossil supply systems by a hydrogen based one.

  11. Surface cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2003-12-01

    The paper reports on mechanical rock cutting in surface mining. Mining technology has moved a long way in recent years and the mining equipments achieved considerable success in direct rock cutting. 3 figs.

  12. The application of mechanical and thermal cutting tools for the dismantling of activated internals of the reactor pressure vessels in the Versuchsatomkraftwerk, Kahl and the Gundremmingen Unit A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickelpasch, N. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany); Kalwa, H. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany); Steiner, H. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, D-89355 Gundremmingen (Germany); Priesmeyer, U. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, D-89355 Gundremmingen (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    The Gundremmingen Unit A plant (KRB A) and the Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl (VAK) plant represent the first generation of nuclear reactors in Germany. The 250 MW{sub e} reactor KRB A was the first commercial reactor in Germany and the 16 MW{sub e} reactor VAK was the pilot nuclear power plant, which had to serve mainly scientific purposes. KRB A is under dismantling since 1983, VAK since 1988. Although they are both of the boiling water type, they are rather different to each other, referring to their size and construction. The actual work is the dismantling of high contaminated components inside the reactor buildings and the underwater cutting of activated internals of the reactor pressure vessels. Several cutting techniques have been developed, tested and applied to respective dismantling tasks in the meantime. The experiences made in both projects are not limited to dismantling work only, but also include know-how on effective decontamination and scrap recycling. (orig.)

  13. Criticality analysis of thermal reactors for two energy groups applying Monte Carlo and neutron Albedo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Albedo method applied to criticality calculations to nuclear reactors is characterized by following the neutron currents, allowing to make detailed analyses of the physics phenomena about interactions of the neutrons with the core-reflector set, by the determination of the probabilities of reflection, absorption, and transmission. Then, allowing to make detailed appreciations of the variation of the effective neutron multiplication factor, keff. In the present work, motivated for excellent results presented in dissertations applied to thermal reactors and shieldings, was described the methodology to Albedo method for the analysis criticality of thermal reactors by using two energy groups admitting variable core coefficients to each re-entrant current. By using the Monte Carlo KENO IV code was analyzed relation between the total fraction of neutrons absorbed in the core reactor and the fraction of neutrons that never have stayed into the reflector but were absorbed into the core. As parameters of comparison and analysis of the results obtained by the Albedo method were used one dimensional deterministic code ANISN (ANIsotropic SN transport code) and Diffusion method. The keff results determined by the Albedo method, to the type of analyzed reactor, showed excellent agreement. Thus were obtained relative errors of keff values smaller than 0,78% between the Albedo method and code ANISN. In relation to the Diffusion method were obtained errors smaller than 0,35%, showing the effectiveness of the Albedo method applied to criticality analysis. The easiness of application, simplicity and clarity of the Albedo method constitute a valuable instrument to neutronic calculations applied to nonmultiplying and multiplying media. (author)

  14. Laser Prepared Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Wegener; Claus, Dold; Marcel, Henerichs; Christian, Walter

    Laser pulses with a pulsewidth of a few picoseconds have recently received a lot of attention, solving the problem of manufacturing tools for new materials of superior mechanical properties. Processing thermally sensitive material, such as diamond and CBN structures, can be done without major material deterioration effects. The breakthrough of this new technology becomes possible, if the accuracy and life time requirements of those tools are met. The paper shows in three applications the potential of laser manufacturing of cutting tools. Manufacturing of cutting edges for CFRP cutting needs sharp and stable cutting edges, which are prepared in PCD tools by laser sources in the picosecond pulsewidth regime. Profiling of hybrid bond grinding wheels yields geometric flexibility, which is impossible by mechanical treatment so far. Touch dressing of grinding wheels substantially reduces cutting forces.

  15. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  16. Study on the Cross Plane Thermal Transport of Polycrystalline Molybdenum Nanofilms by Applying Picosecond Laser Transient Thermoreflectance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Miao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin metal films are widely used as interconnecting wires and coatings in electronic devices and optical components. Reliable thermophysical properties of the films are required from the viewpoint of thermal management. The cross plane thermal transport of four polycrystalline molybdenum nanofilms with different thickness deposited on glass substrates has been studied by applying the picosecond laser transient thermoreflectance technique. The measurement is performed by applying both front pump-front probe and rear pump-front probe configurations with high quality signal. The determined cross plane thermal diffusivity of the Mo films greatly decreases compared to the corresponding bulk value and tends to increase as films become thicker, exhibiting significant size effect. The main mechanism responsible for the thermal diffusivity decrease of the present polycrystalline Mo nanofilms is the grain boundary scattering on the free electrons. Comparing the cross plane thermal diffusivity and inplane electrical conductivity indicates the anisotropy of the transport properties of the Mo films.

  17. Online Cake Cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2010-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where players arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some desirable properties that online cake cutting procedures might possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness, and identify which properties are in fact possessed by the different online cake procedures.

  18. Transport and distribution of basally applied indoleaceticacid-2-14C in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cuttings in relation to interaction of auxin and indole in adventitious root formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative interaction or antagonism between IAA and high concentration of indole in rooting of bean cuttings was associated with significant increase in upward movement and accumulation of radiocarbon of IAA-2-14C in upper parts of the cuttings. Positive interaction or synergism observed with lower concentrations of indole was not associated with such increased acropetal transport. There was also no significant difference in total radioactivity per cutting among the different concentrations of indole. The results suggest that non-promotion of upward movement of basally applied auxin from the root forming region or its increased upward movement out of the root forming region may be an important factor in the mechanism of synergism or antagonism respectively. (author)

  19. Transport and distribution of basally applied indoleaceticacid-2-/sup 14/C in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) cuttings in relation to interaction of auxin and indole in adventitious root formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh Choudhary, K.; Basu, R.N. (University Coll. of Agriculture, Calcutta (India))

    1981-07-01

    Negative interaction or antagonism between IAA and high concentration of indole in rooting of bean cuttings was associated with significant increase in upward movement and accumulation of radiocarbon of IAA-2-/sup 14/C in upper parts of the cuttings. Positive interaction or synergism observed with lower concentrations of indole was not associated with such increased acropetal transport. There was also no significant difference in total radioactivity per cutting among the different concentrations of indole. The results suggest that non-promotion of upward movement of basally applied auxin from the root forming region or its increased upward movement out of the root forming region may be an important factor in the mechanism of synergism or antagonism respectively.

  20. 火电机组快速甩负荷功能的实现%Realization of Thermal Power Units Fast Cut Back Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 刘艳; 张根生; 李瑞东

    2014-01-01

    快速甩负荷(FCB)功能能够为电力系统迅速恢复故障状态提供启动安全保障,加快机组的恢复速度。介绍了火电机组实现甩负荷带厂用电运行的FCB工况,并对此工况下主要电气系统运行参数的变化进行仿真,通过观察FCB发生后各参数变化,证明火电厂通过各相关系统的配合能够成功实现机组甩负荷带厂用电的FCB工况,并在较小损耗下维持稳定运行状态。%Fast cut back (FCB) function can provide start security guarantee for power system in rapid restoration from fault status, quick-ening units restoration speed. Introduction was made to the FCB working conditions in which thermal power units realized FCB with plant power operation. Simulation was carried out for main electric system operation parameters changes under such working conditions. Via observation on various parameters after FCB taking place, it is proved that thermal units plant can realize units FCB plant with power’s FCB working condition via coordination of each related system and maintain stable operation status in little loss.

  1. A disposable laser print-cut-laminate polyester microchip for multiplexed PCR via infra-red-mediated thermal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yiwen; Duarte, Gabriela R M; Poe, Brian L; Riehl, Paul S; dos Santos, Fernando M; Martin-Didonet, Claudia C G; Carrilho, Emanuel; Landers, James P

    2015-12-11

    Infrared (IR)-mediated thermal cycling system, a method proven to be a effective for sub-μL scale polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on microchips, has been integrated with DNA extraction and separation on a glass microchip in a fully integrated micro Total Analysis System by Easley et al., in 2006. IR-PCR has been demonstrated on both glass and PMMA microdevices where the fabrication (bonding) is not trivial. Polyester-toner (PeT) microfluidic devices have significant potential as cost-effective, disposable microdevices as a result of the ease of fabrication (∼$0.25 USD and <10 min per device) and availability of commercial substrates. For the first time, we demonstrate here the thermal cycling in PeT microchips on the IR-PCR system. Undesirable IR absorption by the black-toner bonding layer was eliminated with a spatial filter in the form of an aluminum foil mask. The solution heating rate for a black PeT microchip using a tungsten lamp was 10.1 ± 0.7 °C s(-1) with a cooling rate of roughly -12 ± 0.9 °C s(-1) assisted by forced air cooling. Dynamic surface passivation strategies allowed the successful amplification of a 520 bp fragment of the λ-phage genome (in 11 min) and a 1500 bp region of Azospirillum brasilense. Using a centrosymmetric chamber configuration in a multichamber PeT microchip, homogenous temperature distribution over all chambers was achieved with inter-chamber temperature differences at annealing, extension and denaturing steps of less than ±2 °C. The effectiveness of the multichamber system was demonstrated with the simultaneous amplification of a 390 bp amplicon of human β-globin gene in five PeT PCR microchambers. The relative PCR amplification efficiency with a human β-globin DNA fragment ranged from 70% to 90%, in comparison to conventional thermal cyclers, with an inter-chamber standard deviation of ∼10%. Development of PeT microchips for IR-PCR has the potential to provide rapid, low-volume amplification while

  2. On the van der Pauw's method applied to the measurement of low thermal conductivity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C.; Flores, E.; Bodega, J.; Leardini, F.; Ferrer, I. J.; Ares, J. R.; Sánchez, C.

    2016-08-01

    The electrical van der Pauw's method has recently been extended to measure the thermal conductivity of different elements and compounds. This technique provides an easy way to determine the sample in-plane thermal conductivity by avoiding the influence of the thermal contact resistances. However, the reported calculated error values appear to be underestimated when dealing with the materials with low thermal conductivity (<5 W/Km) at room temperature. The causes of this underestimation are investigated in this communication and it has been found that they are due to the drastic influence of conduction heat losses through the thermo-resistance wires as well as the resulting modification of the sample temperature map. Both phenomena lead to experimental values of the sample thermal conductivity, which are systematically higher than the tabulated ones. The magnitude of this systematic error is ˜100% dealing with the samples of macroscopic dimensions, and low thermal conductivity indicated that the obtained accurate measurements can be quite challenging.

  3. Open Photoacoustic Cell Configuration Applied to the Thermal Characterization of Liquid CdS Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Nastaran; Mahmood Mat Yunus, W.; Kharazmi, Alireza; Saion, Elias; Behzad, Kasra

    2014-01-01

    CdS nanofluids were prepared by the gamma-radiation method at different radiation doses. The samples were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The open cell photoacoustic technique was used to measure the thermal effusivity of the CdS nanocomposites. In this technique a He-Ne laser was used as the excitation source and was operated at 632.8 nm with an output power of 70 mW. The precision and accuracy of this technique were initially established by measuring the thermal effusivity of distilled water and ethylene glycol. The thermal-effusivity values of these two samples were found to be close to the values reported in the literature. The thermal effusivity of CdS nanofluids decreased from (0.453 to 0.268) with increased dosage of gamma radiation.

  4. Multiagent simulation of evolutive plate tectonics applied to the thermal evolution of the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, M. (M.); Grigné, C.; HUSSON, Laurent; Conrad, C. P.; Le Yaouanq, Sébastien; Parenthoën, M.; Tisseau, C.; Tisseau, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    International audience [1] The feedback between plate tectonics and mantle convection controls the Earth's thermal evolution via the seafloor age distribution. We therefore designed the MACMA model to simulate time-dependent plate tectonics in a 2D cylindrical geometry with evolutive plate boundaries, based on multiagent systems that express thermal and mechanical interactions. We compute plate velocities using a local force balance and use explicit parameterizations to treat tectonic proc...

  5. Impact of facially applied air movement on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting occupant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.; Spletsteser, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    convection boundary layer enveloping the body and caused scattering in the measured values of air speed and temperature excess in the plume. In comparison with the case without airflow, the integral characteristics including volume flux, momentum flux, buoyancy force density and enthalpy flux were greater......In the future the implementation of low power office equipment in practice will make thermal plumes generated by occupants one of the dominant flows affecting the air distribution in spaces. Advanced air distribution methods, such as personalized ventilation, are expected to become widely...... implemented in practice. In this study the impact of locally applied airflow on the thermal plume generated by a sitting human body was investigated. The experiment was performed in a climate chamber with upward piston flow. A thermal manikin was sitting on a computer chair behind a table. The air speed and...

  6. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers Applied to High Temperature Plates for Potential Use in the Solar Thermal Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kogia; Liang Cheng; Abbas Mohimi; Vassilios Kappatos; Tat-Hean Gan; Wamadeva Balachandran; Cem Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated Solar Plants (CSPs) are used in solar thermal industry for collecting and converting sunlight into electricity. Parabolic trough CSPs are the most widely used type of CSP and an absorber tube is an essential part of them. The hostile operating environment of the absorber tubes, such as high temperatures (400–550 °C), contraction/expansion, and vibrations, may lead them to suffer from creep, thermo-mechanical fatigue, and hot corrosion. Hence, their condition monitoring is of cruc...

  7. Characteristics of thermally reduced graphene oxide and applied for dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Hong-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from a flake-type of graphite powder, which was then reduced to a few layers of graphene sheets using the thermal reduction method. The surface morphology, phase crystallization, and defect states of the reduced graphene were determined from an electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersion spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectra. After graphene formation, the intercalated defects that existed in the GO were removed, and it became crystalline by observing impurity changes and d-spacing. Dye-sensitized solar cells, using reduced graphene as the counter electrode, were fabricated to evaluate the electrolyte activity and charge transport performance. The electrochemical impedance spectra showed that increasing the thermal reduction temperature could achieve faster electron transport and longer electron lifetime, and result in an energy conversion efficiency of approximately 3.4%. Compared to the Pt counter electrode, the low cost of the thermal reduction method suggests that graphene will enjoy a wide range of potential applications in the field of electronic devices.

  8. Métodos de conservação aplicados a melão minimamente processado Conservation methods applied to fresh-cut melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaí Peter Batista

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar alguns métodos de conservação que podem ser utilizados para prolongar a vida útil do melão minimamente processado. Dentre os métodos, serão abordados revestimento comestível, irradiação, antimicrobianos naturais, antioxidantes, agentes de firmeza, atmosfera modificada, branqueamento, luz ultravioleta e alta pressão. Dependendo do método pode haver redução das alterações associadas ao processo mínimo do melão, como a perda de água, alteração da cor e firmeza, alteração do metabolismo e crescimento de micro-organismos, sendo o resultado muitas vezes dependente da cultivar do melão utilizado.The objective of this review is to present some conservation methods that can be used to prolong the life of fresh-cut melon. Among the methods, edible coating, irradiation, natural antimicrobials, antioxidants, firmness agent, modified atmosphere, whitening, ultraviolet light and high pressure will be discussed. Depending on the method, the changes associated to minimum process of melon, such as water loss, change in color and firmness, change in the metabolism and growth of micro-organisms can be reduced and the result is often dependent on the melon cultivar used.

  9. Automatic velocity control in cutting-off machines

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Carlos; Fonseca, Jaime C.; Mendes, José A.

    2003-01-01

    Usually, automatic cutting-off machines, of metallic pipes or bars, use constant cutting velocity. This mode of operation, constant cutting velocity combined with different profiles of materials to be cut, causes variable cutting forces to be applied to the saw. As a result, the cutting off machine is generally set for the worst expected conditions, otherwise excessive wear of the saw and machine will occur. Further, traditional cutting-off machines require adjustments to be made in order to ...

  10. Applying an overall criterion according to the European norms, for ecological assessment of the thermal electrical power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work consists of assessing the thermal power plants impact on the environment by the global considering of the pollutant SO2 and NOx emissions. This assessment takes into account the emission comparisons with the admissible values provided by the European norms. The conclusion we might draw is that the SN proposed global criterion application, (S from sulfur, namely the sulfur dioxide and N from nitrogen, namely the nitrogen oxides), the investment expenses for installing the necessary SDN and SDS systems (were SDN stands for denox plant and SDS for desulfurization systems), and the operation expenses are smaller (in case of pit coal they are even smaller) if we apply such criterion. The ecologic analysis model we applied as an estimation for large solid fuels categories (lignite, pit coal) and for the 330 MW existing power units, can also be applied to the actual cases for different fuel qualities or unit unitary power levels

  11. The cutting properties and wear of the knives with DLC and W-DLC coatings, deposited by PVD methods, applied for wood and wood-based materials machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pancielejko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Performance of DLC and W-DLC coated woodworking knives was investigated. The results of testing DLC and W-DLC coating properties as well as the results of life-time tests in the form of wear of HSS and HM knives with these coatings is presents.Design/methodology/approach: DLC coating was deposited by MCVA method, and W-DLC coating was deposited by pulsed RMS. Tests of knives coated with DLC and W-DLC as uncoated ones was made by machining: MDF board, pinewood slats and floorboard - using a typical industrial milling machine.Findings: DLC coating is significantly harder (33-40 GPa than W-DLC coating (19 GPa. From Rockwell test it can be concluded that both coatings display high adhesion (HF1, whereas in the scratch methods, significantly lower adhesion of DLC coating can be observed (LC2 = 17-21 N in comparison to W-DLC coating (LC2 = 54 N. Influence of the hardness and adhesion of coatings on wear resistance of coated tools is discussed.Practical implications: Wear resistance of planer knives coated with DLC is by approx. 20%, and W-DLC by approx. 30% higher in comparison with uncoated knives during MDF milling. Wear of planer knives with W-DLC coating is approx. by 10%, and DLC by approx. 25% lower in comparison to uncoated HSS knives during pinewood milling. Lifetime of HM shape tools coated DLC and W-DLC is considerably higher (200-300 % during floorboard milling.Originality/value: The industrial tests of cutting wood and wood-based materials indicate that the carbon coatings deposited on the tool generally improve its performance and all wear indexes for the tools are lower than for uncoated. The DLC and W-DLC coatings show good antiwear properties required in industry application.

  12. A robust coupling algorithm applied to thermal ice protection system unsteady modeling

    OpenAIRE

    CHAUVIN, R.; Villedieu , P.; Trontin, P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to propose a general methodology for the numerical modelling of both anti and de-icing systems. A lubrication model is used for dealing with the dynamics of the runback water film. As regards thermal effects, in order to take into account heat conduction and unsteadiness, a parabolic temperature profile is assumed with respect to the normal coordinate for the ice layer. Heat transfers in the airfoil solid structure are described using a dedicated solver based o...

  13. Análise térmica aplicada à cosmetologia Thermal analysis applied to cosmetology

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Clementino da Silva; Maria Valéria Robles Velasco de Paola; Jivaldo do Rosário Matos

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta a análise térmica para os estudos das propriedades físicas e químicas de compostos e de suas misturas no contexto da área de cosméticos. Os autores relatam alguns trabalhos da literatura em que diferentes técnicas termoanalíticas são usadas na caracterização de matérias-primas, produtos cosméticos e amostras de cabelo.This paper presents the thermal analysis for the studies of the physical and chemical properties of compounds and their mixtures in the cosmetic area. The ...

  14. Design Factors for Applying Cryogen Storage and Delivery Technology to Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1996-01-01

    Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) and Multilayer Insulation (MLI) technology, originally developed for long term storage of cryogen propellants in microgravity, is ideally suited for propellant storage and delivery systems for solar thermal propulsion. With this technology the heat-induced pressure rise in the tank provides the propellant delivery pressure without the need for an auxiliary pressurant system, and propellant delivery is used to remove the excess heat to control tank pressure. The factors to consider in designing such a balanced system, are presented. An example of a minimum system design is presented along with examples of laboratory-tested hardware.

  15. Analysis Of The Structure Of A Material Used In The Manufacture Of Thermal Chucks For Fixing Tools Cutting Using Finite Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, P.; J. Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic stability of machine has its own importance in the quality of the machined product. With the development of new technologies for cutting tools, as the geometries and materials, cutting speeds used today reach values inconceivable for two decades. In the automotive industry steel and cast iron are gradually being replaced by lower density material and even lower costs. In complex shapes tools, heterogeneous material removal in roughing, sudden changes of sections, e...

  16. Analysis of heat affected zone obtained by CO2 laser cutting of low carbon steel (S235)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaied, M.; Miraoui, I.; Boujelbene, M.; Bayraktar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Laser cutting is associated with thermal effects at the cutting surface resulting in alteration of microstructure and mechanical properties. An abrupt change on the cutting surface is caused by a structural modified zone called heat affected zone (HAZ) due to weld heat treatment introduced by a high thermal gradient in the substrate material. Heat affected zone is often associated with undesirable effects such as surface cracking, fatigue resistance, etc. Therefore, it is important to minimize the thickness of this zone (HAZ). The objective of this work is to study the effect of high-power CO2 laser cutting on the heat affected zone. The laser cutting of low carbon steel (S235) is investigated with the aim of evaluating the effect of the input laser cutting parameters: laser power and cutting speed, on heat affected zone. An overall optimization was applied to find out the optimal cutting parameters that would minimize the thickness of heat affected zone. It was found that laser cutting parameters have an effect on the heat affected zone. The HAZ can be minimized by increasing the laser cutting speed and decreasing the laser power.

  17. Cutting Properties and Wearing Process of Diamond Film Coated Tools in the Dry-Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qimao

    Dry cutting can eliminate a series of negative effects of coolant. Based on tribology principle of coated tool, diamond film coated tool is used to cut the same workpiece under the conditions of dry-cutting and coolant. The tool's cutting properties and wear mechanism are studied by tests. Results imply that this coated tool will be applied more widely day by day in the dry-cutting.

  18. Study of weather and thermal comfort influence on sport performance: prognostic analysis applied to Rio de Janeiro's city marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Gonçalves, L. G.

    2013-05-01

    There is nowadays a growing interest in the influence and impacts of weather and climate in human life. The weather conditions analysis shows the utility of this type of tool when applied in sports. These conditions act as a differential in strategy and training, especially for outdoor sports. This study had as aim objective develop weather forecast and thermal comfort evaluation targeted to sports, and hoped that the results can be used to the development of products and weather service in the Olympic Games 2016 in Rio de Janeiro City. The use of weather forecast applied to the sport showed to be efficient for the case of Rio de Janeiro City Marathon, especially due to the high spatial resolution. The WRF simulations for the three marathons studied showed good results for temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. On the other hand, the forecast of the wind showed a pattern of overestimation of the real situation in all cases. It was concluded that the WRF model provides, in general, more representative simulations from 36 hours in advance, and with 18 hours of integration they were even better, describing efficiently the synoptic situation that would be found. A review of weather conditions and thermal comfort at specific points of the marathon route showed that there are significant differences between the stages of the marathon, which makes possible to plan the competition strategy under the thermal comfort. It was concluded that a relationship between a situation more thermally comfortable (uncomfortable) and the best (worst) time in Rio de Janeiro City Marathon

  19. Economic technology of laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  20. Applying microwave radiation as a factor in shaping thermal conditions inside a trickling filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents issues related with the theory of the effect of microwave radiation on bodies. The process presents of the microwave heating and the differences in the relation to the conventional heating were characterized. Microwaves are selective, which means that only materials with certain properties will be heated as a result of their effect. Additionally, heating by microwaves has a volumetric character and is only limited by microwave permeability. The precise control of the process is possible because heating ceases at the moment of radiation cessation. In this respect, the possibility of microwave application in shaping thermal conditions inside a reactor with a biological membrane is presented. The study was carried out on a laboratory scale and aimed at the analysis of the course of heating of reactors with a biological membrane depending on the amount of radiation supplied and the technological parameters

  1. Análise térmica aplicada à cosmetologia Thermal analysis applied to cosmetology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Clementino da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a análise térmica para os estudos das propriedades físicas e químicas de compostos e de suas misturas no contexto da área de cosméticos. Os autores relatam alguns trabalhos da literatura em que diferentes técnicas termoanalíticas são usadas na caracterização de matérias-primas, produtos cosméticos e amostras de cabelo.This paper presents the thermal analysis for the studies of the physical and chemical properties of compounds and their mixtures in the cosmetic area. The authors relate some papers in wich different thermoanalytic techniques have been used for characterization of raw material, cosmetic product and samples of hair.

  2. Aluminium formates thermally decomposed applied as phase transfer catalysts (P.T.C.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic reactions using Al2 O3 as a phase transfer catalyst attracted attentions in recent years'and some papers reported that Al2 O3 has been applied in electrophilic substitution reaction. However this authors did not studied the nature of this Al2 O3 catalysts. In view of study the importance of the Al2 O3 properties in electrophilic reactions, we prepared Al1 O3 from aluminium formates and compared than with neutral alumina in reactions of (4-fluoro phenyl-1-butanone-4 chloro) with benzene. (author)

  3. Online Cake Cutting (published version)

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2011-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where agents arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some fairness properties that online cake cutting procedures can possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness. We also consider the impact of collusion between agents. Finally, we study theoretically and empirically the competitive ratio of these online cake cutting procedures. Based on its resistance to collusion, and its good performance in practice, our results favour the online version of the cut-and-choose procedure over the online version of the moving knife procedure.

  4. Experimental investigations of plasma perturbation in Thomson scattering applied to thermal plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time and space resolved measurements of Thomson scattering of 532 nm, 6 ns laser pulses were performed on argon thermal discharge plasma with electron temperature Te>10 000 K and electron density 8x1022 m-3e23 m-3. From these measurements, variations of the electron density and temperature across the laser beam and their evolution during the laser pulse were determined. While the electron density is augmented by no more than a few percent the electron temperature is significantly increased along the axis of the laser beam due to laser heating. It is also shown that the higher initial electron density, the more disturbed is the plasma. The initial 'undisturbed' electron density was derived by studying the spatial variations of ne within the laser beam. On the other hand, the initial electron temperature was determined by studying the temporal evolution of Te during the laser pulse and then by extrapolating the results to the origin of the pulse. Despite strong and nonlinear plasma heating by the Thomson scattered laser light, our study yields temperatures close to those obtained by modeling and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements

  5. Chaotic artificial immune approach applied to economic dispatch of electric energy using thermal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic dispatch problem (EDP) is an optimization problem useful in power systems operation. The objective of the EDP of electric power generation, whose characteristics are complex and highly non-linear, is to schedule the committed generating unit outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost while satisfying system constraints. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern heuristic optimization techniques have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. As special mechanism to avoid being trapped in local minimum, the ergodicity property of chaotic sequences has been used as optimization technique in EDPs. Based on the chaos theory, this paper discusses the design and validation of an optimization procedure based on a chaotic artificial immune network approach based on Zaslavsky's map. The optimization approach based on chaotic artificial immune network is validated for a test system consisting of 13 thermal units whose incremental fuel cost function takes into account the valve-point loading effects. Simulation results and comparisons show that the chaotic artificial immune network approach is competitive in performance with other optimization approaches presented in literature and is also an attractive tool to be used on applications in the power systems field.

  6. Comparative analysis of optimisation methods applied to thermal cycle of a coal fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Łukasz; Elsner, Witold

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents a thermodynamic optimization of 900MW power unit for ultra-supercritical parameters, modified according to AD700 concept. The aim of the study was to verify two optimisation methods, i.e., the finding the minimum of a constrained nonlinear multivariable function (fmincon) and the Nelder-Mead method with their own constrain functions. The analysis was carried out using IPSEpro software combined with MATLAB, where gross power generation efficiency was chosen as the objective function. In comparison with the Nelder-Mead method it was shown that using fmincon function gives reasonable results and a significant reduction of computational time. Unfortunately, with the increased number of decision parameters, the benefit measured by the increase in efficiency is becoming smaller. An important drawback of fmincon method is also a lack of repeatability by using different starting points. The obtained results led to the conclusion, that the Nelder-Mead method is a better tool for optimisation of thermal cycles with a high degree of complexity like the coal-fired power unit.

  7. Selection of cutting fluids in machining processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kilickap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During machining operation, friction between workpiece-cutting tool and cutting tool-chip interfaces result high temperature on cutting tool. The effect of this generated heat affects shorter tool life, higher surface roughness and lowers the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This result is more important when machining of difficult-to-cut materials, due to occurrence of higher heat.Design/methodology/approach: Different methods have been reported to protect cutting tool from the generated heat during machining operations. The selection of coated cutting tools are an expensive alternative and generally it is a suitable approach for machining some materials such as titanium alloys, heat resistance alloys etc. Another alternative is to apply cutting fluids in machining operation. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and workpiece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. Hence the influence of generated heat on cutting tool would be prevented.Findings: As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. The selection of cutting fluids should be carefully carried out to obtain optimum result in machining processes. Various factors are affecting the selection of cutting fluid type in machining operation such as type of workpiece materials, cutting tool material and the method of machining processes.Research limitations/implications: In this study, the selection of cutting fluids for machining processes was examined. The effects of workpiece material, cutting tool and machining process type were determined in detail.Originality/value: In this study, the studies about cutting fluid application in machining processes have been evaluated. The selection criteria of cutting fluids have been examined. Suitable cutting fluids for various material machining processes have been determined

  8. Ncut在颅脑 MRI肿瘤提取中的应用研究%ON APPLYING NORMALISED CUT TO BRAIN MRI TUMOUR EXTRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋广军; 赵春兰

    2013-01-01

    颅脑肿瘤自身边缘包含重要的病变信息,提取脑肿瘤区域,对脑部疾病的诊断和治疗具有重要意义。 Ncut ( Normalized Cut)是基于图理的典型分割方法。将Ncut算法应用到颅脑MRI肿瘤图像的分割中,针对不同颅脑MRI肿瘤图像,进行相关参数测试,选择合适的权重及参数,进行颅脑MR肿瘤的提取。通过利用Matlab进行仿真测试可知Ncut方法能够提取出肿瘤所在的基本轮廓,取得较好效果。%The brain tumour edge contains important pathology information itself ;it has the important meaning to extract brain tumour area for brain disease diagnosis and treatment .Ncut algorithm is the typical segmentation method based on graph theory .We apply the Ncut algorithm to MRI brain tumour image segmentation , test the related parameters according to different brain MRI tumour images , and select appropriate weights and parameters to extract MR image brain tumour .Through the use of Matlab in simulation test , we know that the Ncut method can extract the basic outline of tumour and achieve good effect .

  9. Laser Cutting of Leather: Tool for Industry or Designers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Manninen, Matti; Pärnänen, Inni; Hirvimäki, Marika; Salminen, Antti

    Currently technologies which are applied for leather cutting include slitting knifes, die press techniques and manual cutting. Use of laser technology has grown significantly during recent years due to number of advantages over conventional cutting methods; flexibility, high production speed, possibility to cut complex geometries, easier cutting of customized parts, and less leftovers of leather makes laser cutting more and more economically attractive to apply for leather cutting. Laser technology provides advantages in cutting complex geometries, stable cutting quality and possibility to utilize leather material in economically best way. Constant quality is important in industrial processes and laser technology fulfills this requirement: properly chosen laser cutting parameters provides identical cuts. Additionally, laser technology is very flexible in terms of geometries: complex geometries, individual designs, prototypes and small scale products can be manufactured by laser cutting. Variety of products, which needed to be cut in small volumes, is also the application where laser cutting can be more beneficial due to possibility to change production from one product to another only by changing geometry without a need to change cutting tool. Disadvantages of laser processing include high initial investment costs and some running costs due to maintenance and required gas supply for the laser. Higher level of operator's expertise is required due to more complicated machinery in case of laser cutting. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting in different areas of application and provides comparison between laser cutting and mechanical cutting of leather.

  10. Plasma arc cutting: speed and cut quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When cutting metal with plasma arc cutting, the walls of the cut are narrower at the bottom than at the top. This lack of squareness increases as the cutting speed increases. A model of this phenomenon, affecting cut quality, is suggested. A thin liquid layer, which separates the plasma from the solid metal to be melted, plays a key role in the suggested model. This layer decreases heat transfer from the plasma to the solid metal; the decrease is more pronounced the higher the speed and the thicker the liquid metal layer. Since the layer is thicker at the bottom of the cut, the heat transfer effectiveness is lower at the bottom. The decrease in heat transfer effectiveness is compensated by the narrowness of the cut. The suggested model allows one to calculate the profile of the cut. The result of the calculations of the cutting speeds for plates of various thicknesses, at which the squareness of the cut is acceptable, agrees well with the speeds recommended by manufacturers. The second effect considered in the paper is the deflection of the plasma jet from the vertical at a high cutting speed. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given. We believe the considerations of this paper are pertinent to other types of cutting with moving heat sources.

  11. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Otto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from on in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006, dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface equivalent spheroids with prolate shape are most realistic: particle non-sphericity only slightly affects single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but may enhance extinction coefficient by up to 10%. At the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA the Saharan mineral dust always leads to a loss of solar radiation, while the sign of the forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA depends on surface albedo: solar cooling/warming over a mean ocean/land surface. In the thermal spectral range the dust inhibits the emission of radiation to space and warms the BOA. The most realistic case of particle non-sphericity causes changes of total (solar plus thermal forcing by 55/5% at the TOA over ocean/land and 15% at the BOA over both land and ocean and enhances total radiative heating within the dust plume by up to 20%. Large dust particles significantly contribute to all the radiative effects reported.

  12. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Otto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006, dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface equivalent spheroids with prolate shape are most realistic: particle non-sphericity only slightly affects single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but may enhance extinction coefficient by up to 10 %. At the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA the Saharan mineral dust always leads to a loss of solar radiation, while the sign of the forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA depends on surface albedo: solar cooling/warming over a mean ocean/land surface. In the thermal spectral range the dust inhibits the emission of radiation to space and warms the BOA. The most realistic case of particle non-sphericity causes changes of total (solar plus thermal forcing by 55/5 % at the TOA over ocean/land and 15 % at the BOA over both land and ocean and enhances total radiative heating within the dust plume by up to 20 %. Large dust particles significantly contribute to all the radiative effects reported. They strongly enhance the absorbing properties and forward scattering in the solar and increase predominantly, e.g., the total TOA forcing of the dust over land.

  13. Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes KidsHealth > For Teens > Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes Print A A A Text Size ... is repaired. Signs of Infection Sometimes, a cut, scratch, or scrape starts out as no big deal, ...

  14. Quick cut-elimination for strictly positive cuts

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Toshiyasu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that the intuitionistic theory for finitely many iterations of strictly positive operators is a conservative extension of the Heyting arithmetic. The proof is inspired by the quick cut-elimination due to G. Mints. This technique is also applied to fragments of Heyting arithmetic.

  15. Quick cut-elimination for strictly positive cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Toshiyasu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that the intuitionistic theory $\\textyen widehat{ID}^{i}_{<\\textyen ome}(SP)$ for finitely many iterations of strictly positive operators is a conservative extension of the Heyting arithmetic. The proof is inspired by the quick cut-elimination due to G. Mints. This technique is also applied to fragments of Heyting arithmetic.

  16. Selected Malaysian Wood CO2 -Laser Cutting Parameters And Cut Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Nukman Yusoff; Saifu R. Ismail; Azuddin Mamat; Aznijar Ahmad-Yazid

    2008-01-01

    Laser has been used to cut most non-metallic materials very efficiently and successfully because these materials are highly absorptive by the CO2 laser wavelength of 10.6µm. Laser cutting process has been found to be reliable in loads of applications, with several advantages over other mechanical means in producing successful cut of even thermally sensitive materials such as wood. Various works which have been conducted to resolve the interaction between laser and wood but an ultimate guideli...

  17. Fiber-Optic Temperature and Pressure Sensors Applied to Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation in Liver Phantom: Methodology and Experimental Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA is a procedure aimed at interventional cancer care and is applied to the treatment of small- and midsize tumors in lung, kidney, liver, and other tissues. RFA generates a selective high-temperature field in the tissue; temperature values and their persistency are directly related to the mortality rate of tumor cells. Temperature measurement in up to 3–5 points, using electrical thermocouples, belongs to the present clinical practice of RFA and is the foundation of a physical model of the ablation process. Fiber-optic sensors allow extending the detection of biophysical parameters to a vast plurality of sensing points, using miniature and noninvasive technologies that do not alter the RFA pattern. This work addresses the methodology for optical measurement of temperature distribution and pressure using four different fiber-optic technologies: fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs, linearly chirped FBGs (LCFBGs, Rayleigh scattering-based distributed temperature system (DTS, and extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry (EFPI. For each instrument, methodology for ex vivo sensing, as well as experimental results, is reported, leading to the application of fiber-optic technologies in vivo. The possibility of using a fiber-optic sensor network, in conjunction with a suitable ablation device, can enable smart ablation procedure whereas ablation parameters are dynamically changed.

  18. Corrosion Resistance Properties of Aluminum Coating Applied by Arc Thermal Metal Spray in SAE J2334 Solution with Exposure Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arc thermal metal spray coating provides excellent corrosion, erosion and wear resistance to steel substrates. This paper incorporates some results of aluminum coating applied by this method on plain carbon steel. Thereafter, coated panels were exposed to an environment known to form stable corrosion products with aluminum. The coated panels were immersed in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2334 for different periods of time. This solution consists of an aqueous solution of NaCl, CaCl2 and NaHCO3. Various electrochemical techniques, i.e., corrosion potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and the potentiodynamic were used to determine the performance of stimulants in improving the properties of the coating. EIS studies revealed the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion and potentiodynamic attributed the formation of a passive film, which stifles the penetration of aggressive ions towards the substrate. The corrosion products that formed on the coating surface, identified using Raman spectroscopy, were Dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH2 and Al(OH3. These compounds of aluminum are very sparingly soluble in aqueous solution and protect the substrate from pitting and uniform corrosion. The morphology and composition of corrosion products determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated that the environment plays a decisive role in improving the corrosion resistance of aluminum coating.

  19. A cactus theorem for end cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelidou, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Dinits-Karzanov-Lomonosov showed that it is possible to encode all minimal edge cuts of a graph by a tree-like structure called a cactus. We show here that minimal edge cuts separating ends of the graph rather than vertices can be `encoded' also by a cactus. We apply our methods to finite graphs as well and we show that several types of cuts can be encoded by cacti.

  20. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  1. Cutting state identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  2. Study of elementary micro-cutting in hardened tool steel

    OpenAIRE

    PIQUARD, Romain; Gilbin, Alexandre; Fontaine, Michael; D'ACUNTO, Alain; Thibaud, Sébastien; DUDZINSKI, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In order to model micro-milling cutting forces, a way is to apply a local model on discretized elements of the cutting edge and then summing on the whole edge to obtain the global cutting forces. This local model is usually obtained by numerical simulation or cutting experimentation. This paper focuses on orthogonal and oblique micro-cutting experiments of AISI 6F7 with tungsten carbide tools. Results show the influence of cutting edge sharpness on cutting forces and the existence of differen...

  3. Finite pure integer programming algorithms employing only hyperspherically deduced cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Three algorithms are developed that may be based exclusively on hyperspherically deduced cuts. The algorithms only apply, therefore, to problems structured so that these cuts are valid. The algorithms are shown to be finite.

  4. Dynamic Process Analysis In Cutting Zone During Machining Of Nickel Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czán, Andrej; Šajgalík, Michal; Martikáň, Anton; Mrázik, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    To generally improve effectivity of parts production and metal cutting process, there are used process models of super alloys together with finite element modeling simulations. Advanced measurement methods of the process could improve and verify the accuracy of these models. These methods cause many error sources when using empiric or exact methods such as infrared radiation thermography to measure the temperature distribution of the tool, workpiece, and chip during metal cutting. Measuring of metal machining is challenging due to factors such as the high magnification required, high surface speeds and deformations, micro-blackbody effects, changing emissivity and deformations present at metal cutting. As part of an ongoing effort to improve our understanding of uncertainties associated with these measurement methods, multimeasurement sets of experiments were performed. First set of measurements observed connection between surface temperature and the internal temperature of the cutting tool. This was accomplished by measuring the temperature using a thermal camera in cutting zone. Second set performed high-speed scan of dynamic processes such as formation of elastic and plastic deformation. During this operation was applied high-speed scannning system using macro conversion lens for monitoring of micro-structural changes in deformation areas. Next necessary applied set is recording of dynamic processes by implementation of piezoelectric measurement device for monitoring of cutting forces. The outputs from multimeasuring system are the basis for verification of theoretical knowledge from this field and elimination of uncertainties, which arise by using computer simulation systems.

  5. The perfect cut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scozzafava, G.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Corsi, A.;

    There are a large number of different beef cuts, which are produced in a complementary relationship. Research so far has mainly focused on single cuts and is often limited to either T-bone steaks or ground beef separately. Although the cuts are produced complementary, they compete against each ot...

  6. Thermal quadrupole method applied to flat and spherical semi-transparent multilayers heated up with a modulated laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The thermal quadrupole method for flat and spherical multilayered systems heated up with a modulated laser beam is developed and analyzed. The obtained results take into account the contribution of the thermal properties and optical absorption coefficient of the component semi-transparent layers as well as their interface thermal resistance, under a fully analytical framework. For opaque layers, they reduced to the results reported in the literature. It is shown that the thermal wave fields for spherical layers reduce to the ones for flat layers, under a proper limit on the radius of the layers. By analyzing the features of the normalized amplitude and phase as a function of the normalized frequency for one- and two-layer systems, simple and useful formulas to determine the optical absorption coefficient of flat and spherical layers are derived. The proposed approach extends the applicability of the thermal quadrupole method to deal with modulated internal heat sources, it allows determining the thermal wave field of any number of layers in a simple way, and therefore, it would be useful to perform the thermal and optical characterization of flat and spherical layered systems by means of photothermal techniques.

  7. Laser cutting technology which use the water jet guiding the laser beam. Application examination for the thick plate cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increase of aged nuclear reactors, reduction of radioactive wastes is expected and cutting technology for thick structure would be necessary. Thermal cutting technology would be convenient for cutting thick materials, but generation of radioactive fume is one of the problems. A water jet-guided laser cutting is one of the suitable technologies for this application, because radioactive fume would be confined in the water and dose level won't be increased. However, this technology was developed for precision machining like dicing and slotting of silicon wafers, it is difficult to cut thick materials. In this study, cutting technology for thick material with a water jet-guided laser was discussed. Phenomenon during cutting thick stainless steel was observed by using high speed camera and optimum conditions for both water jet and laser cutting were derived. Finally, 50 mm thick stainless steel plate was successfully cut by using this technology. (author)

  8. Experimental Analysis for Improvements of Process Efficiency and Cut Edge Quality of Fusion Cutting with 1 μm Laser Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goppold, Cindy; Zenger, Karsten; Herwig, Patrick; Wetzig, Andreas; Mahrle, Achim; Beyer, Eckhard

    A systematic experimental investigation of fiber laser cutting stainless steel in a wide range of material thicknesses is performed. The achievable maximum cutting speed, the resultant thermal efficiency of the process as well as the surface roughness of the cut edges were determined using different optical setups and beam geometries. In order to find out some reasons for characteristic features of the fiber laser cutting process also the cut kerf geometries were analyzed. The systematic investigation clarifies the most promising procedural possibilities for improvements of cutting performance and cut edge quality in fiber laser cutting of stainless steel.

  9. High-Power Laser Cutting of Steel Plates: Heat Affected Zone Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Imed Miraoui; Mohamed Boujelbene; Mouna Zaied

    2016-01-01

    The thermal effect of CO2 high-power laser cutting on cut surface of steel plates is investigated. The effect of the input laser cutting parameters on the melted zone depth (MZ), the heat affected zone depth (HAZ), and the microhardness beneath the cut surface is analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to relate the output process parameters to the input laser cutting parameters. Three input process parameters such as laser beam diameter, cutting speed, and laser power are investigated. M...

  10. Why I like power cuts...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Accidental power cuts - a permanent nuisance when running accelerators or computing services, since it takes a lot of time to recover from them. While I feel very sorry for those who are under pressure to get their service running again and deeply regret the loss of down-time and availability, I must admit that I like power cuts: power cuts make computers reboot! And rebooting computers at CERN means all the pending software patches are automatically applied.   But don’t think I am egotistic enough to endorse power cuts. Not necessarily! I am already happy if you regularly patch your computer(s) yourself, where regularly means at least once a month: · If you run a centrally or locally managed Windows computer, give that small orange blinking “CMF” icon in the taskbar a chance in the evening to apply all the pending patches. Also, let it initiate a reboot at the end! · If you have a personal computer with your own Windows operating system, ...

  11. Simplified methods applied to the complete thermal and mechanical behaviour of a pressure vessel during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has developed a software package of simplified methods (proprietary ones from literature) in order to study the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a PWR pressure vessel during a severe accident involving a corium localization in the vessel lower head. Using a part of this package, we can evaluate for instance successively: the heat flux at the inner surface of the vessel (conductive or convective pool of corium); the thermal exchange coefficient between the vessel and the outside (dry pit or flooded pit, watertight thermal insulation or not); the complete thermal evolution of the vessel (temperature profile, melting); the possible global plastic failure of the vessel; the creep behaviour in the vessel. These simplified methods are low cost alternative to finite element calculations which are yet used to validate the previous methods, waiting for experimental results to come. (authors)

  12. Experimental Study on the Electrochemical Anti-Corrosion Properties of Steel Structures Applying the Arc Thermal Metal Spraying Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Bok Choe; Han-Seung Lee; Jun-Ho Shin

    2014-01-01

    The arc thermal metal spraying method (ATMSM) provides proven long-term protective coating systems using zinc, aluminum and their alloys for steel work in a marine environment. This paper focuses on studying experimentally the anti-corrosion criteria of ATMSM on steel specimens. The effects of the types of spraying metal and the presence or absence of sealing treatment from the thermal spraying of film on the anti-corrosion performance of TMSM were quantitatively evaluated by electrochemical ...

  13. Thermodynamic Predictions of Thermal Expansivity and Elastic Compliances at High Temperatures and Pressures Applied to Perovskite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of near zero thermal expansion coefficients at very high pressures is explored for application to the Earth's core materials and mantle dynamics. The pressures in the Earth are large enough to effectively reduce thermal expansion coefficients to values which will decouple heat from mechanical work. It is shown that at pressures below the bulk modulus the thermal expansion coefficient will approach zero in all simple linear-elastic crystalline models. Advanced models of crystalline elastic solids based on interatomic potentials and density functional theory are shown to violate Gibb's potential for a solid, crystalline material described by three elastic matrix compliance entries; it is established that the temperature dependence of S 11 and S 12 are thermodynamically identical; it is also established that the pressure dependence of S 11 and S 12 are thermodynamically identical. The basis for thermal energy in materials is the phonon energy in solids. However, it is noted that heat capacity measurements which are obtained from constant pressure heat capacity conditions converted to constant volume values on isobars are not in the correct state when compared to theoretical models; at atmospheric pressure there may be very little difference between these states but at very high pressures the effect may be major. Very large pressures always reduce thermal expansion coefficients; the importance of very small thermal expansion coefficients is discussed in relation to physical processes deep in the core and mantle of the Earth.

  14. Magnetofluidic testing of rock cutting knives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nondestructive testing of cutting knives consists in the determination of nonuniformity of a magnetic fluid layer applied on the horizontally placed surface of the magnetized cutting plate of the knife. A low constant magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the knife surface and a uniform magnetic fluid layer was applied. The defects as nonuniform brass layer, fissures or small cavities between the cutting plate and knife core determine the apparition of magnetic field gradients and therefore magnetic forces acting on the magnetic fluid which migrates to the zones with higher magnetic field intensity. After several minutes, a nonuniform layer of magnetic fluid was directly observed. Quantitative results, concerning the position and dimensions of the defect, were obtained by computer aided processing of the magnetic fluid layer image. Experimental data for several cutting knives are presented in the paper

  15. Implementation of cutting tool management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Svinjarević

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to show the benefits of implementation of management of cutting tools in the company which specializes in metal cutting process, after which the production conditions alows new possibilities for improvement of the tool management.Design/methodology/approach: applied in this paper was identification current state and exploatation conditions of cutting tools on lathes and milling machines and organization of the departments and other services, which are directly involved in the cutting tools management system.Findings: of the controlled testings and analyses in every phase of tool management in departments and other services which are directly involved in the tool management system will help to reduce stock and costs. It is possible to identify which operator makes errors and is responsible for inappropriate use of cutting tool. Some disadvantages have been identified and a few suggestions for the improvement in the tool management system have been given. A result of research is easy to apply in company with developed informatic infrastructure and is mostly interesting for CNC workshops. Small companies and specialized low volume productions have to made additional effort to integrate in clusters.Practical implications: are reduction of cutting tool on stock, reduction of employee, quick access to the necessary cutting tools and data, simplicity in tool order and supply. The most important is possibility to monitor and to identify which cutting tools and employees are weakest parts of chain in tool management system. Management activity should be foreseeable in all its segments, which includes both the appropriate choice and use of cutting tools, and monitoring of unwanted phenomena during the cutting process and usage of these data for further purchase of tools.Originality/value: in the paper is turnover methodology applied for determination of management efficacy and formation of employees from different departments in

  16. Study on carbide cutting tool life using various cutting speeds for α-β Ti-alloy machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Ahsan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Current experimental studies have yielded that cutting speed, using carbide cutters, has no significant influence on surface roughness obtained for machining the α-β Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. This paper presents results of experimental investigations carried out on the widely used titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V using variable cutting speeds as well as different cutting tools at a constant feed rate and depth of cut. The effects of varying cutting speeds on the tool life have been analysed by inspecting the surface roughness of the machined samples and the tool wear observed during machining. As the cutting speed increases, the tool life drops off very rapidly and at higher cutting speed the chips start to ignite because of high heat generation at the cutting zone which is mainly caused by the low thermal conductivity of titanium alloys as postulated. Consequently higher cutting speeds may be used to dramatically reduce the production costs, but the currently available cutting tools will have a very poor tool life. According to this study, it has been identified that the uncoated carbide tool life is comparatively better than that of coated ones at lower cutting speeds whereas the coated ones are preferable at higher cutting speeds. It is expected that the metal manufacturing industries will be highly benefitted by this outcome in selecting the appropriate cutting tool as well as cutting speed according to their desired surface finish and tool life.

  17. Two pass method and radiation interchange processing when applied to thermal-structural analysis of large space truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Andrew H.; Arelt, Joseph E.; Lalicata, Anthony L.; Rogers, Karen M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of efficient and automated thermal-structural processing of very large space structures is presented. The method interfaces the finite element and finite difference techniques. It also results in a pronounced reduction of the quantity of computations, computer resources and manpower required for the task, while assuring the desired accuracy of the results.

  18. Cutting as a continuous business process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Gradišar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of state-of-the-art methods for cutting stock problem optimisation shows that the current methods lead to near-optimum results for the instantaneous optimisation of trim loss. Further optimisation of this activity would not bring a considerable improvement. Therefore, the paper treats cutting stock as a continuous business process and not as an isolated activity. An exact method for a general one-dimensional cutting stock problem is presented and tested. The method is mainly suitable for smaller orders. It is then applied to continuous cutting and used to develop a method for assessing cutting costs in consecutive time periods. The modified method finds a good solution over the whole time-span, rather than just local optima.

  19. CVD COATING OF CERAMIC LAYERS ON CERAMIC CUTTING TOOL MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Porat, R.

    1991-01-01

    When forming cutting tool materials based on ceramic components, one must take into considration the combination of wear resistance and mechanical properties which can withstand unfavorable cutting conditions at the same time maintaining high strength and fracture toughness. Ceramic cutting tools which are designed for machining at high cutting speeds and which have high strength and fracture toughness can be formed by applying a thin layer of ceramic materials on the substrate in order to in...

  20. Fine Distributed Moderating Material with Improved Thermal Stability Applied to Enhance the Feedback Effects in SFR Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fine distributed moderating material to enhance the feedback effects and to reduce the sodium void effect in sodium-cooled fast reactor cores is described. The influence of the moderating material on the fuel assembly geometry, the neutron spectrum, the feedback effects, the power and burnup distribution, and the transmutation performance is given. An overview on possible materials is provided and the relationship between hydrogen content and thermal stability is described. A solution for the problem of the limited thermal stability of primarily proposed hydrogen-bearing moderating material ZrH1.6 is developed by the use of yttrium-mono-hydride. The similarity in the effects reached by ZrH and YH is demonstrated by comparison calculations. The topic is closed by an overview on material properties, manufacturing issues, experience in fast reactors, and a comparison of raw material costs.

  1. The optimal cutting parametre design of rough cutting process in side milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-S. Lu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is focused on the optimal cutting parameters design of rough cutting processes in side milling for SKD61 tool steels.Design/methodology/approach: The fuzzy logics can be a proper basis to perform the optimization procedure with complicated multiple performance characteristics in this paper. Using this approach combined with the grey-relational analysis, the design algorithm is transformed into optimization of a single and simple grey-fuzzy reasoning grade rather than multiple performance characteristics. The Taguch method is also adopted to search for an optimal combination of cutting parameters for this rough cutting process in side milling.Findings: The improvement of tool life and metal removal rate from the initial cutting parameters to the optimal cutting parameters are 54% and 9.7%. Hence, this reveals that the proposed approach in this study can effectively improve the cutting performance.Research limitations/implications: In this paper only four cutting parameters are taken into consideration. Many other parameters such as tool geometric shape are not applied to this study.Practical implications: It is believed that this optimal result can be applied to practical processes to effectively reduce manufacturing cost and greatly enhance manufacturing efficiency.Originality/value: A systematic and effective optimization method is presented in this paper. Using this method can effectively acquire an optimal combination of the cutting parameters.

  2. Experimental Study on the Electrochemical Anti-Corrosion Properties of Steel Structures Applying the Arc Thermal Metal Spraying Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bok Choe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The arc thermal metal spraying method (ATMSM provides proven long-term protective coating systems using zinc, aluminum and their alloys for steel work in a marine environment. This paper focuses on studying experimentally the anti-corrosion criteria of ATMSM on steel specimens. The effects of the types of spraying metal and the presence or absence of sealing treatment from the thermal spraying of film on the anti-corrosion performance of TMSM were quantitatively evaluated by electrochemical techniques. The results showed that ATMSM represented a sufficient corrosion resistance with the driving force based on the potential difference of more than approximately 0.60 V between the thermal spraying layer and the base substrate steel. Furthermore, it was found that the sealing treatment of specimens had suppressed the dissolution of metals, increased the corrosion potential, decreased the corrosion current density and increased the polarization resistance. Metal alloy Al–Mg (95%:5% by mass with epoxy sealing coating led to the most successful anti-corrosion performance in these electrochemical experiments.

  3. Saving Seal Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On April 20, the graduation ceremony of China’s seal-cutting art postgraduates and visiting experts from the Institute of Seal Cutting Art under the China Art Academy was held in Beijing. On the same day, the exhibition of the works of the teachers and graduates of the institute was also held.

  4. Experimental investigation of effect of heat load on thermal performance of natural circulation steam generation system as applied to PTC-based solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effects of heat load on flow pattern, thermal efficiency and two phase heat transfer coefficient was analyzed. • An extended correlation equation was fitted for two flow patterns. • The critical RHP for flow transition was identified to be between 34.37 K/kW and 33.35 K/kW. - Abstract: An indoor experimental test rig of parabolic trough collector (PTC)-based natural circulation steam generation system consisting in a thermosyphon loop was presented. A series of five heat loads (0.6–1.2 kW) were applied to investigate effect of heat load on thermal performance of the system. Effect of heat load on flow pattern, thermal efficiency and two phase heat transfer coefficient was discussed, respectively. An extended correlation equation was provided for two flow patterns, which is characterized by heat pipe thermal resistance. The critical heat pipe thermal resistance for flow pattern transition was ranged from 34.37 K/kW to 33.35 K/kW. Simultaneously, thermal efficiency shows a continuous increase as heat load kept rising. The effect of backflow was found to be negligible when heat load increased to 1.1 kW. Additionally, the average two-phase heat transfer coefficient in receiver also went up with the rising of heat load for the same flow pattern. Due to the flow pattern transition, which resulted in a dryness fraction drop in receiver, a maximum heat transfer coefficient of 285.86 W/m2 K was obtained at heat load of 1.0 kW under a steam discharging pressure of 0.15 MPa

  5. Photo induced dissociation of amino acids free from thermal degradation effects: A case study applied to DL-Valine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Á. Miranda da; Mocellin, A. [Instituto, Universidade de Brasília, Box 04455, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Farrokhpour, H. [Chemistry Department, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mundim, M.S.P. [Instituto, Universidade de Brasília, Box 04455, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Brito, A. Naves de, E-mail: arnaldo.naves@gmail.com [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin”, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    We present a careful study of the thermal degradation effects in the mass spectrum of DL-Valine using a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a time of flight – mass spectrometer. This allows setting the temperature of 95 ± 10 °C as threshold for the sublimation of our solid sample. Based on the assignments for each ionic fragment detected, it is possible to separate the mass peaks in groups, explaining what are the principal bond breaks involved in the specific ionic yield, whose procedure can be extended to other amino acids.

  6. Effects of ultra-low volume and thermal fog malathion, Scourge and naled applied against caged adult Culicoides furens and Culex quinquefasciatus in open and vegetated terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, J R; Jordan, S

    1992-03-01

    The adulticidal effect of ULV and thermal fog malathion, Scourge and naled was tested at 2x label dosage (1.42, 0.22, 0.39 oz/acre, respectively) against caged Culicoides furens and Culex quinquefasciatus in open and vegetated (orange grove) terrain. Cages were at 122 cm elevation and positioned at 15.2, 45.7, 76.2, 106.7, 137.2 and 167.6 m from the line of insecticide release. Ultra-low volume applications of all 3 insecticides were markedly more effective than thermal fog under all conditions, especially in vegetated terrain. Of the 3 insecticides, malathion performed the poorest, especially against Cx. quinquefasciatus (in which there was some resistance) and particularly when applied as thermal fog. Scourge and naled were about equally effective. The best adulticide against C. furens was naled, which was clearly superior applied as ULV. It yielded 75% mortality out to 283 m in the open, and to 38 m in the presence of dense vegetation. PMID:1583493

  7. Non-uniform temperature gradients and thermal stresses produced by a moving heat flux applied on a hollow sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hüseyin Yapici; Gülşah Özişik; M Serdar Genç

    2010-04-01

    This work presents numerical analyses of transient temperature and thermally-induced stress distributions in a hollow steel sphere heated by a moving uniform heat source applied on a certain zenithal segment (the heated zenithal segment, $\\Theta_H$) of its outer surface (the processed surface) under stagnant ambient conditions. Along the process, the moving heat source (MHS) moves angularly from the first zenithal segment to the last zenithal segment on the processed surface with a constant angular speed,, and then returns backward to the first zenithal segment with the same speed. It is assumed that the inner surface is heat-isolated and that the outer surface except the heated segment is under stagnant ambient conditions. The numerical calculations are performed individually for a wide range of thermal conductivity, , of steel and for the different $\\Theta_Hs$. The maximum effective thermal stress ratio calculated as per the heat flux intensity $(q0)$ can be reduced in considerable amounts. By increasing (∼ 75%) and (∼ 63%) the maximum effective thermal stress ratio calculated can be significantly reduced.

  8. A parallel multi-domain solution methodology applied to nonlinear thermal transport problems in nuclear fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors is described. Details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstrating the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Furthermore, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods. Finally, we demonstrate the power of the coupling methodology by considering problems with couplings between surface and volume physics and coupling of nonlinear thermal transport in fuel rods to an external radiation transport code

  9. A parallel multi-domain solution methodology applied to nonlinear thermal transport problems in nuclear fuel pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Bobby, E-mail: philipb@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Berrill, Mark A.; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P.; Sampath, Rahul S.; Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dilts, Gary A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors is described. Details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstrating the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Furthermore, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods. Finally, we demonstrate the power of the coupling methodology by considering problems with couplings between surface and volume physics and coupling of nonlinear thermal transport in fuel rods to an external radiation transport code.

  10. Modification Approach of Fuzzy Logic Model for Predicting of Cutting Force When Machining Nickel Based Hastelloy C-276

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim A. Khidhir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most Nickel based Hastelloy C-276 is a difficult-to-machine material because of its low thermal diffusive property and high strength at high temperature. Machinability consideration of nickel based Hastelloy C-276 in turning operations has been carried out using ceramic inserts under dry conditions. Approach: This study described a modification approach applied to a fuzzy logic based model for predicting cutting force where the machining parameters for cutting speed ranges, feed rate, depth of cut and approach angle are not overlapping. For this study, data were selected depending on the design of experiments. Response surface methodology was applied to predict the cutting force and to examine the fuzzy logic based model. Results: The modification approach fuzzy logic based model produced the cutting force data providing good correlation with response surface data. In this situation the cutting force data were superimposed and results were adjusted according to their own ranges. Conclusion: A review of literatures on optimization techniques revealed that there were, in particular, successful industrial applications of design of experiment-based approaches for optimal settings of process variables.

  11. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  12. Thermal design of a pressure electroslag remelting furnace applied for 5; Diseno termico de un horno presurizado de refusion por electroescoria de 5 Kg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz M, J.P

    1999-07-01

    Actual work defines the thermal design methodology for pressure electroslag remelting furnaces (P ESR) of variable capacity, applied for 5 Kg. It begins with classification and description of secondary refining furnaces, after PESR process and the concept of thermal design are described. Next, in base of the steel weight to remelt (5 Kg); ingot, crucible and electrode dimensions are obtained. These elements will be inside of pressure vessel whose thickness are determined according to ASMECode (Section 8, Division 1, U G-27). It was developed a computer program, where the furnace capacity can be modified, so like other conditions, and display principal dimensions of the furnace. Current and voltage are obtained from the heat necessary to remelt the ingot and the heat transfer in the crucible, is analysed because of it is the most critical element. It was selected too the equipment to registry temperatures and pressure in base of thermocouple characteristics. (Author)

  13. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  14. A Parallel Multi-Domain Solution Methodology Applied to Nonlinear Thermal Transport Problems in Nuclear Fuel Pins

    CERN Document Server

    Philip, Bobby; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P; Sampath, Rahul S; Clarno, Kevin T; Dilts, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors is described. Details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstrating the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Furthermore, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods...

  15. Combining cutting and herbicide application for Ambrosia artemisiifolia control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sölter, Ulrike

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect on Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed of combining cutting and herbicide application was studied in pot experiments in Germany and Denmark in 2013. Single plants of common ragweed were established in 2 L pots in glasshouses. Two cutting treatments were conducted: cutting to 10 cm height at the beginning of male budding (BBCH 51-59 and no cutting. Clopyralid (in Germany: Lontrel 600, in Denmark: Matrigon, mesotrione (in Germany and Denmark: Callisto and glyphosate (in Germany: Clinic, in Denmark: Roundup Bio were applied at 4 doses at three different timings: on the day of cutting, one week and two weeks after cutting. The plants were harvested 5 weeks after the last herbicide application. At both sites clopyralid and mesotrione had a low efficacy on common ragweed when applied on developed plants with only minor differences in efficacy at the three timings. Application after cutting improved the efficacy of clopyralid at both sites and of mesotrione in Denmark. In Germany glyphosate had a higher efficacy on noncut plants in comparison to the cut plants, in Denmark it was vice versa. The highest dose of glyphosate provided higher control levels on developed plants than clopyralid and mesotrione at both sites. In Denmark the highest effects were obtained shortly after cutting with the maximum dose of each herbicide and declined with time between cutting and herbicide application. In summary the results demonstrated that herbicides can be applied shortly after cutting without loss of efficacy.

  16. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, S.; Trautmann, T.; M. Wendisch

    2011-01-01

    Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006), dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface ...

  17. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, S.; Trautmann, T.; M. Wendisch

    2010-01-01

    Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from on in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006), dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surfa...

  18. Aberration modeling of thermo-optical effects applied to wavefront fine-tuning and thermal compensation of Sodern UV and LWIR optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battarel, D.; Fuss, P.; Durieux, A.; Martaud, E.

    2015-09-01

    As a manufacturer of optical systems for space applications, Sodern is faced with the necessity to design optical systems which image quality remains stable while the environment temperature changes. Two functions can be implemented: either a wavefront control or the athermalization of the optical system. In both cases, the mechanical deformations and thermal gradients are calculated by finite-element modeling with the IDEAS NX7 software. The data is then used in CODE V models for wavefront and image quality evaluation purposes. Two cases are presented: one is a UV beam expander in which a wavefront control is implemented and the other is an athermalized IR camera. The beam expander has a wavefront-tuning capability by thermal control. In order to perform the thermo-optical analysis in parallel with the opto-mechanical development, the thermo-optical modeling is done step by step in order to start before the mechanical design is completed. Each step then includes a new modeling stage leading to progressive improvements in accuracy. The IR camera athermalization is achieved through interaction between the mechanical CAD software and the optical design software to simulate the axial thermal gradients, radial gradients and all other thermal variations. The purpose of this paper is to present the steps that have led to the final STOP (Structural, Thermal Optical) analysis. Using incremental accuracy in modeling the thermo-optical effects enables to take them into account very early in the development process to devise all adjustment and test procedures to apply when assembling and testing the optical system.

  19. Advanced experimental tools designed for the assessment of the thermal load applied to the mixing tee and nozzle geometries in the PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal fatigue studies have been started again, after the incident in the heat removal system of the Civaux NPP (may 1998). Thermal fatigue problem was suspected, the cracks occurred in the mixing tee were probably due to the fluctuation at large gap of temperature. This paper introduces the experimental strategy directed by the CEA for assessing the thermal load in the mixing area. 2 mockups of mixing tee, similar in geometry are tested in the FATHERINO facility under similar thermal hydraulic conditions; the first one in brass for selecting the mixing areas where the temperature fluctuation is high and the second one in stainless steel for setting measurements with local specific sensors to determine the thermal load. The specific sensors, Tf fluid, fluxmeter sensor, and the Coefh sensor, record in local, the fluctuation close to the wall in the fluid and in the wall. The heat flux sensor 'fluxmeter' and the heat transfer sensor 'Coefh' are equipped with 3 micro thermocouples in their respective body, non intrusive and typically designed to catch the fluctuations within a low attenuation in the frequency range from 0 to 20 Hz. By applying an inverse heat conduction method to the output data given by the fluxmeter, the wall temperature (mean and fluctuating values) at the internal surface can be accurately determined. The Coefh sensor is like a fluxmeter sensor using the same technology but equipped with a thermocouple in the fluid to determine the heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the results from both experiments (brass and stainless steel mockups) are implemented as input data for the needs of the CFD calculation. The FATHERINO experiment consists of emptying 2 vessels in the mockup, initially field in water and conditioned at low (5 C) and high temperature (80 C). There is a motor pump for each line (cold and hot legs) and the flow rate is controlled by temperature valve

  20. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    2014-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  1. Cuts and puncture wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needed. The person has been bitten by a human or animal. A cut or puncture is caused by a fishhook or rusty object. You step on a nail or other similar object. An object or debris is stuck. Do ...

  2. Cut without Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The zero-based curriculum model can help school boards and administrators make decisions about what to keep and what to cut. All instructional programs are ranked and judged in categories ranging from required to optional. (MLF)

  3. Cutting Cakes Correctly

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Theodore P

    2008-01-01

    Without additional hypotheses, Proposition 7.1 in Brams and Taylor's book "Fair Division" (Cambridge University Press, 1996) is false, as are several related Pareto-optimality theorems of Brams, Jones and Klamler in their 2006 cake-cutting paper.

  4. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis First Aid: Cuts Staph Infections Bites and Scratches First Aid: Falls First Aid: ... What's a Scab? Cellulitis Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes Staph Infections Dealing With Cuts and Wounds Babysitting: Dealing With ...

  5. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  6. Steep Cut Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the Steep Cut Construction. This project describes construction of a petrol filling station on Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. The project was unique in that the necessary area for the filling station was required to be cut from the base of a steeply sloping soil/rock slope adjacent to a busy highway.

  7. Salary cuts and competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Haliassos, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There is a prevalent view outside Greece that promotion of competitiveness is tantamount with price reductions for Greek goods and services. Massive horizontal salary cuts appear, at first, to promote competitiveness by reducing unit labor costs and to reduce fiscal deficits by reducing the wage bill of the public sector. Upon closer look, however, horizontal salary cuts have been much greater than needed for Greek competitiveness, providing an alibi vis a vis the Troika for reforms that are ...

  8. New FPGA-BASED Image-Oriented Acquisition and Real-Time Processing Applied to Plasma Facing Component Thermal Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travere, J.M.; Balorin, C.; Jouve, M.; Desgranges, C.; Moncada, V. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2009-07-01

    During operation of present fusion devices, the Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are submitted to large heat fluxes within a range of 10-20 MW/m{sup 2}. Understanding and preventing overheating of these components during long pulse discharges is a crucial issue. The surface temperature of the PFCs in the vacuum chamber of a tokamak is measured by infrared (IR) digital cameras interfaced with complex optical systems. Due to the complexity of the observed IR scenes and the large amount of data produced, the real-time processing of IR images will be a key point for ITER, the next fusion device. As an illustration, the foreseen IR and visible diagnostic for ITER will consist in 12 IR equatorial views for the thermal monitoring of the vacuum chamber. The real-time processing will include all calibration factors related to the optical path and some corrections due to the variation of the emissivity of metallic objects. It will also include some intelligent processing to detect abnormal thermal events during plasma operation to avoid water leak, PFCs damages and to guarantee high performance plasmas. The use of high computational performance hardware is then mandatory to reach a real time processing of the IR images. At Tore Supra, we have recently made a major upgrade of our real-time IR image acquisition and processing board by the use of the new FPGA Xilinx Virtex 5 SX95T. This board is optimized for image processing and matrix calculations. It can be programmed using high-level languages like MatlabTM or SimulinkTM. We currently have implemented on the board all 1- and 2-dimensional calibration factors due to optics. This allows us to process in real-time IR images expressed in absolute temperature. This paper will describe briefly the old acquisition and processing system and will make emphasis on major progress obtained by the new FPGA board. Comparison between the old system and the new one will be presented. Some preliminary results will be given and a strategy

  9. New FPGA-BASED Image-Oriented Acquisition and Real-Time Processing Applied to Plasma Facing Component Thermal Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During operation of present fusion devices, the Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are submitted to large heat fluxes within a range of 10-20 MW/m2. Understanding and preventing overheating of these components during long pulse discharges is a crucial issue. The surface temperature of the PFCs in the vacuum chamber of a tokamak is measured by infrared (IR) digital cameras interfaced with complex optical systems. Due to the complexity of the observed IR scenes and the large amount of data produced, the real-time processing of IR images will be a key point for ITER, the next fusion device. As an illustration, the foreseen IR and visible diagnostic for ITER will consist in 12 IR equatorial views for the thermal monitoring of the vacuum chamber. The real-time processing will include all calibration factors related to the optical path and some corrections due to the variation of the emissivity of metallic objects. It will also include some intelligent processing to detect abnormal thermal events during plasma operation to avoid water leak, PFCs damages and to guarantee high performance plasmas. The use of high computational performance hardware is then mandatory to reach a real time processing of the IR images. At Tore Supra, we have recently made a major upgrade of our real-time IR image acquisition and processing board by the use of the new FPGA Xilinx Virtex 5 SX95T. This board is optimized for image processing and matrix calculations. It can be programmed using high-level languages like MatlabTM or SimulinkTM. We currently have implemented on the board all 1- and 2-dimensional calibration factors due to optics. This allows us to process in real-time IR images expressed in absolute temperature. This paper will describe briefly the old acquisition and processing system and will make emphasis on major progress obtained by the new FPGA board. Comparison between the old system and the new one will be presented. Some preliminary results will be given and a strategy will be

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-04-30

    This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  12. Cutting capacity of PDC cutters in very hard rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental programm of investigating the cutting capacity of PDC flat cutters in very hard rock has been performed.Experiments include both the cutting of PDC fixed at different angles on the granite core or bar and linear cutting with different static thrust on the block of granite.The effects of the rough degree of rock surface,cutting angles,and static thrust on the cutting capacity of PDC in very hard rock were investigated and analyzed.The results show that the single mode of rotary drilling using PDC cutters is not applied for very hard rocks.

  13. Market value for thermal energy of cogeneration: using shadow price estimation applied to cogeneration systems in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study empirically analyzes the appropriateness of the current tariffs for district heating in Korea. For this purpose, we adopt the duality concept applied to the output distance function, and estimate the shadow price of heat produced from cogeneration. In addition, the analytical model takes account for the inputs of labor and capital as well as fuel as input outlays of cogeneration. The empirical results show that the current heat tariff determined by the public energy policy might be undervalued by about 15-53%. This implies that the retail price of district heating in Korea might be distorted at least in the sense of economics

  14. Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics Theory and Expected Experimental Errors when Applied to a Scramjet Isolator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert Jeffrey; Baurle, Robert A.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2011-01-01

    A scramjet isolator model test apparatus is being assembled in the Isolator Dynamics Research Lab (IDRL) at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The test apparatus is designed to support multiple measurement techniques for investigating the flow field in a scramjet isolator model. The test section is 1-inch high by 2-inch wide by 24-inch long and simulates a scramjet isolator with an aspect ratio of two. Unheated, dry air at a constant stagnation pressure and temperature is delivered to the isolator test section through a Mach 2.5 planar nozzle. The isolator test section is mechanically back-pressured to contain the resulting shock train within the 24-inch isolator length and supports temperature, static pressure, and high frequency pressure measurements at the wall. Additionally, nonintrusive methods including laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), spontaneous Raman scattering, particle image velocimetry, and schlieren imaging are being incorporated to measure off-wall fluid dynamic, thermodynamic, and transport properties of the flow field. Interchangeable glass and metallic sidewalls and optical access appendages permit making multiple measurements simultaneously. The measurements will be used to calibrate computational fluid dynamics turbulence models and characterize the back-pressured flow of a scramjet isolator. This paper describes the test apparatus, including the optical access appendages; the physics of the LITA method; and estimates of LITA measurement uncertainty for measurements of the speed of sound and temperature.

  15. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S.

    1986-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  17. The Effects of Cutting Tool Coating on the Surface Roughness of AISI 1015 Steel Depending on Cutting Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan GÖKKAYA

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a number of cutting tool coating materials on the surface quality of workpieces, depending on various cutting parameters, were investigated. AISI 1015 steel was processed without cooling on a lathe using 4 different cemented carbide cutting tools, i.e. uncoated, coated with AlTiN and coated with TiAlN using the PVD technique, and one with 3-layer coatings (outermost being TiN) applied by the CVD technique. Among the cutting parameters, the depth of cut was kept constan...

  18. Development of plasma cutting process at observation of environmental requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma cutting is one of the basic methods for thermal cutting of metals. It is characterized by high productivity and quality of the cut surface. However, the plasma cutting process is one of the most harmful processes for environment and human health. It results from many agents being a potential environmental risk The large amount of dust and gases emitted during the process as well as an intensive radiation of electric arc and excessive noise are considered as the most harmful hazards. The existing ventilation and filtration systems are not able to solve all problems resulting from the process. Plasma cutting under water is worthy of notice, especially during an advancement of plasma cutting process, because of human safety and environment protection. Such a solution allows to reduce considerably the emission of dust and gases, as well as to decrease the noise level and ultraviolet radiation. An additional advantage of underwater plasma cutting is a reduction in the width of material heating zone and a decrease in strains of elements being cut. However, the productivity of this process is a little lower what results in an increase in cutting cost. In the paper, it has been presented the results of the investigations made at the Institute of Welding in Gliwice on the area of plasma cutting equipment with energy-saving inverter power supplies used in automated processes of underwater plasma cutting as well as the results of testing of welding environment contamination and safety hazards. (author)

  19. 29 CFR 1915.53 - Welding, cutting and heating in way of preservative coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting and heating in way of preservative... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Welding, Cutting and Heating § 1915.53 Welding, cutting and heating in way of... and shipbulding and shall not apply to shipbreaking. (b) Before welding, cutting or heating...

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  1. Modification Approach of Fuzzy Logic Model for Predicting of Cutting Force When Machining Nickel Based Hastelloy C-276

    OpenAIRE

    BASIM A. KHIDHIR; Bashir Mohamed; Mahmoud A.A. Younis

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Most Nickel based Hastelloy C-276 is a difficult-to-machine material because of its low thermal diffusive property and high strength at high temperature. Machinability consideration of nickel based Hastelloy C-276 in turning operations has been carried out using ceramic inserts under dry conditions. Approach: This study described a modification approach applied to a fuzzy logic based model for predicting cutting force where the machining parameters for c...

  2. Effect of cutting parameters on chip formation in orthogonal cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ben Salem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to study the chip formation to obtain the optimal cutting conditions and to observe the different chip formation mechanisms. Analysis of machining of a hardened alloy, X160CrMoV12-1 (cold work steel: AISI D2 with a ferritic and cementite matrix and coarse primary carbides, showed that there are relationships between the chip geometry, cutting conditions and the different micrographs under different metallurgical states.Design/methodology/approach: Machining of hardened alloys has some metallurgical and mechanical difficulties even if many successful processes have been increasingly developed. A lot of study has been carried out on this subject, however only with modest progress showing specific results concerning the real efficiency of chip formation. Hence, some crucial questions remain unanswered: the evolution of white layers produced during progressive tool flank wear in dry hard turning and to correlate this with the surface integrity of the machined surface. For the experimental study here, various cutting speeds and feed rates have been applied on the work material.Findings: The “saw-tooth type chips” geometry has been examined and a specific attention was given to the chip samples that were metallographically processed and observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM to determine if white layers are present.Research limitations/implications: This research will be followed by a detail modelling and need more experimental results for a given a good prediction of the results occurred on the damage related to the microstructure by using the cutting parameters.Practical implications: A special detail was given to the mechanism of chip formation resulting from hard machining process and behaviour of steel at different metallurgical states on the material during the case of annealing and or the case of quench operations.Originality/value: For the sake of simplicity, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance was used to

  3. Thermal processing of waste organic substrates: Developing and applying an integrated framework for feasibility assessment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiannidis, A.; Malamakis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Wittmaier, M.; Langer, S. [University of Applied Sciences, Institut fuer Kreislaufwirtschaft GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, D-27199, Bremen (Germany); Bilitewski, B. [Institute of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment, Pratzschwitzer Strasse 15, D-01796 Pirna (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Against the background of global climate change and increasing prices of fossil fuel, the importance of producing sustainable renewable energy increases significantly. CO{sub 2}-neutral energy generation using biomass or organic waste is an alternative option that deserves attention particularly in developing countries. Aim of this paper is to provide an integrated framework for the preparation of feasibility studies for the renewable energy sector there, considering technical, environmental, economic, socio-cultural, legal and institutional aspects which are particular applicable for developing countries. Such a feasibility framework involves a definition of the scope, which reflects the aims and objectives of the target groups (supplier, operator, etc. of renewable energy supply) and the methodologies and tools involved. All relevant aspects are covered: data collection, selection of sites and assessment of options. Furthermore, methods and tools for risk assessment and decision-making are presented and a practical plan of procedures is last provided. The proposed framework is then applied to a selected area in Vietnam and certain results of the study, showing that the implementation of a biogas plant utilizing organic waste would be feasible, are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining t...

  5. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  6. New Cutting Force Modeling Approach for Flat End Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new mechanistic cutting force model for flat end milling using the instantaneous cutting force coefficients is proposed. An in-depth analysis shows that the total cutting forces can be separated into two terms: a nominal component independent of the runout and a perturbation component induced by the runout. The instantaneous value of the nominal component is used to calibrate the cutting force coefficients. With the help of the perturbation component and the cutting force coeffcients obtained above, the cutter runout is identified.Based on simulation and experimental results, the validity of the identification approach is demonstrated. The advantage of the proposed method lies in that the calibration performed with data of one cutting test under a specific regime can be applied for a great range of cutting conditions.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  8. "Heart-cut" bidimensional achiral-chiral liquid chromatography applied to the evaluation of stereoselective metabolism, in vivo biological activity and brain response to chiral drug candidates targeting the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Umberto M; Citti, Cinzia; Larini, Martina; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Stasiak, Natalia; Troisi, Luigino; Braghiroli, Daniela; Parenti, Carlo; Zoli, Michele; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2016-04-22

    A "heart-cut" two-dimensional achiral-chiral liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method (LC-LC-MS/MS) was developed and coupled to in vivo cerebral microdialysis to evaluate the brain response to the chiral compound (±)-7-chloro-5-(3-furanyl)-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide ((±)-1), a potent positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of AMPA receptor. The method was successfully employed to evaluate also its stereoselective metabolism and in vitro biological activity. In particular, the LC achiral method developed, employs a pentafluorinated silica based column (Discovery HS-F5) to separate dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, (±)-1 and its two hepatic metabolites. In the "heart-cut" two-dimension achiral-chiral configuration, (±)-1 and (±)-1-d4 eluted from the achiral column (1st dimension), were transferred to a polysaccharide-based chiral column (2nd dimension, Chiralcel OD-RH) by using an automatic six-port valve. Single enantiomers of (±)-1 were separated and detected using electrospray positive ionization mode and quantified in selected reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated and showed good performance in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. The new method employed showed several possible applications in the evaluation of: (a) brain response to neuroactive compounds by measuring variations in the brain extracellular levels of selected neurotransmitters and other biomarkers; (b) blood brain barrier penetration of drug candidates by measuring the free concentration of the drug in selected brain areas; (c) the presence of drug metabolites in the brain extracellular fluid that could prove very useful during drug discovery; (d) a possible stereoselective metabolization or blood brain barrier stereoselective crossing of chiral drugs. Finally, compared to the methods reported in the literature, this technique avoids the necessity of euthanizing an animal at each time point to measure drug

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  10. Metallographic investigations of metal plate edges after cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gąsiorek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cutting sheets of various materials is a commonly used product finishing process in industrial conditions. If high quality of cut edges is required, defects caused by cutting on a guillotine make this process of finishing practically unsuitable. The Authors evaluated quality of plates after cutting in laboratory, on industrial guillotine and a rotary slitter, in order to specify a cutting method least disturbing to the product’s edge. Design/methodology/approach: Samples of multi-layered aluminium lithographic plates, divided by cardboard and paper sheets were cut in industrial conditions on a guillotine and a rotary slitter. A specially designed laboratory test stand was built, allowing measurements of forces and applying a vertical, controlled movement of the cutting blade. Surfaces of edges of the samples were examined with the use of a Scanning Electronic Microscope; results of these scans were compared and evaluated. Findings: Comparison of surfaces after cutting allowed drawing conclusions regarding methods causing minimum disturbances to the cut edges. The best quality of the cut edges was obtained on a laboratory guillotine test stand, applying a unique, vertical movement of the cutting blade. Research limitations/implications: Results of laboratory experiments should be continued and verified on larger scale in industrial conditions. Practical implications: If vertical cutters could deliver the same edge quality as rotary slitters, a substantial reduction of production costs can be expected as in many cases guillotines are far more efficient than rotary slitters. Originality/value: Vertical, controlled movement of the blade during cutting metal sheets offers substantial advantages to the finishing process compared to standard guillotine cutting. In all cases, when high quality of the edge surface is required, proposed vertical cutting combines high efficiency with simplicity of operations and assures high quality of the

  11. Cross cutting CFD support to innovative reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several innovative technologies are under consideration in the world for nuclear energy production. The considered reactor systems apply either gas, sodium, lead, lead-bismuth, supercritical water, or molten salt as coolant. Therefore, methods shall be developed to determine the viability of such systems, but also to support the design of these innovative reactor systems. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is becoming more and more integrated in the daily practice of thermal-hydraulics researchers and designers. Therefore, it is very important to develop modelling approaches for the application of CFD to the specific requirements for innovative reactors. As many of these innovative reactor designs under consideration are operated using other coolants than water, one has to be careful in adopting methods which are developed for water as a coolant. Cross-cutting CFD challenges, methods and applications are presented for innovative reactors. (author)

  12. A comparison of micro-structured flat-plate and cross-cut heat sinks for thermoelectric generation application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezania, Alireza; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Heat sink configuration has strong impact on net power output from thermoelectric generators (TEGs). A weak cooling strategy can even cause negative net power output from the thermoelectric device. However, the net power output can be significantly improved by optimal design of the heat sink. In...... this study, a micro-structured plate-fin heat sink is compared to a modified design of cross-cut heat sink applied to TEGs over a range of temperatures and thermal conductivities. The particular focus of this study is to explore the net power output from the TEG module. The three-dimensional governing......-fin heat sink is higher, while the TEG with cross-cut heat sink has higher maximum net power output at high flow inlet velocity. The maximum net power output is equal in the TEGs with plate-fin heat sink and cross-cut heat sink....

  13. Application of water jet cutting for tunnel boring

    OpenAIRE

    Nygårdsvoll, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Water jet cutting has proven to be an effective technology for machining various materials, and providing a distinctive advantage over other cutting methods. Its application in the engineering industry is evolving and improving annually, and is one of the fastest growing machining processes. This thesis addresses the idea of applying water jet cutting technology as a new method for boring through rock in the construction of infrastructural tunnels. So far water jets have only b...

  14. Selected Malaysian Wood CO2 -Laser Cutting Parameters And Cut Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Yusoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser has been used to cut most non-metallic materials very efficiently and successfully because these materials are highly absorptive by the CO2 laser wavelength of 10.6µm. Laser cutting process has been found to be reliable in loads of applications, with several advantages over other mechanical means in producing successful cut of even thermally sensitive materials such as wood. Various works which have been conducted to resolve the interaction between laser and wood but an ultimate guideline to produce the best cutting results are still undecided. This latest experiment was performed on Malaysian light hardwood namely, Nyatoh (Palaquium spp., Kembang Semangkok (Scaphium spp., Meranti (Shorea spp. and normal Plywood using low power carbon dioxide laser machine with 500 Watt maximum output. The low power laser machine (Zech Laser model ZL 1010, equipped with a slow flow CO2 laser producing maximum output power of 500 watt on beam mode of TEM01 is employed. The processing variables taken into investigation were laser power, nozzle-standoff distance (SOD or focal point position, nozzle size, assist gas pressure, types of assist gas, cutting speed and delay time. The wood properties observed were thickness, density and moisture content of the wood. The analyses considered were of the geometric and dimensional accuracy (straight sideline length, diameter of circle, kerf width, and percent over cut, material removal rate, and severity of burns of the matters upon machining with compressed air or any assist gases. The relationship between processing parameters and types of wood with different properties were outlined in terms of optimum cutting conditions, the minimum burnt-effect achievable and the best cut quality obtained with minimal surface deterioration and acceptable in accuracy. From this present study a guideline for cutting a wide range of Malaysian wood has been outlined.

  15. Collaborating To Cut Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Private colleges across the country are collaborating to cut costs, streamline services, and increase efficiency. An ambitious Ohio project, involving 35 colleges, to redesign business operations hopes to save $20-25 million. Other efforts include joint classes using interactive television, shared library resources, cross-registration, jointly…

  16. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  17. Cutting Method of the CAD model of the Nuclear facility for Dismantling Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current methods for process simulation cannot simulate the cutting operation flexibly. As is, to simulate a cutting operation, user needs to prepare the result models of cutting operation based on pre-define cutting path, depth and thickness with respect to a dismantle scenario in advance. And those preparations should be built again as scenario changes. To be, user can change parameters and scenarios dynamically within a simulation configuration process so that the user saves time and efforts to simulate cutting operations. This study presents the methodology of cutting operation which can be applied to all the procedure in the simulation of dismantling of nuclear facilities. We developed the cutting simulation module for cutting operation in the dismantling of the nuclear facilities based on proposed cutting methodology. We defined the requirement of model cutting methodology based on the requirement of the dismantling of nuclear facilities. And we implemented cutting simulation module based on API of the commercial CAD system

  18. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  19. 蜂群遗传算法在一维下料问题中的应用%Bee-swarm genetic algorithm is applied to one-dimensional cutting problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓伟; 刘林; 周谧

    2012-01-01

    According to the one-dimensional cutting-stock optimization problem, this article considers the actual situation-- meet or no-meet production, for this problem to create a new optimization model and use bee-swarm genetic algorithm to solve the problem. With the parts arranged as a chromosome, the length of each part of the chromosome is as a gene, and according to the principles of bees to set two different populations, population one is for global searching, population two is for local searching. Ex- perimental results show that the model has some practical value.%针对一维下料优化问题,根据企业的实际生产情况,考虑能够满足和不满足生产两种情况,建立一个新的优化模型,并使用蜂群遗传算法求解方案。用各零件长度的一个排列作为一个染色体,每个零件的长度作为染色体的一个基因,根据蜂群原理设置两个不同的种群,种群1用于全局搜索,种群2用于局部搜索。实验结果表明,该模型具有一定的实用价值。

  20. Methods of Cut-Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Baaz, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book on cut-elimination in first-order predicate logic from an algorithmic point of view. Instead of just proving the existence of cut-free proofs, it focuses on the algorithmic methods transforming proofs with arbitrary cuts to proofs with only atomic cuts (atomic cut normal forms, so-called ACNFs). The first part investigates traditional reductive methods from the point of view of proof rewriting. Within this general framework, generalizations of Gentzen's and Sch\\"utte-Tait's cut-elimination methods are defined and shown terminating with ACNFs of the original proof. M

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  2. Aspects of plasma arc cutting process in the AISI 321 type stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of plasma arc cutting process in the AISI321 stainless steel, used in nuclear industry, are analysed. The maximum values of the velocity of cutting and, the minimum quantity of energy per unit of length necesary for the plasma were determined. The localization of irregularities in the cut surface in function of the velocity of cutting was investigated. The cut surfaces were evaluated by surface roughness, using as measurement parameter, the distance between the sharpest salience and the deepest reentrance of the sample profile. The width of layer from thermal action of the plasma was influenced by the velocity of cutting. (Author)

  3. Cutting line determination for plant propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Li-Yun; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Sun, Hua-Hong; Chen, Hsiang-Ju; Wu, Xin-Ting; Hu, Min-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Investigating an efficient method for plant propagation can help not only prevent extinction of plants but also facilitate the development of botanical industries. In this paper, we propose to use image processing techniques to determine the cutting-line for the propagation of two kinds of plants, i.e. Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel and Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay, which have quite different characteristics in terms of shape, structure, and propagation way (e.g. propagation by seeding and rooting, respectively). The proposed cutting line determination methods can be further applied to develop an automatic control system to reduce labor cost and increase the effectiveness of plant propagation.

  4. Position-space cuts for Wilson line correlators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laenen, Eric; Larsen, Kasper J.; Rietkerk, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    We further develop the formalism for taking position-space cuts of eikonal diagrams introduced in ref. [1]. These cuts are applied directly to the position-space representation of any such diagram and compute its discontinuity to the leading order in the dimensional regulator. We provide algorithms

  5. Laser cutting nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  7. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Teens Talk About Cutting Do People Who Self-Injure Have to Be Hospitalized? Stress & Coping Center Stress Cutting How Can I Help a ...

  8. Photonic mesophases from cut rod rotators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelson, Angela C.; Liddell Watson, Chekesha M., E-mail: cml66@cornell.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Avendano, Carlos [Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-14

    The photonic band properties of random rotator mesophases are calculated using supercell methods applied to cut rods on a hexagonal lattice. Inspired by the thermodynamic mesophase for anisotropic building blocks, we vary the shape factor of cut fraction for the randomly oriented basis. We find large, stable bandgaps with high gap isotropy in the inverted and direct structures as a function of cut fraction, dielectric contrast, and filling fraction. Bandgap sizes up to 34.5% are maximized at high dielectric contrast for rods separated in a matrix. The bandgaps open at dielectric contrasts as low as 2.0 for the transverse magnetic polarization and 2.25 for the transverse electric polarization. Additionally, the type of scattering that promotes the bandgap is correlated with the effect of disorder on bandgap size. Slow light properties are investigated in waveguide geometry and slowdown factors up to 5 × 10{sup 4} are found.

  9. Cutting agents for special metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantity of use of special metals has increased year after year in the Plasma Research Institute, Nagoya University, with the development of researches on plasma and nuclear fusion. Most of these special metals are hard to cut, and in order to secure the surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy, considerable efforts are required. The method of experiment is as follows: cutting agents salt water and acetone, rape-seed oil, sulfide and chloride oil and water soluble cutting oil W grade 3; metals to be cut niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium and tungsten; cutting conditions cutting speed 4.7 to 90 m/min, feed 0.07 to 0.2 mm/rev, depth of cut 0.1 to 0.4 mm, tool cemented carbide bit. Chemicals such as tetrachloromethane and trichloroethane give excellent cutting performance, but the toxicity is intense and the stimulative odor exists, accordingly they are hard to use practically. Cutting was easier when the salt water added with acetone was used than the case of rape-seed oil, but salt water is corrosive. Recently, the machining of molybdenum has been often carried out, and the water soluble cutting oil was the best. It is also good for cutting stainless steel, and its lubricating property is improved by adding some additives such as sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus and molybdenum disulfide. However after cutting with it, washing is required. (Kako, I.)

  10. Rooting cuttings of yam (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Rocha e Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The culture of yams (Dioscorea spp. has great importance for the entire Brazilian population, mainly in the Northeast, either by its nutritional or commercial value. This work aimed to study a new method of seedling production of yams by stem cuttings collected from plants with age of 120 days. The experiment was carried out in the CECA/UFAL, in a green house with intermittent fogging, in a fully randomized block design with a factorial 3 × 2 × 2, 12 treatments and 4 replications. Three factors were evaluated: height of the cuttings collection in plant (top, center and bottom, position of the cuttings on the branch (proximal and distal and concentration of Indolebutyric acid (IBA applied (0 and 1 mg/L. The cuttings were planted in plastic trays of 32 cells, containing commercial Bioplant ® substrate. After 30 days, the presence, the number and length of roots was acessed. All variables were subjected to analysis of variance and averages were compared by Tukey test. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of IBA (1 g/L did not influence the rooting process. Cuttings collected in the basal third of the plants in the proximal part of the branches, independent of the concentration of IBA, presented the best results for the percentage of rooting, root number and length of roots per stake.

  11. Quality and performance of laser cutting with a high power SM fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Selchau, Jacob; Olsen, F. O.;

    2013-01-01

    mode fiber laser to study the performance of such lasers in terms of cut quality and process performance. Linear cut experiments have been performed applying a 3kW single mode fiber laser and varying the following parameters: laser power, cutting speed, focal length, focus position, cutting gas...... influence the cut quality and the maximum cutting speed in the investigated parameter space. Furthermore the achieved cutting performance is benchmarked to laser cutting with other types of lasers, CO2-lasers, disc-lasers as well as multimode fiber lasers.......The introduction of high power single mode fiber lasers allows for a beam of high power and a good beam quality factor (M2 ” 1.2), compared to the multimode fiber lasers often utilised in macro laser metal cutting. This paper describes fundamental studies of macro laser metal cutting with a single...

  12. Large Chip Production Mechanism under the Extreme Load Cutting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianli; HE Genghuang; YAN Fugang; CHENG Yaonan; LIU Li

    2015-01-01

    There has existed a great deal of theory researches in term of chip production and chip breaking characteristics under conventional cutting and high speed cutting conditions, however, there isn’t sufficient research on chip formation mechanism as well as its influence on cutting state regarding large workpieces under extreme load cutting. This paper presents a model of large saw-tooth chip through applying finite element simulation method, which gives a profound analysis about the characteristics of the extreme load cutting as well as morphology and removal of the large chip. In the meantime, a calculation formula that gives a quantitative description of the saw-tooth level regarding the large chip is established on the basis of cutting experiments on high temperature and high strength steel 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V. The cutting experiments are carried out by using the scanning electron microscope and super depth of field electron microscope to measure and calculate the large chip produced under different cutting parameters, which can verify the validity of the established model. The calculating results show that the large saw-toothed chip is produced under the squeezing action between workpiece and cutting tools. In the meanwhile, the chip develops a hardened layer where contacts the cutting tool and the saw-tooth of the chip tend to form in transverse direction. This research creates the theoretical model for large chip and performs the cutting experiments under the extreme load cutting condition, as well as analyzes the production mechanism of the large chip in the macro and micro conditions. Therefore, the proposed research could provide theoretical guidance and technical support in improving productivity and cutting technology research.

  13. Cutting work in thick section cryomicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubermann, A J; Riley, W D; Beeuwkes, R

    1977-09-01

    The forces during cryosectioning were measured using miniature strain gauges attached to a load cell fitted to the drive arm of the Porter-Blum MT-2 cryomicrotome. Work was calculated and the data normalized to a standard (1 mm X 1 mm X 0.5 micrometer) section. Thermal energy generated was also calculated. Five parameters were studied: cutting angle, thickness, temperature, hardness, and block shape. Force patterns could be divided into three major groups thought to represent cutting (Type I), large fracture planes greater than 10 micrometer in length (Type II), and small fracture planes less than 10 micrometer in length (Type III). Type I and Type II produced satisfactory sections. Work in cutting ranged from an average of 78.4 muJ to 568.8 muJ. Cutting angle and temperature had the greatest effect on sectioning. Heat generated would be sufficient to cause through-section melting for 0.5 micrometer thick sections assuming the worst possible case, namely that all heat went into the section without loss. Presence of a Type II pattern (large fracture pattern) is thought to be presumptive evidence against thawing. PMID:606833

  14. Drilling cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  15. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David;

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...... fairness notion — using a protocol that circumvents a standard lower bound via parallel information elicitation. Cake divisions satisfying another prominent fairness notion, envy-freeness, are impossible to compute in the simultaneous model, but admit arbitrarily good approximations....

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  17. The size effect in metal cutting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Milton C Shaw

    2003-10-01

    When metal is removed by machining there is substantial increase in the specific energy required with decrease in chip size. It is generally believed this is due to the fact that all metals contain defects (grain boundaries, missing and impurity atoms, etc.), and when the size of the material removed decreases, the probability of encountering a stress-reducing defect decreases. Since the shear stress and strain in metal cutting is unusually high, discontinuous microcracks usually form on the metal-cutting shear plane. If the material being cut is very brittle, or the compressive stress on the shear plane is relatively low, microcracks grow into gross cracks giving rise to discontinuous chip formation. When discontinuous microcracks form on the shear plane they weld and reform as strain proceeds, thus joining the transport of dislocations in accounting for the total slip of the shear plane. In the presence of a contaminant, such as CCl4 vapour at a low cutting speed, the rewelding of microcracks decreases, resulting in decrease in the cutting force required for chip formation. A number of special experiments are described in the paper that support the transport of microcracks across the shear plane, and the important role compressive stress plays on the shear plane. Relatively recently, an alternative explanation for the size effect in cutting was provided based on the premise that shear stress increases with increase in strain rate. When an attempt is made to apply this to metal cutting by Dinesh et al (2001) it is assumed in the analysis that the von Mises criterion pertains to the shear plane. This is inconsistent with the experimental findings of Merchant. Until this difficulty is taken care of, together with the promised experimental verification of the strain rate approach, it should be assumed that the strain rate effect may be responsible for some notion of the size effect in metal cutting. However, based on the many experiments discussed here, it is

  18. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  19. Parametric studies of cutting zircaloy-2 sheets with a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly reactive and pyrophoric nature of zirconium alloys limits the use of conventional thermal sources (e.g., plasma arc cutting, oxygen flame cutting, etc.) for the cutting and drilling of these alloys. In this context, a highly coherent laser beam provides a good alternative for the cutting and drilling. In the present paper, laser beam cutting of zircaloy-2 sheets of 1.1 mm and 0.74 mm thickness is performed using a 300 W average power pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, nozzle gap, gas pressure and cutting speed were varied to give different laser cutting conditions. Metallographic study of the cut surfaces showed the presence of transformed beta phase in the heat affected zone (HAZ) near the cut surface. The microhardness value across the cut surface was also measured. It showed a gradual increase in microhardness from the base metal (160 VHN) towards the HAZ having a maximum value of 365 VHN. The results of parametric studies of the cutting indicated that, with proper selection of process parameters, very narrow cuts can be easily made in zircaloy-2 using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a saving in material and at a much faster rate than alternative processes such as plasma arc cutting and oxygen flame cutting

  20. Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions KidsHealth > For Kids > Checking Out Cuts, ... weren't wearing kneepads. How Do Cuts and Scratches Heal? After getting a cut, scratch, or abrasion, ...

  1. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface is d...... discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  2. Cutting Technology for Decommissioning of the Reactor Pressure Vessels in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kim, Geun Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Byung Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Lots of nuclear power plants have been decommissioned during the last 2 decades. An essential part of this work is the dismantling of the Reactor Pressure Vessel and its Internals. For this purpose a wide variety of different cutting technologies have been developed, adapted and applied. A detailed introduction to Plasma Arc cutting, Contact Arc Metal cutting and Abrasive Water Suspension Jet cutting is given, as it turned out that these cutting technologies are particularly suitable for these type of segmentation work. A comparison of these technologies including gaseous emissions, cutting power, manipulator requirements as well as selected design approaches are given. Process limits as well as actual limits of application are presented

  3. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  4. Unconventional methods of material cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Rusz, Radek

    2009-01-01

    The present bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of unconventional methods of materials cutting. The thesis is only concerned with the most common and most appropriate methods used in practice. The described methods include cutting by laser, plasma, water jet, electron beam and ultrasound. For each of these methods, the principle of current technologies and technological equipment used for materials cutting in industrial practice is described. This thesis compares the individual methods in...

  5. Cutting sequences on translation surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Diana

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the cutting sequences associated to geodesic flow on a large class of translation surfaces, including Bouw-Moller surfaces. We give a combinatorial rule that relates a cutting sequence corresponding to a given trajectory, to the cutting sequence corresponding to the image of that trajectory under the parabolic element of the Veech group. This extends previous work for regular polygon surfaces to a larger class of translation surfaces. We find that the combinatorial rule is the same...

  6. Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton;

    2016-01-01

    The constructions of advanced architectural designs are presently very labour intensive, time consuming, and expensive. They are therefore only applied to a few prestige projects, and it is a major challenge for the building industry to bring the costs down and thereby offer the architects more....... The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...

  7. Effect of cutting parameters on the chip formation in orthogonal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'hamdi, M.; BenSalem, S.; Boujelbene, M.; Katundi, D.; Bayraktar, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study the chip formation to obtain the optimal cutting conditions by observing the different chip formation mechanisms. Analysis of machining of a hardened alloy, X160CrMoV12-1 (cold work steel: AISI D2 with a ferritic and cementite matrix and coarse primary carbides), showed that there are relationships between the chip geometry, cutting conditions and the different micrographs under different metallurgical states. For the experimental study here, various cutting speeds and feed rates have been applied on the work material. The "saw-tooth type chips" geometry has been examined and the chip samples were metallographically processed and observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM) to determine if white layers are present.

  8. Cutting effectiveness and wear of carbide burs on eight machinable ceramics and bovine dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N; Taira, M; Wakasa, K; Shintani, H; Yamaki, M

    1991-10-01

    As a first approach in evaluating the feasibility of industrial machinable ceramics in dentistry, we performed weight-load-cutting tests on eight machinable ceramics and bovine dentin, using #1557 carbide burs driven by an air-turbine handpiece. While the transverse load applied to the bur was cyclically varied between 20 and 80 g, we measured the cutting speed (i.e., the steady-state handpiece speed during cutting) and the cutting volume. The greater the applied load, the more the cutting speed decreased and the cutting volume increased. The degree of this trend, however, differed among the workpieces. When dentin and mica-based glass ceramics were being cut, the cutting speed was moderately reduced, the cutting effectiveness of the bur remained high, and the wear of the bur was small. When other ceramics--such as AIN-based, Si3N4-based, and CaO.SiO2-based ceramics--were being cut, however, the cutting speed was less diminished, and the cutting efficiency of the bur was smaller and decreased rapidly, along with extensive wear of the bur. We speculate that mica-based glass ceramics could be used as the substitute for dentin in the pre-clinical cutting exercise, and that another potential use of machinable ceramics examined might be in the production of future machined dental prostheses. PMID:1814771

  9. Will Intel Grow Through Cuts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAN; STEINBOCK

    2006-01-01

    Short-term cuts, perhaps, but long-term growth in China may be inevitable T he world's largest chipmaker, Intel, is sending a ripple effect through its pool of labor globally, including in China, with the announcement of deep workforce cuts.

  10. Curved-Line Cutting Using a Flexible Circular Saw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yohei; Osumi, Nobuyuki; Takasugi, Akio; Sasahara, Hiroyuki

    We propose a flexible circular saw for high-speed cutting of curved lines in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP). A conventional circular saw is appropriate for straight line cutting, but it cannot be applied to curved line cutting because of the interference between the saw body and the machined surface. To eliminate this problem, the flexible circular saw is deflected into a bowl shape by circular forced displacement, and the cross-section of the saw becomes a circular arc. A curved line can be cut by the bowl-like-deflection. The deflection shape is very important to realize the curved-line cutting without interference. We investigated the deflection of the flexible circular saw by a finite element method (FEM) analysis. Suitable slit shapes for the saw body are also proposed, based on the FEM results regarding stress in the saw body, the minimum radius of curvature, and the effects of cutting force and centrifugal force and eigenvalue. We also conducted a curved-line cutting test on a CFRP plate, and we found that the flexible circular saw can cut curved lines with high accuracy and high speed without interference between the saw body and the machined surface.

  11. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMISATION OF LASER CUTTING USING CUCKOO SEARCH ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MADIĆ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining of optimal laser cutting conditions for improving cut quality characteristics is of great importance in process planning. This paper presents multi-objective optimisation of the CO2 laser cutting process considering three cut quality characteristics such as surface roughness, heat affected zone (HAZ and kerf width. It combines an experimental design by using Taguchi’s method, modelling the relationships between the laser cutting factors (laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position and cut quality characteristics by artificial neural networks (ANNs, formulation of the multiobjective optimisation problem using weighting sum method, and solving it by the novel meta-heuristic cuckoo search algorithm (CSA. The objective is to obtain optimal cutting conditions dependent on the importance order of the cut quality characteristics for each of four different case studies presented in this paper. The case studies considered in this study are: minimisation of cut quality characteristics with equal priority, minimisation of cut quality characteristics with priority given to surface roughness, minimisation of cut quality characteristics with priority given to HAZ, and minimisation of cut quality characteristics with priority given to kerf width. The results indicate that the applied CSA for solving the multi-objective optimisation problem is effective, and that the proposed approach can be used for selecting the optimal laser cutting factors for specific production requirements.

  12. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF CNC CUTTING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The intelligent optimizing method of cutting parameters and the cutting stable districts searching method are set up. The cutting parameters of each cutting pass could be optimized automatically, the cutting chatter is predicted through setting up the dynamic cutting force AR(2) model on-line, the spindle rotation speed is adjusted according to the predicting results so as to ensure the cutting system work in stable district.

  13. Experimental Research Using of MQL in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Globočki Lakić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effect of using of minimal quantity lubrication (MQL technique in turning operations is presented. Experimental research was performed on carbon steel C45E. Technological parameters: depth of cut, feed rate and cutting speed were adjusted to semi-machining and roughing. Higher values ​​of feed and cutting speed were used, than recommended from literature and different types of cooling and lubrication in turning conditions were applied. As a conventional procedure and technology, lubrication with flooding was applied. As special lubrication the MQL technique was used. During research, monitoring of the cutting force, chip shape, tool wear and surface roughness was performed. Relations between parameters, material machinability and economy of process were analyzed.

  14. The Inlet Engine Valves Grinding Using Different Types of Cutting Fluids and Grinding Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Eraldo Jannone da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental research is presented in which different types of cutting fluids (a cutting oil and three different types of soluble oils and grinding wheels (alumina and vitrified CBN were tested in the inlet engine valves grinding. As evaluation parameters the workpiece residual stress and the grinding wheel wear were analyzed. The cutting fluid and the grinding wheel types adopted resulted in changes in all the parameters, due to the different lubricant abilities among the fluids and due to the differences in the mechanical and thermal properties among the abrasives tested. For grinding this steel, the CBN wheel is the best choice, mainly due to compressive residual stress results obtained for all cutting fluids tested. The cutting oil is the most adequate cutting fluid to be used, due to its higher lubricity and ability in keeping the wheel sharp for longer periods of time, reducing the overall grinding energy and the thermal damage.

  15. Method for recovering elemental silicon from cutting remains.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulset, Torgeir; Julrud, Stein; Cassayre, Laurent; Chamelot, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Taxil, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for recovering elemental silicon cutting remains containing silicon particles, wherein the method comprises manufacturing solid anodes from the cutting remains, arranging one or more manufactured anode (s) in an electrolytic cell with a molten salt electrolyte and one or more cathode (s), and applying a potential difference between the one or more anode (s) and cathode (s) to obtain an oxidation of metallic silicon in the one or more anode (s), tran...

  16. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N; Branch, D W; Schamiloglu, E; Cular, S

    2015-08-01

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz-100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10-273 ps for DC voltages and 189-813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250-2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115-1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment. PMID:26329223

  17. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-01

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz-100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10-273 ps for DC voltages and 189-813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250-2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115-1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  18. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment

  19. Design and analysis of the internally cooled smart cutting tools with the applications to adaptive machining

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Che Ghani, Saiful Anwar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Adaptive machining with internally cooled smart cutting tools is a smart solution for industrial applications, which have stringent manufacturing requirements such as contamination free machining (CFM), high material removal rate, low tool wear and better surface integrity. The absence of cutting fluid in CFM causes the cutting tool and the workpiece subject to great thermal loads owing to hi...

  20. Wear and cutting performance of diamond composite material-a comparison with tungsten carbide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-sheng; J. N. Boland

    2004-01-01

    A series of wear and rock cutting tests were undertaken to assess the wear and cutting performance of a thermally stable diamond composite (TSDC). The wear tests were conducted on a newly designed wear testing rig in which a rotating aluminium oxide grinding wheel is turned (also known as machined) by the testing tool element.The rock cutting tests were performed on a linear rock-cutting planer. The thrust and cutting forces acting on the tool were measured during these tests. A tungsten carbide element was also studied for comparative purposes. The wear coefficients of both materials were used to evaluate wear performance while cutting performance was assessed by tool wear and the rates of increase in forces with cutting distance.

  1. Effect of cutting parameters on chip formation in orthogonal cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Salem, S.; E. Bayraktar; M. Boujelbene; D. Katundi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to study the chip formation to obtain the optimal cutting conditions and to observe the different chip formation mechanisms. Analysis of machining of a hardened alloy, X160CrMoV12-1 (cold work steel: AISI D2 with a ferritic and cementite matrix and coarse primary carbides), showed that there are relationships between the chip geometry, cutting conditions and the different micrographs under different metallurgical states.Design/methodology/approach: Machining of harde...

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF CUTTING PARAMETERS ON THE BASIS OF SEMANTIC NETWORK USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pashkevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on accuracy assurance of machine component cutting while using edge tools. An approach based on artificial intelligence technologies in particular technologies of functional semantic networks. The paper analyzes a possibility to apply functional semantic networks for optimization of cutting parameters. An intellectual system intended for solution of applied problems is described in the paper. The paper reveals a system structure and an example for setting optimal cutting speed is cited in the paper. 

  3. Investigations into fibre laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemzadeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Fibre laser cutting of mild steel using oxygen and nitrogen is widely used in industries throughout the world. An IPG YLR-2000 Ytterbium fibre machine with a maximum power of 2 kW and a wavelength of 1.06 µm is used throughout this research. The effects of oxygen and nitrogen as assist gases on the feature of laser cutting process are different in terms of kerf width, surface roughness, heat affected zone and striation pattern. The kerf width in oxygen laser cutting is wider than that for nit...

  4. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  5. A combination method of the theory and experiment in determination of cutting force coefficients in ball-end mill processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Kao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cutting force calculation of ball-end mill processing was modeled mathematically. All derivations of cutting forces were directly based on the tangential, radial, and axial cutting force components. In the developed mathematical model of cutting forces, the relationship of average cutting force and the feed per flute was characterized as a linear function. The cutting force coefficient model was formulated by a function of average cutting force and other parameters such as cutter geometry, cutting conditions, and so on. An experimental method was proposed based on the stable milling condition to estimate the cutting force coefficients for ball-end mill. This method could be applied for each pair of tool and workpiece. The developed cutting force model has been successfully verified experimentally with very promising results.

  6. Converter Structure-Based Power Loss and Static Thermal Modeling of The Press-Pack IGBT Three-Level ANPC VSC Applied to Multi-MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;

    2011-01-01

    performance, the converter structure-based power loss and thermal models are developed in this study for the medium-voltage (MV) three-level active neutral-point-clamped voltage source converter (3L-ANPC-VSC) utilizing 4500 V-1800 A press-pack insulated-gate bipolar transistor-diode pairs and interfacing a 6...

  7. Experimental investigation of the effect of thermal hysteresis in first order material MnFe(P,As) applied in an AMR device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    effect (MCE) and the thermal hysteresis are studied using vibrating sample magnetometry. The influence on actual refrigeration performance is investigated with an established active magnetic regenerator (AMR) test device (Bahl et al., 2008), utilizing a flat plate regenerator of a single Curie...

  8. 适用于井下矿工热舒适性的评价方法%Evaluation Method Applying to Miner Thermal Comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志权

    2012-01-01

    By establishing the mathematical model of body thermal equilibrium, the paper analyzed the relevant factors which affect min- er thermal comfort. It is thought that the skin average temperature is determinant to control the heat exchange between body and environ- ment. Taking three representative miners in Dongtan coal mine working face for example, the PMV and PPD values are calculated when the miners are in different positions. Miner thermal comfort is evaluated by the corresponding thermal sensation.%通过建立人体热平衡的数学模型,分析了影响井下矿工热舒适性的相关因素,认为皮肤平均温度是控制人体与环境热交换的决定因素。以东滩煤矿工作面内3位有代表性的矿工为例,计算矿工在不同位置处的尸My和尸PD值,利用其对应的热感觉评价矿工的热舒适性。

  9. Dining centers cut trans fats

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Katie

    2007-01-01

    Dining Services has pulled ahead of the pack in cutting trans fat from its menus--surpassing restaurants like Burger King, KFC, Taco Bell, and others who have announced that they also will be making the change this spring.

  10. Comment on 'Artificial neural network based modeling of heated catalytic converter performance' by M. Ali Akcayol and Can Cinar [Applied Thermal Engineering 25 (2005) 2341

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, W. [Metals Research Group, School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    A paper has been published in Applied Thermal Engineering, using feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) in the modeling of heated catalytic converter performance. The present paper attempts to discuss and comment on the paper. The amount of data used in the paper are not enough to determine the number of fitting parameters in the network. Therefore, the model is not mathematically sound or justified. The conclusion is that ANN modeling should be used with care and enough data. (author)

  11. Optimization of Cutting Variables in Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xueyan; Wu Zhenye; Zhou Guohua

    1996-01-01

    With the three criteria for cutting variables proposed by W. W. Gilbert and K.Hitomi, th is paper analyzes the reasonable selection of cutting variables, and further states the relations among maximum profit-oriented cutting speed,minimum cost-oriented cutting speed and maximum productivity-oriented cutting speed. It puts forward a mathematical model for the optimization of cutting variables in machining.

  12. Application research on hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xinglin

    2014-06-01

    With the development of the optical fiber sensing technology, the acoustic emission sensor has become one of the focal research topics. On the basis of studying the traditional hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system, the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system for the first time, researching the monitoring signal of the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor in the system. The actual test results show that using the acoustic emission sensor in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system can get the real-time and accurate hydraulic coke cutting state and the effective realization of hydraulic coke cutting automatic monitoring in the Wuhan Branch of Sinopec.

  13. Selection Of Cutting Inserts For Aluminum Alloys Machining By Using MCDM Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madić, Miloš; Radovanović, Miroslav; Petković, Dušan; Nedić, Bogdan

    2015-07-01

    Machining of aluminum and its alloys requires the use of cutting tools with special geometry and material. Since there exists a number of cutting tools for aluminum machining, each with unique characteristics, selection of the most appropriate cutting tool for a given application is very complex task which can be viewed as a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. This paper is focused on multi-criteria analysis of VCGT cutting inserts for aluminum alloys turning by applying recently developed MCDM method, i.e. weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) method. The MCDM model was defined using the available catalogue data from cutting tool manufacturers.

  14. THE STUDY OF CUTTING FORCES AND THEIR AMPLITUDES DURING HIGH-SPEED DRY MILLING MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Zagórski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of knowledge on cutting forces values during milling of different magnesium alloy types. Additionally, the results of own research on cutting forces and their amplitudes after milling magnesium alloys used for manufacturing elements applied in the aerospace industry are included. The subject of the analysis was the influence of technological parameters and the tool type on cutting forces and their amplitudes. The analysis is important due to the correlation between cutting forces and temperature in the cutting area, and, consequently, the safety of machining and strain of the workpiece.

  15. New process for screen cutting: water-jet guided laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Amorosi, Simone; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2005-07-01

    Today's OLED manufacturers need high-precision, fast tools to cut the metal screens used to deposit the electroluminescent layers onto the substrate. Conventional methods -tching and dry laser cutting - are not satisfying regarding the demands of high-definition OLED displays. A new micro machining technology, the water jet guided laser - a hybrid of laser and water jet technologies that has been actively used in recent years in the electronic and semiconductor field - is now available to OLED manufacturers. This technology represents a significant improvement in screen, mask and stencil cutting, as it combines high precision and high speed. It is able to cut small apertures with totally clean edges (no dross or slag), as the water jet removes the particles and a thin water film is maintained on the material surface during the process. Because the water jet cools the material between the laser pulses, the cut material is free of any thermal stress. The water jet guided laser is also a very fast process: as an example, rectangular slots can be cut in 30 to 50 microns thick stainless steel or nickel at a rate between 25'000 and 30'000 holes per hour.

  16. Intracavity second harmonic generation of chemical oxygen iodine laser with a Brewster cut LBO crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tomohiro; Tezuka, Takeo; Chen, Kuntetsu; Hashimoto, Katsuki; Uchiyama, Taro

    1997-04-01

    Second harmonic generation of chemical oxygen iodine laser was investigated with a Brewster cut LBO crystal. By utilizing a Brewster cut LBO crystal the loss in the resonator can be suppressed. Further, by reducing crystal absorption, the crystal can't be heated and go off phase match or even crack due to thermal stress. We could obtain 16.4 W of second harmonic power and keep out the crystal from being destroyed by the damage of thermal stress.

  17. Do payroll tax cuts raise youth employment?

    OpenAIRE

    Egebark, Johan; Kaunitz, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Swedish employer-paid payroll tax was cut on a large scale for young workers, substantially reducing labor costs for this group. Using Difference-in- Differences paired with exact matching, we estimate a small impact, both on employment and on wages, implying a labor demand elasticity for young workers at around 􀀀0:31. Since the tax reduction applied also to existing employments, the cost of the reform was sizable, and the estimated cost per created job is at more than f...

  18. Contaminated Metal Components in Dismantling by Hot Cutting Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the preparatory dismantling activities of Caorso's Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), an experimental campaign using plasma and oxyacetylene metal cutting processes has been performed and applied to plates and tubes exposed to the coolant steam of the reactor. The plant (Boiling Water Reactor, 870 MWe) was designed and built in the 70's, and it was fully operating by 1981 to 1986 being shut down after 1987 Italy's poll that abrogated nuclear power based on U235 fission. The campaign concerns no activated materials, even if the analyses have been performed of by use contaminated components under the free release level, not yet taking into account radioactivity. In this paper, the parameters related to inhalable aerosol, solid and volatile residuals production have been, studied during hot processes which applies the same characteristics of the cutting in field for the dismantling programs of Caorso NPP. The technical parameters such as cutting time and cutting rate vs. pipe diameter/thickness/schedule or plate thickness for ferritic alloys and the emissions composition coming from the sectioning are also reported. The results underline the sort of trouble that can emerge in the cutting processes, in particular focusing on the effects comparison between the two cutting processes and the chemical composition of powders captured by filtering the gaseous emission. Some preliminary considerations on methodology to be used during the dismantling have been presented. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of adhesion strength of Er2O3 coating layer for an advanced breeding blanket system applied to thermal cycles using nano-scratch method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical insulator and hydrogen permeation barrier coatings are important materials to realize the liquid metal and molten-salt typed breeding blanket systems. We found that erbium oxide (Er2O3) is one of the promising materials as the electrical insulator and hydrogen permeation restraint coatings. Establishing the mechanical property evaluation method for these coating is extremely important to certify the durability of coating material in the blanket systems. The adhesion strength property, which is one of the key mechanical properties of coating materials, was investigated using the nano-scratch method. From the results, it was found that the nano-scratch test was able to evaluate the adhesion strength of the Er2O3 coating synthesized by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process with high reproducibility. Furthermore, the adhesion strength of the Er2O3 coating before and after thermal cycling was evaluated using this method. The adhesion strength after 50 thermal cycles at 700degC was kept around 70% compared with that before thermal cycling. (author)

  20. High-Power Laser Cutting of Steel Plates: Heat Affected Zone Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Miraoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal effect of CO2 high-power laser cutting on cut surface of steel plates is investigated. The effect of the input laser cutting parameters on the melted zone depth (MZ, the heat affected zone depth (HAZ, and the microhardness beneath the cut surface is analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to relate the output process parameters to the input laser cutting parameters. Three input process parameters such as laser beam diameter, cutting speed, and laser power are investigated. Mathematical models for the melted zone and the heat affected zone depth are developed by using design of experiment approach (DOE. The results indicate that the input laser cutting parameters have major effect on melted zone, heat affected zone, and microhardness beneath cut surface. The MZ depth, the HAZ depth, and the microhardness beneath cut surface increase as laser power increases, but they decrease with increasing cutting speed. Laser beam diameter has a negligible effect on HAZ depth but it has a remarkable effect on MZ depth and HAZ microhardness. The melted zone depth and the heat affected zone depth can be reduced by increasing laser cutting speed and decreasing laser power and laser beam diameter.

  1. Development of spent-control rod cutting equipment by abrasive water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usui, Shinichi; Komiya, Toshihiro [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. developed the cutting apparatus for spent-control rods and channel boxes, which utilized Abrasive Water Jet, and delivered them to Japan Atomic Power Company, Ltd. An abrasive water jet cutting is cutting method by abrasive ejecting with very high pressurized water (300 Mpa) and has merit not affecting to the objects thermally. The cutting operation carries out remotely in underwater and ejected abrasives are collected and reused in order to decrease secondary wastes. The spent-control rods and channel boxes are divided into two or three pieces and stored in the can in layers. (author)

  2. Mechanistic identification of cutting force coefficients in bull-nose milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ge; Wu Baohai; Zhang Dinghua; Luo Ming

    2013-01-01

    An improved method to determine cutting force coefficients for bull-nose cutters is proposed based on the semi-mechanistic cutting force model.Due to variations of cutting speed along the tool axis in bull-nose milling,they affect coefficients significantly and may bring remarkable discrepancies in the prediction of cutting forces.Firstly,the bull-nose cutter is regarded as a finite number of axial discs piled up along the tool axis,and the rigid cutting force model is exerted.Then through discretization along cutting edges,the cutting force related to each element is recalculated,which equals to differential force value between the current and previous elements.In addition,coefficient identification adopts the cubic polynomial fitting method with the slice elevation as its horizontal axis.By calculating relations of cutting speed and cutting depth,the influences of speed variations on cutting force can be derived.Thereby,several tests are conducted to calibrate the coefficients using the improved method,which are applied to later force predictions.Eventually,experimental evaluations are discussed to verify the effectiveness.Compared to the conventional method,the results are more accurate and show satisfactory consistency with the simulations.For further applications,the method is instructive to predict the cutting forces in bull-nose milling with lead or tilt angles and can be extended to the selection of cutting parameters.

  3. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  4. Cutting inlays with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaczyna, Irena; Grabczewski, Zbigniew

    1995-03-01

    To cut inlay from a stack of glued veneer a CO2 HEBAR-1A laser was used. For setting optimal working parameters of the set used in industrial production of inlay the following elements were defined: the shape and dimensions of the cutting fissure, the dependence between the width of the cutting fissure and the speed with which the laser beam moves and the total thickness of the stack of veneer sheets, the application of the laser for cutting various patterns. Computer aided designing and computer steering of the laser beam enables fast and precise production of large numbers of inlay elements not only from wood but also from other materials like glass, stone, metal, etc. Taking into consideration the high running cost of such a laser set and its very big production only few factories or even one factory in the given area could produce inlay ready for gluing. Further investigation should be carried out on this field particularly considering the lowering of costs not only in inlay production but generally where cutting of wood is concerned.

  5. Nighttime activity of moving objects, their mapping and statistic making, on the example of applying thermal imaging and advanced image processing to the research of nocturnal mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregowski, Piotr; Owadowska, Edyta; Pietrzak, Jan; Zwolenik, Slawomir

    2005-09-01

    The paper presents method of acquiring a new form of statistical information about the changes at scenery, overseen by thermal imaging camera in static configuration. This type of imagers reach uniquely high efficiency during nighttime surveillance and targeting. The technical issue we have solved, resulted from the problem: how to verify the hypothesis that small, nocturnal rodents, like bank voles, use common paths inside their range and that they form a common, rather stable system? Such research has been especially difficult because the mentioned mammals are secretive, move with various speed and due to low contrast to their natural surroundings - as leaves or grass - nearly impossible for other kind of observations from a few meters distance. The main advantage of the elaborated method showed to be both adequately filtered long thermal movies for manual analyses, as well as auto-creation of the synthetic images which present maps of invisible paths and activity of their usage. Additional file with logs describing objects and their dislocations as the ".txt" files allows various, more detailed studies of animal behavior. The obtained results proved that this original method delivers a new, non-invasive, powerful and dynamic concept of solving various ecological problems. Creation of networks consisted of uncooled thermal imagers - of significantly increased availability - with data transmissions to digital centers allows to investigate of moving - particularly heat generated - objects in complete darkness, much wider and much more efficiently than up today. Thus, although our system was elaborated for ecological studies, a similar one can be considered as a tool for chosen tasks in the optical security areas.

  6. Effect of CO2 laser cutting process parameters on edge quality and operating cost of AISI316L

    OpenAIRE

    Eltawahni, Hayat; Hagino, M.; Benyounis, Khaled; Inoue, T; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani

    2012-01-01

    Laser cutting is a popular manufacturing process utilized to cut various types of materials economically. The width of laser cut or kerf, quality of the cut edges and the operating cost are affected by laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, nozzle diameter and focus point position as well as the work-piece material. In this paper CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel of medical grade AISI316L has been investigated. Design of experiment (DOE) was implemented by applying Box-Behnken de...

  7. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed to...... guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density...

  8. Degradation detection of materials used in nuclear power plant components applying probe-type eddy current sensor. Pt. 1. Detection of thermal embrittlement in duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Material degradation caused by aging of nuclear power plant components includes fatigue, neutron irradiation embrittlement and thermal embrittlement of duplex stainless steel. Detecting of these degradation in an earlier stage for prevention of possible accidents may contribute to improve availability and reliability of nuclear power plants. Eddy current testing method has been widely used in nondestructive testing field because the apparatus and sensor are light in weight and compact in size. It also allows testing without contact and provides excellent recordability because eddy current is generated by electromagnetic induction. In this research, material degradation by thermal embrittlement of duplex stainless steel was measured with eddy current changing frequency in steps of 1 kHz, output signal from coil was processed by phase detection technique and displayed as a trajectory on complex plane. By comparing the trajectory of a non-degraded material with that of a degraded material, degradation was evaluated quantitatively. Drawing such trajectory enabled us to capture the eddy current behavior totally and thus to select a proper method of evaluation. (author)

  9. Effect of the addition of thermally activated hydrotalcite on the protective features of sol-gel coatings applied on AA2024 aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collazo, A.; Hernandez, M.; Novoa, X.R. [Corrosion and Materials Engineering Group (ENCOMAT), ETSEI, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Perez, C., E-mail: cperez@uvigo.es [Corrosion and Materials Engineering Group (ENCOMAT), ETSEI, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-09-30

    The present work assesses the effect of the thermal activation of hydrotalcite particles when they are added to a hybrid sol-gel film to improve its corrosion properties. Although previous studies have demonstrated the anti-corrosion properties of as-synthesised hydrotalcite particles incorporated into sol-gel coatings, their inhibitive action has not been well-established. Some hypotheses suggest that it should be related to their anion exchange capacity, which increases when the hydrotalcite is thermally activated. Several techniques were used to characterise the uncalcined and calcined hydrotalcite: X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. To analyse the inhibition action, hybrid sol-gel coatings were doped with 10 wt% of CHT. Accelerated tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for performance evaluation between the sol-gel coatings doped with calcined and uncalcined HT. The results obtained indicate the superior behaviour of samples doped with calcined HT at longer immersion times, which suggests better inhibition action.

  10. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  11. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

  12. EVALUATION OF PIPE CUTTING TECHNOLOGIES IN SHIPBUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Kafali, Mustafa; Ozkok, Murat; Cebi, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Pipes are the most significant ones of the components which constitutes the vessel body. Pipes are fabricated in piping plant at shipyard and exposed to some processes such as cutting, bending, hydrostatic tests, galvanizing and so on. Cutting operation is also vital process among the other ones since it is very crucial that the cutting surfaces are flat and the right angles. In shipyards, there are various pipe cutting methods such as plasma, oxygen, metal saw, band saw and abrasive cutting ...

  13. Cutting stability investigation on a complicated free surface machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Both the results obtained previously relating to structure dynamics of a simultaneous five-axismovement machine tool and to the investigations on dynamic cutting behavior are further applied as afoundation to study the effect of the process parameters on the cutting stability in the process of a complicatedfree surface machining.Design/methodology/approach: In the paper cutting stability investigation on a complicated fee surfacemachining are described.Findings: The experimental data obtained from the cases with and without a real cutting process find that a testunder a specified rotational speed can generate its own charcteristic 3-direction frequencies. The paper speciallyselect the characteristic frequency with the most significant change on response amplitude to analyze.Practical implications: The investigation procedures and the results obtained may be used as a reference andguidance for the analysis of cutting stability in the five-axis machining of a complicated surface in industriallypractical use.Originality/value: The results shown on frequency domain for identifying characteristic frequencies can beinterpreted on time domain to observe amplitude variation respect to time and further understand its changingpattern under the cutting process.

  14. New field programmable gate array-based image-oriented acquisition and real-time processing applied to plasma facing component thermal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During operation of present fusion devices, the plasma facing components (PFCs) are exposed to high heat fluxes. Understanding and preventing overheating of these components during long pulse discharges is a crucial safety issue for future devices like ITER. Infrared digital cameras interfaced with complex optical systems have become a routine diagnostic to measure surface temperatures in many magnetic fusion devices. Due to the complexity of the observed scenes and the large amount of data produced, the use of high computational performance hardware for real-time image processing is then mandatory to avoid PFC damages. At Tore Supra, we have recently made a major upgrade of our real-time infrared image acquisition and processing board by the use of a new field programmable gate array (FPGA) optimized for image processing. This paper describes the new possibilities offered by this board in terms of image calibration and image interpretation (abnormal thermal events detection) compared to the previous system.

  15. New field programmable gate array-based image-oriented acquisition and real-time processing applied to plasma facing component thermal monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V. [Pulsar Team-Project, INRIA Sophia Antipolis, Sophia Antipolis F-06902 (France); Dunand, G.; Moncada, V. [Sophia Conseil Company, Sophia Antipolis F-06560 (France); Jouve, M.; Travere, J.-M. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2010-10-15

    During operation of present fusion devices, the plasma facing components (PFCs) are exposed to high heat fluxes. Understanding and preventing overheating of these components during long pulse discharges is a crucial safety issue for future devices like ITER. Infrared digital cameras interfaced with complex optical systems have become a routine diagnostic to measure surface temperatures in many magnetic fusion devices. Due to the complexity of the observed scenes and the large amount of data produced, the use of high computational performance hardware for real-time image processing is then mandatory to avoid PFC damages. At Tore Supra, we have recently made a major upgrade of our real-time infrared image acquisition and processing board by the use of a new field programmable gate array (FPGA) optimized for image processing. This paper describes the new possibilities offered by this board in terms of image calibration and image interpretation (abnormal thermal events detection) compared to the previous system.

  16. Effect of reinforcement on the cutting forces while machining metal matrix composites–An experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Shoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are of great interest for researchers in recent years, because of their attractive superior properties over traditional materials and single reinforced composites. The machinabilty of hybrid composites becomes vital for manufacturing industries. The need to study the influence of process parameters on the cutting forces in turning such hybrid composite under dry environment is essentially required. In the present study, the influence of machining parameters, e.g. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the cutting force components, namely feed force (Ff, cutting force (Fc, and radial force (Fd has been investigated. Investigations were performed on 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt% Silicon carbide (SiC and rice husk ash (RHA reinforced composite specimens. A comparison was made between the reinforced and unreinforced composites. The results proved that all the cutting force components decrease with the increase in the weight percentage of the reinforcement: this was probably due to the dislocation densities generated from the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix. Experimental evidence also showed that built-up edge (BUE is formed during machining of low percentage reinforced composites at high speed and high depth of cut. The formation of BUE was captured by SEM, therefore confirming the result. The decrease of cutting force components with lower cutting speed and higher feed and depth of cut was also highlighted. The related mechanisms are explained and presented.

  17. THE STUDY OF CUTTING FORCES AND THEIR AMPLITUDES DURING HIGH-SPEED DRY MILLING MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Ireneusz Zagórski; Józef Kuczmaszewski

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the state of knowledge on cutting forces values during milling of different magnesium alloy types. Additionally, the results of own research on cutting forces and their amplitudes after milling magnesium alloys used for manufacturing elements applied in the aerospace industry are included. The subject of the analysis was the influence of technological parameters and the tool type on cutting forces and their amplitudes. The analysis is important due to the correlation betwe...

  18. Vineyard Colonization by Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) Induced by Stinging Nettle Cut Along Surrounding Ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, N; Pozzebon, A; Duso, C; Reggiani, N; Pavan, F

    2016-02-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is the most important host plant for both phytoplasma associated with Bois noir disease of the grapevine and its vector Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Vector abundance in vineyards is favored by stinging nettle growing in surrounding areas. Nettle control by herbicides or cutting can reduce vector population in vineyards. However, chemical weeding can cause environmental problems. Many authors suggest that stinging nettle control applied during H. obsoletus flight could force adults to migrate into vineyards. We evaluate if cutting of nettle growing along ditches during adult flight favors vineyard colonization by H. obsoletus. Three different weed management regimes ("no cuts," "one cut" just before the beginning of adult flight, and "frequent cuts" over the whole vegetative season) were applied to the herbaceous vegetation in ditches bordering two vineyards. The flight dynamics of H. obsoletus were recorded by placing yellow sticky traps on the vegetation along the ditches and at different positions in the vineyards. Frequent stinging nettle cuts (compared with a single cut) in surrounding areas favored the dispersion of vectors inside the vineyards. Stinging nettle control should be based on an integration of a single herbicide application before H. obsoletus emergence followed by frequent cuts to minimize negative side effects of chemical weeding. In organic viticulture, a frequent-cuts strategy should avoid cuts during H. obsoletus flight period, at least in the first year of adoption. PMID:26352752

  19. On the computational complexity of cut-reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Aehlig, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Using appropriate notation systems for proofs, cut-reduction can often be rendered feasible on these notations, and explicit bounds can be given. Developing a suitable notation system for Bounded Arithmetic, and applying these bounds, all the known results on definable functions of certain such theories can be reobtained in a uniform way.

  20. Cryogenic turning of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with modified cutting tool inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananchezian, M.; Pradeep Kumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Productivity in the machining of titanium alloys is adversely affected by rapid tool wear as a consequence of high cutting zone temperature. Conventional cutting fluids are ineffective in controlling the cutting temperature in the cutting zone. In this research work, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of liquid nitrogen when it is applied to the rake surface, and the main and auxiliary flank surfaces through holes made in the cutting tool insert during the turning of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The cryogenic results of the cutting temperature, cutting forces, surface roughness and tool wear of the modified cutting tool insert have been compared with those of wet machining. It has been observed that in the cryogenic cooling method, the cutting temperature was reduced by 61-66% and the surface roughness was reduced to a maximum of 36% over wet machining. The cutting force was decreased by 35-42% and the flank wear was reduced by 27-39% in cryogenic cooling over that of wet machining. Cryogenic cooling enabled a substantial reduction in the geometry of tool wear through the control of the tool wear mechanisms. The application of liquid nitrogen to the heat generation zones through holes made in the cutting tool insert was considered to be more effective over conventional machining.

  1. CO2-Laser Cutting Fiber Reinforced Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.; Nuss, Rudolf; Geiger, Manfred

    1989-10-01

    Guided by experimental investigations laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced reactive injection moulded (RRIM)-polyurethanes which are used e.g. in car industry for bumpers, spoilers, and further components is described. A Comparison with other cutting techniques as there are water jet cutting, milling, punching, sawing, cutting with conventional knife and with ultrasonic excited knife is given. Parameters which mainly influence cutting results e.g. laser power, cutting speed, gas nature and pressure will be discussed. The problematic nature in characterising micro and macro geometry of laser cut edges of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) is explained. The topography of cut edges is described and several characteristic values are introduced to specify the obtained working quality. The surface roughness of laser cut edges is measured by both, an optical and a mechanical sensor and their reliabilities are compared.

  2. Development of underwater laser cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In is desirable to use remote underwater device for the decommissioning work of highly radioactive components such as the nuclear internals from a view point of reducing the ranitidine exposure to the worker. Underwater laser cutting technology has advantages. First advantage in underwater laser cutting technology is that low reaction force during cutting, namely, remote operability is superior. Second point is that underwater laser cutting generates a little amount of secondary waste, because cutting kerf size is very small. Third point is that underwater laser cutting has low risk of the process delay, because device trouble is hard to happen. While underwater laser cutting has many advantages, the careful consideration in the safe treatment of the offgas which underwater laser cutting generates is necessary. This paper describes outline of underwater laser cutting technology developed by IHI Corporation (IHI) and that this technology is effective in various dismantling works in water. (author)

  3. Preliminary development of an integrated approach to the evaluation of pressurized thermal shock as applied to the Oconee Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, T J; Cheverton, R D; Flanagan, G F; White, J D; Ball, D G; Lamonica, L B; Olson, R

    1986-05-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Oconee-1 nuclear plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been Completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This evaluaion was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants: Oconee-1, a Babcock and Wilco reactor plant owned and operated by Duke Power Company; Calvert Cliffs-1, a Combustion Engineering reactor plant owned and operated by Baltimore Gas and Electric company; and H.B. Robinson-2, a Westinghouse reactor plant owned and operated by Carolina Power and Light Company. Studies of Calvert Cliffs-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 are still underway. The specific objectives of the Oconee-1 study were to: (1) provide a best estimate of the probability of a through-the-wall crack (TWC) occurring in the reactor pressure vessel as a result of PTS; (2) determine dominant accident sequences, plant features, operator and control actions and uncertainty in the PTS risk; and (3) evaluate effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  4. Applying the High-Temperature TL in LiF:Mg,Ti to Mixed Thermal Neutron-Gamma Dosimetry - a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent review article on the subject of High Temperature TL (HTTL) characteristics, criticized the attempts to use the two peak method in mixed field neutron-gamma ray dosimetry, promoting their firm conviction, as also published in an earlier survey by that this issue is unworthy to be investigated. Although it should have been a review, the article concentrates in the corresponding section only on one of our publications on the subject , trying to prove their view through our highly problematic results, as they define it. The ''problematics'' will be dealt with in specific future publications, but in order to present a realistic and balanced range of views on this issue, a comprehensive review of the results published on this topic is to be given. Many works deal with mixed field dosimetric application of the two-peak method, but for the sake of clarity we will concentrate only on the applications of 6LiF for thermal neutron fields, as presented in our publications(

  5. Preliminary development of an integrated approach to the evaluation of pressurized thermal shock as applied to the Oconee Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the risk to the Oconee-1 nuclear plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been Completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This evaluaion was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants: Oconee-1, a Babcock and Wilco reactor plant owned and operated by Duke Power Company; Calvert Cliffs-1, a Combustion Engineering reactor plant owned and operated by Baltimore Gas and Electric company; and H.B. Robinson-2, a Westinghouse reactor plant owned and operated by Carolina Power and Light Company. Studies of Calvert Cliffs-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 are still underway. The specific objectives of the Oconee-1 study were to: (1) provide a best estimate of the probability of a through-the-wall crack (TWC) occurring in the reactor pressure vessel as a result of PTS; (2) determine dominant accident sequences, plant features, operator and control actions and uncertainty in the PTS risk; and (3) evaluate effectiveness of potential corrective measures

  6. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  7. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but not always) associated with depression, bipolar disorder , eating disorders, obsessive thinking, or compulsive behaviors. It can also be a sign of mental health problems that cause people to have trouble controlling their impulses or ...

  8. Cutting and Welding of Nanomaterials with an Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Y.Xu; M.L.Tian

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope have been applied to manipulate individual atoms or clusters on a clean surface.Focused ion beam technique is routinely used to cut materials down to sub-100 nm dimension.However,in between the atomic and the sub-100 nm scales,i.e.,at the nanometer scale,to date there is no well-established physical modification technique.Here we demonstrate that localized,impurity-free nano-welding and nano-cutting techniques with a high-intensity elec...

  9. Application of YAG laser processing in underwater welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-power YAG laser is a new fabrication tool. The laser torch is easy to combine with complex with complex mechanics because of beam delivery through optical fiber. A direct underwater laser welding technology has been developed and applied to the preservation, maintenance and removal of nuclear power plants. For subdividing or removing operations for retirement of plants, the laser cutting properties were confirmed to allow a maximum cutting thickness of 80 mm. For repairing inner surface of stainless steel tanks, an underwater laser welding system using a remote-controlled robot was developed and the high quality of underwater laser welding was confirmed. (author)

  10. Recent Results in High Power CO2-Laser Cutting for Shipbuilding Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2003-01-01

    In 1997 a high power laser cutting and welding test facility was established at the Danish shipyard Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Research and development projects were initiated in order to establish the basis for applying the full power of the laser for laser-cutting, by developing mirror based...

  11. Recent Results in High Power CO2-Laser Cutting for Shipbuilding Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    In 1997 a high power laser cutting and welding test facility was established at the Danish shipyard Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Research and development projects were initiated in order to establish the basis for applying the full power of the laser for laser-cutting, by developing mirror based...

  12. Maximizing adhesion of auxin solutions to stem cuttings using sodium cellulose glycolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxin solutions prepared with sodium cellulose glycolate (SCG; a thickening agent, also known as sodium carboxymethylcellulose) and applied to stem cuttings using a basal quick-dip extend the duration of exposure of cuttings to the auxin and have previously been shown to increase root number and/or ...

  13. Applied programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products of thermal and chemical degradation of coal were studied. Isotopic fractionation effects for atmospheric CO were determined. Lunar material was searched for quarks and laser chemistry is being investigated. (U.S.)

  14. Influence of the Magnetic High-speed Steel Cutting Tool on Cutting Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed steel cutting tool has advantaged i n modern cutting tool for its preferable synthetical performance, especially, in a pplication of complicated cutting tools. Therefore, the study of the high-speed steel cutting tools that occupied half of cutting tools has become an importa nt way of studying on modern cutting technology. The cutting performance of hi gh speed-steel cutting tools will be improved by magnetization treating method. Microstructure of high-speed steel will be changed as a ...

  15. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  16. Welding and cutting '93. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 46 lectures on the following ten groups of subjects: New knowledge and experience for welding firms; European welding process testing; welding developments in Europe - process and equipment; progress in material technique; accreditation and certification in the Single European Market; development of equipment in welding and cutting techniques; quality assurance in welding technique; welding additives and welding aid materials; work and health protection in welding technique; training and qualification of personnel; basis of welding technique in Europe - test technique. (MM)

  17. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  18. Femtosecond Laser Cutting of Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a single atomic layer 2D graphite that has unusual properties that would open up wide industrial applications. As graphite is the toughest material on earth, challenges exist to cut and shape the materials. This MPhil thesis presents the outcome of femtosecond laser micro-patterning of single layer graphene on a glass substrate, which has resulted in a journal publication. A literature review was carried out to understand the process, basic characteristics and challenges in laser ...

  19. European labs fight back against cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1997-01-01

    Germany's 1997 budget contains cuts amounting to 3.7% in funding of domestic research programs and in contributions to international labs. Contributions will be cut to the European Space Agency, the European Synchrotron facility and CERN.

  20. A Novel Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Heating for Cut Tobacco Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel parabolic trough concentrating solar heating for cut tobacco drying system was established. The opening width effect of V type metal cavity absorber was investigated. A cut tobacco drying mathematical model calculated by fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method was used to simulate the cut tobacco drying process. And finally the orthogonal test method was used to optimize the parameters of cut tobacco drying process. The result shows that the heating rate, acquisition factor, and collector system efficiency increase with increasing the opening width of the absorber. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for cut tobacco drying process. The relative errors between simulated and experimental values are less than 8%, indicating that this mathematical model is accurate for the cut tobacco airflow drying process. The optimum preparation conditions are an inlet airflow velocity of 15 m/s, an initial cut tobacco moisture content of 26%, and an inlet airflow temperature of 200°C. The thermal efficiency of the dryer and the final cut tobacco moisture content are 66.32% and 14.15%, respectively. The result shows that this parabolic trough concentrating solar heating will be one of the heat recourse candidates for cut tobacco drying system.

  1. Using inpainting to construct accurate cut-sky CMB estimators

    CERN Document Server

    Gruetjen, H F; Liguori, M; Shellard, E P S

    2015-01-01

    The direct evaluation of manifestly optimal, cut-sky CMB power spectrum and bispectrum estimators is numerically very costly, due to the presence of inverse-covariance filtering operations. This justifies the investigation of alternative approaches. In this work, we mostly focus on an inpainting algorithm that was introduced in recent CMB analyses to cure cut-sky suboptimalities of bispectrum estimators. First, we show that inpainting can equally be applied to the problem of unbiased estimation of power spectra. We then compare the performance of a novel inpainted CMB temperature power spectrum estimator to the popular apodised pseudo-$C_l$ (PCL) method and demonstrate, both numerically and with analytic arguments, that inpainted power spectrum estimates significantly outperform PCL estimates. Finally, we study the case of cut-sky bispectrum estimators, comparing the performance of three different approaches: inpainting, apodisation and a novel low-l leaning scheme. Providing an analytic argument why the loca...

  2. Chip-ejection interference in cutting processes of modern cutting tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师汉民

    1999-01-01

    Based on the “principle of minimum energy”, the basic characteristics of non-free cutting are studied; the phenomenon and the nature of chip-ejection interference commonly existing in the cutting process of modem cutting tools are explored. A "synthesis method of elementary cutting tools" is suggested for modeling the cutting process of modem complex cutting tools. The general equation governing the chip-ejection motion is deduced. Real examples of non-free cutting are analyzed and the theoretically predicted results are supported by the experimental data or facts. The sufficient and necessary conditions for eliminating chip-ejection interference and for realizing free cutting are given; the idea and the technical approach of "the principle of free cutting" are also discussed, and a feasible way for improving or optimizing the cutting performance of modem cutting tools is, therefore, found.

  3. Control and exploitation of thermal distortions in welded T-joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the DISCO (Control and Exploitation of Thermal Distortions) project was the creation of an overall concept for the control of thermal distortions. The domain of the project was at this stage limited to structural steels and to the processes most important to the participating industry. The project explored the possibility to apply the inherent strain method for modelling thermal deformations by establishing an inherent strain database for major arc welding and thermal cutting situations. The project was executed in close co-operation with Osaka University, Japan, Lappeenranta University of Technology and four Finnish enterprises. The work focused on structural steels representing two strength levels, and GMAW, FCAW, SAW and restrictedly on tandem MAG welding processes. The computational practices were revealed for treating thermal distortions. Further actions included testing and modelling of welded T-joint with various plate thicknesses

  4. The Preliminary Review for the Cross-Cutting Issues in the US Nuclear Regulatory Inspection Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research for the development of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory inspection is ongoing in KINS. In the USNRC, the cross-cutting issue is one of the main components the risk-informed and performance-based regulatory inspection process as shown in figure 1, which is named as ROP (Reactor Oversight Process). The following three cross-cutting areas implicitly affect all of the safety cornerstones in ROP. In this study, the preliminary review for the inspection practices of cross-cutting issues in the US and Korean safety regulatory system were performed. The elements of the cross-cutting issues were recently modified to emphasize the importance of safety culture, and the graded approach was applied for the inspection of cross-cutting issues in USNRC. The graded approach for the inspection of cross-cutting issues will be also needed to Korean safety regulatory system in the future

  5. Effects of auxin and boron on the rooting of Laurus nobilis L. stem cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Perez Leal

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA, applied with or without boric acid, on rooting laurel (Laurus nobilis L. stem cuttings. The cuttings (15cm that presented two apical leaves were collected from the apexes. They were treated with IBA 0, 50, 150 and 300 mg L-1, with or without boron 150 mg mL-1, for 24 hours. After the treatments, the cuttings were cultivated in polystyrene trays with carbonized rice linings and maintained under intermittent nebulization for 70 days when the percentages for rooting, stem cuttings with callus, and live and dead cuttings, root numbers and root lengths were evaluated. The results showed that IBA 50 mg L-1, IBA 150 and 300mg L-1 with boron enhanced the rooting percentage. The treatment with IBA 150 mg L-1 showed the highest root number in stem cuttings.

  6. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's budget was…

  7. New oxide-composite coatings for difficult metal-cutting tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in today's metal working technology are driven by increasing cutting speeds, heavy/hard machining and an enormous amount by changes in work piece materials. These applications are asking for more tailor made cutting tool solutions. Together with the well established multi component coating technology a new approach of composite coatings is giving solutions for the tough demands of the cutting tool market. In this paper is presented composite coatings of AI2O3/ZrO-2/TiOx made by CVD. The coating is like high performance oxide ceramics for cutting applications. The coating is used in combination with MT CVD coatings and different carbide substrates. The CVD coating has optimum stress for cutting applications, low friction and very high thermal isolation. The outstanding performance of this coating is demonstrated in different applications. (author)

  8. Laser performance and thermal lensing in high-power diode-pumped Yb:KGW with athermal orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, J. E.; Bjurshagen, S.; Pasiskevicius, V.

    2006-04-01

    A comparative, experimental study of the high-power diode-pumped laser performance and thermal lensing properties between standard b-cut Yb:KGW and Yb:KGW cut along an athermal direction is presented. The results show that thermal lens properties in both the b-cut and the athermal direction-cut crystals are determined by anisotropic thermal expansion in Yb:KGW. Thermal gradients due to the pump beam cause thermal lensing even in the athermal direction-cut geometry. The thermal lens is much weaker and less astigmatic in the athermal direction-cut crystal, for the same absorbed power. These properties allow generation of better-quality laser beams with the athermal direction-cut crystal as compared to the b-cut crystal.

  9. Disjunctive cuts in a branch-and-price algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    This talk presents computational results that show the usefulness of the general-purpose valid inequalities disjunctive cuts when applied to the CVRP. Results indicate that the disjunctive cuts are able to reduce the gap between lower bound and upper bound more than state-of-the-art problem speci...... specific inequalities. Results also indicate that introducing the cuts leads to a smaller branch and bound tree and faster solution times overall.......This talk presents computational results that show the usefulness of the general-purpose valid inequalities disjunctive cuts when applied to the CVRP. Results indicate that the disjunctive cuts are able to reduce the gap between lower bound and upper bound more than state-of-the-art problem...

  10. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.

  11. Effect of Type of Cutting Tips on Cutting Forces in Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polák Pavel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to demonstrate the efect of cutting materials and geometry of cutting tips on cutting forces in turning as well as the quality and precision of machined surface. The experiment focuses on measuring cutting forces when turning a sample of steel 11 523 at a constant feed rate and cut depth and at varying speeds of a spindle. Measurements were made using exchangeable cutting tips of diferent types. The results will be evaluated in terms of the impact of diferent characteristics of cutting tips and variable spindle speeds.

  12. Semantic versus syntactic cutting planes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filmus, Y.; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, M.

    Dagstuhl: Schloss Dagstuhl, Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, 2016 - (Ollinger, N.; Vollmer, H.), s. 1-13. (Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics. 47). ISBN 978-3-95977-001-9. ISSN 1868-8969. [33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Orléans (FR), 17.02.2016-20.02.2016] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Keywords : proof complexity * cutting planes * lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/frontdoor.php?source_opus=5736

  13. A comparison of micro-structured flat-plate and cross-cut heat sinks for thermoelectric generation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Plate-fin and cross-cut heat sinks (PFHS, CCHS) are compared for TEG application. • The three-dimensional governing equations for flow and thermoelectrics are solved. • Power generation, pumping power and optimal thermoelectric net power are studied. • Overall net power in the TEG with PFHS is slightly superior to that with CCHS. • Results are in a good agreement with the previous computational studies. - Abstract: Heat sink configuration has strong impact on net power output from thermoelectric generators (TEGs). A weak cooling strategy can even cause negative net power output from the thermoelectric device. However, the net power output can be significantly improved by optimal design of the heat sink. In this study, a micro-structured plate-fin heat sink is compared to a modified design of cross-cut heat sink applied to TEGs over a range of temperatures and thermal conductivities. The particular focus of this study is to explore the net power output from the TEG module. The three-dimensional governing equations for the flow and heat transfer are solved using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in conjunction with the thermoelectric characteristics of the TEG over a wide range of flow inlet velocities. The results show that at small flow inlet velocity, the maximum net power output in TEG with plate-fin heat sink is higher, while the TEG with cross-cut heat sink has higher maximum net power output at high flow inlet velocity. The maximum net power output is equal in the TEGs with plate-fin heat sink and cross-cut heat sink

  14. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  15. Phase unwrapping via graph cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioucas-Dias, José M; Valadão, Gonçalo

    2007-03-01

    Phase unwrapping is the inference of absolute phase from modulo-2pi phase. This paper introduces a new energy minimization framework for phase unwrapping. The considered objective functions are first-order Markov random fields. We provide an exact energy minimization algorithm, whenever the corresponding clique potentials are convex, namely for the phase unwrapping classical Lp norm, with p > or = 1. Its complexity is KT (n, 3n), where K is the length of the absolute phase domain measured in 2pi units and T (n, m) is the complexity of a max-flow computation in a graph with n nodes and m edges. For nonconvex clique potentials, often used owing to their discontinuity preserving ability, we face an NP-hard problem for which we devise an approximate solution. Both algorithms solve integer optimization problems by computing a sequence of binary optimizations, each one solved by graph cut techniques. Accordingly, we name the two algorithms PUMA, for phase unwrappping max-flow/min-cut. A set of experimental results illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its competitiveness in comparison with state-of-the-art phase unwrapping algorithms. PMID:17357730

  16. The effect of indole-butyric acid and kinetin on rooting of rose cuttings in winter and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of indole-butyric acid, both alone and with a low concentration of kinetin, on the rooting of rose cuttings in winter and summer, is presented in this paper. The experiments were conducted using 500 and 1000 mg/l IBA with or without the addition of 5 mg/l kinetin. The growth regulators were applied by dipping the base of a cutting for 5 s in an aqueous solution of these substances. Cuttings 5-6 cm in length were made from the mid-part of a stem of a rose grown in a greenhouse. The experiments were carried out using 'Queen of Bermuda' and 'Baccara' cuttings. The investigations showed that treating rose cuttings rooted in winter with an IBA solution had a significant promotive effect on the quantity of rooted cuttings, number of formed roots on the cutting, as well as on the length of the longest root. A distinctive increase in the number of breaking buds was also seen on the cuttings treated with IBA. The IBA solution applied to cuttings rooted in the summer significantly decreased the number of rooted cuttings and breaking buds. However, no significant influence on the number and length of formed roots was found. Addition of kinetin to the IBA solutions did not have any effect on the rooting of rose cuttings either in winter or summer.

  17. Effect of oxy-natural gas cutting and heat treatment on structure and properties of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of oxygen cutting on the chemical composition, structure, hardness and shock viscosity of low-carbonic steels on the samples, cut-off from 120 mm thick sheet is considered. It is stated that the investigated steel can be subjected to cutting without preliminary heating. Tempering at 600-670 deg C is recommended for decreasing hardness of the range of thermal effect for improving processing by cutting. It is shown that width of the zone with sharply changed content of nickel and manganese does not exceed 0.1 mm

  18. Powerful demolition techniques - plasma fusion cutting, contact arc metal cutting (CAMC), and contact arc metal grinding (CAMG); Leistungsfaehige Rueckbautechnologien - Plasmaschmelzschneiden, Kontakt-Lichtbogen-Metall-Schneiden (CAMC) und Kontakt-Lichtbogen-Metall-Trennschleifen (CAMG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, F.W.; Kremer, G.; Ruemenapp, T. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde, Garbsen (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    One of the most complicated steps in the demolition of nuclear power plants is the disassembly of radiologically burdened large components. Most of this work must be performed remotely and under a cover of water. Moreover, dimensions, structures, and locations pose problems. Various techniques of disassembly are available which have specific pros and cons. Thermal cutting techniques, i.e. plasma fusion cutting, contact arc metal cutting (CAMC), and contact arc metal grinding (CAMG), can be used with comparatively simple handling systems even for large material thicknesses and complex geometries. These thermal cutting techniques have been advanced considerably at the Institute for Materials Technology of the University of Hanover in recent years. In plasma fusion cutting, the workpiece is molten, partly evaporated, and the melt is blown out of the kerf by the gas jet. CAMC and CAMG are based on the thermal abrasion of electrically conducting materials under water by means of repeated non-steady short-circuit high-current arcs resulting from contacts between the electrode and the workpiece. Unlike plasma or laser beam cutting, hollow structures and sandwich structures pose no problems. The performance capability of plasma fusion cutting and contact arc metal cutting has been demonstrated impressively in the disassembly of reactor internals of the Karlsruhe multi-purpose research reactor (MZFR). (orig.)

  19. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  20. Analysis of fabric materials cut using ultraviolet laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Andrew Yeh, J.

    2016-04-01

    Laser ablation technology has widely been applied in the clothing industry in recent years. However, the laser mechanism would affect the quality of fabric contours and its components. Hence, this study examined carbonization and oxidation conditions and contour variation in nonwoven, cotton, and composite leather fabrics cut by using an ultraviolet laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. Processing parameters such as laser power, pulse frequency, scanning speed, and number of pulses per spot were adjusted to investigate component variation of the materials and to determine suitable cutting parameters for the fabrics. The experimental results showed that the weights of the component changed substantially by pulse frequency but slightly by laser power, so pulse frequency of 100 kHz and laser power of 14 W were the approximate parameters for three fabrics for the smaller carbonization and a sufficient energy for rapidly cutting, which the pulse duration of laser system was fixed at 300 μs and laser irradiance was 0.98 J/mm2 simultaneously. In addition, the etiolate phenomenon of nonwoven was reduced, and the component weight of cotton and composite leather was closed to the value of knife-cut fabric as the scanning speed increased. The approximate scanning speed for nonwoven and composite leather was 200 mm/s, and one for cotton was 150 mm/s, respectively. The sharper and firmer edge is obtained by laser ablation mechanism in comparison with traditional knife cutting. Experimental results can serve as the reference for laser cutting in the clothing industry, for rapidly providing smoother patterns with lower carbonization and oxidation edge in the fashion industry.

  1. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  2. Intelligent cutting-off of pipes and bars

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Carlos; Mendes, José A.; Fonseca, Jaime C.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, automatic cutting-off machines, of metallic pipes or bars, use a constant cutting velocity mode. This mode of operation, constant cutting velocity combined with different profiles of materials to be cut, exposes the cutting saw to variable cutting forces. Therefore, the cutting off machine is usually set for the worst expected conditions, otherwise excessive wear of the saw and machine will occur. Further, traditional cutting-off machines require the adjust...

  3. Personal use of heavy cutting tools with the steady-cut-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear plants, it is necessary to cut technical components and infrastructural elements. The container dimensions for waste disposal determine the size of the fragmented parts. The main cutting techniques are sawing, milling, flame cutting, plasma arc cutting, laser cutting and water abrasive suspension cutting. For radiological and technical reasons, especially size and weight, the cutting tools are remote controlled. The main issues concerning remote controlled cutting tools are the high equipment cost, the long time for planning, installation and transaction. Another problem is the small flexibility towards technical and unpredictable difficulties. These are the reasons for the development of the Steady-Cut-System. This system works in non, weak or middle radiation areas without remote controlled cutting techniques. An operator, equipped with the appropriate cutting tools and the Steady-Cut-System, executes the necessary disassembling under permanent radiological control. After termination of the disassembling the user leaves the radiologically contaminated area with the cutting tool and the Steady-Cut-System. Time- and costintensive installations, assemblies and transfers in this area are not necessary. The operator can immediately intervene in case of sudden problems and changes. (orig.)

  4. Cut performance levels and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job. PMID:22135955

  5. Testing of Commercial Cutting Heads for Abrasive Water Jet Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Klich, J. (Jiří); Hlaváček, P.; M. Zeleňák; Sitek, L. (Libor); Foldyna, J.

    2013-01-01

    Five different cutting heads designed for cutting by high-speed abrasive water jet technology were tested from cutting ability point of view. Straight kerfs were cut in several metal materials by abrasive water jet. Material removal volume was determined as a measure of performance of specific cutting head. Quality of cutting surface was observed, too. Results are compared and discussed.

  6. Theoretical aspects of fibre laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibre lasers offer distinct advantages over established laser systems with respect to power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. Consequently, the potential of these new laser beam sources will be increasingly exploited for laser cutting applications that are conventionally carried out with CO2 lasers. However, theoretical estimates of the effective absorptivity at the cut front suggest that the shorter wavelength of the fibre laser in combination with its high focusability seems to be primarily advantageous for thin sheet metal cutting whereas the CO2 laser is probably still capable of cutting thicker materials more efficiently. This surprising result is a consequence of the absorptivity behaviour of metals that shows essential quantitative differences for the corresponding wavelengths of both laser sources as a function of the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the material to be cut. In evaluation of the revealed dependences, solution strategies for an improvement of the efficiency of fibre laser cutting of thicker metal sheets are suggested.

  7. Theoretical aspects of fibre laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrle, A.; Beyer, E.

    2009-09-01

    Fibre lasers offer distinct advantages over established laser systems with respect to power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. Consequently, the potential of these new laser beam sources will be increasingly exploited for laser cutting applications that are conventionally carried out with CO2 lasers. However, theoretical estimates of the effective absorptivity at the cut front suggest that the shorter wavelength of the fibre laser in combination with its high focusability seems to be primarily advantageous for thin sheet metal cutting whereas the CO2 laser is probably still capable of cutting thicker materials more efficiently. This surprising result is a consequence of the absorptivity behaviour of metals that shows essential quantitative differences for the corresponding wavelengths of both laser sources as a function of the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the material to be cut. In evaluation of the revealed dependences, solution strategies for an improvement of the efficiency of fibre laser cutting of thicker metal sheets are suggested.

  8. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor;

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking into...... account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  9. Towards high cutting speed in wood milling

    OpenAIRE

    COSTES, Jean-Philippe; Larricq, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    International audience High cutting speed machining processes have been used for about 10 years for metals. This technology presents many advantages related to output and surface quality. For timber machining, commonly used velocities are already high. However, literature about cutting velocity function during a machining process is rare. Nevertheless, some published results have shown the effect of speed on chip formation. In order to perform experiments at high cutting speeds, we used a ...

  10. Cutting sequences on square-tiled surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    We characterize cutting sequences of infinite geodesics on square-tiled surfaces by considering interval exchanges on specially chosen intervals on the surface. These interval exchanges can be thought of as skew products over a rotation, and we convert cutting sequences to symbolic trajectories of these interval exchanges to show that special types of combinatorial lifts of Sturmian sequences completely describe all cutting sequences on a square-tiled surface. Our results extend the list of f...

  11. Solving maximum cut problems by simulated annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Myklebust, Tor G. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a straightforward implementation of simulated annealing for solving maximum cut problems and compares its performance to that of some existing heuristic solvers. The formulation used is classical, dating to a 1989 paper of Johnson, Aragon, McGeoch, and Schevon. This implementation uses no structure peculiar to the maximum cut problem, but its low per-iteration cost allows it to find better solutions than were previously known for 40 of the 89 standard maximum cut instances te...

  12. Applied Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Spencer G.

    Stratigraphy is a cornerstone of the Earth sciences. The study of layered rocks, especially their age determination and correlation, which are integral parts of stratigraphy, are key to fields as diverse as geoarchaeology and tectonics. In the Anglophile history of geology, in the early 1800s, the untutored English surveyor William Smith was the first practical stratigrapher, constructing a geological map of England based on his own applied stratigraphy. Smith has, thus, been seen as the first “industrial stratigrapher,” and practical applications of stratigraphy have since been essential to most of the extractive industries from mining to petroleum. Indeed, gasoline is in your automobile because of a tremendous use of applied stratigraphy in oil exploration, especially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Applied stratigraphy, thus, is a subject of broad interest to Earth scientists.

  13. Optimisation of cutting velocity of bundles of various metal sheets on a guillotine with respect to heating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaczmarczyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The work was aimed at elaboration of methods and algorithms for thermal process optimisation during cutting the bundles of various types of metal sheets made of copper, brass and bronze interleaved with paper on a guillotine with respect to the heating process.Design/methodology/approach: The numerical simulations were conducted using an author’s computer program prepared in the object oriented language C++ using the finite difference method. The optimisation has been conducted employing the genetic algorithms which were also implemented in C++ language and elaborated as an author’s computer program. As the objective function the maximum values of temperatures occurring in the direct cutting zone of the sheet bundles were assumed and the cutting velocity was established as a design variable.Findings: Possibilities of designation of the optimum cutting parameters on account of maximum admissible temperature of the bundles of various metals have been indicated. The constraints imposed on the temperature were needed to avoid defects which might occur in the direct cutting zone as the result of progressing heating during cutting.Research limitations/implications: The elaborated methods and algorithms for optimisation of the chosen cutting parameters may be generalized for the wide gamut of materials and for changeable cutting conditions; however, the obtained numerical results are specific and related to the chosen types of materials and fixed cutting conditions.Practical implications: Optimisation of the cutting parameters is essential in terms of industrial economy. It allows to reduce the amount of waste caused by defects in cutting bundles of sheets and decrease wear of the cutting tool.Originality/value: Proposed elaborated methods and algorithms for optimisation of cutting parameters are novel and original tools supporting the reduction of defects’ number occurring during cutting were designed.

  14. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  15. A finite element model for ultrasonic cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Margaret; MacBeath, Alan; McCulloch, Euan; Cardoni, Andrea

    2006-12-22

    Using a single-blade ultrasonic cutting device, a study of ultrasonic cutting of three very different materials is conducted using specimens of cheese, polyurethane foam and epoxy resin. Initial finite element models are created, based on the assumption that the ultrasonic blade causes a crack to propagate in a controlled mode 1 opening, and these are validated against experimental data from three point bend fracture tests and ultrasonic cutting experiments on the materials. Subsequently, the finite element model is developed to represent ultrasonic cutting of a multi-layered material. Materials are chosen whose properties allow a model to be developed that could represent a multi-layer food product or biological structure, to enable ultrasonic cutting systems to be designed for applications both in the field of food processing and surgical procedures. The model incorporates an estimation of the friction condition between the cutting blade and the material to be cut and allows adjustment of the frequency, cutting amplitude and cutting speed. PMID:16814351

  16. Sketching Cuts in Graphs and Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, Dmitry; Krauthgamer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sketching and streaming algorithms are in the forefront of current research directions for cut problems in graphs. In the streaming model, we show that $(1-\\epsilon)$-approximation for Max-Cut must use $n^{1-O(\\epsilon)}$ space; moreover, beating $4/5$-approximation requires polynomial space. For the sketching model, we show that $r$-uniform hypergraphs admit a $(1+\\epsilon)$-cut-sparsifier (i.e., a weighted subhypergraph that approximately preserves all the cuts) with $O(\\epsilon^{-2} n (r+\\...

  17. Towards a MIP-Cut Metascheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, Matteo

    Cutting planes (cuts) are very popular in the OR community, where they are used to strengthen the Linear Programming (LP) relaxation of Mixed-Integer Programs (MIPs) in the hope of improving the performance of an exact LP-based solver. In particular, an intense research effort has been devoted to the study of families of general cuts, whose validity does not require the presence of a specific MIP structure - as opposed to problem-specific cuts such as, e.g., subtour elimination or comb inequalities for the traveling salesman problem.

  18. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  19. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO2 and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO2 laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  20. Applied probability and stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Sumita, Ushio

    1999-01-01

    Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes is an edited work written in honor of Julien Keilson. This volume has attracted a host of scholars in applied probability, who have made major contributions to the field, and have written survey and state-of-the-art papers on a variety of applied probability topics, including, but not limited to: perturbation method, time reversible Markov chains, Poisson processes, Brownian techniques, Bayesian probability, optimal quality control, Markov decision processes, random matrices, queueing theory and a variety of applications of stochastic processes. The book has a mixture of theoretical, algorithmic, and application chapters providing examples of the cutting-edge work that Professor Keilson has done or influenced over the course of his highly-productive and energetic career in applied probability and stochastic processes. The book will be of interest to academic researchers, students, and industrial practitioners who seek to use the mathematics of applied probability i...

  1. Theory and experiment testing flux-line cutting physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss predictions of five proposed theories for the critical state of type-II superconductors accounting for both flux cutting and flux transport (depinning). The theories predict different behaviours for the ratio Ey/Ez of the transverse and parallel components of the in-plane electric field produced just above the critical current of a type-II superconducting slab as a function of the angle of an in-plane applied magnetic field. We present experimental results measured using an epitaxially grown YBCO thin film favouring one of the five theories, i.e. the extended elliptic critical-state model. We conclude that when the current density J is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the local magnetic flux density B, both flux cutting and flux transport occur simultaneously when J exceeds the critical current density Jc, indicating an intimate relationship between flux cutting and depinning. We also conclude that the dynamical properties of the superconductor when J exceeds Jc depend in detail upon two nonlinear effective resistivities for flux cutting (ρc) and flux flow (ρf) and their ratio r = ρc/ρf. (rapid communication)

  2. Parametric optimization of wire cut electrical discharge machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Durairaj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wire Electrical Discharge Machining is a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges (or by repetitive spark cycle.  Precision and intricate machining are the strengths.  Machining parameters tables provided by the machine tool manufacturers often do not meet the operator requirements. Selection of optimum machining and machining parameters combinations is needed for obtaining higher cutting efficiency and accuracy. In this present study, machining is done using Wire-Cut EDM and optimization of surface roughness is done using Taguchi’s design of experiments. Experimentation was planned as per Taguchi’s L’16 orthogonal array. Each experiment has been performed under different cutting conditions of gap voltage, pulse ON time, and pulse OFF time and Wire feed. Dielectric fluid pressure, wire speed, wire tension, resistance and cutting length are taken as fixed parameters. Inconel 800 was selected as a work material to conduct the experiments. From experimental results, the surface roughness was determined for each machining performance criteria. Signal to noise ratio was applied to measure the performance characteristics deviating from the actual value. Finally, experimental confirmation was carried out to identify the effectiveness of this proposed method.   Keywords: Optimization; Taguchi’s L-16 Orthogonal Array; Surface Roughness; S/N Ratio.

  3. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer

  4. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer.

  5. Cutting Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Laser Cutting Process without Assist Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ozaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laser cutting is used in many industries. Generally, in laser cutting of metallic materials, suitable assist gas and its nozzle are needed to remove the molten metal. However, because of the gas nozzle should be set closer to the surface of a workpiece, existence of the nozzle seems to prevent laser cutting from being used flexible. Therefore, the new cutting process, Assist Gas Free laser cutting or AGF laser cutting, has been developed. In this process, the pressure at the bottom side of a workpiece is reduced by a vacuum pump, and the molten metal can be removed by the air flow caused by the pressure difference between both sides of the specimen. In this study, cutting properties of austenitic stainless steel by using AGF laser cutting with 2 kW CO2 laser were investigated. Laser power and cutting speed were varied in order to study the effect of these parameters on cutting properties. As a result, austenitic stainless steel could be cut with dross-free by AGF laser cutting. When laser power was 2.0 kW, cutting speed could be increased up to 100 mm/s, and kerf width at specimen surface was 0.28 mm.

  6. Applied mineralogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.C.; Hausen, D.M.; Hagni, R.D. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    A conference on applied mineralogy was held and figures were presented under the following headings: methodology (including image analysis); ore genesis; exploration; beneficiations (including precious metals); process mineralogy - low and high temperatures; and medical science applications. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  7. Optimización de la Eficiencia Térmica de un Motor Robinson Aplicando el Modelo Senft-Schmidt-Petrescu Optimization of the Thermal Efficiency of a Robinson Engine Applying the Senft-Schmidt-Petrescu Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Carvajal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la optimización de la eficiencia térmica de un motor Robinson aplicando el modelo Senft-Schmidt-Petrescu. Este se fundamenta en el acoplamiento de los modelos de Senft-Schmidt y de Petrescu, usados para el cálculo de la potencia en motores de ciclo Stirling. El modelo propuesto involucra tanto parámetros termodinámicos como geométricos y permite estimar en su conjunto las pérdidas de presión por fricción y por estrangulamiento del flujo. Tomando como base los datos del prototipo de un motor Robinson de aproximadamente 2 W de potencia, se analizaron teóricamente sus parámetros principales y se optimizó su eficiencia térmica en función de la mínima generación de entropía. Después de realizada la optimización, la eficiencia térmica del motor aumentó a más del doble. Se concluye que el modelo Senft-Schmidt-Petrescu propuesto puede ser útil en el análisis y rediseño de motores Robinson.The results of the optimization of the thermal efficiency of a Robinson engine applying the Senft-Petrescu-Schmidt model are presented. This is based on the coupling of the Senft-Schmidt and the Petrescu models, used for the calculation of power in Stirling cycle engines. The proposed model involves both thermodynamic and geometric parameters and allows estimating the overall pressure losses by friction and by flow throttling. Based on data from a prototype of a Robinson engine of about 2 W of power, a theoretical analysis of its main parameters and the optimization of thermal efficiency, based on the minimum entropy generation, were performed. After the optimization was done, the thermal efficiency of the engine increased to more than the double. It is concluded that the proposed Senft-Schmidt-Petrescu model may be useful in the analysis and redesign of Robinson engines.

  8. Development of real-time monitoring and control in COIL laser cutting for joint R and D between Korea and U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser monitoring and control technique investigated to experiment for cutting kerf width and result of laser cutting for D and D of nuclear facility. The demands for this laser monitoring and control technique were applied to process control in laser cutting and to fabricate monitoring and control system, focusing lens assembly. This system can had a advantage to monitor and control the laser cutting on real time. KAERI investigated the COIL laser and monitored 2 kW laser power

  9. Underwater plasma arc cutting of in-reactor tube of In-Pile Creep Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-reactor tube of the In-Pile Creep Facility had been irradiated periodically for over 6 years in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to the end of 1978 under an operating condition of high temperature and high pressure identical to that of the Prototype Advanced Thermal Reactor, FUGEN, to gain the basic data for estimating the amount of creep which would occur in the pressure tubes of FUGEN. Following the removal of the in-reactor tube out of the JMTR, the test sections in the tube which were to be subjected to post irradiation examination were cut out. Underwater plasma arc cutting was employed to prevent the spread of contamination to the work area, to confine the heat affected zone in the test pieces to a minimum and to simplify disposal of the unneeded portions of the pressure tube. Setup of the cutting machine, cutting operations, radiological conditions during cutting of the highly radioactive portion of the tube and disassembly of the cutting equipment are described. In addition a brief description of the underwater plasma arc cutting machine is presented. The hot-cutting operations were done remotely to control personal exposure. The containment envelope prevented the spread of contamination to the environment and radioactive particles deposited on the cutting machine were removed without any difficulties. External exposure received by cutting personnel was small. Internal radionuclide deposit examinations were conducted, determining no crew member inhaled radioactive substances. Contamination spreads to the work area were minimal and release of radionuclide was well controlled. (author)

  10. Reachability cuts for the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a class of cuts, called reachability cuts, for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). Reachability cuts are closely related to cuts derived from precedence constraints in the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows and to k-path cuts for the...... VRPTW. In particular, any reachability cut dominates one or more k-path cuts. The paper presents separation procedures for reachability cuts and reports computational experiments on well-known VRPTW instances. The computational results suggest that reachability cuts can be highly useful as cutting...

  11. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  12. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed

  13. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schirmer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism is important for avalanche formation. Even when gradients appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart, faceting close to a~crust can still be observed. Recent studies that visualized small scale (< 10 cm thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within the studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and at artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or a shovel produced small concavities (holes even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which is only observed at times with large temperature differences between air and snow. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed slower compared with convex areas (bumps when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative transfer or convection by air at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of the use of a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly in scenarios where large gradients exist between air and snow and the interaction of snow

  14. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  15. Cutting the L3 torque tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Workers cut the torque tube, with a plasma-cutting device on the L3 experiment, which closed with the LEP accelerator in 2000. L3 was housed in a huge red solenoid, which will be taken over by the ALICE detector when the new LHC is completed.

  16. Overhead and operations: cutting where it counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    To remain a profitable entity, whether a retail operation, manufacturing plant, or a medical practice, the common denominator is the same: where can you cut your costs, increase your revenue, and maintain additional profitability? Learning where to cut your operational expenses is as important to your business's profit-ability as bringing in additional dollars. PMID:25807622

  17. Don't Camouflage Budget Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Nicholas M.

    1982-01-01

    Instead of shielding the public from the effects of budget cuts by making small across-the-board cuts on many programs, school administrators should slash whole programs. This will maintain the system's overall educational effectiveness while making clear the consequences of the public's political actions. (Author/RW)

  18. President's Budget Would Cut Education Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's budget cut on education spending. The president's blueprint for federal education spending in the next fiscal year includes a high-profile plan to boost math and science education, new money for private school vouchers, a renewed push to improve high schools--and the most drastic cut in Department of…

  19. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  20. Plywood Inlays Thourgh CO2 Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Margarida C.; Araujo, J. L.; Teixeira, M. Ribau; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho

    1989-07-01

    Furniture with inlays is rather expensive. This is so on two accounts: Firstly, furniture with inlays is generally manufactured with solid wood.Secondly,wood carving and figure cutting are both time consuming and they produce a high rate of rejections. To add to it all the cutting and carving of minute figures requires an outstanding craftmanship. In fact the craftman is in most instance the artist and also the manufacturer. While desiring that the high artistic level is maintained in the industry the search for new method to produce inlays for furniture in not son expensive materials and to produce them in a repetitive and flexible way laser cutting of plywood was found to be quite suitable. This paper presents the charts for CO2 laser cutting of both positive and negatives in several types of plywood. The main problem is not so much the cutting of the positive and negatives pieces but to be able to cut the piece in a way that the fitting is done without any problems caused by the ever present charring effect, which takes palce at the edges of the cut pieces. To minimise this aspect positive and negative pieces have to be cut under stringent focusing conditions and with slight different scales. The condittions for our machine are presented.

  1. Laser cutting - trends in the development,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2002-01-01

    Since the laser was invented in 1960, the industrial applications of this tool has grown and grown. And - since the beginning of the 1980'ies, the major industrial application of lasers in production has been laser cutting. In this paper a short review of the development of the laser cutting...

  2. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  3. Influence of Water-jet Nozzle Geometry on Cutting Ability of Soft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwansyah Irwansyah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hygiene is main reason for food processor to use waterjet cutting system. Traditionally food cutting process is low-quality, unsafe products, procedures and direct contact between product and labor. This paper introduced a low cost waterjet system for cutting soft material as identic food material. The low cost waterjet system has been developed by using a commercial pressure pump for cleaning purposes and modified nozzle. In order to enhance waterjet pressure for cutting products, a modified waterjet nozzle was designed. Paramater design of waterjet system was setup on nozzle orifice diameter 0.5 mm, standoff distance 15 mm, length of nozzle cylindrical tube 2.5 mm. Polycarbonate, polysterene, and polyethelene materials are used as sample product with thickness 2 mm, to represent similar properties with agriculture products. The experimental results indicate good possibilities of waterjet system to cut material in appropriate profile surface. The waterjet also can be used to improve cutting finished surface of food products. Therefore, utilizing a low cost commercial pump and modified nozzle for waterjet system reduces equipment price, operational cost and environmental hazards. It indicates viable technology applied to substitute traditional cutting technology in post harvest agriculture products. Keywords: cutting ability, modified nozzle, polymer material, water-jet system

  4. Finite element simulation of conventional and prestressed cutting of Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ruitao; Tang, Xinzi; Tan, Yuanqiang; Liu, Xiongwei

    2013-05-01

    Titanium alloys are known as difficult-to-machine materials, chip morphology plays a predominant role in determining machinability and tool wear during the machining of titanium alloys. Based on the finite element analysis and experimental validation, the cutting processes in conventional cutting and prestressed cutting of titanium alloy ring parts were explored respectively. The Johnson-Cook model expressed by equivalent plastic strain flow stress is utilized to describe the constitutive properties. A ductile fracture criterion based on the strain energy is applied to model the crack initiation and evolution during the chip segmentation. Cutting force as well as distributions of stress, temperature and equivalent plastic strain along cutting time were numerically compared. The results indicate that in conventional cutting and prestressed cutting, chips show the similar characteristic of continuous and regular serrated shape. Initial stress distribution of workpiece was changed by prestress, which correspondingly leads to the alteration of stress distribution in the subsurface layer. Prestress hardly influences the distributions of temperature and equivalent plastic strain on workpiece. The cutting force curves share the same average amplitude and analogous undulating rhythm.

  5. 红外热像技术在建筑外墙检测中的应用技巧%The Skills for Applying Infrared Thermal Imaging Technology in Architecture Exterior Wall Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡江东; 胡洪宝; 丁百湛; 蔡玥

    2015-01-01

    在建筑墙体质量检测中,应用红外热成像技术的关键之一在于把握目标体与背景物之间的温度场差异。经验表明,选择适宜时机,合理利用阳光、风、雨水等自然条件,可以显著增强目标体与背景区域间的差异,从而增强影像分辨率,达到准确识别外墙质量甚至是细小质量问题的目的。%In the test of architecture exterior wall, the key to apply infrared thermal imaging technology is to grasp the difference between target object and background object of temperature field. Experience indicates that the selection of appropriate period and reasonable employment of natural conditions like sunshine, wind and rainy water, etc. can outstandingly increase the difference between the target object and background region, thereby enhancing image resolution and realizing the goal of accurate identiifcation of exterior wall quality and even tiny quality problem.

  6. High precision tungsten cutting for optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained during the INTEGRAL masks development program an implementing the HURA and MURA codes on tungsten plates of different thickness are presented. Hard scientific requirements on pixels size and location tolerances (tenths of microns over large areas -1 m2- and thickness from 0.5 mm to 60 mm) required the set up of a dedicated program for testing cutting technologies: laser, photochemical milling, spark machining and electro discharge wire cutting. After a very intensive test campaign the wire cutting process was selected as the optimum technology for code manufacturing . Accuracies achieved an the code cutting fulfill scientific requirements. In fact, they are 5 times better than required. Pixel size and centroids location accuracies of 0.01 mm over a 1 m2 area have been obtained for the 10,000 pixels on IBIS, 100 pixels on SPI and 24000 pixels on JEM-X masks. Comparative results among different cutting technologies are also discussed. (author)

  7. Laser cutting of sheets for Tailored Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been an enormous increase in the use of tailored blanks, especially in the automotive industry. Often the sheets for tailored blanks are shear cut, but results have been reported that the allowable sheet gap distance should not exceed 0.1 mm in order to obtain...... the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed...... mode laser cutting instead of continuous wave cutting at average power settings of approximately 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 W were analysed. Furthermore the optimum assist gas pressure and optimum cutting speeds were identified. The results showed that the highest qualities are obtained with a 7...

  8. A State-of-the-Art Report on Cutting Technologies for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-10-15

    This report provides the status of the cryogenic cutting technology as a new dismantling technology for dismantling radioactive nuclear facilities and also presents the direction of study to apply it to a radioactive nuclear facility research aim of its nuclear. This report consists of four chapter : - 1. Background and objectives of dismantling technology for dismantling a radioactive nuclear facility. - 2. Analysis of the status of conventional cutting technologies - 3. Analysis of the status of cryogenic cutting technology - 4. Discussion, conclusion, and future work on state-of-the-art technology of dismantling for nuclear facilities.

  9. A State-of-the-Art Report on Cutting Technologies for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the status of the cryogenic cutting technology as a new dismantling technology for dismantling radioactive nuclear facilities and also presents the direction of study to apply it to a radioactive nuclear facility research aim of its nuclear. This report consists of four chapter : - 1. Background and objectives of dismantling technology for dismantling a radioactive nuclear facility. - 2. Analysis of the status of conventional cutting technologies - 3. Analysis of the status of cryogenic cutting technology - 4. Discussion, conclusion, and future work on state-of-the-art technology of dismantling for nuclear facilities

  10. Fatigue Testing of Abrasive Water Jet Cut Titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E.; Williford, Ralph E.

    2009-06-08

    Battelle Memorial Institute as part of its U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 to operate the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provides technology assistance to qualifying small businesses in association with a Technology Assistance Program (TAP). Qualifying companies are eligible to receive a set quantity of labor associated with specific technical assistance. Having applied for a TAP agreement to assist with fatigue characterization of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cut titanium specimens, the OMAX Corporation was awarded TAP agreement 09-02. This program was specified to cover dynamic testing and analysis of fatigue specimens cut from titanium alloy Ti-6%Al-4%V via AWJ technologies. In association with the TAP agreement, a best effort agreement was made to characterize fatigue specimens based on test conditions supplied by OMAX.

  11. Effects of IBA and Putrescine on Root Formation of Olive Cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Aslmoshtaghi; Ali Reza Shahsavar; Mohammad Reza Taslimpour

    2014-01-01

    Semi-hardwood cuttings of olive cv. ‘Tokhmkabki’ (low rooting ability) and cv. ‘Roghani’ (high rooting ability) were obtained from 1-year-old shoots. Cuttings were dipped in 2000, 4000, and 6000 mg L-1 IBA, 150 or 300 mg L-1 putrescine and their combination before rooting in greenhouse equipped with an automatic mist system. Rooting ability was evaluated four months after planting for each treatment. Satisfactory rooting occurred when IBA was applied with putrescine,...

  12. A Method and Device for 3D Recognition of Cutting Edge Micro Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Palubicki; Michal Szulc; Gerhard Sinn; Kazimierz Orlowski; Jakub Sandak

    2014-01-01

    A very useful method was successfully applied in the investigation of tools for machining wood and wood based composites. It allows scanning of the cutting edge micro geometry in three dimensions and reproducing it in a virtual space as a 3D surface. The application of the method opens new possibilities of studying tool wear by scanning, including the calculation of volume loss and other analysis of tool wedge geometry along and perpendicularly to the cutting edge. Effectiveness of the method...

  13. Microstructural analysis of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) for postharvest quality optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Susana C.; Silva, Cristina L.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microstructure of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) after cutting, when maintained (for 0,4 and 7 d) under refrigerated storage (2°C). In order to assess the microstructure of the product, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied; however, to improve this technique, preparation procedures and quantitative image analysis were specifically developed. Since sample preparation affects deeply image quality, three sample p...

  14. The mechanics of slitting and cutting webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Richard Raymond

    The quality of edges formed during cutting and slitting of thin polymer webs is important for many industrial applications. In order to control the edge quality of the separated material, it is necessary to understand cutting. A model is proposed and the mechanics of cutting are described. An apparatus was constructed to instrument, monitor and control the web slitting process. The slitting speed, tension in the web, blade sharpness and angle of cut were varied during tests. This allowed a quantitative understanding of the cutting mechanisms to be established. The results of the experiments showed the in-plane cutting forces were minimally affected by changes in rate or speed and independent of web tension for sharp blades. The angle of cut had a pronounced effect on the in-plane cutting forces and the stability of the cut. Further experimentation was designed to relate force to plastic deformation caused by a wedge indenting the edge surface of a polymer sample. These experiments clearly revealed the shape of the plastic deformation zone ahead of and around the wedges. Data from the experiments showed increasing cutting force with wedge displacement until the sample fractured. Plastic deformation of the samples was then examined in detail. The results showed out-of-plane plastic volume was equal to the volume displaced by the wedge. Samples also exhibited constant hardness during initial phases of wedge indenting. A finite element model concurred with the empirical plastic zone data. An innovative method was developed to take a dynamic "snapshot" of web displacement around the blade. The results clearly showed the web buckling ahead of the blade producing major instability during the cutting and slitting of thin webs. A finite element model supported the characteristics of the buckling phenomena observed in thin webs. An understanding of the interaction of cutting parameters and the buckling instability will allow quality web edges with minimal deformation and

  15. Mist, substrate water potential and cutting water potential influence rooting of stem cuttings of loblolly pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebude, Anthony V; Goldfarb, Barry; Blazich, Frank A; Wise, Farrell C; Frampton, John

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the influence of cutting water potential (Psicut) on rooting of juvenile hardwood (dormant) and softwood (succulent) stem cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) propagated under varying substrate water potentials (Psisub) and volumes of mist application. Mist treatment and Psisub contributed to the Psicut of unrooted stem cuttings. When Psisub was held constant across mist treatments, mist treatment contributed strongly to Psicut. Substrate water potential affected rooting percentage when mist treatment was sub-optimal or excessive, otherwise mist treatment had a stronger effect than Psisub on rooting percentage. Cuttings rooted best when subjected to moderate cutting water potentials (-0.5 to -1.2 MPa) during the initial 4 or 5 weeks of the rooting period. Cuttings experiencing either severe water deficit or no water deficit rooted poorly. We conclude that the rooting environment should impose a moderate water stress on loblolly pine stem cuttings to achieve optimum rooting. PMID:15123454

  16. Restraining and neck cutting or stunning and neck cutting of veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooij, E; van der Werf, J T N; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V A

    2012-05-01

    Brain and heart activities were measured in 31 veal calves during restraining and rotating followed by neck cutting with or without stunning to evaluate welfare. After neck cutting correlation dimension analyses and %power of EEG beta wave fraction decreased gradually to lower values resulting in an induction of unconsciousness lasting on average 80s. Corneal reflex response ceased 135±57s after neck cutting. The CD scores and the %power of beta waves fell immediately after post-cut captive bolt and pre-cut electrical stunning to levels indicating unconsciousness. Heart rate in lairage increased upon entrance to the restrainer and again after rotation, heart rate variability decreased. Rotating the restrainer 90°, 120° or 180° compromised veal calf welfare and should be avoided. It is recommended to use post-cut captive bolt stunning or pre-cut electrical stunning inducing immediate unconsciousness. PMID:22209298

  17. Calculation of mass transfer in the remote cutting of metals by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of remote cutting of steel plates by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser is theoretically studied. The models of melt removal by the gravity force and the recoil pressure of material vapour are proposed and the sufficient conditions for the initiation of cutting are determined. A numerical model of a thermally thin plate was employed to describe the cutting for large focal spots. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  18. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  19. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  20. Cutting and decontamination technologies for low-cost demolition of nuclear facilities; Schneid- und Dekontaminationstechnologien fuer den kostenguenstigen Rueckbau kerntechnischer Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, F.W.; Kremer, G.; Ruemenapp, T.; Peter, D.; Brueggemann, P. [Lebniz Univ. Hannover, Garbsen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde

    2007-04-15

    The mechanical cutting techniques used in manufacturing result in high process forces and require very accurate control. Mechanical processes are relatively easy to run by remote control. This makes a large number of disassembly techniques available which are characterized by specific pros and cons. The thermal cutting techniques, referred to as plasma fusion cutting and contact arc metal cutting (CAMC), contract arc metal grinding (CAMG) and water abrasive jet cutting, are characterized by low restoring forces. Especially CAMC, CAMG, and WAS cutting can be used on more complex and thick-walled structures. These processes can also be employed with thicker materials and complex geometries and can be operated with relatively simple manipulator systems. In addition to cutting, abrasion processes play a decisive role in demolition. The volume of radioactive waste arising, which is a key cost factor, can be greatly reduced by abrading only the functional layers, such as protective paint coats, or the top layers of solid materials. (orig.)

  1. Equilibria of Generalized Cut and Choose Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Kurokawa, David; Procaccia, Ariel

    Classic cake cutting protocols — which fairly allocate a divisible good among agents with heterogeneous preferences — are susceptible to manipulation. Do their strategic outcomes still guarantee fairness? To answer this question we adopt a novel algo rithmic approach, proposing a concrete...... computational model and reasoning about the game-theoretic properties of algorithms that operate in this model. Specifically, we show that each protocol in the class of generalized cut and choose (GCC) protocols — which includes the most important discrete cake cutting protocols — is guaranteed to have...

  2. Polylogarithmic Cuts in Models of V^0

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We study initial cuts of models of weak two-sorted Bounded Arithmetics with respect to the strength of their theories and show that these theories are stronger than the original one. More explicitly we will see that polylogarithmic cuts of models of $\\mathbf{V}^0$ are models of $\\mathbf{VNC}^1$ by formalizing a proof of Nepomnjascij's Theorem in such cuts. This is a strengthening of a result by Paris and Wilkie. We can then exploit our result in Proof Complexity to observe that Frege proof sy...

  3. Cutting Balloon angioplasty for cardiac transplant vasculopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Y.; Currier, JW; Yeatman, LA; Kobashigawa, JA; Rogers, AD; Cianfichi, LJ; Fishbein, MC; Tobis, JM

    2002-01-01

    We performed Cutting Balloon angioplasty on 20 lesions in 11 heart transplant recipients 7.5 +/- 3.8 years after transplantation. The mean percentage of diameter stenosis decreased from 88.3% +/- 13.8% to 19.6% +/- 13.7% after Cutting Balloon angioplasty without complication. Seven patients underwent follow-up angiography at 4.9 +/- 1.7 months in a total of 12 lesions, and all lesions showed restenosis with a mean diameter stenosis of 84.4% +/- 19.2%. Cutting Balloon angioplasty can be used t...

  4. The economics of a temporary VAT cut

    OpenAIRE

    Crossley, Thomas; Low, Hamish; Wakefield, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    1. The rate of VAT has been cut temporarily to 15%, with a return to 17.5% in place for the end of 2009. The government has predicted that this will increase consumer spending by about 0.5%. Much of the analysis of this tax cut has been critical of the policy and concluded that the government's estimates of the impact on spending are over-optimistic. The source of this criticism is a misunderstanding of the mechanism through which the tax cut will have an impact. In fact, we believe the gover...

  5. Cut elimination in multifocused linear logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus

    2015-01-01

    We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....

  6. Innovation Study for Laser Cutting of Complex Geometries with Paper Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happonen, A.; Stepanov, A.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.

    Even though technology for laser cutting of paper materials has existed for over 30 years, it seems that results of applications of this technology and possibilities of laser cutting systems are not easily available. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of the complex geometry laser cutting of paper materials and to analyze the innovation challenges and potential of current laser cutting technologies offer. This research studied the potential and possible challenges in applying CO2 laser cutting technology for cutting of paper materials in current supply chains trying to fulfil the changing needs of customer in respect of shape, fast response during rapid delivery cycle. The study is focused on examining and analyzing the different possibilities of laser cutting of paper material in application area of complex low volume geometry cutting. The goal of this case was to analyze the feasibility of the laser cutting from technical, quality and implementation points of view and to discuss availability of new business opportunities. It was noticed that there are new business models still available within laser technology applications in complex geometry cutting. Application of laser technology, in business-to-consume markets, in synergy with Internet service platforms can widen the customer base and offer new value streams for technology and service companies. Because of this, existing markets and competition has to be identified, and appropriate new and innovative business model needs to be developed. And to be competitive in the markets, models like these need to include the earning logic and the stages from production to delivery as discussed in the paper.

  7. Auditing to the cutting edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, L.; Wirdzek, P.

    1999-07-01

    Equipment? System? Building? Campus? Neighborhood? Community? Region? What is to be audited and what needs to be corrected? Can the energy management professional decide, or should the customer? Over the last few decades, energy professionals have been evaluating energy use in order to balance clients' expenditures with acceptable levels of service. Traditionally, professional expertise and creativity have been limited more by budget than any other single element. Today, energy and the environment are tightly intertwined. In the future, effective energy management may not be possible without considering the relationships between them. Conversely, environmental protection cannot be achieved without considering energy production, distribution, and use. To this end, two powerful federal organizations, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), have been engaged in defining the interrelationships of these areas and fashioning national energy policies aimed at awakening Americans to these facts. Environmental demands are becoming a factor in efficiency equations. Energy management professionals should prepare a response. They will face demands for cutting-edge audits that reach further than giving utility power just a trim in the energy barber shop. Survival in the business of energy management will require a broader perspective. One need only look to current advertisements by national and international corporations which praise the environmental benefits of their products and even their places of business as cleaner than their competitors'. For the energy management professional then, energy diversity and source versus site considerations are opportunities to be identified in the audit process, in addition to replacement of inefficient equipment. The country is rich with technology choices, with documented experience, and with the knowledge to create systems that can mine deep savings. True, some have niche

  8. Development of a plasma-arc-cutting technology like a mechanical saw for atmosphere and under water for dismantling nuclear components of greater thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Status of research: With the plasma arc cutting it is until now not possible to cut steel under water which is thicker than 100 mm. In a depth of water of 20 m it is only possible to cut steel up to 80 mm. This is not enough for the dismantling technology. Aim of research work: Plasma arc cutting technology should be developed to enable cutting a plate independent of its thickness. Method of research: A plasma-arc-saw has been developed for a thermal cutting of materials, similar to a mechanical saw. To develop and optimize the special nozzles of the plasma-arc-saw the submerged combustion burner has been developed parallel by the arc-saw. Results: There are no problems of thermal cutting a steel independent of its thickness. The thickness of the plate depends only on the diameter of the saw disc. The water depth of 20 m reduced the cutting speed of 10%. The plasma-arc-saw enables thermal cutting of a plate independent of its thickness in a water depth of 20 m without requiring a force. The remote controlled dismantling of a reactor vessel and other components with greater wall thickness is possible. (orig./HP) With 21 refs., 6 tabs., 87 figs

  9. Propose for systematization of data applied to bioclimatic architecture: acoustic, high ling and thermal; Propuesta para la sistematizacion de ecotecnicas y datos de vegetacion aplicables a la arquitectura bioclimatica desde un enfoque energetico global. Luminico. Acustico y Termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, G. R.

    2004-07-01

    In Environmental Design or Solar Architecture, vegetation may be used to modify the micro climate surrounding a building. However, books on this subject only state the way vegetation may be used to control thermal conditions within buildings, considering thermal energy the only one present. In buildings, there is always a simultaneous presence of three kinds of energy: thermal energy, acoustics and illumination. Therefore, this paper will propose: (1) a holistic approach to the use of vegetation in Environmental Design, using all parameters of thermal, acoustic and luminal comfort, and (2) a holistic approach to Environmental Design guidelines that use vegetation. (Author)

  10. Contact arc metal cutting (CAMC), a young cutting technique has matured. Successful use under water in the demolition of the Karlsruhe multipurpose research reactor (MFZR); Contact-Arc-Metal-Cutting (CAMC) - Eine junge Schneidtechnologie ist den Kinderschuhen entwachsen. Erfolgreicher Einsatz unter Wasser beim Rueckbau des Mehrzweckforschungsreaktors Karlsruhe (MZFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanke, D.; Bienia, H.; Loeb, A.; Thoma, M. [RWE NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Eisenmann, B.; Prechtl, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Suessdorf, W. [Studsvik-IFM, Stutensee-Blankenloch (Germany); Kremer, G.; Ruemenapp, T. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde

    2006-03-15

    Dismantling radiologically burdened large components is among the most complex and difficult jobs in the demolition of nuclear installations. The technologies used and their safe operation play a key role in demolition. Dismantling highly activated components as a rule requires shielding by water. As a consequence, the techniques employed must be designed for use under water. A variety of technologies are available for these applications. One established mechanical cutting method is water abrasive suspension jet cutting (WASS). Because of the small cutting nozzle employed, this highly flexible cutting technique can be used nearly anywhere together with different guiding systems. In the course of disassembly under water of the MZFR, plasma cutting has been found to be a reliable and efficient technique for remote operation. Contact arc metal cutting is a thermal cutting technique allowing all electrically conducting materials, including those with claddings, to be cut nearly irrespective of their component geometries. The methods, technology, possible uses, and practical operation of contact arc metal cutting in the demolition of the MZFR are covered in this article. (orig.)

  11. Micromachining with Nanostructured Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the brief is to explain how nanostructured tools can be used to machine materials at the microscale.  The aims of the brief are to explain to readers how to apply nanostructured tools to micromachining applications. This book describes the application of nanostructured tools to machining engineering materials and includes methods for calculating basic features of micromachining. It explains the nature of contact between tools and work pieces to build a solid understanding of how nanostructured tools are made.

  12. Surface Detection using Round Cut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    similar adaptations for triangle meshes, our method is capable of capturing complex geometries by iteratively refining the surface, where we obtain a high level of robustness by applying explicit mesh processing to intermediate results. Our method uses on-surface data support, but it also exploits data...... information about the region inside and outside the surface. This provides additional robustness to the algorithm. We demonstrate the capabilities of the approach by detecting surfaces of CT scanned objects....

  13. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  14. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Martawirya, Y. Y.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule.

  15. Rational cutting height for large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Bingxiang; Li Hongtao; Liu Changyou; Xing Shijun; Xue Weichao

    2011-01-01

    Large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving is a new mining method that improves recovery ratio and single-pass production.It also allows safe and efficient mining.A rational cutting height is one key parameter of this technique.Numerical simulation and a granular-media model experiment were used to analyze the effect of cutting height on the rock pressure of a fully mechanized top-coal caving work face.The recovery ratio was also studied.As the cutting height increases the top-coal thickness is reduced.Changing the ratio of cutting to drawing height intensifies the face pressure and the top-coal shattering.A maximum cutting height exists under a given set of conditions due to issues with surrounding rock-mass control.An increase in cutting height makes the top-coal cave better and the recovery ratio when drawing top-coal is then improved.A method of adjusting the face rock pressure is presented.Changing the cutting to drawing height ratio is the technique used to control face rock pressure.The recovery ratio when cutting coal exceeds that when caving top-coal so the face recovery ratio may be improved by over sizing the cutting height and increasing the top-coal drawing ratio.An optimum ratio of cutting to drawing height exists that maximizes the face recovery ratio.A rational cutting height is determined by comprehensively considering the surrounding rock-mass control and the recovery ratio.At the same time increasing the cutting height can improve single pass mining during fully mechanized top-coal caving.

  16. Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158080.html Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk Australian researchers find possible ... March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A seasonal flu shot may reduce a pregnant woman's risk of stillbirth, ...

  17. Throat-cutting of accidental origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2008-07-01

    Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

  18. Laser cutting system for nuclear fuel disassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant advancement in fuel reprocessing technology has been made by utilizing a multikilowatt, carbon dioxide laser to perform cutting operations necessary to remove unprocessible hardware from reactor fuel assemblies. 10 figs

  19. Climate science hit by job cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Climate researchers in Australia are bracing themselves for heavy job cuts as the country's national scientific agency - the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - said last month it will reprioritize towards innovation.

  20. Facets and cuts from additive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araoz, J.

    1994-12-31

    Integer Program Facets with non-negative entries could be derived from Additive System Problems, like Semigroup or Gomory`s Group Problems. These facets can be used as cuts for Branch and Cuts Algorithms. In fact, any Master Problem facet with some equal coefficients came from lifting a facet of a easily related Multivalued Additive System. A morphism type relation between problems allow us to obtain facets for Master Problems or cuts for Integer Programs. We use Knapsack Problems as examples either to present results about sequential lifting for non-Master Problems, pseudo-morphisms for facet generation for Master Problems and cut generation for Integer Programs solving small subadditive linear programs or to state open problems.

  1. A non-linear branch and cut method for solving discrete minimum compliance problems to global optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2007-01-01

    finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities...

  2. Link between chips and cutting moments evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cahuc, Olivier; Gérard, Alain; 10.4028/WWW.scientific.net/AMR.423.89

    2012-01-01

    The better understanding of the material cutting process has been shown with the benefit of the forces and moments measurement since some years ago. In paper, simultaneous six mechanical components and chip orientation measurements were realized during turning tests. During these tests, the influence of the depth of cut or feed rate has been observed and a link between the chip orientation and the moment vector orientation or the central axis characteristics has been shown.

  3. Microwave processing of oil contaminated drill cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Igor S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Easily accessible oil reserves are currently decreasing, leading to an increase in more complex offshore deep-sea drilling programs, which require increasingly greater depths to be drilled. Such wells are commonly drilled using oil based muds, which leads to the production of drilled rock fragments, drill cuttings, which are contaminated with the base oil present in the mud. It is a legal requirement to reduce oil content to below 1 wt% in order to dispose of these drill cuttings in the North...

  4. Influence of leaf retention on cutting propagation of Lavandula dentata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation of lavender offers several advantages over sexual propagation, among them crop homogeneity and yield of higher quality essential oil. However, Lavandula species have been propagated mostly by seeds and are said to be recalcitrant to rooting when propagated by cuttings. During cutting propagation, one of the important variables that influence the rooting capacity of cuttings is the leaf retention. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of leaf retention on rooting of L. dentata cuttings. Apical cuttings of L. dentata of 10 cm in length, keeping approximately 1/3, 1/2 or 2/3 of their leaves were planted in commercial substrate Plantmax HT® under intermittent mist. After two months, averages of root number, length of the longest root, root fresh and dry weights, and the survival percentage were evaluated. Root length and fresh weight were statistically greater with 2/3 of leaf retention and when fewer leaves were kept on the cuttings, lower means of root dry weight was observed. Under the conditions applied in this study, greater leaf retention was better for rooting of L. dentata cuttings.

  5. Integration of Small-Diameter Wood Harvesting in Early Thinnings using the Two pile Cutting Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, P.O. Box 101, FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Metsaeteho Oy studied the integrated harvesting of industrial roundwood (pulpwood) and energy wood based on a two-pile cutting method, i.e. pulpwood and energy wood fractions are stacked into two separate piles when cutting a first-thinning stand. The productivity and cost levels of the integrated, two-pile cutting method were determined, and the harvesting costs of the two-pile method were compared with those of conventional separate wood harvesting methods. In the time study, when the size of removal was 50 dm3, the productivity in conventional whole-tree cutting was 6% higher than in integrated cutting. With a stem size of 100 dm3, the productivity in whole-tree cutting was 7% higher than in integrated cutting. The results indicated, however, that integrated harvesting based on the two-pile method enables harvesting costs to be decreased to below the current cost level of separate pulpwood harvesting in first thinning stands. The greatest cost-saving potential lies in small-sized first thinnings. The results showed that, when integrated wood harvesting based on the two-pile method is applied, the removals of both energy wood and pulpwood should be more than 15-20 m3/ha at the harvesting sites in order to achieve economically viable integrated procurement

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Cutting Methods of Activated Concrete from Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning - 13548

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of radioactive wastes from decommissioning of a nuclear power plant varies greatly depending on factors such as type and size of the plant, operation history, decommissioning options, and waste treatment and volume reduction methods. There are many methods to decrease the amount of decommissioning radioactive wastes including minimization of waste generation, waste reclassification through decontamination and cutting methods to remove the contaminated areas. According to OECD/NEA, it is known that the radioactive waste treatment and disposal cost accounts for about 40 percentage of the total decommissioning cost. In Korea, it is needed to reduce amount of decommissioning radioactive waste due to high disposal cost, about $7,000 (as of 2010) per a 200 liter drum for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW). In this paper, cutting methods to minimize the radioactive waste of activated concrete were investigated and associated decommissioning cost impact was assessed. The cutting methods considered are cylindrical and volume reductive cuttings. The study showed that the volume reductive cutting is more cost-effective than the cylindrical cutting. Therefore, the volume reductive cutting method can be effectively applied to the activated bio-shield concrete. (authors)

  7. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4 ℃ for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. PMID:23897978

  8. Theoretical aspects of fibre laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrle, A; Beyer, E, E-mail: achim.mahrle@iws.fraunhofer.d [University of Technology Dresden, Institute for Surface and Manufacturing Technology, PO Box, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-07

    Fibre lasers offer distinct advantages over established laser systems with respect to power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. Consequently, the potential of these new laser beam sources will be increasingly exploited for laser cutting applications that are conventionally carried out with CO{sub 2} lasers. However, theoretical estimates of the effective absorptivity at the cut front suggest that the shorter wavelength of the fibre laser in combination with its high focusability seems to be primarily advantageous for thin sheet metal cutting whereas the CO{sub 2} laser is probably still capable of cutting thicker materials more efficiently. This surprising result is a consequence of the absorptivity behaviour of metals that shows essential quantitative differences for the corresponding wavelengths of both laser sources as a function of the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the material to be cut. In evaluation of the revealed dependences, solution strategies for an improvement of the efficiency of fibre laser cutting of thicker metal sheets are suggested.

  9. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation

  10. Plasma arc cutting optimization parameters for aluminum alloy with two thickness by using Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnasser, B.; Bhuvenesh, R.

    2016-07-01

    Manufacturing companies define the qualities of thermal removing process based on the dimension and physical appearance of the cutting material surface. The surface roughness of the cutting area for the material and the material removal rate being removed during the manual plasma arc cutting process were importantly considered. Plasma arc cutter machine model PS-100 was used to cut the specimens made from aluminium alloy 1100 manually based on the selected parameters setting. Two different thicknesses of specimens, 3mm and 6mm were used. The material removal rate (MRR) was measured by determining the difference between the weight of specimens before and after the cutting process. The surface roughness (Ra) was measured by using MITUTOYO CS-3100 machine and analysis was conducted to determine the average roughness (Ra) value, Taguchi method was utilized as an experimental layout to obtain MRR and Ra values. The results indicate that the current and cutting speed is the most significant parameters, followed by the arc gap for both rate of material removal and surface roughness.

  11. Cost-Cutting Powdered Lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Glenn Research Center developed a high-temperature, solid lubricant coating material that is saving the manufacturing industry millions of dollars. The material came out of 3 decades of tribological research, work studying high-temperature friction, lubrication, and the wearing of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion. It was developed as a shaft coating deposited by thermal spraying to protect foil air bearings used in oil-free turbomachinery, like gas turbines, and is meant to be part of a larger project: an oil-free aircraft engine capable of operating at high temperatures with increased reliability, lowered weight, reduced maintenance requirements, and increased power. This advanced coating, PS300, is a self-lubricating bearing material containing chromium oxide, with additions of a low-temperature start up lubricant (silver) and a high-temperature lubricant, making it remarkably stable at high temperatures, and better suited than previously available materials for high-stress conditions. It improves efficiency, lowers friction, reduces emissions, and has been used by NASA in advanced aeropropulsion engines, refrigeration compressors, turbochargers, and hybrid electrical turbogenerators. PS300 is ideal in any application where lowered weight and reduced maintenance are desired, and high-temperature uses and heavy operating speeds are expected. It has notable uses for the Space Agency, but it has even further-reaching potential for the industrial realm.

  12. Cutting inserts effect on heat generation in turning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Žitňanský

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on confirmation of an effect of cutting materials and cutting inserts geometry on cutting forces and temperature, quality and accuracy of machined surface in turning. The main part is devoted to description of advanced turning tools and cutting materials. The experimental part is focused on cutting forces and temperature measurement and machined surface quality in turning of steel grade 11 523 samples with one feed and depth of cut value and varying spindle speed. Measurements were performed with various types of indexable cutting inserts used. Measured values were evaluated in terms of the effect of different properties of cutting inserts and various spindle speed values.

  13. Research progress of machine tool thermal error modeling technology

    OpenAIRE

    Qianjian GUO; Wang, Hongmei; Li, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    During cutting, machine tools are influenced by different heat sources, which induces machine thermal deformation, deviation and thermal error. In different machine errors, thermal error accounts for 40%~70% of total machine errors, which is the main influence factor of machining accuracy. In order to reduce machine thermal error and improve machining precision, there are mainly 3 ways at present: 1) Improving machine thermal stiffness by optimal design of machine structure; 2) Separating hea...

  14. Labour Management on Contemporary Kenyan Cut Flower Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in terms of specific approaches to hiring, training and promotion; labour retention; work organization and worker deployment; payment systems and supervision, as well as to collective bargaining. In convention theory terms, the combination of approaches identified in Kenya embodies a mixture of ‘industrial......This paper describes the labour management system applied since around 2005 on farms accounting for the bulk of the output of the Kenyan cut flower sector, and provides an analysis of the foundations of this system. Using categories drawn from convention theory, this system is characterized...

  15. Hardening of the cutting tool by the coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Skoblo, T. S.; Romaniuk, S. P.; Sidashenko, А. I.; Muratov, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Raising of problem. The existing operational stability of the thin-walled circular knife does not satisfy the requirements of the confectionery production and it has been provided with additional reinforcement by the nanocoating on one side (the cutting edge and the basis). At that the effective application is the coating on the basis blade both in the form of ribs, as well as continuous coating. For this the WC coating of 20…100 nm thickness has been applied. It was obtained by the PVD metho...

  16. Nd:YAG pulsed laser cutting of metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelíčková, Hana; Polák, Marek

    Praha : Faculty of Transportation Sciences CTU, Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics AS CR Czech Society of Mechanics, 2001 - (Jírová, J.; Jiroušek, O.; Kult, J.), s. 115-120 ISBN 80-86246-09-4. [International Conference Experimental Stress Analysis 2001 /39./. Tábor (CZ), 04.06.2001-06.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : Nd:YAG laser * cutting * metal * speed * pulse energy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  17. Color Restoration Method Based on Spectral Information Using Normalized Cut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuro Morimoto; Tohru Mihashi; Katsushi Ikeuchi

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for color restoration that can effectively apply accurate color based on spectral information to a segmented image using the normalized cut technique. Using the proposed method, we can obtain a digital still camera image and spectral information in different environments. Also, it is not necessary to estimate reflectance spectra using a spectral database such as other methods. The synthesized images are accurate and high resolution. The proposed method effectively works in making digital archive contents. Some experimental results are demonstrated in this paper.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Study of Mechanical Behaviour of Screw Dislocation during Cutting with Diamond Tip on Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of Tersoff and Morse potentials, a three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study atomic force microscopy cutting on silicon monocrystal surface. The interatomic forces between the workpiece and the pin tool and the atoms of workpiece themselves are calculated. A screw dislocation is introduced into workpiece Si. It is found that motion of dislocations does not occur during the atomic force microscopy cutting processing. Simulation results show that the shear stress acting on dislocation is far below the yield strength of Si. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  19. Characterisation of the volatile fraction of aromatic caramel using heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravisini, Laurianne; Prot, Aurélie; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Moretton, Cédric; Nigay, Henri; Dacremont, Catherine; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2015-01-15

    The first aim of our study was to improve characterisation of the volatile fraction of aromatic caramel by applying heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O) on targeted odorant fractions. The second aim was to compare the volatile composition of two caramel samples, which differed in terms of their carbohydrate composition and cooking process. MDGC analyses enabled identification of 37 compounds (17 with the addition of pure standard) in the burnt sugar caramel, 20 of which were reported for the first time in caramel. Fifteen compounds were identified as odour-active and described using a range of attributes such as floral, roasted, spicy and almond. Furans, lactones and acids resulting from the thermal breakdown of sugars predominated in the volatile fraction of the burnt sugar caramel, due to the harsher cooking conditions. Finally, these results have enabled a clearer understanding of aromatic caramel as well as the identification of new compounds which might make an important contribution to its aroma. PMID:25148990

  20. An application of three-dimensional modeling in the cutting machine of intersecting line software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jixiang

    2011-11-01

    This paper developed a software platform of intersecting line cutting machine. The software platform consists of three parts. The first is the interface of parameter input and modify, the second is the three-dimensional display of main tube and branch tube, and the last is the cutting simulation and G code output. We can obtain intersection data by intersection algorithm, and we also make three-dimensional model and dynamic simulation on the data of intersecting line cutting. By changing the parameters and the assembly sequence of main tube and branch tube, you can see the modified two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphics and corresponding G-code output file. This method has been applied to practical cutting machine of intersecting line software.

  1. Force Relations and Dynamics of Cutting Knife in a Vertical Disc Mobile Wood Chipper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun R. BELLO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The force relations and dynamics of cutting knife in a vertical disc wood chipper were investigated. The tool geometry determined include: rake angle (20 deg C; Shear angle, (fi= 52.15 deg C; the mean frictional angle, (t = 5.71 deg C. The analysis and comparison of the cutting forces has shown that the chips separated from the wood are being formed by off cutting, since normal applied force N is compressive in nature, the magnitude of the forces used by the knife on the wood is expected to increase as the cutting edge of the knife goes deeper into the wood until the value of the resisting force acting against the cut wood Ff is reached and exceeded. The evaluated forces acting on the knife and the chip are: F = 3.63Nmm^-1; N = 34.7 Nmm^-1; Fs= 27.45Nmm^-1; Fn =31.92 Nmm^-1; Ft = -8.46Nmm^-1; Fc = 33.85Nmm^-1. The resultant force acting on the tool face, Pr = 34.89Nmm^-1. The specific cutting pressure, Pc and cutting force needed to cut the timber, Fc, are 1.79 × 10^6 N/m2 and 644.84N respectively. The energy consumed in removing a unit volume of material is 69.96kJ/mm^-3 and the maximum power developed in cutting the chip is 3591.77W (4.82hp. The chipper efficiency (86.6% was evaluated by the highest percentage of accepted chip sizes.

  2. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  3. Development of a plasma-arc-cutting technology like a mechanical saw for dismantling nuclear components of greater thickness under water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Status of research: Cutting steel with the plasma-arc-saw (saw disk diameter 600 mm) with a thickness up to 100 mm is possible. The cutting process works discontinuously. For the ignition of the special constructed plasma torches it is necessary to stop the rotation of the saw disk so the cutting process works discontinuously. 2. Aim of research work: Plasma arc cutting technology should be developed to enable cutting component parts continuous and computer aided. 3. Method of research: Cutting results of the plasma-arc-saw (saw disk diameter 600 mm) gives design data for the construction of a plasma arc saw with a diameter of 850 mm and a diameter of 1000 mm. To develop and optimize the special nozzles of the plasma-arc-saw experiments with the submerged combustion burner have been performed. 4. Results: There are no problems of thermal cutting a plate of steel and a heat exchanger up to a thickness of 300 mm. The cuttable sheet thickness only depends on the diameter of the saw blade. The emission of dust and aerosol only depends on the melted material. Computer aided cutting is possible. 5. The plasma-arc-saw enables thermal cutting of component parts independent of their thickness in a water depth of 20 m without requiring a force. The remote control dismantling of a reactor vessel and other components with greater wall thickness is possible. (orig.) With 34 refs., 2 tabs., 101 figs

  4. IBFAN: on the cutting edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, A

    1989-01-01

    The story of IBFAN, the International Baby Food Action Network, from its beginning with 6 members in 1979, to its status of 140 groups worldwide in 1989 is told by its founder, Annelies Allain. IBFAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in October 1989 with a week-long Forum of 350 organizers from 67 countries. IBFAN is a single-tissue grass-roots organization, almost entirely women: the issue is that bottle-feeding kills babies. It has mounted a successful campaign ending in passage of the WHO/UNICEF International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in 1981. With this success, the political power of the "third system," of people, as opposed to government and transnational corporations, was recognized. The most important fundamental activity of IBFAN is to amass information to make its point that million of babies, primarily in developing countries, have died from consuming powdered formula instead of breast milk. IBFAN also set out to show that milk companies have influenced medical school training, health care providers, UN and WHO policies, and governments of developing countries through advertising and tax income. IBFAN's methods are boycott, corporate marketing analysis, shareholder, resolutions, and numerous strategies invented by local activists. The baby food industry responded by forming the International Council of Infant Food Industries, headed by a former WHO Assistant Director General, and applied for registration as an official NGO with the WHO. Again in 1987 they formed the Infant Food Manufacturers Associations, headed by a former WHO staff member, and gained WHO NGO status, claiming to advance infant nutrition and adhere to the WHO Code. Ibfan's current emphasis is on combatting free infant formula given out at maternity hospitals, the most effective way to block successful lactation, is developed as well as developing countries. An effort to monitor this activity will mark the 10th anniversary of the Code in 1991. PMID:12343253

  5. Evaluation of Cutting Fluids in Multiple Reaming of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; Zeng, Z.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of different cutting fluids in reaming is presented. The performance of three water based cutting fluids and one cutting oil was compared to that of a reference water based commercial product by measurement of cutting forces, surface roughness and part accuracy. Three...

  6. Influence of cutting conditions on chip side curl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool...

  7. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and pro...

  8. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms... outward to minimize the entrance of unfiltered air into the cutting and packaging room. The...

  9. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Matuszak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Correct and stable machining process requires an appropriate cutting tool. In most cases the tool can be selected by using special tool catalogs often available in online version. But in some cases there is a need to design unusual tools, for special treatment, which are not available in tool manufacturers’ catalogs. Proper tool design requires strength and geometric calculations. Moreover, in many cases specific technical documentation is required. By using Computer Aided Design of cutting tools this task can be carried out quickly and with high accuracy. Cutting tool visualization in CAD programs gives a clear overview of the design process. Besides, these programs provide the ability to simulate real machining process. Nowadays, 3D modeling in CAD programs is a fundamental tool for engineers. Therefore, it is important to use them in the education process.

  10. Homicidal Cut Throat: The Forensic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Jeewana C

    2016-01-01

    The forensic pathologists have a challenging task during the ascertainment of the manner of death in cut throat injuries when presented with no proper history or witnesses. We report a rare homicide, where a person was killed by the father of his gay partner. A 51-year-old married man was found dead in his car on the driving seat at a road. There were blood stains on the dash board and windscreen. No weapon had been recovered. At autopsy, a deep, oblique, long incised injury was found on the front of the neck. There were no hesitant or defense injuries. The cause of death was cut throat. The findings were compatible with a homicidal cut throat by a right handed person from behind after head being restrained firmly. Findings were compatible with the history provided by the suspect. PMID:27134896

  11. ENVIRONMENTALLY REDUCING OF COOLANTS IN METAL CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veijo KAUPPINEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Strained environment is a global problem. In metal industries the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8 - 16 % of the total production costs.The traditional methods that use coolants are now obviously becoming obsolete. Hence, it is clear that using a dry cutting system has great implications for resource preservation and waste reduction. For this purpose, a new cooling system is designed for dry cutting. This paper presents the new eco-friendly cooling innovation and the benefits gained by using this method. The new cooling system relies on a unit for ionising ejected air. In order to compare the performance of using this system, cutting experiments were carried out. A series of tests were performed on a horizontal turning machine and on a horizontal machining centre.

  12. Manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomanipulation plays an important role in nanofabrication, it is also a technology necessary in exploring the secrets of nanoworld, and it thus beco mesa start point to research future nanomachine. In this study, manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes have been conducted in order to examine whether we can move a nanocomponent from one site to another by using the tip of atomic fo rce microscope (AFM). The technique may also be valuable for providing the const ructive materials of nanofabrication. While exploring the method for manipulatin g and cutting of nanotubes, some new phenomena have been observed during the process. Results show that carbon nanotubes present a feature of deformation combin ing bending and distortion when subjected to large mechanical forces exerted by the tip of AFM. In special cases, long carbon nanotubes can be cut into two part s, by which we can remove the part where crystal lattice is flawed, and therefor e a perfect nanocomponent can be obtained.

  13. Basics of cutting and abrasive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Toenshoff, Hans Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing is the basic industrial activity generating real value. Cutting and abrasive technologies are the backbone of precision production in machine, automotive and aircraft building as well as of production of consumer goods. We present the knowledge of modern manufacturing in these technologies on the basis of scientific research. The theory of cutting and abrasive processes and the knowledge about their application in industrial practice are a prerequisite for the studies of manufacturing science and an important part of the curriculum of the master study in German mechanical engineering. The basis of this book is our lecture “Basics of cutting and abrasive processes” (4 semester hours/3 credit hours) at the Leibniz University Hannover, which we offer to the diploma and master students specializing in manufacturing science.

  14. Bayesian network learning with cutting planes

    CERN Document Server

    Cussens, James

    2012-01-01

    The problem of learning the structure of Bayesian networks from complete discrete data with a limit on parent set size is considered. Learning is cast explicitly as an optimisation problem where the goal is to find a BN structure which maximises log marginal likelihood (BDe score). Integer programming, specifically the SCIP framework, is used to solve this optimisation problem. Acyclicity constraints are added to the integer program (IP) during solving in the form of cutting planes. Finding good cutting planes is the key to the success of the approach -the search for such cutting planes is effected using a sub-IP. Results show that this is a particularly fast method for exact BN learning.

  15. A Gradient Descent Approximation for Graph Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Alparslan; Akgul, Yusuf Sinan

    Graph cuts have become very popular in many areas of computer vision including segmentation, energy minimization, and 3D reconstruction. Their ability to find optimal results efficiently and the convenience of usage are some of the factors of this popularity. However, there are a few issues with graph cuts, such as inherent sequential nature of popular algorithms and the memory bloat in large scale problems. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for the approximation of the graph cut optimization by posing the problem as a gradient descent formulation. The advantages of our method is the ability to work efficiently on large problems and the possibility of convenient implementation on parallel architectures such as inexpensive Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). We have implemented the proposed method on the Nvidia 8800GTS GPU. The classical segmentation experiments on static images and video data showed the effectiveness of our method.

  16. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength is an...... uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....

  17. A case of "atypical homicidal" cut-throat injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar S, Ajay; Kumar Ms, Vinay; Babu, Yp Raghavendra; Prasad, Mahadeshwara

    2016-09-01

    Cut-throats can be of homicidal, suicidal or accidental origin. In cases of death from a cut-throat, distinguishing the cause is one of the important functions in crime investigation. The features that differentiate suicidal and homicidal cut-throat injuries are the presence of hesitation cuts, depth of wound, signs of struggle, edges of the wound, etc. In the case of a suicidal cut-throat, it is not uncommon to find hesitation cuts but in a homicidal cut-throat, it is uncommon. We present a case of a homicidal cut-throat injury but with hesitation cuts and tailing over the neck, unlike the classical description of homicidal cut-throat injury. This resulted from a curved, sharp and moderately heavy weapon. PMID:27381317

  18. Cut Locus Construction using Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, François;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for appproximating cut loci for a given point p on Riemannian 2D manifolds, closely related to the notion of Voronoi diagrams. Our method finds the cut locus by advecting a front of points equally distant from p along the geodesics originating at p and finding the...... lines of self-intersections of the front in the parametric space. This becomes possible by using the deformable simplicial complexes (DSC, [1]) method for deformable interface tracking. DSC provide a simple collision detection mechanism, allows for interface topology control, and does not require the...

  19. Cut Times for Simple Random Walk

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    Let $S(n)$ be a simple random walk taking values in $Z^d$. A time $n$ is called a cut time if \\[ S[0,n] \\cap S[n+1,\\infty) = \\emptyset . \\] We show that in three dimensions the number of cut times less than $n$ grows like $n^{1 - \\zeta}$ where $\\zeta = \\zeta_d$ is the intersection exponent. As part of the proof we show that in two or three dimensions \\[ P(S[0,n] \\cap S[n+1,2n] = \\emptyset ) \\sim n^{-\\zeta}, \\] where $\\sim$ denotes that each side is bounded by a constant times the other side.

  20. Laser cutting technology using water jet waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser with water jet is examined to cut in-vessel structure. However, it is necessary to increase the break-up length of water jet to cut a thick plate. Therefore, the effects of the water jet parameter (water pressure, assist gas, laser power) on break-up length were investigated. It was found from observation results of water jet that the longest break-up length is about 135mm under condition of water pressure 40 MPa, laser power 30W and helium assist gas 1L/min. (author)

  1. Numerical modeling of a cutting torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional turbulent model of a low-current intensity (30 A) cutting plasma torch was developed using the local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation. A good agreement was found between measured and modelled results of plasma temperature and velocity, the latter of which has not been previously reported in the literature for high energy density torches. The cutting performance was also studied in terms of the heat flux to the work-piece and the value of the force exerted by the impinging plasma jet.

  2. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Cutting Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ispas, Constantin; Gérard, Alain; Bardac, Doru

    2009-01-01

    The determination of a dynamic law of cut is complex and often very difficult to develop. Several formulations were developed, in very complex ways being given that 3 AD crosses from there, the number of variables is much higher than out of orthogonal cut. The existence of the plan of displacements and the correlations with the elastic characteristics of the machining system thus make it possible to simplify the dynamic model 3D. A dynamic model on the basis of experimental approach is proposed. Simulation is in concord with the experimental results.

  3. Region growing for multi-route cuts

    OpenAIRE

    Barman, Siddharth; Chawla, Shuchi

    2009-01-01

    We study a number of multi-route cut problems: given a graph G=(V,E) and connectivity thresholds k_(u,v) on pairs of nodes, the goal is to find a minimum cost set of edges or vertices the removal of which reduces the connectivity between every pair (u,v) to strictly below its given threshold. These problems arise in the context of reliability in communication networks; They are natural generalizations of traditional minimum cut problems where the thresholds are either 1 (we want to completely...

  4. Spending and Cutting Are Two Different Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Danish local councillors, who are randomly assigned to a decision-making situation, where the block grant provided to their municipality is either increased or reduced. The results show that the politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending are asymmetric, in the sense that the policy areas, which...... are assigned the least cuts when the grant is reduced, are rarely the ones which are assigned extra money when the grant is increased. Areas with well-organised interests and a target group which is perceived as deserving are granted more money, whereas policy areas where the target group is perceived...

  5. Analysis of striation formation mechanism in abrasive water jet cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Junkar, Mihael; Orbanić, Henri

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the macro-mechanism of abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting is studied from the point of cutting front and striation formation analysis. The striation on the surface cut with AWJ is a characteristic phenomena which is strongly present when cutting with high traverse velocities for particular material type and thickness of workpiece. The connection between the cutting front step formation and striation formation is explained through series of experiments, which include visual observa...

  6. 固体吸附式空调/热泵在火电厂中的应用研究%STUDY ON APPLYING SOLID-ADSORPTION AIR CONDITIONING / HEAT PUMP IN THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中华; 王如竹; 刘建军; 柳正军; 刘洪文

    2001-01-01

    采用新型固体吸附式制冷技术开发了电站锅炉排污热回收系统。该系统可直接回收排污热进行空调制冷,并对电厂热力系统进行热泵供热,不但节约大量空调用电,而且提高了机组热经济性,具有显著的节能效果。%A heat recovery system of discharged waste water from boilers in thermal power plant was developed. The recovered heat can be used to drive solid-adsorption refrigerator for air conditioning and supply heat to heat-pump for thermal system, reducing greatly the electricity consumption of air conditioning, improving thermal efficiency of generating units, resulting in obvious energy-saving effect.

  7. Converter structure-based power loss and static thermal modeling of the press-pack IGBT-based three-level ANPC and HB VSCs applied to Multi-MW wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2010-01-01

    The wind turbine converters demand high power density due to nacelle space limitation and high reliability due to high maintenance cost. Once the converter topology with the semiconductor switch technology is selected, the converter power density and reliability are dependent on the component count...... and the switch thermal performance which is determined by the converter load profile and the converter structure. In this study, the converter-structure based power loss and thermal models are developed for the medium voltage full-scale 3LANPC- VSC and 3L-HB-VSC utilizing press-pack IGBT-diode pairs...... and interfacing a 6MW wind turbine to a medium voltage grid. The switching power loss models are built using the experimentally obtained switching power loss data from a fullscale 3L-ANPC-VSC leg. The static thermal models are developed considering the double-sided cooling of the switches by the cooling plates...

  8. Cutting resistance and load analysis on excavating equipment. Schneidwiderstands- und Belastungsanalysen an Gewinnungsgeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, D. (Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau); Neumann, R. (Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau)

    1993-08-01

    The present paper gives a survey of the research project on the subject ''Prognosis of the cutting resistance of rocks'', which is being carried out at the Institute of Mining of the Technical University Mining Academy of Freiberg at the request of the TAKRAF Lauchhammer Company in Leipzig. It is stressed in the introduction that a thorough knowledge of the specific cutting resistance of rocks is already necessary in the preliminary stage of technological drafts of mining systems. In addition to the essential fundamentals for the definition and calculation of specific cutting resistances, various aspects of the systematic research methods applied in laboratory analyses as well as in cutting resistance and load analyses on site, which make a prognosis of the cutting resistances possible, are discussed. Examples of measurement analyses on excavating equipment illustrate the significant test results obtained. Special tests include inter alia the analysis of individual components of the cutting resistance as well as the development of a simulation programme for the purpose of calculating the drive rating functions and assessing the dynamic reactions of the excavating machine. At the same time, the laboratory equipment used for these analyses also serves as an instructive and effective means of training students in this field of research. (orig.)

  9. Experimental investigation of the effect of thermal hysteresis in MnFeP1-x Asx materials applied in an AMR device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    magnetic refrigeration devices has not yet been thoroughly investigated in the literature. Here, the thermal hysteretic magnetocaloric properties are studied using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and how this influences actual refrigeration performance, using an established active magnetic regenerator...... (AMR) test device (Bahl et al., 2008) with a flat plate regenerator of a single Curie temperature (TC) material. We find that the maximum adiabatic entropy change does not depend on the thermal history of the material, but the peak temperature is shifted 1.5 K for fields up to 1.5 T when measured at a...

  10. Converter structure-based power loss and static thermal modeling of the press-pack IGBT-based three-level ANPC and HB VSCs applied to Multi-MW wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Senturk, Osman S.; Helle, L.; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the converter-structure based power loss and thermal models are developed for the medium voltage full-scale 3LANPC- VSC and 3L-HB-VSC utilizing press-pack IGBT-diode pairs and interfacing a 6MW wind turbine to a medium voltage grid. The switching power loss models are built using the experimentally obtained switching power loss data from a fullscale 3L-ANPC-VSC leg. The static thermal models are developed considering the double-sided cooling of the switc...

  11. Plasma arc cutting: Microstructural modifications of hafnium cathodes during first cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the microstructural modifications of the Hf insert in plasma arc cutting (PAC) electrodes operating at 250 A were experimentally investigated during first cycles, in order to understand those phenomena occurring on and under the Hf emissive surface and involved in the electrode erosion process. Standard electrodes were subjected to an increasing number of cutting cycles (CCs) on mild steel plates in realistic operative conditions, with oxygen/air as plasma/shield gas. Microstructural analysis was performed for each electrode at different erosion stages by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. Electrodes cross sections were also observed by means of optical microscopy (both in bright field and in reflected polarised light) after chemical etching. In the insert, three typical zones were found after cutting: monoclinic HfO2 layer; thermally-modified transition zone with O2–Hf solid solution; unmodified Hf. The erosion cavity and the oxide layer thickness increase with the number of cutting cycles. Macrocracking was observed in the oxide layer, while microcracking and grain growth were detected in the remelted Hf. Moreover, detachment was found at the Hf/Cu interface. Based on thermodynamics and kinetics of the Hf high temperature oxidation, conclusions can be drawn on the erosion mechanism involved. - Highlights: ► Hf microstructural modifications in cathodes after plasma arc cutting cycles investigated. ► 3 zones identified after cutting: HfO2 layer; remelted zone with O2–Hf solid solution; unmodified Hf. ► Hf-based ejections both in arc-on and arc-off phases; erosion cavity deepens with cutting cycles. ► Detachment at the Hf/Cu interfaces, worsening heat dissipation and oxidation/erosion phenomena. ► The use of a different current ramp at subsequent erosion stages is suggested.

  12. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  13. Radiation-induced frequency transients in AT, BT, and SC cut quartz resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies of transient frequency changes in high-purity swept AT quartz resonators led to the conclusion that impurity-induced effects were small, while the observed changes were qualitatively and quantitatively well characterized in terms of the time changing temperature of the vibrating quartz and its effect on frequency. 5 MHz, AT cut fifth overtone, and BT and SC cut third overtone resonators were prepared from a single stone of Sawyer swept Premium-Q quartz. The resonators were operated in precision ovenized oscillators at or near their turnover temperatures. Pulsed irradiation, at dose levels of the order of 104 rads (Si) per pulse, was accomplished at Sandia. The experimental data display negative frequency transients for the AT cut resonators, positive frequency transients for the BT cut resonators, and very small transient effects for the SC cut resonators. From these experimental results, it is concluded that no measurable impurity-induced frequency changes are observed in this high-purity swept-quartz and that the frequency transients are accurately modelled in terms of transient temperature effects stemming from the thermal characteristics of the resonator structure

  14. Use of Pressure for Improving Storage Quality of Fresh-Cut Produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    The microflora of fresh-cut produce is comprised primarily of phytopathogenic and soilborne organisms, but the product could be contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Populations of bacteria, molds, and yeasts associated with fresh-cut produce decreased to non-detectable levels following a high pressure (HP) treatment of 400 MPa for 10 min at room temperature, except for spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus spp. which were inactivated when subjected to 600 MPa at 60 °C for 10 min. The HP treatment of 400 MPa for 5-10 min at room temperature for fresh-cut lotus root and pineapple may be commercially feasible as an alternative to chemical sterilization and thermal blanching, respectively. The HP treatment reduced the epiphytic microorganisms of the products to non-detectable levels, and the microbial counts remained at the initial levels during storage at 1 °C with minimal changes in physicochemical and visual quality of the products. However, the HP treatment induced cellular disruption in plant tissue that contributed to the changes in appearance of several fresh-cut vegetables. To improve storage quality, combining lower pressures with complementary technologies should be useful for successful application of HP for other fresh-cut produce. PMID:26174398

  15. Influence of particle size on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness in Machining of B4Cp - 6061 Aluminium Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Vijaykumar; Badiger, Pradeep; Auradi, V.; Dundur, S. T.; Kori, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Amongst advanced materials, metal matrix composites (MMC) are gaining importance as materials for structural applications in particular, particulate reinforced aluminium MMCs have received considerable attention due to their superior properties such as high strength to weight ratio, excellent low-temperature performance, high wear resistance, high thermal conductivity. The present study aims at studying and comparing the machinability aspects of B4Cp reinforced 6061Al alloy metal matrix composites reinforced with 37μm and 88μm particulates produced by stir casting method. The micro structural characterization of the prepared composites is done using Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with EDX analysis (Hitachi Su-1500 model) to identify morphology and distribution of B4C particles in the 6061Al matrix. The specimens are turned on a conventional lathe machine using a Polly crystalline Diamond (PCD) tool to study the effect of particle size on the cutting forces and the surface roughness under varying machinability parameters viz., Cutting speed (29-45 m/min.), Feed rate (0.11-0.33 mm/rev.) and depth of cut (0.5-1mm). Results of micro structural characterization revealed fairly uniform distribution of B4C particles (in both cases i.e., 37μm and 88μm) in 6061Al matrix. The surface roughness of the composite is influenced by cutting speed. The feed rate and depth of cut have a negative influence on surface roughness. The cutting forces decreased with increase in cutting speed whereas cutting forces increased with increase in feed and depth of cut. Higher cutting forces are noticed while machining Al6061 base alloy compared to reinforced composites. Surface finish is high during turning of the 6061Al base alloy and surface roughness is high with 88μm size particle reinforced composites. As the particle size increases Surface roughness also increases.

  16. Operation and maintenance cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingshead, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Timothy W. Hollingshead, Technical Services Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric, is about cutting costs in the Operation and Maintenance phase of geothermal energy production. The necessity of cost control, keeping workers well-trained and avoiding OSHA fines, taking advantages of new technologies, and establishing predictive maintenance programs are some of the issues discussed in this article.

  17. Breeding lettuce for fresh-cut processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed in fresh-cut packaged salads. New cultivars specifically bred for this use can enhance production and processing efficiency and extend shelf life. Cultivars with novel head architectures and leaf traits are being released by private and public breeding programs with ...

  18. Dental abrasion as a cutting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Peter W; Wagner, Mark; Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Almusallam, Abdulwahab S; Michael, Shaji; Thai, Lidia A; Strait, David S; Swain, Michael V; van Casteren, Adam; Renno, Waleed M; Shekeban, Ali; Philip, Swapna M; Saji, Sreeja; Atkins, Anthony G

    2016-06-01

    A mammalian tooth is abraded when a sliding contact between a particle and the tooth surface leads to an immediate loss of tooth tissue. Over time, these contacts can lead to wear serious enough to impair the oral processing of food. Both anatomical and physiological mechanisms have evolved in mammals to try to prevent wear, indicating its evolutionary importance, but it is still an established survival threat. Here we consider that many wear marks result from a cutting action whereby the contacting tip(s) of such wear particles acts akin to a tool tip. Recent theoretical developments show that it is possible to estimate the toughness of abraded materials via cutting tests. Here, we report experiments intended to establish the wear resistance of enamel in terms of its toughness and how friction varies. Imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess the damage involved. Damage ranged from pure plastic deformation to fracture with and without lateral microcracks. Grooves cut with a Berkovich diamond were the most consistent, suggesting that the toughness of enamel in cutting is 244 J m(-2), which is very high. Friction was higher in the presence of a polyphenolic compound, indicating that this could increase wear potential. PMID:27274807

  19. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  20. On Non-Abelian Symplectic Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We discuss symplectic cutting for Hamiltonian actions of non-Abelian compact groups. By using a degeneration based on the Vinberg monoid we give, in good cases, a global quotient description of a surgery construction introduced by Woodward and Meinrenken, and show it can be interpreted in algebro...

  1. Power Price Cuts to Drive Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Lei

    2002-01-01

    @@ The economy of South China's Guangdong Province should developed more rapidly thanks to recent cuts in electricity prices, Lin Lin, deputy director of Guangdong Price Bureau, predicted in an interview with news media in early June, adding that the reduction in electricity prices would benefit economic development in Guangdong Province.

  2. Fatigue Lives of Materials Cut by Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Laser machining helps to balance high-speed rotating machinery. Report describes continuing studies of fatigue lives of materials cut by lasers. One long-term objective of such studies is use of laser machining to balance rotors operating at high speeds. To achieve objective, necessary to know relationship between effects of conventional and laser machining on fatigue lives of machined materials.

  3. Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    2007-01-01

    Consolidation has dramatically reduced the number of school districts in the United States. Using data from rural school districts in New York, this article provides the first direct estimation of consolidation's cost impacts. We find economies of size in operating spending: all else equal, doubling enrollment cuts operating costs per pupil by…

  4. Splinter detection of half-cut peaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizmanos, Juan L. G.; Fuentes, Luis M.; Gutierrez, Jose A.

    1997-09-01

    A machine vision system has been developed to separate half cut peaches with small splinters from clean ones. The system uses the different spectral profile of both together with an ad hoc illuminating system. The system is capable of processing 30 half peaches per second. The hardware and software solutions are described.

  5. Nanopillar Fabrication with Focused Ion Beam Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, Oleksii V.; Pei, Yutao T.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.

    2014-01-01

    A versatile method to fabricate taper-free micro-/nanopillars of large aspect ratio was developed with focused ion beam (FIB) cutting. The key features of the fabrication are a FIB with an incident angle of 90 degrees to the long axis of the pillar that enables milling of the pillar sideways avoidin

  6. Influence of cutting parameters on surface characteristics of cut section in cutting of Inconel 718 sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Gyu AHN; Kyung-Won BYUN

    2009-01-01

    Recently, laser cutting technologies begin to use for manufacturing mechanical parts of lnconel super-alloy sheet due to difficulties of machining of the Inconel material as a results of its extremely tough nature. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters on surface characteristics of the cut section in the cutting of Inconel 718 super-alloy sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser through laser cutting experiments. Normal cutting experiments were performed using a laser cutting system with six-axis controlled automatic robot and auto-tracking system of the focal distance. From the results of the experiments, the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness, the striation formation and the microstructure of the cut section were examined. In addition, an optimal cutting condition, at which the surface roughness is minimized and both the delayed cutting phenomenon and the micro-cracking are not initiated, is estimated to improve both the part quality and the cutting efficiency.

  7. Effect of cutting management and nitrogen supply on yield and quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Wouters, A.P.; Kariuki, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of cutting experiments, average apparent nitrogen recovery of applied fertilizer N by Napier grass was approximately 50%. Incorporation of cattle manure improved nitrogen utilization. Mixtures with Desmodium intortum substantially improved yield and protein content. There was a fair to good relation between morphology and crude protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Napier grass.

  8. Effect of cutting management and nitrogen supply on yield and quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Wouters, A.P.; Kariuki, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of cutting experiments, average apparent nitrogen recovery of applied fertilizer N by Napier grass was approximately 50%. Incorporation of cattle manure improved nitrogen utilization. Mixtures with Desmodium intortum substantially improved yield and protein content. There was a fair to g

  9. Performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation

    OpenAIRE

    João Vieira Neto; Adelson Francisco de Oliveira; Csaignon Mariano Caproni; Fabíola Villa; Luiz Fernando de Oliveira da Silva

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation. The clonal garden was installed in March 2006, in grooves 40 cm deep. Two cultivars (Ascolano 315 and Arbequina) were evaluated and cut in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The test was carried out in split plot in time in a randomized block design with five replications. The plots were composed of three lines, one meter spaced between them, three plants in each line, spaced 0,5 m from each othe...

  10. Cutting and dismantling of the South West ladder of the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metallic ladder built in stainless steel was used originally to check the welding of the reactor pressure vessel. It was located between the thermal insulation and reactor pressure vessel. Because of a failure in the mechanism, which let the ladder runs around the vessel, it had to be removed. A special tool remotely operated was designed to make different cuts in the bottom of the structure in a very high radioactive location

  11. Production of structured thin wooden chips by milling with small cutting angles

    OpenAIRE

    Heisel, Uwe; Tröger, Johannes

    1994-01-01

    Thin wooden chips can be used in a wide range, primarily to produce ecological positive materials to substitute plastics and mineral wool for the use of thermal isolation and packaging materials. There are wide resources of wood and it can be wasted ecologically. Additionally, the production of wooden chips for the above mentioned purposes has clear advantages regarding the expenditure of energy. With existing machining methods for the production of wooden cutting chips, only a chip thickness...

  12. Comparison of CO2 Laser Cutting with Different Laser Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketting, Hans-Ole; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains CO2 laser cutting results in mild and stainless steel with different laser sources. The main factors which affect the cutting speed and quality are the power, the cutting gas and focal point conditions. Keeping the power and cutting gas constant, the focal point conditions have...... is proven at least for oxyfuel cutting of mild steel, whereas fusion cutting of stainless steel is more complicated.Cutting results from 7 different indus-trial laser sources connected to different moving systems, were used to get information about the importance of the Beam Quality Number K and focal spot...... size,for the maximum cutting speed. One of the 7 laser sources with different focal length and thus different minimum spot size, was then used to investigate more in details the importance of the focal spot size cutting stainless steel with high pressure nitrogen. It looks as if there is a strong...

  13. Comparison of CO2 Laser Cutting with Different Laser Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketting, Hans-Ole; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains CO2 laser cutting results in mild and stainless steel with different laser sources. The main factors which affect the cutting speed and quality are the power, the cutting gas and focal point conditions. Keeping the power and cutting gas constant, the focal point conditions have...... is proven at least for oxyfuel cutting of mild steel, whereas fusion cutting of stainless steel is more complicated.Cutting results from 7 different indus-trial laser sources connected to different moving systems, were used to get information about the importance of the Beam Quality Number K and...... focal spot size,for the maximum cutting speed. One of the 7 laser sources with different focal length and thus different minimum spot size, was then used to investigate more in details the importance of the focal spot size cutting stainless steel with high pressure nitrogen. It looks as if there is a...

  14. "Cut wires grating – single longitudinal wire" planar metastructure to achieve microwave magnetic resonance in a single wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kraftmakher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we present metastructures containing cut-wire grating and a single longitudinal cut-wire orthogonal to grating’s wires. Experimental investigations at microwaves show these structures can provide strong magnetic resonant response of a single nonmagnetic cut-wire in dependence on configuration and sizes in the case when metastructures are oriented along the direction of wave propagation and cut-wires of grating are parallel to the electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is suggested a concept of magnetic response based on antiparallel resonant currents excited by magnetic field of surface polaritons in many spatial LC-circuits created from cut-wire pairs of a grating and section of longitudinal cut-wire. Three separately observed resonant effects connected with grating, LC-circuits and with longitudinal cut-wire have been identified applying measurements in waveguides, cutoff waveguides and free space. To tune and mark resonance split cut-wires are loaded with varactor diodes.

  15. Multiscale Multisensor Data Fusion and Application in High Precision Marking and Cutting Robot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The multisensor online measure system for high precision marking and cutting robot system is designed and the data fusion method is introduced, which combines augment state multiscale process with extend Kalman filter. The technology measuring the three-dimensional deforming information of profiled bars is applied. The experimental result shows that applying the multisensor data fusion technology can enhance the measure precision and the reliability of measure system.

  16. Edge Cut Domination, Irredundance, and Independence in Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Fenstermacher, Todd; Hedetniemi, Stephen; Laskar, Renu

    2016-01-01

    An edge dominating set $F$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is an \\textit{edge cut dominating set} if the subgraph $\\langle V,G-F \\rangle$ is disconnected. The \\textit{edge cut domination number} $\\gamma_{ct}(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum cardinality of an edge cut dominating set of $G.$ In this paper we study the edge cut domination number and investigate its relationships with other parameters of graphs. We also introduce the properties edge cut irredundance and edge cut independence.

  17. Laser remote cutting of metallic materials: opportunities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzig, Andreas; Baumann, Robert; Herwig, Patrick; Siebert, René; Beyer, Eckhard

    2015-07-01

    The fundamentals of laser remote cutting will be introduced as well as a comparison to the conventional laser fusion cutting process. The opportunities and limitations of this alternative laser cutting technology will be discussed in detail by means of recent application examples. Here to name cutting of typical punching and bending parts, battery foils, metals foams and electrical steel sheets. Questions that are concerning the cutting thickness, the cutting quality, the cycle time, and the impact on the material will be answered. Finally, conclusions and an outlook on future developments will be presented.

  18. Striation-free fibre laser cutting of mild steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobih, M.; Crouse, P.L.; Li, L. [University of Manchester, Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, P.O. Box 88, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    High-power laser cutting is extensively used in many industrial applications. An important weakness of this process is the formation of striations, i.e. regular lines on the cut surface, which lowers the quality of the surfaces produced. The elimination of striation formation is thus of considerable importance, since it could open a variety of novel high-precision applications. This study presents the initial results of a laser cutting study using a 1 kW single-mode fibre laser, a relative newcomer in the field of laser metal cutting. Striation-free laser cuts are demonstrated when cutting 1 mm thick mild steel sheets. (orig.)

  19. Visualization of Water Jet Cutting by Means of Ultrasonic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warisawa, Shin'Ichi; Kida, Ayumi; Ito, Yoshimi

    It has been recognized from many investigations on water jet cutting mechanism that visualization of a cutting front is very effective to deepen understanding of the mechanism. However, an in-process visualization method, especially those applicable to opaque materials such as metals has not been established even now. This paper newly proposes a method of visualization of cutting front using ultrasonic waves. Several experiments have shown that in-process visualisation of a shape of the cutting front, inclination and profile waviness of cutting surface can be realized using the proposed method. Furthermore, this paper also proposes a water jet cutting process model based on detail analyses of visualization results.

  20. Is Cheeger-type Approximation Possible for Nonuniform Sparsest Cut?

    OpenAIRE

    Trevisan, Luca

    2013-01-01

    In the {\\em nonuniform sparsest cut} problem, given two undirected graphs $G$ and $H$ over the same set of vertices $V$, we want to find a cut $(S,V-S)$ that minimizes the ratio between the fraction of $G$-edges that are cut and the fraction of $H$-edges that are cut. The ratio (which is at most 1 in an optimal solution) is called the {\\em sparsity} of the cut. In the {\\em uniform sparsest cut} problem, $H$ is a clique over $V$. If $G$ is regular, it is possible to find a solution to the unif...