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Sample records for applied ecosystem analysis

  1. Applied ecosystem analysis - a primer; the ecosystem diagnosis and treatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual

  2. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - - a Primer : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual.

  3. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background EDT - The Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980's the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born

  4. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980`s the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born.

  5. Biology of Applied Digital Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, G.; Sadedin, S.; Paperin, G.

    2007-01-01

    A primary motivation for our research in Digital Ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. However, the biological processes that contribute to these properties have not been made explicit in Digital Ecosystems research. Here, we discuss how biological properties contribute to the self-organising features of biological ecosystem...

  6. Network analysis as a tool for assessing environmental sustainability: applying the ecosystem perspective to a Danish water management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Scotti, Marco; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : it is highly efficient at processing the water resource, but the rigid and almost linear structure makes it vulnerable in situations of stress such as heavy rain events. The analysis of future scenarios showed a trend towards increased sustainability, but differences between past and expected future......New insights into the sustainable use of natural resources in human systems can be gained through comparison with ecosystems via common indices. In both kinds of system, resources are processed by a number of users within a network, but we consider ecosystems as the only ones displaying sustainable...... patterns of growth and development. We applied Network Analysis (NA) for assessing the sustainability of a Danish municipal Water Management System (WMS). We identified water users within the WMS and represented their interactions as a network of water flows. We computed intensive and extensive indices...

  7. Computing of Applied Digital Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G

    2009-01-01

    A primary motivation for our research in digital ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. However, the computing technologies that contribute to these properties have not been made explicit in digital ecosystems research. Here, we discuss how different computing technologies can contribute to providing the necessary self-organising features, including Multi-Agent Systems, Service-Oriented Architectures, and distributed evolutionary computing. The potential for exploiting these properties in digital ecosystems is considered, suggesting how several key features of biological ecosystems can be exploited in Digital Ecosystems, and discussing how mimicking these features may assist in developing robust, scalable self-organising architectures. An example architecture, the Digital Ecosystem, is considered in detail. The Digital Ecosystem is then measu...

  8. Hot spot analysis applied to identify ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva

    2016-04-01

    Hot spot analysis are very useful to identify areas with similar characteristics. This is important for a sustainable use of the territory, since we can identify areas that need to be protected, or restored. This is a great advantage in terms of land use planning and management, since we can allocate resources, reduce the economical costs and do a better intervention in the landscape. Ecosystem services (ES) are different according land use. Since landscape is very heterogeneous, it is of major importance understand their spatial pattern and where are located the areas that provide better ES and the others that provide less services. The objective of this work is to use hot-spot analysis to identify areas with the most valuable ES in Lithuania. CORINE land-cover (CLC) of 2006 was used as the main spatial information. This classification uses a grid of 100 m resolution and extracted a total of 31 land use types. ES ranking was carried out based on expert knowledge. They were asked to evaluate the ES potential of each different CLC from 0 (no potential) to 5 (very high potential). Hot spot analysis were evaluated using the Getis-ord test, which identifies cluster analysis available in ArcGIS toolbox. This tool identifies areas with significantly high low values and significant high values at a p level of 0.05. In this work we used hot spot analysis to assess the distribution of providing, regulating cultural and total (sum of the previous 3) ES. The Z value calculated from Getis-ord was used to statistical analysis to access the clusters of providing, regulating cultural and total ES. ES with high Z value show that they have a high number of cluster areas with high potential of ES. The results showed that the Z-score was significantly different among services (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA =834. 607, p<0.001). The Z score of providing services (0.096±2.239) were significantly higher than the total (0.093±2.045), cultural (0.080±1.979) and regulating (0.076±1.961). These

  9. Hot spot analysis applied to identify ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva

    2016-04-01

    Hot spot analysis are very useful to identify areas with similar characteristics. This is important for a sustainable use of the territory, since we can identify areas that need to be protected, or restored. This is a great advantage in terms of land use planning and management, since we can allocate resources, reduce the economical costs and do a better intervention in the landscape. Ecosystem services (ES) are different according land use. Since landscape is very heterogeneous, it is of major importance understand their spatial pattern and where are located the areas that provide better ES and the others that provide less services. The objective of this work is to use hot-spot analysis to identify areas with the most valuable ES in Lithuania. CORINE land-cover (CLC) of 2006 was used as the main spatial information. This classification uses a grid of 100 m resolution and extracted a total of 31 land use types. ES ranking was carried out based on expert knowledge. They were asked to evaluate the ES potential of each different CLC from 0 (no potential) to 5 (very high potential). Hot spot analysis were evaluated using the Getis-ord test, which identifies cluster analysis available in ArcGIS toolbox. This tool identifies areas with significantly high low values and significant high values at a p level of 0.05. In this work we used hot spot analysis to assess the distribution of providing, regulating cultural and total (sum of the previous 3) ES. The Z value calculated from Getis-ord was used to statistical analysis to access the clusters of providing, regulating cultural and total ES. ES with high Z value show that they have a high number of cluster areas with high potential of ES. The results showed that the Z-score was significantly different among services (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA =834. 607, pareas that showed high and low significant regulating and cultural ES clusters are similar. The spatial distribution of these clusters is very high, which may be attributed to

  10. Biology of Applied Digital Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G; Paperin, G

    2007-01-01

    A primary motivation for research in digital ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of natural ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. However, the biological processes that contribute to these properties have not been made explicit in digital ecosystem research. Here, we discuss how biological properties contribute to the self-organising features of natural ecosystems. These properties include populations of evolving agents, a complex dynamic environment, and spatial distributions which generate local interactions. The potential for exploiting these properties in artificial systems is then considered. An example architecture, the Digital Business Ecosystem (DBE), is considered in detail. Simulation results imply that the DBE performs better at large scales than a comparable service-oriented architecture. These results suggest that incorporating ideas from theoretical ecology can contribute to u...

  11. Applied analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lanczos, Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    Basic text for graduate and advanced undergraduate deals with search for roots of algebraic equations encountered in vibration and flutter problems and in those of static and dynamic stability. Other topics devoted to matrices and eigenvalue problems, large-scale linear systems, harmonic analysis and data analysis, more.

  12. Handbook of Applied Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.

  13. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijerman, Mariska; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Brainard, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis) to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings) and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated 'full regulation' scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  14. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Weijerman

    Full Text Available Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated 'full regulation' scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  15. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijerman, Mariska; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Brainard, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis) to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings) and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated 'full regulation' scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario. PMID:27023183

  16. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  17. Applied multivariate statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners.  It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added.  All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior.  All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...

  18. Management strategy evaluation applied to coral reef ecosystems in support of ecosystem-based management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijerman, M.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Brainard, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of ma

  19. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  20. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Griffel, DH

    2002-01-01

    A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the

  1. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oden, J Tinsley

    2010-01-01

    The textbook is designed to drive a crash course for beginning graduate students majoring in something besides mathematics, introducing mathematical foundations that lead to classical results in functional analysis. More specifically, Oden and Demkowicz want to prepare students to learn the variational theory of partial differential equations, distributions, and Sobolev spaces and numerical analysis with an emphasis on finite element methods. The 1996 first edition has been used in a rather intensive two-semester course. -Book News, June 2010

  2. Biosurveillance Ecosystem (BSVE) Workflow Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dasey, Timothy; Reynolds, Hayley Davison; Nurthen, Nancy; Kiley, Christopher; Silva, John

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Defense Threat Reduction Agency Chemical and Biological Technologies Directorate (DTRA CB) has initiated the Biosurveillance Ecosystem (BSVE) research and development program. Operational biosurveillance capability gaps were analyzed and the required characteristics of new technology were outlined, the results of which will be described in this contribution. Methods Work process flow diagrams, with associated explanations and historical examples, were developed based on in-pe...

  3. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...

  4. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  5. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  6. Analysis and design of software ecosystem architectures – towards the 4S telemedicine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kyng, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    , and application stove-pipes that inhibit the adoption of telemedical solutions. To which extent can a software ecosystem approach to telemedicine alleviate this? Objective In this article, we define the concept of software ecosystem architecture as the structure(s) of a software ecosystem comprising elements......, relations among them, and properties of both. Our objective is to show how this concept can be used i) in the analysis of existing software ecosystems and ii) in the design of new software ecosystems. Method We performed a mixed-method study that consisted of a case study and an experiment. For i), we...... performed a descriptive, revelatory case study of the Danish telemedicine ecosystem and for ii), we experimentally designed, implemented, and evaluated the architecture of 4S. Results We contribute in three areas. First, we define the software ecosystem architecture concept that captures organization...

  7. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects: a review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B.; Synnot, H. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors.

  8. Ecosystem engineering effects on species diversity across ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Vieira, Camila; Koricheva, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Ecosystem engineering is increasingly recognized as a relevant ecological driver of diversity and community composition. Although engineering impacts on the biota can vary from negative to positive, and from trivial to enormous, patterns and causes of variation in the magnitude of engineering effects across ecosystems and engineer types remain largely unknown. To elucidate the above patterns, we conducted a meta-analysis of 122 studies which explored effects of animal ecosystem engineers on species richness of other organisms in the community. The analysis revealed that the overall effect of ecosystem engineers on diversity is positive and corresponds to a 25% increase in species richness, indicating that ecosystem engineering is a facilitative process globally. Engineering effects were stronger in the tropics than at higher latitudes, likely because new or modified habitats provided by engineers in the tropics may help minimize competition and predation pressures on resident species. Within aquatic environments, engineering impacts were stronger in marine ecosystems (rocky shores) than in streams. In terrestrial ecosystems, engineers displayed stronger positive effects in arid environments (e.g. deserts). Ecosystem engineers that create new habitats or microhabitats had stronger effects than those that modify habitats or cause bioturbation. Invertebrate engineers and those with lower engineering persistence (1 year. Invertebrate species richness was particularly responsive to engineering impacts. This study is the first attempt to build an integrative framework of engineering effects on species diversity; it highlights the importance of considering latitude, habitat, engineering functional group, taxon and persistence of their effects in future theoretical and empirical studies.

  9. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  10. Emergy analysis of ecosystem at reclamation area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiu-ji; YAO Wan-qiang

    2008-01-01

    The emergy theory was used to analyze the emergy structure of the ecosystem at reclamation area in order to find the problem existed in the reclamation ecosystem through compared with the modern agriculture. The research results show that the proportion of assistant emergy input into the system is higher which indicate that the productivity of reclamation land has not resumed and a lot of assistant emergy needed to improve the productivity. The ecosystem overly depend on chemical fertilizer, which is bad to agricultural ecosystem; the agricultural ecosystem in reclamation area belongs to traditional agriculture because the main power come from manpower and the usage of organic fertilizer is little, through compare the index of emergy with modem agriculture, the value of EYR and ED in reclamation area is less than the modern agriculture.

  11. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of Regional Marine Ecosystem Services Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Honghua; ZHENG Wei; WANG Zongling; DING Dewen

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystem services are the benefits which people obtain from the marine ecosystem, including provisioning ser-vices, regulating services, cultural services and supporting services. The human species, while buffered against environmental changes by culture and technology, is fundamentally dependent on the flow of ecosystem services. Marine ecosystem services be-come increasingly valuable as the terrestrial resources become scarce. The value of marine ecosystem services is the monetary flow of ecosystem services on specific temporal and spatial scales, which often changes due to the variation of the goods prices, yields and the status of marine exploitation. Sensitivity analysis is to study the relationship between the value of marine ecosystem services and the main factors which affect it. Uncertainty analysis based on varying prices, yields and status of marine exploitation was carried out. Through uncertainty analysis, a more credible value range instead of a fixed value of marine ecosystem services was obtained in this study. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the marine ecosystem services value revealed the relative importance of different factors.

  12. Review of compartmental analysis in ecosystem science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    The compartment model has a large number of applications in ecosystem science. An attempt is made to outline the problem areas and objectives for which this type of model has particular advantages. The areas identified are an adequate model of tracer movement through an undisturbed but non-equilibrium ecosystem; an adequate model of the movement of material in greater than tracer quantity through an ecosystem near steady state; a minimal model based on limited data; a tool for extrapolating past trends; a framework for the summarization of large data sets; and a theoretical tool for exploring and comparing limited aspects of ecosystem dynamics. The review is set in an historical perspective which helps explain why these models were adopted in ecology. References are also provided to literature which documents available mathematical techniques in an ecological context.

  13. Flux frequency analysis of seasonally dry ecosystem fluxes in two unique biomes of Sonora Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, V. S.; Yepez, E. A.; Robles-Morua, A.; Garatuza, J.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Watts, C.

    2013-05-01

    Complex dynamics from the interactions of ecosystems processes makes difficult to model the behavior of ecosystems fluxes of carbon and water in response to the variation of environmental and biological drivers. Although process oriented ecosystem models are critical tools for studying land-atmosphere fluxes, its validity depends on the appropriate parameterization of equations describing temporal and spatial changes of model state variables and their interactions. This constraint often leads to discrepancies between model simulations and observed data that reduce models reliability especially in arid and semiarid ecosystems. In the semiarid north western Mexico, ecosystem processes are fundamentally controlled by the seasonality of water and the intermittence of rain pulses which are conditions that require calibration of specific fitting functions to describe the response of ecosystem variables (i.e. NEE, GPP, ET, respiration) to these wetting and drying periods. The goal is to find functions that describe the magnitude of ecosystem fluxes during individual rain pulses and the seasonality of the ecosystem. Relaying on five years of eddy covariance flux data of a tropical dry forest and a subtropical shrubland we present a flux frequency analysis that describe the variation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 to highlight the relevance of pulse driven dynamics controlling this flux. Preliminary results of flux frequency analysis of NEE indicate that these ecosystems are strongly controlled by the frequency distribution of rain. Also, the output of fitting functions for NEE, GPP, ET and respiration using semi-empirical functions applied at specific rain pulses compared with season-long statistically generated simulations do not agree. Seasonality and the intrinsic nature of individual pulses have different effects on ecosystem flux responses. This suggests that relationships between the nature of seasonality and individual pulses can help improve the

  14. Minimizing impacts of land use change on ecosystem services using multi-criteria heuristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A; Fournier, Eric; Fox, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Development of natural landscapes to support human activities impacts the capacity of the landscape to provide ecosystem services. Typically, several ecosystem services are impacted at a single development site and various footprint scenarios are possible, thus a multi-criteria analysis is needed. Restoration potential should also be considered for the area surrounding the permanent impact site. The primary objective of this research was to develop a heuristic approach to analyze multiple criteria (e.g. impacts to various ecosystem services) in a spatial configuration with many potential development sites. The approach was to: (1) quantify the magnitude of terrestrial ecosystem service (biodiversity, carbon sequestration, nutrient and sediment retention, and pollination) impacts associated with a suite of land use change scenarios using the InVEST model; (2) normalize results across categories of ecosystem services to allow cross-service comparison; (3) apply the multi-criteria heuristic algorithm to select sites with the least impact to ecosystem services, including a spatial criterion (separation between sites). As a case study, the multi-criteria impact minimization algorithm was applied to InVEST output to select 25 potential development sites out of 204 possible locations (selected by other criteria) within a 24,000 ha property. This study advanced a generally applicable spatial multi-criteria approach for 1) considering many land use footprint scenarios, 2) balancing impact decisions across a suite of ecosystem services, and 3) determining the restoration potential of ecosystem services after impacts.

  15. Applying critical analysis - main methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araujo Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the usefulness of critical appraisal of literature? Critical analysis is a fundamental condition for the correct interpretation of any study that is subject to review. In epidemiology, in order to learn how to read a publication, we must be able to analyze it critically. Critical analysis allows us to check whether a study fulfills certain previously established methodological inclusion and exclusion criteria. This is frequently used in conducting systematic reviews although eligibility criteria are generally limited to the study design. Critical analysis of literature and be done implicitly while reading an article, as in reading for personal interest, or can be conducted in a structured manner, using explicit and previously established criteria. The latter is done when formally reviewing a topic.

  16. Functional Valuation of Ecosystem Services on Bonaire: an ecological analysis of ecosystem functions provided by coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This research is a semi-quantitative analysis of the functional value of coral reef habitats on Bonaire to support ecosystem services. It is part of an economic valuation study of marine and terrestrial ecosystem services on Bonaire.

  17. Eco-Systemic Analysis of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppy, Margarette I.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested eco-systemic approach to understanding of anorexia nervosa. Compared 30 anorexics and parents to 34 matched control subjects and parents. Found that, compared to controls, families of anorexics were less supportive, helpful, and committed to each other. Family interactions perceived by anorexics were characterized by overprotective,…

  18. Essentials of applied dynamic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date knowledge of dynamic analysis in engineering world. To facilitate the understanding of the topics by readers with various backgrounds, general principles are linked to their applications from different angles. Special interesting topics such as statistics of motions and loading, damping modeling and measurement, nonlinear dynamics, fatigue assessment, vibration and buckling under axial loading, structural health monitoring, human body vibrations, and vehicle-structure interactions etc., are also presented. The target readers include industry professionals in civil, marine and mechanical engineering, as well as researchers and students in this area.

  19. Applying an ecosystem service approach to unravel links between ecosystems and society in the coast of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan, Silvia; Gelcich, Stefan; Ospina-Alvarez, Andres; Perez-Matus, Alejandro; Fernandez, Miriam

    2015-11-15

    Ecosystem-based management implies understanding feedbacks between ecosystems and society. Such understanding can be approached with the Drivers-Pressures-State change-Impacts-Response framework (DPSIR), incorporating stakeholders' preferences for ecosystem services to assess impacts on society. This framework was adapted to six locations in the central coast of Chile, where artisanal fisheries coexist with an increasing influx of tourists, and a set of fisheries management areas alternate with open access areas and a no-take Marine Protected Area (MPA). The ecosystem services in the study area were quantified using biomass and species richness in intertidal and subtidal areas as biological indicators. The demand for ecosystem services was elicited by interviews to the principal groups of users. Our results evidenced decreasing landings and a negative perception of fishermen on temporal trends of catches. The occurrence of recreational fishing was negligible, although the consumption of seafood by tourists was relatively high. Nevertheless, the consumption of organisms associated to the study system was low, which could be linked, amongst other factors, to decreasing catches. The comparison of biological indicators between management regimens provided variable results, but a positive effect of management areas and the MPA on some of the metrics was observed. The prioritising of ecosystem attributes by tourists was highly homogenous across the six locations, with "scenic beauty" consistently selected as the preferred attribute, followed by "diversity". The DPSIR framework illustrated the complex interactions existing in these locations, with weak linkages between society's priorities, existing management objectives and the state of biological communities. Overall, this work improved our knowledge on relations between components of coastal areas in central Chile, of paramount importance to advance towards an ecosystem-based management in the area.

  20. Final ecosystem services for stream ecosystems and the metrics, methods and challenges to apply them in a national monitoring context

    Science.gov (United States)

    The challenge of translating notions of ecosystem services from the theoretical arena to practical application at large scales (e.g. national) requires an interdisciplinary approach. To meet this challenge, we convened a workshop involving a broad suite of natural and social scie...

  1. Metabolic and Dynamic Profiling for Risk Assessment of Fluopyram, a Typical Phenylamide Fungicide Widely Applied in Vegetable Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Liu, Yanan; Li, Wenzhuo; Qian, Yuan; Nie, Yanxia; Kim, Dongyeop; Wang, Mengcen

    2016-09-01

    Fluopyram, a typical phenylamide fungicide, was widely applied to protect fruit vegetables from fungal pathogens-responsible yield loss. Highly linked to the ecological and dietary risks, its residual and metabolic profiles in the fruit vegetable ecosystem still remained obscure. Here, an approach using modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction combined with GC-MS/MS analysis was developed to investigate fluopyram fate in the typical fruit vegetables including tomato, cucumber, pepper under the greenhouse environment. Fluopyram dissipated in accordance with the first-order rate dynamics equation with the maximum half-life of 5.7 d. Cleveage of fluopyram into 2-trifluoromethyl benzamide and subsequent formation of 3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl) pyridine-2-acetic acid and 3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl) picolinic acid was elucidated to be its ubiquitous metabolic pathway. Moreover, the incurrence of fluopyram at the pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 7–21 d was between 0.0108 and 0.1603 mg/kg, and the Hazard Quotients (HQs) were calculated to be less than 1, indicating temporary safety on consumption of the fruit vegetables incurred with fluopyram, irrespective of the uncertain toxicity of the metabolites. Taken together, our findings reveal the residual essential of fluopyram in the typical agricultural ecosystem, and would advance the further insight into ecological risk posed by this fungicide associated with its metabolites.

  2. Concept analysis of culture applied to nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzilli, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Culture is an important concept, especially when applied to nursing. A concept analysis of culture is essential to understanding the meaning of the word. This article applies Rodgers' (2000) concept analysis template and provides a definition of the word culture as it applies to nursing practice. This article supplies examples of the concept of culture to aid the reader in understanding its application to nursing and includes a case study demonstrating components of culture that must be respected and included when providing health care.

  3. Applying the Ecosystem Approach to Select Priority Areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Yungas, Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes a method to select forest restoration priority areas consistently with the key principles of the Ecosystem Approach (EA) and the Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) framework. The methodology is based on the principles shared by the two approaches: acting at ecosystem scale, involving stakeholders, and evaluating alternatives. It proposes the involvement of social actors which have a stake in forest management through multicriteria analysis sessions aimed at identifying the most suitable forest restoration intervention. The method was applied to a study area in the native forests of Northern Argentina (the Yungas). Stakeholders were asked to identify alternative restoration actions, i.e. potential areas implementing FLR. Ten alternative fincas—estates derived from the Spanish land tenure system—differing in relation to ownership, management, land use, land tenure, and size were evaluated. Twenty criteria were selected and classified into four groups: biophysical, social, economic and political. Finca Ledesma was the closest to the economic, social, environmental and political goals, according to the values and views of the actors involved in the decision. This study represented the first attempt to apply EA principles to forest restoration at landscape scale in the Yungas region. The benefits obtained by the application of the method were twofold: on one hand, researchers and local actors were forced to conceive the Yungas as a complex net of rights rather than as a sum of personal interests. On the other hand, the participatory multicriteria approach provided a structured process for collective decision-making in an area where it has never been implemented.

  4. Recent trends in the development of ecological models applied on aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, S E

    2002-02-12

    This paper presents an overview of the application of models on aquatic ecosystems. More than 17% of the models published in the focal journal in the field, Ecological Modelling, are aquatic ecosystem models. An increasing number of papers are dealing with the theoretical aspects of modeling--new modeling approaches and techniques, how models can be used to reveal ecosystem properties, and how models can better reflect the properties of ecosystems. This development implies that today we have more types of models. The characteristics, the advantages, and the disadvantages of these model types are presented briefly. The selection criteria for the presented model types are discussed, and the application of these types to models for aquatic ecosystems is reviewed. A recent improvement in model calibration of particular interest for aquatic ecosystems is presented, and the perspectives resulting from this new calibration procedure and from possible hybrids of the presented model types are discussed. PMID:12806024

  5. Recent Trends in the Development of Ecological Models Applied on Aquatic Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Jorgensen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the application of models on aquatic ecosystems. More than 17% of the models published in the focal journal in the field, Ecological Modelling, are aquatic ecosystem models. An increasing number of papers are dealing with the theoretical aspects of modeling – new modeling approaches and techniques, how models can be used to reveal ecosystem properties, and how models can better reflect the properties of ecosystems. This development implies that today we have more types of models. The characteristics, the advantages, and the disadvantages of these model types are presented briefly. The selection criteria for the presented model types are discussed, and the application of these types to models for aquatic ecosystems is reviewed. A recent improvement in model calibration of particular interest for aquatic ecosystems is presented, and the perspectives resulting from this new calibration procedure and from possible hybrids of the presented model types are discussed.

  6. Applying data fusion techniques for benthic habitat mapping and monitoring in a coral reef ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caiyun

    2015-06-01

    Accurate mapping and effective monitoring of benthic habitat in the Florida Keys are critical in developing management strategies for this valuable coral reef ecosystem. For this study, a framework was designed for automated benthic habitat mapping by combining multiple data sources (hyperspectral, aerial photography, and bathymetry data) and four contemporary imagery processing techniques (data fusion, Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA), machine learning, and ensemble analysis). In the framework, 1-m digital aerial photograph was first merged with 17-m hyperspectral imagery and 10-m bathymetry data using a pixel/feature-level fusion strategy. The fused dataset was then preclassified by three machine learning algorithms (Random Forest, Support Vector Machines, and k-Nearest Neighbor). Final object-based habitat maps were produced through ensemble analysis of outcomes from three classifiers. The framework was tested for classifying a group-level (3-class) and code-level (9-class) habitats in a portion of the Florida Keys. Informative and accurate habitat maps were achieved with an overall accuracy of 88.5% and 83.5% for the group-level and code-level classifications, respectively.

  7. Applied regression analysis a research tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pantula, Sastry; Dickey, David

    1998-01-01

    Least squares estimation, when used appropriately, is a powerful research tool. A deeper understanding of the regression concepts is essential for achieving optimal benefits from a least squares analysis. This book builds on the fundamentals of statistical methods and provides appropriate concepts that will allow a scientist to use least squares as an effective research tool. Applied Regression Analysis is aimed at the scientist who wishes to gain a working knowledge of regression analysis. The basic purpose of this book is to develop an understanding of least squares and related statistical methods without becoming excessively mathematical. It is the outgrowth of more than 30 years of consulting experience with scientists and many years of teaching an applied regression course to graduate students. Applied Regression Analysis serves as an excellent text for a service course on regression for non-statisticians and as a reference for researchers. It also provides a bridge between a two-semester introduction to...

  8. Analysis of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River from an Ecosystem Perspective. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichatowich, James A.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1995-01-01

    Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology was applied to the analysis of chinook salmon in the mid-Columbia subbasins which flow through the steppe and steppe-shrub vegetation zones. The EDT examines historical changes in life history diversity related to changes in habitat. The emphasis on life history, habitat and historical context is consistent with and ecosystem perspective. This study is based on the working hypothesis that the decline in chinook salmon was at least in part due to a loss of biodiversity defined as the intrapopulation life history diversity. The mid Columbia subbasins included in the study are the Deschutes, John Day, Umatilla, Tucannon and Yakima.

  9. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  10. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  11. Caldwell University's Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A

    2016-05-01

    Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth. These strategies, along with a consideration of potential challenges, might prove useful in guiding academicians who are interested in starting their own programs in behavior analysis. PMID:27606194

  12. Distribution of Aerially Applied Malathion-S35 in a Forest Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of malathion (0,0-dimethyl dithiophosphate of diethyl mercaptosuccinate) in a forested area of east-central Ohio was studied during the summer of 1962. This broad-spectrum insecticide was selected for study on the basis of its increased use in the control of many important forest insect pests in deciduous and coniferous forests of the United States. The need for greater knowledge of the ecology of a forested area, coupled with the need for a more complete understanding of the effects of an insecticide on the fauna, provided the unique possibility of studying the problems simultaneously through the utilization of an isotope-labelled insecticide. S35 was selected because of its low beta energy (0.167 MeV) and the adequate half-life (87.1 d). Preliminary one-tenth-acre plot studies in the summer of 1961 provided us with potential application rates in terms of total radiation and also allowed the development of sample preparation technique. A faunal survey of two 20-acre watersheds was conducted during the summer of 1961. In May of 1962, one of the watersheds was treated with an application of 2 lb technical-grade malathion per acre in a formulation of xylene, triton X-155 emulsifier and water. Themalathion was synthesized with S35 by the Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, England. 1 c of activity was aerially applied to one of the 20-acre forested areas on 15 May and 25 May 1962. The specific activity of the synthesized malathion was 17. 5 m c/mM. The distribution of components of the aerial spray within the forest was measured. Electrically-operated air samplers provided estimates of drift off the area; helium-filled balloons bearing frosted-glass discs measured above-canopy application; glass discs suspended vertically as well as bark sampler, measured quantities settling out at different layers in the canopy; glass discs and spotting-enamel paper not only allowed a measure of horizontal distribution but a check of a standard spray

  13. The roles of a decision support system in applying forest ecosystem management in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Limin; ZHENG; Bofu; Guofan; Shao; ZHOU; Li

    2006-01-01

    Forest ecosystems provide a variety of services and forest ecosystem management (FEM) is an effective approach to maximize the services. Because of the complexity of forest ecosystems, the applications of FEM can be facilitated with decision support systems (DSS) that recognize and incorporate ecological and socio-economic variables. With the rapid development of computation and information technologies, DSS have been advanced in many ways. Traditional forest management within a forestry unit in China is planned on a yearly basis. The planning itself remains primarily a verbal concept as there are no quantitative decision-support tools available to translate the concept into forest management actions. For the purposes of FEM at the management level, a forest management DFF, FORESTAR(R), has been developed under a framework of geographic information system (GIS) and forest models. The paper explained the intelligent modeling mechanisms and demonstrated how the applications of FEM can be strengthened with the applications of FORESTAR(R).

  14. Applied Data Analysis in Energy Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kychkin А.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Software and hardware system organization is presented as an example for building energy monitoring of multi-sectional lighting and climate control / conditioning needs. System key feature is applied office energy data analysis that allows to provide each type of hardware localized work mode recognition. It is based on general energy consumption profile with following energy consumption and workload evaluation. Applied data analysis includes primary data processing block, smoothing filter, time stamp identification block, clusterization and classification blocks, state change detection block, statistical data calculation block. Time slot consumed energy value and slot time stamp are taken as work mode classification main parameters. Energy data applied analysis with HIL and OpenJEVis visualization system usage experimental research results for chosen time period has been provided. Energy consumption, workload calculation and eight different states identification has been executed for two lighting sections and one climate control / conditioning emulating system by integral energy consumption profile. Research has been supported by university internal grant №2016/PI-2 «Methodology development of monitoring and heat flow utilization as low potential company energy sources».

  15. Phosphorus and soil development: does the Walker and Syers model apply to semiarid ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmants, Paul C; Hart, Stephen C

    2010-02-01

    The Walker and Syers model of phosphorus (P) transformations during pedogenesis is widely accepted for the development of humid ecosystems, but long-term P dynamics of more arid ecosystems remain poorly understood. We tested the Walker and Syers model in semiarid piñon-juniper woodlands by measuring soil P fractions under tree canopies and in intercanopy spaces along a well-constrained, approximately 3000 ka (1 ka = 1000 years) volcanic substrate age gradient in northern Arizona, USA. The various pools of soil P behaved largely as predicted; total soil P and primary mineral P declined consistently with substrate age, labile inorganic P increased early in soil development and then declined at later stages, and organic phosphorus increased consistently across the chronosequence. Within each site, soils under tree canopies tended to have higher concentrations of labile and intermediately available P fractions compared to intercanopy soils. However, the degree of spatial heterogeneity conferred by tree islands was moderated by the stage of soil development. In contrast, tree islands had no influence on within-site distribution of more recalcitrant soil P pools, which appear to be controlled solely by the stage of pedogenesis. Coincident with declines in total P, primary mineral P, and labile inorganic P, we found that phosphatase enzyme activity increased with substrate age; a result consistent with greater ecosystem-level P demand on older, more highly weathered substrates. Our results suggest that, compared to humid climates, reduced inputs of water, energy, and acidity to semiarid ecosystems slow the rate of change in P fractions during pedogenesis, but the overall pattern remains consistent with the Walker and Syers model. Furthermore, our data imply that pedogenic change may be an important factor controlling the spatial distribution of labile P pools in semiarid ecosystems. Taken together, these data should both broaden and unify terrestrial ecosystem

  16. Analysis of Chromobacterium sp. natural isolates from different Brazilian ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Andréa MA; Santos Fabrício R; Astolfi-Filho Spartaco; Chartone-Souza Edmar; Lima-Bittencourt Cláudia I

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Chromobacterium violaceum is a free-living bacterium able to survive under diverse environmental conditions. In this study we evaluate the genetic and physiological diversity of Chromobacterium sp. isolates from three Brazilian ecosystems: Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), Atlantic Rain Forest and Amazon Rain Forest. We have analyzed the diversity with molecular approaches (16S rRNA gene sequences and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis) and phenotypic surveys of anti...

  17. Applied research in uncertainty modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ayyub, Bilal

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty has been a concern to engineers, managers, and scientists for many years. For a long time uncertainty has been considered synonymous with random, stochastic, statistic, or probabilistic. Since the early sixties views on uncertainty have become more heterogeneous. In the past forty years numerous tools that model uncertainty, above and beyond statistics, have been proposed by several engineers and scientists. The tool/method to model uncertainty in a specific context should really be chosen by considering the features of the phenomenon under consideration, not independent of what is known about the system and what causes uncertainty. In this fascinating overview of the field, the authors provide broad coverage of uncertainty analysis/modeling and its application. Applied Research in Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis presents the perspectives of various researchers and practitioners on uncertainty analysis and modeling outside their own fields and domain expertise. Rather than focusing explicitly on...

  18. Marine ecosystem analysis for wolsung nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveys to provide base-line data for assessing the potential impact of the operation of Wolseong NPP on marine ecosystems were performed at 3-month intervals in 1981. Physico-chemical properties of seawater and gross beta activities in seawater and marine organisms were examined. The result shows that the ecosystems are non-polluted, typical of near-shore waters. The results of ecological surveys are summarized as follows: A total of 84 taxa of phytoplankton diatom were identified. Of the species, about 70 % are described as neritic species, and the major bloom occurred in September. The analysis of diversity indices shows that the community is very stable. The dominant species of zooplankton were protozoan Noctiluca scintillans and copepods. A total of 83 species of marine algae were identified. The algal community was more diverse in September-December than in March-July, and the dominant species were Chondria crassicaulis and Corallina pilulifera. Total algal production per unit area (0.25 m2) was, on the average, 20 g-dry. The biomass of bacterial population was highest in December, and the result of multiple regression analysis indicates that the important environmental factors are nutrients, salinity and temperature. Primary productivities measured by Carbon-14 method were 1.11 mg C/m3/hr at 1 m depth, and 1.45 mg C/m3/hr at 6 m depth. As a whole the marine ecosystems adjacent Wolseong NPP site are thought to be stable. (author)

  19. Bifurcation analysis of a forest-grassland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Lucia; Spiliotis, Konstantinos G.

    2016-06-01

    The nonlinear analysis of a forest-grassland ecosystem is performed as the main system parameters are changed. The model consists of a couple of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which include dynamically the human perceptions of forest/grassland value. The system displays multiple steady states corresponding to different forest densities as well as periodic regimes characterized by oscillations in time. We performed the bifurcation analysis of the system as the parameter relative to the human opinions influence is changed. We found that the main mechanisms which regulate the transitions occurring between different states or the appearance of new steady and dynamic regimes are transcritical, saddle/node and Hopf bifurcations.

  20. A New Conceptual Model for Business Ecosystem Visualization and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Hupsel Vaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has the objective of plotting the effects of network externalities and superstar software for the visualization and analysis of industry ecosystems. The output is made possible by gathering sales from a tracking website, associating each sale to a single consumer and by using a network visualization software. The result is a graph that shows strategic positioning of publishers and platforms, serving as a strategic tool for both academics and professionals. The approach is scalable to other industries and can be used to support analysis on mergers, acquisitions and alliances.

  1. Wavelet analysis applied to the IRAS cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William D.; Wilson, Robert W.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of infrared cirrus clouds is analyzed with Laplacian pyramid transforms, a form of non-orthogonal wavelets. Pyramid and wavelet transforms provide a means to decompose images into their spatial frequency components such that all spatial scales are treated in an equivalent manner. The multiscale transform analysis is applied to IRAS 100 micrometer maps of cirrus emission in the north Galactic pole region to extract features on different scales. In the maps we identify filaments, fragments and clumps by separating all connected regions. These structures are analyzed with respect to their Hausdorff dimension for evidence of the scaling relationships in the cirrus clouds.

  2. Sneak analysis applied to process systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetton, Cris

    Traditional safety analyses, such as HAZOP, FMEA, FTA, and MORT, are less than effective at identifying hazards resulting from incorrect 'flow' - whether this be flow of information, actions, electric current, or even the literal flow of process fluids. Sneak Analysis (SA) has existed since the mid nineteen-seventies as a means of identifying such conditions in electric circuits; in which area, it is usually known as Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA). This paper extends the ideas of Sneak Circuit Analysis to a general method of Sneak Analysis applied to process plant. The methods of SA attempt to capitalize on previous work in the electrical field by first producing a pseudo-electrical analog of the process and then analyzing the analog by the existing techniques of SCA, supplemented by some additional rules and clues specific to processes. The SA method is not intended to replace any existing method of safety analysis; instead, it is intended to supplement such techniques as HAZOP and FMEA by providing systematic procedures for the identification of a class of potential problems which are not well covered by any other method.

  3. Application of ecosystem health cost-effect analysis in eco-planning in Guangzhou City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiurui; MAO Xianqiang; YANG Jurong; YANG Zhifeng

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem health has been a focal point and research frontier of applied ecology in recent years,increasingly used in urban ecological studies.To quantify the effect of ecological improvement from eco-planning,an ecosystem health assessment method is used in eco-planning evaluation and decision support in the urban eco-planning research of Guangzhou City of China.Based on features of an urban ecosystem,five factors such as vigor,organizational structure,resilience,ability to maintain ecosystem service,and influence on people's health were selected to develop the assessment indicator system.Then.to evaluate the validity of planning measures,a cost-effect analysis of the different sce-narios on eco-planning was made,taking investment of the planned projects as the cost and ecosystem health state after implementing the scenarios as the effect.To establish priority of all the proposed planning schemes or countermeasures,variation of the ecosystem health state was evaluated when the investment of eco-environmental construction projects changes by±10%,±20% and±50%,respectively.Thus,the order of importance of eco-environment construction projects to the urban ecosystem health state Can be worked out,providing a reference for prioritizing the implementation of such urban eco-environmental projects.The study proved the trial value of an ecosystem health evaluation method in urban eco-planning research.

  4. Social Network Analysis of the Irish Biotech Industry: Implications for Digital Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan

    This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attended by representatives of biotech actors and experts.

  5. Stochastic analysis of the Lotka-Volterra model for ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, G Q; Lin, Y K

    2004-10-01

    A stochastic Lotka-Volterra-type model for the interaction between the preys and the predators in a random environment is investigated. A self-competition mechanism within the prey population itself is also included. The effect of a random environment is modeled as random variations in the birth rate of the preys and the death rate of the predators. The stochastic averaging procedure of Stratonovich and Khasminskii is applied to obtain the probability distributions of the system state variables at the state of statistical stationarity. Asymptotic behaviors of the system variables are discussed, and the mean transition time from an initial state to a critical state is obtained. Effects on the ecosystem behaviors of the self-competition term, of the random variation in the prey birth rate, and of the random variation in the predator death rate are investigated.

  6. Human Resource Ecosystem and its evolutionary rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Paper,based on the concept and the elements of human resource ecosystem(HR Ecosystem),studies the function and structure of HR Ecosystem,introduces the entropy theory to define the content of entropy of HR Ecosystem,constructs the corresponding distinctive model to distinguish the direction of the evolution of HR Ecosystem and the evolutionary entropy model, and applies the models to demonstrate the evolutionary rules of HR Ecosystem.The study shows that the entropy theory can be well applied to the analysis on HR Ecosystem and that it opens up a new field in the research of human resource management and provides a new effective technical method.

  7. Social network analysis applied to team sports analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Explaining how graph theory and social network analysis can be applied to team sports analysis, This book presents useful approaches, models and methods that can be used to characterise the overall properties of team networks and identify the prominence of each team player. Exploring the different possible network metrics that can be utilised in sports analysis, their possible applications and variances from situation to situation, the respective chapters present an array of illustrative case studies. Identifying the general concepts of social network analysis and network centrality metrics, readers are shown how to generate a methodological protocol for data collection. As such, the book provides a valuable resource for students of the sport sciences, sports engineering, applied computation and the social sciences.

  8. Sinks for nitrogen inputs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis of 15N tracer field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, P.H.; Mack, M.C.; Chapin, F. S.; Christenson, L.M.; Compton, J.E.; Crook, H.D.; Currie, W.S.; Curtis, C.J.; Dail, D.B.; D'Antonio, C. M.; Emmett, B.A.; Epstein, H.E.; Goodale, C.L.; Gundersen, P.; Hobbie, S.E.; Holland, K.; Hooper, D.U.; Hungate, B.A.; Lamontagne, S.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Osenberg, C.W.; Perakis, S.S.; Schleppi, P.; Schimel, J.; Schmidt, I.K.; Sommerkorn, M.; Spoelstra, J.; Tietema, A.; Wessel, W.W.; Zak, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to store carbon (C) depend in part on the amount of N retained in the system and its partitioning among plant and soil pools. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies at 48 sites across four continents that used enriched 15N isotope tracers in order to synthesize information about total ecosystem N retention (i.e., total ecosystem 15N recovery in plant and soil pools) across natural systems and N partitioning among ecosystem pools. The greatest recoveries of ecosystem 15N tracer occurred in shrublands (mean, 89.5%) and wetlands (84.8%) followed by forests (74.9%) and grasslands (51.8%). In the short term (15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N recovery was negatively correlated with fine-root and soil 15N natural abundance, and organic soil C and N concentration but was positively correlated with mean annual temperature and mineral soil C:N. In the longer term (3–18 months after 15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N retention was negatively correlated with foliar natural-abundance 15N but was positively correlated with mineral soil C and N concentration and C: N, showing that plant and soil natural-abundance 15N and soil C:N are good indicators of total ecosystem N retention. Foliar N concentration was not significantly related to ecosystem 15N tracer recovery, suggesting that plant N status is not a good predictor of total ecosystem N retention. Because the largest ecosystem sinks for 15N tracer were below ground in forests, shrublands, and grasslands, we conclude that growth enhancement and potential for increased C storage in aboveground biomass from atmospheric N deposition is likely to be modest in these ecosystems. Total ecosystem 15N recovery decreased with N fertilization, with an apparent threshold fertilization rate of 46 kg N·ha-1·yr-1 above which most ecosystems showed net losses of applied 15N tracer in response to N fertilizer addition.

  9. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  10. Applying principles from economics to improve the transfer of ecological production estimates in fisheries ecosystem services research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services (ES) represent a way to represent and quantify multiple uses, values as well as connectivity between ecosystem processes and human well-being. Ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches may seek to quantify expected trade-offs in ecosystem services due to ...

  11. Colilert® applied to food analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colilert® (IDEXX was originally developed for the simultaneous enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in water samples and has been used for the quality control routine of drinking, swimming pools, fresh, coastal and waste waters (Grossi et al., 2013. The Colilert® culture medium contains the indicator nutrient 4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (MUG. MUG acts as a substrate for the E. coli enzyme β-glucuronidase, from which a fluorescent compound is produced. A positive MUG result produces fluorescence when viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. If the test fluorescence is equal to or greater than that of the control, the presence of E. coli has been confirmed (Lopez-Roldan et al., 2013. The present work aimed to apply Colilert® to the enumeration of E. coli in different foods, through the comparison of results against the reference method (ISO 16649-2, 2001 for E. coli food analysis. The study was divided in two stages. During the first stage ten different types of foods were analyzed with Colilert®, these included pastry, raw meat, ready to eat meals, yogurt, raw seabream and salmon, and cooked shrimp. From these it were approved the following: pastry with custard; raw minced pork; soup "caldo-verde"; raw vegetable salad (lettuce and carrots and solid yogurt. The approved foods presented a better insertion in the tray, the colour of the wells was lighter and the UV reading was easier. In the second stage the foods were artificially contaminated with 2 log/g of E. coli (ATCC 25922 and analyzed. Colilert® proved to be an accurate method and the counts were similar to the ones obtained with the reference method. In the present study, the Colilert® method did not reveal neither false-positive or false-negative results, however sometimes the results were difficult to read due to the presence of green fluorescence in some wells. Generally Colilert® was an easy and rapid method, but less objective and more expensive than the reference method.

  12. Sustainable Factors Analysis of Restored and Rebuilt Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-mei; WANG Hong-yan; ZHANG Ying

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the paddy field ecosystem on developped from basalt area in Jingpo Lake with primary ecosystem by analyzing some indexes such as sunlight, temperature, moisture, biodiversity and energy. The result indicate that the paddy field ecosystem is feasible in improving the environment, energy utility, biodiversity and economy. And also it is a sustainable system, providing theoretical basis and practical reference for the rebuilt of similar system.

  13. Portfolio Decision Analysis Framework for Value-Focused Ecosystem Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Convertino

    Full Text Available Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the

  14. Portfolio Decision Analysis Framework for Value-Focused Ecosystem Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Matteo; Valverde, L James

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA) framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA) that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the needs of

  15. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Drought Effects in a Heterogeneous Semi-Arid Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, T.; Anderson, P. J.; Sibold, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought-induced forest mortality has been documented across genera in recent years in western North America. Understanding patterns of mortality and plant response to severe drought is important to resource managers, given the frequency of these events are expected to increase in the future. Remote sensing studies have documented changes in forest properties due to direct and indirect effects of drought; however, few have addressed this at local scales needed to characterize highly heterogeneous ecosystems in the forest-shrubland ecotone. We analyzed a 22-year Landsat time series (1985-2012) to determine changes in forest that experienced a relatively dry decade punctuated by two years of extreme drought. We assessed the relationship between vegetation indices and field measures, applied the index to trend analysis to uncover the location, direction and timing of change, and assessed the interaction of climate on topography. The Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) had the strongest correlation with plant area index (R2 = 0.64) and canopy gap fraction (R2 = 0.65). During the study period, 25% of the forested area experienced a significant (p trees compared to plots with no trend. Our analysis identifies spatially explicit patterns of long-term trends anchored with ground based evidence to highlight areas of forest that are resistant, persistent and vulnerable to severe drought. The results provide a long-term perspective for the resource management of this area and can be applied to similar ecosystems throughout western North America.

  16. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  17. Trade-off analysis of ecosystem services in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.; Wossink, Ada; Kortelainen, M.; Alkemade, R.; Schulp, C.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we assess trade-offs between ecosystem services in a spatially explicit manner. From a supply side perspective, we estimate opportunity costs, which reflect in monetary terms the trade-offs between ecosystem services due to a marginal land use change. These are based on estimation of t

  18. Spatial analysis methodology applied to rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, J. [Department of Electric Engineering, EUTI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, E-28012 Madrid (Spain); Dominguez, J. [Renewable Energies Division, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    The use of geographical information systems (GISs) in studies of regional integration of renewable energies provides advantages such as speed, amount of information, analysis capacity and others. However, these characteristics make it difficult to link the results to the initial variables, and therefore to validate the GIS. This makes it hard to ascertain the reliability of both the results and their subsequent analysis. To solve these problems, a GIS-based method is proposed with renewable energies for rural electrification structured in three stages, with the aim of finding out the influence of the initial variables on the result. In the first stage, a classic sensitivity analysis of the equivalent electrification cost (LEC) is performed; the second stage involves a spatial sensitivity analysis and the third determines the stability of the results. This methodology has been verified in the application of a GIS in Lorca (Spain). (author)

  19. Functional Data Analysis Applied in Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Martha

    the worlds of statistics and chemometrics. We want to provide a glimpse of the essential and complex data pre-processing that is well known to chemometricians, but is generally unknown to statisticians. Pre-processing can potentially have a strong in uence on the results of consequent data analysis. Our......In this thesis we explore the use of functional data analysis as a method to analyse chemometric data, more specically spectral data in metabolomics. Functional data analysis is a vibrant eld in statistics. It has been rapidly expanding in both methodology and applications since it was made well...... known by Ramsay & Silverman's monograph in 1997. In functional data analysis, the data are curves instead of data points. Each curve is measured at discrete points along a continuum, for example, time or frequency. It is assumed that the underlying process generating the curves is smooth...

  20. Applied time series analysis and innovative computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong

    2010-01-01

    This text is a systematic, state-of-the-art introduction to the use of innovative computing paradigms as an investigative tool for applications in time series analysis. It includes frontier case studies based on recent research.

  1. Applied bioinformatics: Genome annotation and transcriptome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Vikas

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the field of genomics and its wide range of applications has resulted in the genome-wide analysis of hundreds of species and the development of thousands of computational tools. This thesis represents my work on NGS analysis of four species, Lotus...... japonicus (Lotus), Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry), Stegodyphus mimosarum (spider) and Trifolium occidentale (clover). From a bioinformatics data analysis perspective, my work can be divided into three parts; genome annotation, small RNA, and gene expression analysis. Lotus is a legume of significant...... agricultural and biological importance. Its capacity to form symbiotic relationships with rhizobia and microrrhizal fungi has fascinated researchers for years. Lotus has a small genome of approximately 470 Mb and a short life cycle of 2 to 3 months, which has made Lotus a model legume plant for many molecular...

  2. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  3. Applying centrality measures to impact analysis: A coauthorship network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Erjia

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on coauthorship networks focus on network topology and network statistical mechanics. This article takes a different approach by studying micro-level network properties, with the aim to apply centrality measures to impact analysis. Using coauthorship data from 16 journals in the field of library and information science (LIS) with a time span of twenty years (1988-2007), we construct an evolving coauthorship network and calculate four centrality measures (closeness, betweenness, degree and PageRank) for authors in this network. We find out that the four centrality measures are significantly correlated with citation counts. We also discuss the usability of centrality measures in author ranking, and suggest that centrality measures can be useful indicators for impact analysis.

  4. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; Mastro, N.L. del E-mail: nelida@usp.br

    2002-03-01

    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600 deg. C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  5. Towards a network ecology of software ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    of the ``network ecology'' approach to the analysis of natural ecosystems. In doing so, we mine the Maven central Java repository and analyze two OSGi ecosystems: Apache Felix and Eclipse Equinox. In particular, we define the concept of an ecosystem ``neighborhood'', apply network ecology metrics...

  6. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  7. Forest ecosystem health assessment and analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOFengjin; OUYANGHua; ZHANGQiang; FUBojie; ZHANGZhicheng

    2004-01-01

    Based on more than 300 forest sample plots surveying data and forestry statistical data, remote sensing information from the NOAA AVHRR database and the daily meteorological data of 300 stations, we selected vigor, organization and resilience as the indicators to assess large-scale forest ecosystem health in China and analyzed the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health and influencing factors. The results of assessment indicated that the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health showed a decreasing trend along latitude gradients and longitude gradients. The healthy forests are mainly distributed in natural forests, tropical rainforests and seasonal rainforests; secondarily orderly in northeast national forest zone, subtropical forest zonation and southwest forest zonation; while the unhealthy forests were mainly located in warm temperate zone and Xinjiang-Mongolia forest zone. The coefficient of correction between Forest Ecosystem Health Index (FEHI) and annual average precipitation was 0.58 (p<0.01), while the coefficient of correlation between FEHI and annual mean temperatures was 0.49 (p<0.01), which identified that the precipitation and temperatures affect the pattern of FEHI, and the precipitation's effect was stronger than the temperature's. We also measured the correlation coefficient between FEHI and NPP, biodiversity and resistance, which were 0.64, 0.76 and 0.81 (p<0.01) respectively. The order of effect on forest ecosystem health was vigor, organization and resistance.

  8. Hands on applied finite element analysis application with ANSYS

    CERN Document Server

    Arslan, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Hands on Applied Finite Element Analysis Application with Ansys is truly an extraordinary book that offers practical ways of tackling FEA problems in machine design and analysis. In this book, 35 good selection of example problems have been presented, offering students the opportunity to apply their knowledge to real engineering FEA problem solutions by guiding them with real life hands on experience.

  9. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. Point Estimate Transfers in Ecosystem Services Research: Applying Principles from Economics to Improve the Transfer of Ecological Production Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing demand to describe and account for the benefits that humans derive from ecosystem functions in decision-making. Comprehensive descriptions of these benefits, referred to as ecosystem services (ES), and their production can be limited because there is limited ...

  11. Analysis of litter mesofauna of Poltava region forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of research of litter mesofauna of 48 forest biogeocenoses the regularities of invertebrate communities formation on the species and families levels are determined. The degree of similarity of test plots are analysed by taxonomic structure of the communities. The factors of the litter invertebrate communities formation in forest ecosystems of the Poltava region are revealed.

  12. Imaging spectroscopy for ecological analysis in forest and grassland ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is an important component of the Earth’s biosphere and therefore playing an essential role in climate regulation, carbon sequestration, and it provides large variety of services to humans. For a sustainable management of terrestrial ecosystems it is essential to understa

  13. RFID Platform as a Service, Containerized Ecosystem, Feasibility and Security Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kypus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept as a special type of virtualization of particular event based communication components in RFID ecosystems. The new approach is containers based virtualization, and it is applied and tested on the container of Object name service. The results of the experiment allowed us to do the preliminary analysis of security consequences on the isolated containerized DNS-based RFID sub-service. We confirmed feasibility with this sandboxing technology represented by the special container. They bring the benefits in terms of efficient software component life-cycle management and integrity improvements. Experiments results of the containerization are discussed to show the possible isolation ways of other components like EPCis and middleware. There is present evaluation towards external threats and vulnerabilities. The result is a higher level of integrity, availability of whole ecosystem and resiliency against external threats. This gives a new opportunity to build robust RFID as Platform as a service, and it proves the ability to achieve a positive impact on the end to end service Quality of service.

  14. Marine Ecosystems Analysis (MESA) Program, New York Bight Surficial Sediment Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Ecosystems Analysis (MESA) Program, New York Bight Study was funded by NOAA and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The Atlas was a historical...

  15. Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services? A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Fagerholm, Nora; Burgess, Paul J.;

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry has been proposed as a sustainable agricultural system over conventional agriculture and forestry, conserving biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem service provision while not compromising productivity. However, the available evidence for the societal benefits of agroforestry...... is fragmented and does often not integrate diverse ecosystem services into the assessment. To upscale existing case-study insights to the European level, we conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of agroforestry on ecosystem service provision and on biodiversity levels. From 53 publications we extracted...... a total of 365 comparisons that were selected for the meta-analysis. Results revealed an overall positive effect of agroforestry (effect size = 0.454, p agroforestry practices...

  16. An ecosystem analysis of the activated sludge microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Trissevyene V

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken (i) to investigate the interactions of the activated sludge microbial community in a chemostat with the "environment", such as the substrate composition and variations, (ii) to investigate how these interactions affect the quality of the treated effluent and (iii) to determine the limits or applicability conditions to the indicators and to the prediction potential of the treated effluent quality. This work presents (a) the experimental results obtained from a reactor fed municipal wastewater (Data Set2-DS2) concerning the reactor's operating conditions and the microbial community of the sludge (b) comparisons between DS2 and an older Data Set (DS1) obtained when the reactor was fed synthetic substrate, all other experimental conditions being identical, and (c) simulation results and sensitivity analyses of two model runs (R1 and R2, corresponding to DS1 and DS2). The first trophic level (P(1)) of the DS2 microbial community consisted of bacteria, the second trophic level (P(2)) of bacteria-eating protozoa, rotifers and nematodes and the third trophic level (P(3)) of carnivorous protozoa and arthropods. Rotifers were an important constituent of the DS2 microbial community. The DS1 and DS1 communities differed in total size, trophic level sizes and species composition. Correlations between the major microbial groups of DS2 community and either loading rates or effluent quality attributes were generally low, but the correlation of bacteria with SVI and ammonia in the effluent was better. Also, the ratio of rotifers to protozoa in P(2) was correlated to BOD in the effluent. The results of this work indicate that predictions of the treated effluent quality based only on protozoa may not be safe. Sensitivity analysis of R2 run indicate that, when variation in Y and K(d) biokinetic coefficients of the sludge are combined with fluctuations in composition and quality of municipal wastewater entering the reactor, then sufficient significant

  17. Applying the ecosystem service concept to air quality management in the UK: a case study for ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Hicks, Kevin; Morrissey, Tim;

    2011-01-01

    To date evaluation of the benefits of policies to control emissions of air pollutants in the UK has focused on human health effects, which are quantified economically, whereas ecosystem protection has only been assessed using critical levels and critical loads. This paper considers the current...... and quantification methods are needed before a full ecosystem services-based evaluation of costs and benefits becomes possible for ammonia and for other major air pollutants. Keywords: nitrogen; economic valuation; ecosystem approach; air pollution; biodiversity; climate regulation...... that economic valuation of impacts on many key ecosystem services was constrained by inadequate dose–response relationships to predict physical changes in service flows and/or by an inability to produce economic valuations of the predicted physical changes. For effects on biodiversity, both the timescale...

  18. Specification and analysis of requirements negotiation strategy in software ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Fricker, S

    2009-01-01

    The development of software products and systems generally requires collaboration of many individuals, groups, and organizations that form an ecosystem of interdependent stakeholders. The way the interests and expectations of such stakeholders are communicated is critical for whether they are heard, hence whether the stakeholders are successful in influencing future solutions to meet their needs. This paper proposes a model based on negotiation and network theory for analyzing and designing f...

  19. Multicriteria decision analysis for monitoring ecosystem service function of the Three-River Headwaters region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Shixin; Wang, Litao; Wang, Futao; Liu, Wenliang; Guo, Bing

    2015-06-01

    The Three-River Headwaters (TRH) region in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, is of key importance to the ecological security of China and Southeast Asia and contains some of the most sensitive and fragile ecosystems. Monitoring and evaluating the ecosystem service function and its changes in the TRH region could support decision-making for regional ecological protection and restoration programs. Referencing the concept of ecosystem service and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework, this study built a system of indicators for monitoring and evaluating the ecosystem service function. Thus, combining a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and weighted linear combination (WLC) with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), we applied the ecosystem service function index (ESFI) based on remote sensing data at 1-km spatial resolution to spatiotemporally monitor the changes during the period 2005-2010. The study results indicated that ESFI had a good performance for monitoring the ecosystem service function and showed an improving trend in the TRH region over the past 5 years. Ecosystem environment recovery not only reflected the changing trend of warm and wet climate but was also a response of the ecological protection project of the Key Ecological Function Zone in the TRH region. PMID:25971519

  20. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  1. Negative Reinforcement in Applied Behavior Analysis: An Emerging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. Current research suggests the emergence of an applied technology on negative reinforcement.…

  2. Dimensional Analysis with space discrimination applied to Fickian difussion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimensional Analysis with space discrimination is applied to Fickian difussion phenomena in order to transform its partial differen-tial equations into ordinary ones, and also to obtain in a dimensionl-ess fom the Ficks second law. (Author)

  3. Applying Discourse Analysis in ELT: a Five Cs Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖巧慧

    2009-01-01

    Based on a discussion of definitions on Discourse analysis,discourse is regard as layers consist of five elements--cohesion, coherence, culture, critique and context. Moreover, we focus on applying DA in ELT.

  4. Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

    OpenAIRE

    F. M. Gresham; Gansle, K A; Noell, G H

    1993-01-01

    Functional analysis of behavior depends upon accurate measurement of both independent and dependent variables. Quantifiable and controllable operations that demonstrate these functional relationships are necessary for a science of human behavior. Failure to implement independent variables with integrity threatens the internal and external validity of experiments. A review of all applied behavior analysis studies with children as subjects that have been published in the Journal of Applied Beha...

  5. An ecosystem-based understanding and analysis for SENCE toward sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There is a need to find a comprehensive approach focusing on the conflicts between economical growth and environmental protection.Chinese scholars advocate a comprehensive ecosystem viewpoint named social-economic-natural complex ecosystem(SENCE). The kernel of the concept lies in the hierarchical structure of SENCE, through which methods from ecological network can be useful to the compound system. The author gives a schema depicting its structure, following a model analysis to help understand the reliance of economy on ecosystem. It is obvious that more actions should be done to strive for sustainable development.

  6. Analysis of population, economic activity and ecosystem services. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The report describes the importance of various industries established in and associated with the management plan area. It presents the main demographic and labour market statistics for the coastal municipalities and for the value creation and industrial structure in the counties bordering on the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report deals particularly with value creation, employment, spin-off effects and future scenarios for the petroleum industry, fisheries, aquaculture, shipping, and travel, tourism and recreation. The report also provides an overview of ecosystem services in the management plan area, with examples of their value to society.(Author)

  7. Analysis of population, economic activity and ecosystem services. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the importance of various industries established in and associated with the management plan area. It presents the main demographic and labour market statistics for the coastal municipalities and for the value creation and industrial structure in the counties bordering on the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report deals particularly with value creation, employment, spin-off effects and future scenarios for the petroleum industry, fisheries, aquaculture, shipping, and travel, tourism and recreation. The report also provides an overview of ecosystem services in the management plan area, with examples of their value to society.(Author)

  8. A Practical Approach for Demonstrating Environmental Sustainability and Stewardship through a Net Ecosystem Service Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Rockel; Joseph Nicolette; Stephanie Burr

    2013-01-01

    The increasing pressure on the earth’s resources due to population growth requires that development and resource use be managed to maintain a sustainable environment so as to preserve or enhance human well-being. A practical approach for demonstrating the environmental sustainability of an action (e.g., green business practice) through ecosystem service analysis is presented. The overarching premise of the approach is that human well-being is directly related to changes in ecosystems and as...

  9. Ecosystem Services and Stakeholder Analysis in Bishajari Lake and Associated Wetland Areas, Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khanal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands as other ecosystems deliver goods and services of enormous value to the human society and are regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems. We assessed the ecosystem services delivered by Bishajari Lake and its associated wetland areas of Chitwan district during June to August, 2012. A household survey consisting 110 households, interviews with key informants, group discussions and stakeholder analysis were carried out for this purpose to document the overall status of ecosystem services, evaluate the provisional services generated by the lakes, understand potentials for payment to ecosystem services, and identify stakeholders involved and their roles and responsibilities. A total of 12 fish species, 17 wild and domestic fruits, 12 timber species, 15 fodder species, 20 wild vegetables species and 31 medicinal plant species were recorded. Moreover 65.5% of respondents were found receiving some sort of income from the wetland area. The majority of respondents felt that the ecosystem is being changed mostly on provisional services. So far with little support from government, the local people have practiced some adaptive responses like biogas plant, afforestation, electric fencing, contract fisheries, ecotourism and other climate-smart measures. It suggest that raising awareness and sharing information among the locals should be done more frequently and effectively to continuously cope with ecosystem change.

  10. How does vineyard management intensity affect ecosystem services and disservices - insights from a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.; Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Paredes, Daniel; Gómez, José A.; Guzmán, Gema; Landa, Blanca; Nicolai, Annegret; Burel, Francoise; Cluzeau, Daniel; Popescu, Daniela; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Potthoff, Martin; Guernion, Muriel; Batáry, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Viticultural agro-ecosystems provide a range of different ecosystem services which are affected by management decisions of winegrowers. At the global scale, vineyards are often high intensity agricultural systems with bare soil or inter-row vegetation consisting of only a few plant species. These systems primarily aim at optimizing wine production by reducing competition for water and nutrients between grapevines and weeds and by preventing the outbreak of pests and diseases. At the same time, this kind of management is often associated with ecosystem disservices such as high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and decline of biodiversity. Recently, several initiatives across the world tried to overcome detrimental effects of that management style by creating biodiversity friendly vineyards. The consequences of establishing divers cover crop mixes or tolerating spontaneous vegetation in vineyards for ecosystem services (including yield) overstretching local case studies has not been investigated yet. This meta-analysis will provide an overview of all published studies comparing the effects of different vineyard management practices on a range of different ecosystem services like biodiversity, pest control, pollination, soil conservation and carbon sequestration. The aggregated effect size will point out which management measures can provide the best overall net sum of ecosystem services. This meta-analysis is part of the transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project VineDivers and will ultimately lead into management and policy recommendations for various stakeholder groups engaged in viticulture.

  11. Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, T Agami

    2011-01-01

    ""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and

  12. Quantitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity of Applied Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Duan, Xiaojun; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of mathematical techniques in scientific research leads to the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. This viewpoint is validated quantitatively here by statistical and network analysis on the corpus PNAS 1999-2013. A network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in a panoramic view is built based on the corpus. Specific network indicators show the hub role of applied mathematics in interdisciplinary research. The statistical analysis on the corpus content finds that algorithms, a primary topic of applied mathematics, positively correlates, increasingly co-occurs, and has an equilibrium relationship in the long-run with certain typical research paradigms and methodologies. The finding can be understood as an intrinsic cause of the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. PMID:26352604

  13. ANIMAL RESEARCH IN THE JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say–do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by...

  14. Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: an emerging technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, B A

    1987-01-01

    Although the effects of negative reinforcement on human behavior have been studied for a number of years, a comprehensive body of applied research does not exist at this time. This article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. A consideration of research currently being done in these area...

  15. Applied Methods for Analysis of Economic Structure and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Anderstig, Christer

    1988-01-01

    The thesis comprises five papers and an introductory overview of applied models and methods. The papers concern interdependences and interrelations in models applied to empirical analyses of various problems related to production, consumption, location and trade. Among different definitions of 'structural analysis' one refers to the study of the properties of economic models on the assumption of invariant structural relations, this definition is close to what is aimed at in lire present case....

  16. City ecosystem resilience analysis in case of disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Asprone, D; Latora, V; Manfredi, G; Nicosia, V

    2013-01-01

    One of the tasks of urban and hazard planning is to mitigate the damages and minimize the costs of the recovery process after catastrophic events. The rapidity and the efficiency of the recovery process are referred to as resilience. A mathematical definition of the resilience of an urban community has not yet identified. In this paper we propose and test a methodology for the assessment of urban resilience a catastrophic event. The idea is to merge the concepts of the engineering resilience and the ecosystem resilience. As first step we suggest a way to model an urban community inside the framework of complex network theory. Hence, to model the city as a whole, we identify hybrid networks, composed by human elements, i.e. the citizens, and physical networks, i.e. urban lifelines and infrastructures. As second step, we define and evaluate a class of efficiency indexes on the hybrid networks. By modelling the disasters of the physical components and the subsequent recovery process, and by measuring the efficie...

  17. Spectral analysis and filter theory in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Buttkus, Burkhard

    2000-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fundamentals and methods of spectral analysis and filter theory and their appli­ cations in geophysics. The principles and theoretical basis of the various methods are described, their efficiency and effectiveness eval­ uated, and instructions provided for their practical application. Be­ sides the conventional methods, newer methods arediscussed, such as the spectral analysis ofrandom processes by fitting models to the ob­ served data, maximum-entropy spectral analysis and maximum-like­ lihood spectral analysis, the Wiener and Kalman filtering methods, homomorphic deconvolution, and adaptive methods for nonstation­ ary processes. Multidimensional spectral analysis and filtering, as well as multichannel filters, are given extensive treatment. The book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art of spectral analysis and fil­ ter theory. The importance and possibilities ofspectral analysis and filter theory in geophysics for data acquisition, processing an...

  18. A new perspective of ecosystem health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-tao; GU Chen-jie; LIANG Tao; XU Jian-ye; JOHN Ranjeet

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem health has attracted considerable attention from different disciplines in recent years. However, it still remains a disputed issue whether to focus on its general concept or on operational practice.As a result, these disputations have caused confusion and limited further research in the field of ecosystem health. In this paper, we attempt to introduce a new perspective to the concept of ecosystem health. With the aid of modem statistical methodology, such as factor analysis and normal distribution theory, we provide a conceptual approach to the quantitative assessment of ecosystem health and our method could be applied to various categories of ecosystems.

  19. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  20. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  1. Emergy Analysis of Agro-ecosystem in Poyang Lake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using emergy analysis theory and methods, we conduct quantitative analysis on the input and output of emergy, and sustainable development of agro-ecological system in Poyang Lake Area. The results show that compared with the national average, the environmental loading ratio is relatively low in this area; the net emergy yield rate is high; the sustainable development ability is strong. Finally according to the results of emergy analysis, corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows: develop agriculture based on the existing rich natural resources; increase technological inputs; develop circular agriculture; promote sustainable agricultural development.

  2. Institutional dimensions of Payments for Ecosystem Services. An analysis of Mexico's carbon forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes a multi-dimensional framework for understanding the development and effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes, framed around the notions of institutional design, performance and interplay. The framework is applied in the context of Mexico's Programme of Payments for Carbon, Biodiversity and Agro-forestry Services (PSA-CABSA), with an emphasis on its carbon component. The analysis shows that PSA-CABSA was promoted by civil society and its rules have been subject to continuous modifications over time. In the case of the carbon component, changes have been due to an original misunderstanding of how carbon projects should be designed, implemented, and carbon traded in actual markets. From a performance point of view, the paper shows that the programme has been well received by rural communities, and carbon payments have contributed to increase household income and to enhance forest management practices and organisational skills. The paper also highlights sources of institutional interplay with local institutions and international climate policy, and it reveals the importance of capacity and scale issues in securing an effective and fair implementation of PES. The conclusion provides some policy recommendations for the future development of PES initiatives in Mexico and elsewhere. (author)

  3. The Split-Apply-Combine Strategy for Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley Wickham

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many data analysis problems involve the application of a split-apply-combine strategy, where you break up a big problem into manageable pieces, operate on each piece independently and then put all the pieces back together. This insight gives rise to a new R package that allows you to smoothly apply this strategy, without having to worry about the type of structure in which your data is stored.The paper includes two case studies showing how these insights make it easier to work with batting records for veteran baseball players and a large 3d array of spatio-temporal ozone measurements.

  4. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Michelle E; Shabtay-Yanai, Ateret; Zanzuri, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA) has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical) attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity. PMID:27183224

  5. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Portman

    Full Text Available Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity.

  6. Analysis of Climate Change Effects on Baseflow Index and Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Severe water shortages have been observed globally and the damage from climate change is predicted to increase consistently. Especially, groundwater which accounts for 95% of water resources that ecosystems rely on is very important. In order to protect the health of ecosystems from groundwater, research on climate change adaptation is necessary. This research aims at analyzing the effects of baseflow on Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems(GDEs) through Baseflow Index(BFI) utilizing run-off discharge according to the climate change. In order to analyze the effects on GDEs, Nakdong basin was selected for demonstration. So as to compute the baseflow in the basin, Soil and Water Assessment Tool(SWAT) was employed. This research compared and analyzed distribution of BFI over the past 30 years and expected BFI in connection with climate change. RCP 8.5 provided by IPCC was utilized and the result showed that changes of BFI in four periods, P1(1980-2009), F1(2010-2039), F2(2040-2069) and F3(2070-2099), varied according to weather conditions. So as to analyze the correlation between baseflow each period and GDEs, this research employed ecosystems health index and carried out correlation analysis according to each GDEs. Analysis showed that correlation between baseflow and Benthic Macro-invertebrate(BMI) was over R2 0.7 and correlation to the rest was low. This means BMI prove to be sensitive in BFI. The purpose of this research is to figure out the characteristics of baseflow about the impact of climate change and analyze the impact of baseflow on GDEs through the correlation analysis between baseflow and ecosystems health index. BMI has high correlation to baseflow and the rest do not. Generally, however, GDEs are hugely inter-related to water so that baseflow which accounts for over 40 percent cannot be excluded. Therefore, based on this research, management system on baseflow ought to be established with more endeavors to protect and preserve ecosystems.

  7. Institutional analysis of incentive schemes for ecosystem service provision - a comparative study across four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokofieva, Irina; Górriz, Elena; Boon, Tove Enggrob;

    2014-01-01

    Incentive schemes and payments for ecosystem services attract increasing attention as a means for aligning the interests of landowners and society by remunerating forest owners for the goods and services their forests produce. As incentive schemes expand around the world, questions related...... and Italy. The analysed schemes are predominantly aimed at enhancing biodiversity and improving recreation. One of the schemes is also related to preserving a variety of forest ecosystem services from forest fires. The incentive schemes are studied following a framework for the institutional analysis of PES...

  8. Stable isotope analysis challenges wasp-waist food web assumptions in an upwelling pelagic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Daniel J; Carlisle, Aaron B; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Litvin, Steven Y; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    Eastern boundary currents are often described as 'wasp-waist' ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007-2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations. PMID:22977729

  9. Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Violet; Liu, Ang; Groeber, Elizabeth; Moghaddam, Mehran; Schiller, James; Tweed, Joseph A; Walker, Gregory S

    2016-02-01

    Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development. The APA conference was organized in three workshops encompassing the disciplines of regulated bioanalysis, discovery bioanalysis (encompassing new and emerging technologies) and biotransformation. The conference included a short course titled 'Bioanalytical considerations for the clinical development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs)', an engaging poster session, several panel and round table discussions and over 50 diverse talks from leading industry and academic scientists. PMID:26853375

  10. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aromolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Trends in heavy metal concentration in atmospheric depositions on a coastal forest ecosystem (Castelporziano, Rome are analyzed in the present study based on a three-year monitoring field survey over three sites representative of different woodland characteristics in the area. Our results highlight both the influence of transportation processes in the short and medium distance based on the human pressure reflecting urban expansion and infrastructure development on the fringe of Castelporziano pristine forest. Further studies investigating the latent correlation with meteorological variables at various temporal scales are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of environmental conditions in a forest ecosystem subjected to increasing human pressure. Analysis of runoff water quality and the determination of other heavy metals, such as arsenic, may identify additional sources of pollution impacting soil and forest ecosystem.

  11. Numerical continuation applied to landing gear mechanism analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, J.; Krauskopf, B; Lowenberg, MH

    2010-01-01

    A method of investigating quasi-static mechanisms is presented and applied to an overcentre mechanism and to a nose landing gear mechanism. The method uses static equilibrium equations along with equations describing the geometric constraints in the mechanism. In the spirit of bifurcation analysis, solutions to these steady-state equations are then continued numerically in parameters of interest. Results obtained from the bifurcation method agree with the equivalent results obtained from two ...

  12. Nonstandard Analysis Applied to Advanced Undergraduate Mathematics - Infinitesimal Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    This is a Research and Instructional Development Project from the U. S. Naval Academy. In this monograph, the basic methods of nonstandard analysis for n-dimensional Euclidean spaces are presented. Specific rules are deveoped and these methods and rules are applied to rigorous integral and differential modeling. The topics include Robinson infinitesimals, limited and infinite numbers; convergence theory, continuity, *-transfer, internal definition, hyprefinite summation, Riemann-Stieltjes int...

  13. An applied ethics analysis of best practice tourism entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Susann

    2015-01-01

    Ethical entrepreneurship and by extension wider best practice are noble goals for the future of tourism. However, questions arise which concepts, such as values motivations, actions and challenges underpin these goals. This thesis seeks to answers these questions and in so doing develop an applied ethics analysis for best practice entrepreneurs in tourism. The research is situated in sustainable tourism, which is ethically very complex and has thus far been dominated by the economic, social a...

  14. Recent reinforcement-schedule research and applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.; Neef, Nancy A.

    1996-01-01

    Reinforcement schedules are considered in relation to applied behavior analysis by examining several recent laboratory experiments with humans and other animals. The experiments are drawn from three areas of contemporary schedule research: behavioral history effects on schedule performance, the role of instructions in schedule performance of humans, and dynamic schedules of reinforcement. All of the experiments are discussed in relation to the role of behavioral history in current schedule pe...

  15. Neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New experimental data have been obtained on heavy metal and rare-earth element concentrations in environmental objects, namely pine needles and soils, caused by atmospheric pollution in different regions of the Kola Peninsula. The investigation was performed with the use of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor. The analysis of nearly 40 element distributions in pine needles and soils from the studied geographical points testifies of a strong contamination source - the nickel smelting complex in Monchegorsk. The contamination levels for Ni, Co, Cr, Se, and others are also high and may be hazardous for this region population because some of these elements are carcinogenic. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Applied to Food Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel S. Ibarra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic solid phase extraction has been used as pretreatment technique for the analysis of several compounds because of its advantages when it is compared with classic methods. This methodology is based on the use of magnetic solids as adsorbents for preconcentration of different analytes from complex matrices. Magnetic solid phase extraction minimizes the use of additional steps such as precipitation, centrifugation, and filtration which decreases the manipulation of the sample. In this review, we describe the main procedures used for synthesis, characterization, and application of this pretreatment technique which were applied in food analysis.

  17. Harmonic and applied analysis from groups to signals

    CERN Document Server

    Mari, Filippo; Grohs, Philipp; Labate, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume explores the connection between the theoretical aspects of harmonic analysis and the construction of advanced multiscale representations that have emerged in signal and image processing. It highlights some of the most promising mathematical developments in harmonic analysis in the last decade brought about by the interplay among different areas of abstract and applied mathematics. This intertwining of ideas is considered starting from the theory of unitary group representations and leading to the construction of very efficient schemes for the analysis of multidimensional data. After an introductory chapter surveying the scientific significance of classical and more advanced multiscale methods, chapters cover such topics as An overview of Lie theory focused on common applications in signal analysis, including the wavelet representation of the affine group, the Schrödinger representation of the Heisenberg group, and the metaplectic representation of the symplectic group An introduction ...

  18. Conference report: summary of the 2010 Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Steve E

    2011-01-01

    This year, the Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis meeting changed its venue to the Grand Tremont Hotel in Baltimore, MD, USA. Proximity to Washington presented the opportunity to have four speakers from the US FDA. The purpose of the 4-day conference is to provide a forum in which pharmaceutical and CRO scientists can discuss and develop best practices for scientific challenges in bioanalysis and drug metabolism. This year's theme was 'Bioanalytical and Biotransformation Challenges in Meeting Global Regulatory Expectations & New Technologies for Drug Discovery Challenges'. Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis continued its tradition of highlighting new technologies and its impact on drug discovery, drug metabolism and small molecule-regulated bioanalysis. This year, the meeting included an integrated focus on metabolism in drug discovery and development. Middle and large molecule (biotherapeutics) drug development, immunoassay, immunogenicity and biomarkers were also integrated into the forum. Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis offered an enhanced diversity of topics this year while continuing to share experiences of discovering and developing new medicines. PMID:21175361

  19. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Aromolo; Valerio Moretti; Luca Salvati

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Tre...

  20. Ecosystem functioning approach applied to a large contaminated coastal site: the study case of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibic, Tamara; Bongiorni, Lucia; Borfecchia, Flavio; Di Leo, Antonella; Franzo, Annalisa; Giandomenico, Santina; Karuza, Ana; Micheli, Carla; Rogelja, Manja; Spada, Lucia; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge on ecosystem functioning can largely contribute to promote ecosystem-based management and its application. The Mar Piccolo of Taranto is a densely populated area at a high risk of environmental crisis. Here, planktonic primary production (PP) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (HPP) were measured as proxies of functioning in three sampling sites located in two inlets at different levels of industrial contamination, during three sampling surveys (June 2013, February and April 2014). To have a better overall view and provide some insights into the benthic-pelagic coupling, we integrated PP and HPP in the water column with those in the sediments and then discussed this with the origin of the organic matter pools based on analysis of stable isotopes. Heavy metals and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were also analysed in the surface (1 cm) sediment layer and related to the overall ecosystem functioning. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, based on the main data, clearly separated the second inlet from the first one, more severely impacted by anthropogenic activities. The stable isotope mixing model suggested the prevalent terrestrial/riverine origin of the particulate organic matter pools (mean 45.5 %) in all sampling periods, whereas phytoplankton contributed up to 29 % in February. Planktonic PP and HPP rates followed the same pattern over the entire study period and seemed to respond to phytoplankton dynamics confirming this community as the main driver for the C cycling in the water column. On the contrary, benthic PP rates were almost negligible while HPP rates were lower or comparable to those in the water column indicating that although the Mar Piccolo is very shallow, the water column is much more productive than the surface sediments. The sediment resuspension is likely responsible for a pulsed input of contaminants into the water column. However, their interference with the proper functioning of the pelagic ecosystem seems to be limited to

  1. Applying Hillslope Hydrology to Bridge between Ecosystem and Grid-Scale Processes within an Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subin, Z. M.; Sulman, B. N.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial control on surface energy fluxes, vegetation properties, and soil carbon cycling. Its interactions with ecosystem processes are highly nonlinear across a large range, as both drought stress and anoxia can impede vegetation and microbial growth. Earth System Models (ESMs) generally only represent an average soil-moisture state in grid cells at scales of 50-200 km, and as a result are not able to adequately represent the effects of subgrid heterogeneity in soil moisture, especially in regions with large wetland areas. We addressed this deficiency by developing the first ESM-coupled subgrid hillslope-hydrological model, TiHy (Tiled-hillslope Hydrology), embedded within the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model. In each grid cell, one or more representative hillslope geometries are discretized into land model tiles along an upland-to-lowland gradient. These geometries represent ~1 km hillslope-scale hydrological features and allow for flexible representation of hillslope profile and plan shapes, in addition to variation of subsurface properties among or within hillslopes. Each tile (which may represent ~100 m along the hillslope) has its own surface fluxes, vegetation state, and vertically-resolved state variables for soil physics and biogeochemistry. Resolution of water state in deep layers (~200 m) down to bedrock allows for physical integration of groundwater transport with unsaturated overlying dynamics. Multiple tiles can also co-exist at the same vertical position along the hillslope, allowing the simulation of ecosystem heterogeneity due to disturbance. The hydrological model is coupled to the vertically-resolved Carbon, Organisms, Respiration, and Protection in the Soil Environment (CORPSE) model, which captures non-linearity resulting from interactions between vertically-heterogeneous soil carbon and water profiles. We present comparisons of simulated water table depth to observations. We examine sensitivities to

  2. Dynamic Processes of an Airport’s System. Applying Value Network Analysis (VNA to the Air Traveller Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Vaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue that networks are fundamental instruments for the development of the business system of airports’ landside area. We propose value network analysis (VNA to gain a better understanding of how processes and people create value in airports’ network ecosystem. This methodology makes it possible to understand and visualise the internal and external value networks, mapping the players and their interrelationships and thus capturing the dynamics of the airports’ entire system. Applying value network analysis (VNA to the air traveller experience, we conclude that this approach provides a network ecosystem perspective on how processes and people create value within the air traveller experience network. For the validation of this scenario, several interviews were conducted with experts.

  3. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  4. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  5. Cladistic analysis applied to the classification of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, D. W. E.; Mahony, S. H.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Martin, K. T.

    2007-11-01

    Cladistics is a systematic method of classification that groups entities on the basis of sharing similar characteristics in the most parsimonious manner. Here cladistics is applied to the classification of volcanoes using a dataset of 59 Quaternary volcanoes and 129 volcanic edifices of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Volcano and edifice characteristics recorded in the database include attributes of volcano size, chemical composition, dominant eruptive products, volcano morphology, dominant landforms, volcano age and eruptive history. Without characteristics related to time the volcanic edifices divide into two groups, with characters related to volcano size, dominant composition and edifice morphology being the most diagnostic. Analysis including time based characteristics yields four groups with a good correlation between these groups and the two groups from the analysis without time for 108 out of 129 volcanic edifices. Thus when characters are slightly changed the volcanoes still form similar groupings. Analysis of the volcanoes both with and without time yields three groups based on compositional, eruptive products and morphological characters. Spatial clusters of volcanic centres have been recognised in the Tohoku region by Tamura et al. ( Earth Planet Sci Lett 197:105 106, 2002). The groups identified by cladistic analysis are distributed unevenly between the clusters, indicating a tendency for individual clusters to form similar kinds of volcanoes with distinctive but coherent styles of volcanism. Uneven distribution of volcano types between clusters can be explained by variations in dominant magma compositions through time, which are reflected in eruption products and volcanic landforms. Cladistic analysis can be a useful tool for elucidating dynamic igneous processes that could be applied to other regions and globally. Our exploratory study indicates that cladistics has promise as a method for classifying volcanoes and potentially elucidating dynamic

  6. System analysis of links interactions and development of ecosystems of different types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechurkin, N S; Shirobokova, I M

    2003-01-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the Earth's ecosystems are leading to dramatic changes in ecosystem functioning and even to destruction of them. System analysis and the use of heuristic modeling can be an effective means to determine the main biological interactions and key factors that are of high importance for understanding the development of ecosystems. Cycling of limiting substances, induced by the external free energy flux, and trophic links interaction is the basis of the mathematical modeling studies presented in this paper. Mathematical models describe the dynamics of simplified ecosystems having different characteristics: 1) different degrees of biotic turnover closure (from open to completely closed); 2) different numbers of trophic links (including both "top-down", "bottom-up" regulation types); 3) different intensities of input-output flows of the limiting nutrient and its total amount in the system. Adaptive values of the changes of lower hierarchical levels (populational, trophic chain level) are to be estimated by integrity indices for total system functioning (e.g. NPP, total photosynthesis). The approach developed can be used for evaluating the contributions of lower hierarchical levels to the functioning of the higher hierarchical levels of the system. This approach may have value for determining biomanipulation management and their assessment. PMID:14503504

  7. Retrospective stable isotope analysis reveals ecosystem responses to river regulation over the last century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas F; Krabbenhoft, Trevor I; Collyer, Michael L; Krabbenhoft, Corey A; Edwards, Melanie S; Sharp, Zachary D

    2015-12-01

    Disruption of natural flow regimes, nutrient pollution, and other consequences of human population growth and development have impacted most major rivers of the world. Alarming losses of aquatic biodiversity coincide with human-caused river alteration, but effects of biotic homogenization on aquatic ecosystem processes are not as well documented. This is because unaltered systems for comparison are scarce, and some ecosystem-wide effects may take decades to manifest. We evaluated aquatic ecosystem responses to extensive river- floodplain engineering and nutrient addition in the Rio Grande of southwestern North America as revealed by changes in trophic structure of, and resource availability to, the fish community. Stable Isotope Analysis (SIA) was conducted on museum-preserved fishes collected over a 70-year period of intensive river management and exponential human population growth. Trophic complexity and resource heterogeneity for fish consumers (measured as "isotopic niche breadth") decreased following sediment deprivation and channelization, and these effects persist into the present. Increased nutrient inputs led to δ15N enrichment in the entire fish community at all affected sites, and a shift to autochthonous sources of carbon at the most proximal site downstream of wastewater release, probably via bottom-up transfer. Overall, retrospective SIA of apex consumers suggests radical change and functional impairment of a floodplain river ecosystem already marked by significant biodiversity loss.

  8. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Kim, Young Gi; Jung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun; Lim, Jong Myoung

    2003-05-01

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology.

  9. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology

  10. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-01-01

    International audience Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evo...

  11. Applied climate-change analysis: the climate wizard tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan H Girvetz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the message of "global climate change" is catalyzing international action, it is local and regional changes that directly affect people and ecosystems and are of immediate concern to scientists, managers, and policy makers. A major barrier preventing informed climate-change adaptation planning is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting climate-change information. To address this problem, we developed a powerful, yet easy to use, web-based tool called Climate Wizard (http://ClimateWizard.org that provides non-climate specialists with simple analyses and innovative graphical depictions for conveying how climate has and is projected to change within specific geographic areas throughout the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To demonstrate the Climate Wizard, we explored historic trends and future departures (anomalies in temperature and precipitation globally, and within specific latitudinal zones and countries. We found the greatest temperature increases during 1951-2002 occurred in northern hemisphere countries (especially during January-April, but the latitude of greatest temperature change varied throughout the year, sinusoidally ranging from approximately 50 degrees N during February-March to 10 degrees N during August-September. Precipitation decreases occurred most commonly in countries between 0-20 degrees N, and increases mostly occurred outside of this latitudinal region. Similarly, a quantile ensemble analysis based on projections from 16 General Circulation Models (GCMs for 2070-2099 identified the median projected change within countries, which showed both latitudinal and regional patterns in projected temperature and precipitation change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of these analyses are consistent with those reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, but at the same time, they provide examples of how Climate Wizard can be used to explore regionally- and temporally

  12. Empirical modal decomposition applied to cardiac signals analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beya, O.; Jalil, B.; Fauvet, E.; Laligant, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present the method of empirical modal decomposition (EMD) applied to the electrocardiograms and phonocardiograms signals analysis and denoising. The objective of this work is to detect automatically cardiac anomalies of a patient. As these anomalies are localized in time, therefore the localization of all the events should be preserved precisely. The methods based on the Fourier Transform (TFD) lose the localization property [13] and in the case of Wavelet Transform (WT) which makes possible to overcome the problem of localization, but the interpretation remains still difficult to characterize the signal precisely. In this work we propose to apply the EMD (Empirical Modal Decomposition) which have very significant properties on pseudo periodic signals. The second section describes the algorithm of EMD. In the third part we present the result obtained on Phonocardiograms (PCG) and on Electrocardiograms (ECG) test signals. The analysis and the interpretation of these signals are given in this same section. Finally, we introduce an adaptation of the EMD algorithm which seems to be very efficient for denoising.

  13. Automated SEM Modal Analysis Applied to the Diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, James J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of volume proportions of minerals, or modal analysis, is routinely accomplished by point counting on an optical microscope, but the process, particularly on brecciated samples such as the diogenite meteorites, is tedious and prone to error by misidentification of very small fragments, which may make up a significant volume of the sample. Precise volume percentage data can be gathered on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing digital imaging and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This form of automated phase analysis reduces error, and at the same time provides more information than could be gathered using simple point counting alone, such as particle morphology statistics and chemical analyses. We have previously studied major, minor, and trace-element chemistry of orthopyroxene from a suite of diogenites. This abstract describes the method applied to determine the modes on this same suite of meteorites and the results of that research. The modal abundances thus determined add additional information on the petrogenesis of the diogenites. In addition, low-abundance phases such as spinels were located for further analysis by this method.

  14. SOIL SEALING AND LAND USE CHANGE DETECTION APPLYING GEOGRAPHIC OBJECT BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS (GEOBIA) TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Hammad, Ahmed Mohamed Harb

    2013-01-01

    Land use and land cover change analysis is now a mature area of study but it is still important to monitor these changes and their subsequent impacts on ecosystem functions. The rate of Land use and land cover change is much larger than ever recorded previously, with quick changes to ecosystems taking place at local to global scales. The functions of an ecosystem can be significantly impacted by changes in land use and land cover, which in turn critically affect the provision, regulation and ...

  15. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. PMID:25218331

  16. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision.

  17. Downside Risk analysis applied to Hedge Funds universe

    CERN Document Server

    Perello, J

    2006-01-01

    Hedge Funds are considered as one of the portfolio management sectors which shows a fastest growing for the past decade. An optimal Hedge Fund management requires a high precision risk evaluation and an appropriate risk metrics. The classic CAPM theory and its Ratio Sharpe fail to capture some crucial aspects due to the strong non-Gaussian character of Hedge Funds statistics. A possible way out to this problem while keeping CAPM simplicity is the so-called Downside Risk analysis. One important benefit lies in distinguishing between good and bad returns, that is: returns greater (or lower) than investor's goal. We study several risk indicators using the Gaussian case as a benchmark and apply them to the Credit Suisse/Tremont Investable Hedge Fund Index Data.

  18. Image analysis technique applied to lock-exchange gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Helena I. S.; Adduce, Claudia; Alves, Elsa; Franca, Mário J.

    2013-04-01

    An image analysis technique is used to estimate the two-dimensional instantaneous density field of unsteady gravity currents produced by full-depth lock-release of saline water. An experiment reproducing a gravity current was performed in a 3.0 m long, 0.20 m wide and 0.30 m deep Perspex flume with horizontal smooth bed and recorded with a 25 Hz CCD video camera under controlled light conditions. Using dye concentration as a tracer, a calibration procedure was established for each pixel in the image relating the amount of dye uniformly distributed in the tank and the greyscale values in the corresponding images. The results are evaluated and corrected by applying the mass conservation principle within the experimental tank. The procedure is a simple way to assess the time-varying density distribution within the gravity current, allowing the investigation of gravity current dynamics and mixing processes.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of teacher training in Applied Behaviour Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Ian M; Honan, Rita; McClean, Brian; Daly, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Interventions for children with autism based upon Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) has been repeatedly shown to be related both to educational gains and to reductions in challenging behaviours. However, to date, comprehensive training in ABA for teachers and others have been limited. Over 7 months, 11 teachers undertook 90 hours of classroom instruction and supervision in ABA. Each teacher conducted a comprehensive functional assessment and designed a behaviour support plan targeting one behaviour for one child with an autistic disorder. Target behaviours included aggression, non-compliance and specific educational skills. Teachers recorded observational data for the target behaviour for both baseline and intervention sessions. Support plans produced an average 80 percent change in frequency of occurrence of target behaviours. Questionnaires completed by parents and teachers at the end of the course indicated a beneficial effect for the children and the educational environment. The potential benefits of teacher implemented behavioural intervention are discussed. PMID:16144826

  20. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Bak, Sung Ryel; Park, Yong Chul; Kim, Young Ki; Chung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun

    2000-05-01

    This report is written for results of research and development as follows : improvement of neutron irradiation facilities, counting system and development of automation system and capsules for NAA in HANARO ; improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of analytical quality control and assurance system; applied research and development of environment, industry and human health and its standardization. For identification and standardization of analytical method, environmental biological samples and polymer are analyzed and uncertainity of measurement are estimated. Also data intercomparison and proficency test were performed. Using airborne particulate matter chosen as a environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site are determined and then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. International cooperation research project was carried out for utilization of nuclear techniques.

  1. Multivariate Statistical Analysis Applied in Wine Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieling Zou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applies multivariate statistical approaches to wine quality evaluation. With 27 red wine samples, four factors were identified out of 12 parameters by principal component analysis, explaining 89.06% of the total variance of data. As iterative weights calculated by the BP neural network revealed little difference from weights determined by information entropy method, the latter was chosen to measure the importance of indicators. Weighted cluster analysis performs well in classifying the sample group further into two sub-clusters. The second cluster of red wine samples, compared with its first, was lighter in color, tasted thinner and had fainter bouquet. Weighted TOPSIS method was used to evaluate the quality of wine in each sub-cluster. With scores obtained, each sub-cluster was divided into three grades. On the whole, the quality of lighter red wine was slightly better than the darker category. This study shows the necessity and usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques in both wine quality evaluation and parameter selection.

  2. Applying Conjoint Analysis to Study Attitudes of Thai Government Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natee Suriyanon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the application of choice-based conjointanalysis to analyse the attitude of Thai government organisationstowards the restriction of the contractor’s right to claimcompensation for unfavourable effects from undesirable events.The analysis reveals that the organisations want to restrict only 6out of 14 types of the claiming rights that were studied. The rightthat they want to restrict most is the right to claim for additionaldirect costs due to force majeure. They are willing to pay between0.087% - 0.210% of the total project direct cost for restricting eachtype of contractor right. The total additional cost for restrictingall six types of rights that the organisations are willing to pay is0.882%. The last section of this article applies the knowledgegained from a choice based conjoint analysis experiment to theanalysis of the standard contract of the Thai government. Theanalysis reveals three types of rights where Thai governmentorganisations are willing to forego restrictions, but the presentstandard contract does not grant such rights.

  3. Impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems: a global-scale analysis of ecologically relevant river flow alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available River flow regimes, including long-term average flows, seasonality, low flows, high flows and other types of flow variability, play an important role for freshwater ecosystems. Thus, climate change affects freshwater ecosystems not only by increased temperatures but also by altered river flow regimes. However, with one exception, transferable quantitative relations between flow alterations and ecosystem responses have not yet been derived. While discharge decreases are generally considered to be detrimental for ecosystems, the effect of future discharge increases is unclear. As a first step towards a global-scale analysis of climate change impacts on freshwater ecosystems, we quantified the impact of climate change on five ecologically relevant river flow indicators, using the global water model WaterGAP 2.1g to simulate monthly time series of river discharge with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. Four climate change scenarios based on two global climate models and two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios were evaluated.

    We compared the impact of climate change by the 2050s to the impact of water withdrawals and dams on natural flow regimes that had occurred by 2002. Climate change was computed to alter seasonal flow regimes significantly (i.e. by more than 10% on 90% of the global land area (excluding Greenland and Antarctica, as compared to only one quarter of the land area that had suffered from significant seasonal flow regime alterations due to dams and water withdrawals. Due to climate change, the timing of the maximum mean monthly river discharge will be shifted by at least one month on one third on the global land area, more often towards earlier months (mainly due to earlier snowmelt. Dams and withdrawals had caused comparable shifts on less than 5% of the land area only. Long-term average annual river discharge is predicted to significantly increase on one half of the land area, and to significantly decrease on one quarter

  4. To Apply or Not to Apply: A Survey Analysis of Grant Writing Costs and Benefits

    CERN Document Server

    von Hippel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants a...

  5. Neighbourhood-scale urban forest ecosystem classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Duinker, Peter N; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Urban forests are now recognized as essential components of sustainable cities, but there remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. Ecosystem classification is an approach that entails quantifying the social and ecological processes that shape ecosystem conditions into logical and relatively homogeneous management units, making the potential for ecosystem-based decision support available to urban planners. The purpose of this study is to develop and propose a framework for urban forest ecosystem classification (UFEC). The multifactor framework integrates 12 ecosystem components that characterize the biophysical landscape, built environment, and human population. This framework is then applied at the neighbourhood scale in Toronto, Canada, using hierarchical cluster analysis. The analysis used 27 spatially-explicit variables to quantify the ecosystem components in Toronto. Twelve ecosystem classes were identified in this UFEC application. Across the ecosystem classes, tree canopy cover was positively related to economic wealth, especially income. However, education levels and homeownership were occasionally inconsistent with the expected positive relationship with canopy cover. Open green space and stocking had variable relationships with economic wealth and were more closely related to population density, building intensity, and land use. The UFEC can provide ecosystem-based information for greening initiatives, tree planting, and the maintenance of the existing canopy. Moreover, its use has the potential to inform the prioritization of limited municipal resources according to ecological conditions and to concerns of social equity in the access to nature and distribution of ecosystem service supply.

  6. Application of Object Based Classification and High Resolution Satellite Imagery for Savanna Ecosystem Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Southworth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems are an important component of dryland regions and yet are exceedingly difficult to study using satellite imagery. Savannas are composed are varying amounts of trees, shrubs and grasses and typically traditional classification schemes or vegetation indices cannot differentiate across class type. This research utilizes object based classification (OBC for a region in Namibia, using IKONOS imagery, to help differentiate tree canopies and therefore woodland savanna, from shrub or grasslands. The methodology involved the identification and isolation of tree canopies within the imagery and the creation of tree polygon layers had an overall accuracy of 84%. In addition, the results were scaled up to a corresponding Landsat image of the same region, and the OBC results compared to corresponding pixel values of NDVI. The results were not compelling, indicating once more the problems of these traditional image analysis techniques for savanna ecosystems. Overall, the use of the OBC holds great promise for this ecosystem and could be utilized more frequently in studies of vegetation structure.

  7. Analysis of selection procedures to determine priority areas for payment for water ecosystem services programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Feital Gjorup

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The approach of ecosystem services has shown promise for the evaluation of interactions between ecosystems and society, integrating environmental and socioeconomic concepts which require interdisciplinary knowledge. However, its usefulness in decision making is limited due to information gaps. This study was therefore developed in order to contribute to the application of principles of ecosystem services in the decision-making for water resources management. It aims to identify procedures and methodologies used for decision-making in order to select priority areas to be included in projects or compensation programs for environmental services. To do so, we searched technical and scientific literature describing methods and experiences used to select priority areas. Key steps in the process of selecting priority areas were identified; then a survey was conducted of the procedures adopted for each key step considering the literature selected; and, finally, the information collected was analyzed and classified. Considering the study’s sample, we noted that the selection of priority areas was based on the direct use of predetermined criteria. The use of indicators and spatial analyses are practices still scarcely employed. We must highlight, however, that most of the analyzed documents did not aim to describe the process of selecting priority areas in detail, which may have resulted in some omissions. Although these conditions may limit the analysis in this study, the results presented here allow us to identify the main objectives, actions and criteria used to select priority areas for programs or compensation projects for environmental services.

  8. Correlation network analysis applied to complex biofilm communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana E Duran-Pinedo

    Full Text Available The complexity of the human microbiome makes it difficult to reveal organizational principles of the community and even more challenging to generate testable hypotheses. It has been suggested that in the gut microbiome species such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are keystone in maintaining the stability and functional adaptability of the microbial community. In this study, we investigate the interspecies associations in a complex microbial biofilm applying systems biology principles. Using correlation network analysis we identified bacterial modules that represent important microbial associations within the oral community. We used dental plaque as a model community because of its high diversity and the well known species-species interactions that are common in the oral biofilm. We analyzed samples from healthy individuals as well as from patients with periodontitis, a polymicrobial disease. Using results obtained by checkerboard hybridization on cultivable bacteria we identified modules that correlated well with microbial complexes previously described. Furthermore, we extended our analysis using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM, which includes a large number of bacterial species, among them uncultivated organisms present in the mouth. Two distinct microbial communities appeared in healthy individuals while there was one major type in disease. Bacterial modules in all communities did not overlap, indicating that bacteria were able to effectively re-associate with new partners depending on the environmental conditions. We then identified hubs that could act as keystone species in the bacterial modules. Based on those results we then cultured a not-yet-cultivated microorganism, Tannerella sp. OT286 (clone BU063. After two rounds of enrichment by a selected helper (Prevotella oris OT311 we obtained colonies of Tannerella sp. OT286 growing on blood agar plates. This system-level approach would open the possibility of

  9. To apply or not to apply: a survey analysis of grant writing costs and benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted von Hippel

    Full Text Available We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads.

  10. Applying Stylometric Analysis Techniques to Counter Anonymity in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ubiquitous nature and anonymity abuses in cyberspace, it’s difficult to make criminal identity tracing in cybercrime investigation. Writeprint identification offers a valuable tool to counter anonymity by applying stylometric analysis technique to help identify individuals based on textual traces. In this study, a framework for online writeprint identification is proposed. Variable length character n-gram is used to represent the author’s writing style. The technique of IG seeded GA based feature selection for Ensemble (IGAE is also developed to build an identification model based on individual author level features. Several specific components for dealing with the individual feature set are integrated to improve the performance. The proposed feature and technique are evaluated on a real world data set encompassing reviews posted by 50 Amazon customers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework, with accuracy over 94% for 20 authors and over 80% for 50 ones. Compared with the baseline technique (Support Vector Machine, a higher performance is achieved by using IGAE, resulting in a 2% and 8% improvement over SVM for 20 and 50 authors respectively. Moreover, it has been shown that IGAE is more scalable in terms of the number of authors, than author group level based methods.

  11. Applied genre analysis: a multi-perspective model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K Bhatia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Genre analysis can be viewed from two different perspectives: it may be seen as a reflection of the complex realities of the world of institutionalised communication, or it may be seen as a pedagogically effective and convenient tool for the design of language teaching programmes, often situated within simulated contexts of classroom activities. This paper makes an attempt to understand and resolve the tension between these two seemingly contentious perspectives to answer the question: "Is generic description a reflection of reality, or a convenient fiction invented by applied linguists?". The paper also discusses issues related to the nature and use of linguistic description in a genre-based educational enterprise, claiming that instead of using generic descriptions as models for linguistic reproduction of conventional forms to respond to recurring social contexts, as is often the case in many communication based curriculum contexts, they can be used as analytical resource to understand and manipulate complex inter-generic and multicultural realisations of professional discourse, which will enable learners to use generic knowledge to respond to novel social contexts and also to create new forms of discourse to achieve pragmatic success as well as other powerful human agendas.

  12. SUCCESS CONCEPT ANALYSIS APPLIED TO THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio C. Montenegro Duarte

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the concept of success in project management that is applicable to the IT universe, from the classical theory associated with the techniques of project management. Therefore, it applies the theoretical analysis associated to the context of information technology in enterprises as well as the classic literature of traditional project management, focusing on its application in business information technology. From the literature developed in the first part of the study, four propositions were prepared for study which formed the basis for the development of the field research with three large companies that develop projects of Information Technology. The methodology used in the study predicted the development of the multiple case study. Empirical evidence suggests that the concept of success found in the classical literature in project management adjusts to the environment management of IT projects. Showed that it is possible to create the model of standard IT projects in order to replicate it in future derivatives projects, which depends on the learning acquired at the end of a long and continuous process and sponsorship of senior management, which ultimately results in its merger into the company culture.

  13. Stable isotope analysis of energy dynamics in aquatic ecosystems suggests trophic shifts following severe wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, A. M.; Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Williams, C.; Wagner, M. J.; Luchkow, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire alters landscapes and can have significant impacts on stream ecosystems. The 2003 Lost Creek wildfire was one of the most severe on Alberta's eastern rocky mountain slopes, resulting in elevated sediment production and nutrient (phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) export in impacted streams. These resulted in increased algal productivity and macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity, and as a result, fish in watersheds draining wildfire affected catchments were larger than those in the same age class from reference (unburned) watersheds. In the present investigation, stable isotope analysis of C and N was utilized to evaluate ecosystem energy dynamics and describe trophic relationships in those watersheds. Aquatic invertebrates from burned catchments showed enrichment in δ13C and δ15N relative to algae suggesting a reliance on algae (autochthony) as a primary source of energy. Invertebrates from unburned systems were depleted in δ13C relative to algae indicating reliance on allochthonous or terrestrial primary energy sources. Preliminary analysis of δ15N in macroinvertebrates showed slight enrichment in burned catchments suggesting a trophic shift. More comprehensive macroinvertebrate sampling and identification has been conducted; isotopic analysis will provide greater resolution of how specific families within feeding guilds have been affected by wildfire. This will provide more robust insights into how wildfires may impact stream ecology in mountain environments.

  14. Variability of Ecosystem State in Rivers Containing Natural Dams: A Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding, and the resulting economic damage to roads and property, is associated with natural dams such as beaver dams or log jams. For this reason, humans often remove natural dams; however, river reaches with natural dams provide very different ecosystem services in comparison with free-flowing river reaches. Therefore, the goal of this project is to assess the differences in ecosystem state between these different river reach types in the northeastern United States. We focused on differences in basic chemistry (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and organic carbon) to assess the impact of natural dams on river ecosystem state. Study sites include rivers in the White Mountains and southeastern New Hampshire at locations with beaver dams, beaver ponds, beaver meadows, log jams, and free-flowing reaches. Dissolved oxygen, ORP, pH, temperature, and conductivity were measured in the field with a YSI Professional Plus meter. Water samples were collected for subsequent laboratory analysis of total organic carbon with a Shimadzu TOC-L. Preliminary results show that the chemistry of river water varies with feature type. Most significantly, dissolved oxygen concentrations are highest in free-flowing reaches and lowest in beaver ponds. Although beaver ponds are often associated with lower pH, due the increased concentration of organic acids, some beaver ponds can increase pH when compared to free-flowing reaches on the same river. Early results also show that water chemistry returns quickly to the chemistry typical of the free-flowing river reaches after being altered by a natural dam. Overall, natural dams create a river system that has more heterogeneity, and therefore has opportunities to provide more ecosystem functions, than a purely free-flowing river; this can increase the number of supported instream and riparian species. By increasing the understanding of how natural dams affect the chemistry of river water, river engineers can improve their decisions on how

  15. Harnessing ecosystem models and multi-criteria decision analysis for the support of forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfslehner, Bernhard; Seidl, Rupert

    2010-12-01

    The decision-making environment in forest management (FM) has changed drastically during the last decades. Forest management planning is facing increasing complexity due to a widening portfolio of forest goods and services, a societal demand for a rational, transparent decision process and rising uncertainties concerning future environmental conditions (e.g., climate change). Methodological responses to these challenges include an intensified use of ecosystem models to provide an enriched, quantitative information base for FM planning. Furthermore, multi-criteria methods are increasingly used to amalgamate information, preferences, expert judgments and value expressions, in support of the participatory and communicative dimensions of modern forestry. Although the potential of combining these two approaches has been demonstrated in a number of studies, methodological aspects in interfacing forest ecosystem models (FEM) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) are scarcely addressed explicitly. In this contribution we review the state of the art in FEM and MCDA in the context of FM planning and highlight some of the crucial issues when combining ecosystem and preference modeling. We discuss issues and requirements in selecting approaches suitable for supporting FM planning problems from the growing body of FEM and MCDA concepts. We furthermore identify two major challenges in a harmonized application of FEM-MCDA: (i) the design and implementation of an indicator-based analysis framework capturing ecological and social aspects and their interactions relevant for the decision process, and (ii) holistic information management that supports consistent use of different information sources, provides meta-information as well as information on uncertainties throughout the planning process.

  16. Harnessing Ecosystem Models and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for the Support of Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfslehner, Bernhard; Seidl, Rupert

    2010-12-01

    The decision-making environment in forest management (FM) has changed drastically during the last decades. Forest management planning is facing increasing complexity due to a widening portfolio of forest goods and services, a societal demand for a rational, transparent decision process and rising uncertainties concerning future environmental conditions (e.g., climate change). Methodological responses to these challenges include an intensified use of ecosystem models to provide an enriched, quantitative information base for FM planning. Furthermore, multi-criteria methods are increasingly used to amalgamate information, preferences, expert judgments and value expressions, in support of the participatory and communicative dimensions of modern forestry. Although the potential of combining these two approaches has been demonstrated in a number of studies, methodological aspects in interfacing forest ecosystem models (FEM) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) are scarcely addressed explicitly. In this contribution we review the state of the art in FEM and MCDA in the context of FM planning and highlight some of the crucial issues when combining ecosystem and preference modeling. We discuss issues and requirements in selecting approaches suitable for supporting FM planning problems from the growing body of FEM and MCDA concepts. We furthermore identify two major challenges in a harmonized application of FEM-MCDA: (i) the design and implementation of an indicator-based analysis framework capturing ecological and social aspects and their interactions relevant for the decision process, and (ii) holistic information management that supports consistent use of different information sources, provides meta-information as well as information on uncertainties throughout the planning process.

  17. Impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems: a global-scale analysis of ecologically relevant river flow alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available River flow regimes, including long-term average flows, seasonality, low flows, high flows and other types of flow variability, play an important role for freshwater ecosystems. Thus, climate change affects freshwater ecosystems not only by increased temperatures but also by altered river flow regimes. However, with one exception, transferable quantitative relations between flow alterations and ecological responses have not yet been derived. While discharge decreases are generally considered to be detrimental for ecosystems, the effect of future discharge increases is unclear. As a first step towards a global-scale analysis of climate change impacts on freshwater ecosystems, we quantified the impact of climate change on five ecologically relevant river flow indicators, using the global water model WaterGAP 2.1g to simulate monthly time series of river discharge with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. Four climate change scenarios based on two global climate models and two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios were evaluated.

    We compared the impact of climate change by the 2050s to the impact of water withdrawals and dams on natural flow regimes that had occurred by 2002. Climate change was computed to alter seasonal flow regimes significantly (i.e. by more than 10% on 90% of the global land area (excluding Greenland and Antarctica, as compared to only one quarter of the land area that had suffered from significant seasonal flow regime alterations due to dams and water withdrawals. Due to climate change, the timing of the maximum mean monthly river discharge will be shifted by at least one month on one third on the global land area, more often towards earlier months (mainly due to earlier snowmelt. Dams and withdrawals had caused comparable shifts on less than 5% of the land area only. Long-term average annual river discharge is predicted to significantly increase on one half of the land area, and to significantly decrease on one quarter

  18. Analysis of NDVI variance across landscapes and seasons allows assessment of degradation and resilience to shocks in Mediterranean dry ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    liniger, hanspeter; jucker riva, matteo; schwilch, gudrun

    2016-04-01

    Mapping and assessment of desertification is a primary basis for effective management of dryland ecosystems. Vegetation cover and biomass density are key elements for the ecological functioning of dry ecosystem, and at the same time an effective indicator of desertification, land degradation and sustainable land management. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely used to estimate the vegetation density and cover. However, the reflectance of vegetation and thus the NDVI values are influenced by several factors such as type of canopy, type of land use and seasonality. For example low NDVI values could be associated to a degraded forest, to a healthy forest under dry climatic condition, to an area used as pasture, or to an area managed to reduce the fuel load. We propose a simple method to analyse the variance of NDVI signal considering the main factors that shape the vegetation. This variance analysis enables us to detect and categorize degradation in a much more precise way than simple NDVI analysis. The methodology comprises identifying homogeneous landscape areas in terms of aspect, slope, land use and disturbance regime (if relevant). Secondly, the NDVI is calculated from Landsat multispectral images and the vegetation potential for each landscape is determined based on the percentile (highest 10% value). Thirdly, the difference between the NDVI value of each pixel and the potential is used to establish degradation categories . Through this methodology, we are able to identify realistic objectives for restoration, allowing a targeted choice of management options for degraded areas. For example, afforestation would only be done in areas that show potential for forest growth. Moreover, we can measure the effectiveness of management practices in terms of vegetation growth across different landscapes and conditions. Additionally, the same methodology can be applied to a time series of multispectral images, allowing detection and quantification of

  19. New trends in applied harmonic analysis sparse representations, compressed sensing, and multifractal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrelli, Carlos; Jaffard, Stephane; Molter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a selection of written notes corresponding to courses taught at the CIMPA School: "New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis: Sparse Representations, Compressed Sensing and Multifractal Analysis". New interactions between harmonic analysis and signal and image processing have seen striking development in the last 10 years, and several technological deadlocks have been solved through the resolution of deep theoretical problems in harmonic analysis. New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis focuses on two particularly active areas that are representative of such advances: multifractal analysis, and sparse representation and compressed sensing. The contributions are written by leaders in these areas, and covers both theoretical aspects and applications. This work should prove useful not only to PhD students and postdocs in mathematics and signal and image processing, but also to researchers working in related topics.

  20. Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modelling and flux balance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eTaffi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains.In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746 with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links.The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs.

  1. Genetic analysis of individual origins supports isolation of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles; Kendall, Katherine C.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Moody, David S.; Frey, Kevin L.; Paetkau, David

    2010-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) supports the southernmost of the 2 largest remaining grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the contiguous United States. Since the mid-1980s, this population has increased in numbers and expanded in range. However, concerns for its long-term genetic health remain because of its presumed continued isolation. To test the power of genetic methods for detecting immigrants, we generated 16-locus microsatellite genotypes for 424 individual grizzly bears sampled in the GYE during 1983–2007. Genotyping success was high (90%) and varied by sample type, with poorest success (40%) for hair collected from mortalities found ≥1 day after death. Years of storage did not affect genotyping success. Observed heterozygosity was 0.60, with a mean of 5.2 alleles/marker. We used factorial correspondence analysis (Program GENETIX) and Bayesian clustering (Program STRUCTURE) to compare 424 GYE genotypes with 601 existing genotypes from grizzly bears sampled in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) (FST  =  0.096 between GYE and NCDE). These methods correctly classified all sampled individuals to their population of origin, providing no evidence of natural movement between the GYE and NCDE. Analysis of 500 simulated first-generation crosses suggested that over 95% of such bears would also be detectable using our 16-locus data set. Our approach provides a practical method for detecting immigration in the GYE grizzly population. We discuss estimates for the proportion of the GYE population sampled and prospects for natural immigration into the GYE.

  2. Data management challenges in analysis and synthesis in the ecosystem sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Guru, S; Houghton, L; Keniger, L; Driver, P; Ritchie, E G; Lai, K; Treloar, A

    2015-11-15

    Open-data has created an unprecedented opportunity with new challenges for ecosystem scientists. Skills in data management are essential to acquire, manage, publish, access and re-use data. These skills span many disciplines and require trans-disciplinary collaboration. Science synthesis centres support analysis and synthesis through collaborative 'Working Groups' where domain specialists work together to synthesise existing information to provide insight into critical problems. The Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS) served a wide range of stakeholders, from scientists to policy-makers to managers. This paper investigates the level of sophistication in data management in the ecosystem science community through the lens of the ACEAS experience, and identifies the important factors required to enable us to benefit from this new data-world and produce innovative science. ACEAS promoted the analysis and synthesis of data to solve transdisciplinary questions, and promoted the publication of the synthesised data. To do so, it provided support in many of the key skillsets required. Analysis and synthesis in multi-disciplinary and multi-organisational teams, and publishing data were new for most. Data were difficult to discover and access, and to make ready for analysis, largely due to lack of metadata. Data use and publication were hampered by concerns about data ownership and a desire for data citation. A web portal was created to visualise geospatial datasets to maximise data interpretation. By the end of the experience there was a significant increase in appreciation of the importance of a Data Management Plan. It is extremely doubtful that the work would have occurred or data delivered without the support of the Synthesis centre, as few of the participants had the necessary networks or skills. It is argued that participation in the Centre provided an important learning opportunity, and has resulted in improved knowledge and understanding

  3. Can Artificial Neural Networks be Applied in Seismic Predicition? Preliminary Analysis Applying Radial Topology. Case: Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Mota-Hernandez, Cinthya; Alvarado-Corona, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic earthquakes of high magnitude can cause considerable losses in terms of human lives, economic and infrastructure, among others. According to an evaluation published by the U.S. Geological Survey, 30 is the number of earthquakes which have greatly impacted Mexico from the end of the XIX century to this one. Based upon data from the National Seismological Service, on the period between January 1, 2006 and May 1, 2013 there have occurred 5,826 earthquakes which magnitude has been greater than 4.0 degrees on the Richter magnitude scale (25.54% of the total of earthquakes registered on the national territory), being the Pacific Plate and the Cocos Plate the most important ones. This document describes the development of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on the radial topology which seeks to generate a prediction with an error margin lower than 20% which can inform about the probability of a future earthquake one of the main questions is: can artificial neural networks be applied in seismic forecast...

  4. Cognitive task analysis: Techniques applied to airborne weapons training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M.; Seamster, T.L.; Snyder, C.E.; Treitler, I.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Carlow Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is an introduction to cognitive task analysis as it may be used in Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) training development. The focus of a cognitive task analysis is human knowledge, and its methods of analysis are those developed by cognitive psychologists. This paper explains the role that cognitive task analysis and presents the findings from a preliminary cognitive task analysis of airborne weapons operators. Cognitive task analysis is a collection of powerful techniques that are quantitative, computational, and rigorous. The techniques are currently not in wide use in the training community, so examples of this methodology are presented along with the results. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Video analysis applied to volleyball didactics to improve sport skills

    OpenAIRE

    Raiola, Gaetano; Parisi, Fabio; Giugno, Ylenia; Di Tore, Pio Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The feedback method is increasingly used in learning new skills and improving performance. "Recent research, however, showed that the most objective and quantitative feedback is, theº greater its effect on performance". The video analysis, which is the analysis of sports performance by watching the video, is used primarily for use in the quantitative performance of athletes through the notational analysis. It may be useful to combine the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the single ges...

  6. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Reference Site Study: 2011 Restoration Analysis - FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Sagar, Jina; Buenau, Kate E.; Corbett, C.

    2012-05-31

    The Reference Site (RS) study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District [USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinions (BiOp). While the RS study was initiated in 2007, data have been collected at relatively undisturbed reference wetland sites in the LCRE by PNNL and collaborators since 2005. These data on habitat structural metrics were previously summarized to provide baseline characterization of 51 wetlands throughout the estuarine and tidal freshwater portions of the 235-km LCRE; however, further analysis of these data has been limited. Therefore, in 2011, we conducted additional analyses of existing field data previously collected for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) - including data collected by PNNL and others - to help inform the multi-agency restoration planning and ecosystem management work underway in the LCRE.

  7. Empirical modeling and data analysis for engineers and applied scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    This textbook teaches advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students in Engineering and Applied Sciences to gather and analyze empirical observations (data) in order to aid in making design decisions. While science is about discovery, the primary paradigm of engineering and "applied science" is design. Scientists are in the discovery business and want, in general, to understand the natural world rather than to alter it. In contrast, engineers and applied scientists design products, processes, and solutions to problems. That said, statistics, as a discipline, is mostly oriented toward the discovery paradigm. Young engineers come out of their degree programs having taken courses such as "Statistics for Engineers and Scientists" without any clear idea as to how they can use statistical methods to help them design products or processes. Many seem to think that statistics is only useful for demonstrating that a device or process actually does what it was designed to do. Statistics courses emphasize creati...

  8. An Analysis of the Economy Principle Applied in Cyber Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖钰敏

    2015-01-01

    With the development of network technology,cyber language,a new social dialect,is widely used in our life.The author analyzes how the economy principle is applied in cyber language from three aspects—word-formation,syntax and non-linguistic symbol.And the author collects,summarizes and analyzes the relevant language materials to prove the economy principle’s real existence in chat room and the reason why the economy principle is applied widely in cyber space.

  9. Integrating ecosystem services analysis into scenario planning practice: accounting for street tree benefits with i-Tree valuation in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Thomas; Paterson, Robert

    2014-12-15

    Scenario planning continues to gain momentum in the United States as an effective process for building consensus on long-range community plans and creating regional visions for the future. However, efforts to integrate more sophisticated information into the analytical framework to help identify important ecosystem services have lagged in practice. This is problematic because understanding the tradeoffs of land consumption patterns on ecological integrity is central to mitigating the environmental degradation caused by land use change and new development. In this paper we describe how an ecosystem services valuation model, i-Tree, was integrated into a mainstream scenario planning software tool, Envision Tomorrow, to assess the benefits of public street trees for alternative future development scenarios. The tool is then applied to development scenarios from the City of Hutto, TX, a Central Texas Sustainable Places Project demonstration community. The integrated tool represents a methodological improvement for scenario planning practice, offers a way to incorporate ecosystem services analysis into mainstream planning processes, and serves as an example of how open source software tools can expand the range of issues available for community and regional planning consideration, even in cases where community resources are limited. The tool also offers room for future improvements; feasible options include canopy analysis of various future land use typologies, as well as a generalized street tree model for broader U.S. application.

  10. Signed directed social network analysis applied to group conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Quan; Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    are both positive and negative), can be combined. This combination is particularly appropriate for intelligence, terrorism, and law enforcement applications. We illustrate by applying the novel embedding technique to datasets describing conflict in North-West Africa, and show how unusual interactions can...

  11. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of interest.The model is fairly

  12. System Analysis Applying to Talent Resource Development Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng-tao; ZHENG Gang

    2001-01-01

    In the development research of talent resource, the most important of talent resource forecast and optimization is the structure of talent resource, requirement number and talent quality. The article establish factor reconstruction analysis forecast and talent quality model on the method: system reconstruction analysis and ensure most effective factor level in system, which is presented by G. J. Klirti, B.Jonesque. And performing dynamic analysis of example ration.

  13. FRACTAL ANALYSIS APPLIED TO SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF CHINA'S VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the fractal theory, the spatial structure of China's vegetation has been analyzed quantitatively in this paper. Some conclusions are drawn as the following. 1) The relationships between size and frequency of patch area and patch shape index exist objectively for China's vegetation. 2) The relationships between perimeter and area exist objectively for China's vegetation. 3) The fractal dimension of evergreen needleleaf forests on mountains in subtropical and tropical zones is the largest, while the smallest for deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone, reflecting the most complex spatial structure for evergreen needleleaf forests on mountains in subtropical and tropical zones and the simplest for deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone. 4) The fractal dimensions of China's vegetation types tend to decrease from the subtropics to both sides. 5)The stability of spatial structure of deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone is the largest, while the smallest for double-cropping rice, or double-cropping rice and temperate-like grain, and tropical evergreen economic tree plantations and orchards, reflecting the steadiest for deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone and the most unstable for double-cropping rice, or double-cropping rice and temperate-like grain, and tropical evergreen economic tree plantations and orchards in spatial structure. 6) The stability of spatial structure of China's vegetation tends to decrease from the temperate zone to both sides. It is significantly pertinent to understand the formation, evolution, dynamics and complexity rule of ecosystem of vegetation.

  14. Analysis of OFDM Applied to Powerline High Speed Digital Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jian; YANG Gong-xu

    2003-01-01

    The low voltage powerline is becoming a powerful solution to home network, building automation, and internet access as a result of its wide distribution, easy access and little maintenance. The character of powerline channel is very complicated because it is an open net. This article analysed the character of the powerline channel,introduced the basics of OFDM(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), and studied the OFDM applied into powerline high speed digital communication.

  15. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Peerlings, J.H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of interest.The model is fairly general and could be used to analyse a great variety of agricultural policy changes. However, generality requires that the model should be adapted and extended for special research questions. This...

  16. Multisectorial models applied to the environment: an analysis for catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pié Dols, Laia

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this doctoral thesis is to apply different multisectorial models available to analyse the impact that would had on the Catalan economy as a result of the introduction of policies designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse effect gases and save energy, and also at the same time to improve the environmental competitiveness of both individual companies and the economy as a whole. For the purposes of this thesis I have analysed the six greenhouse gases that are regulated by the K...

  17. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; van der Horst, Dan; Schleyer, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape...... research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1) that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach...... to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2) that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3) that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus...

  18. [Structure and function of Fenshuijiang Reservoir ecosystem based on the analysis with Ecopath model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Jia, Pei-Qiao; Hu, Zhong-Jun; Chen, Li-Qiao; Gu, Zhi-Min; Liu, Qi-Gen

    2012-03-01

    Based on the 2008-2009 survey data of fishery resources and eco-environment of Fenshuijiang Reservoir, a mass balance model for the Reservoir ecosystem was constructed by Ecopath with Ecosim software. The model was composed of 14 functional groups, including silver carp, bighead carp, Hemibarbus maculates, Cutler alburnus, Microlepis and other fishes, Oligochaeta, aquatic insect, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and organic detritus, etc. , being able to better simulate Fenshuijiang Reservoir ecosystem. In this ecosystem, there were five trophic levels (TLs), and the nutrient flow mainly occurred in the first three TLs. Grazing and detritus food chains were the main energy flows in the ecosystem, but the food web was simpler and susceptible to be disturbed by outer environment. The transfer efficiency at lower TLs was relatively low, indicating that the ecosystem had a lower capability in energy utilization, and the excessive stock of nutrients in the ecosystem could lead to eutrophication. The lower connectance index, system omnivory index, Finn' s cycled index, and Finn's mean path length demonstrated that the ecosystem was unstable, while the high ecosystem property indices such as Pp/R and Pp/B showed that the ecosystem was immature and highly productive. It was suggested that Fenshuijiang Reservoir was still a developing new reservoir ecosystem, with a very short history and comparatively high primary productivity. PMID:22720630

  19. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  20. (When and where) Do extreme climate events trigger extreme ecosystem responses? - Development and initial results of a holistic analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Eva K.; Donner, Reik V.

    2015-04-01

    a seasonal cycle for each quantile of the distribution, which can be used for a fully data-adaptive definition of extremes as exceedances above this time-dependent quantile function. (2) Having thus identified the extreme events, their distribution is analyzed in both space and time. Following a procedure recently proposed by Lloyd-Hughes (2012) and further exploited by Zscheischler et al. (2013), extremes observed at neighboring points in space and time are considered to form connected sets. Investigating the size distribution of these sets provides novel insights into the development and dynamical characteristics of spatio-temporally extended climate and ecosystem extremes. (3) Finally, the timing of such spatio-temporally extended extremes in different climatic as well as ecological variables is tested pairwise to rule out that co-occurrences of extremes have emerged solely due to chance. For this purpose, the recently developed framework of coincidence analysis (Donges et al., 2011; Rammig et al. 2014) is applied. The corresponding analysis allows identifying potential causal linkages between climatic extremes and extreme ecosystem responses and, thus, to study their mechanisms and spatial as well as seasonal distribution in great detail. In this work, the described method is exemplified by using different climate data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis as well as remote sensing-based land surface temperature data. References: Donges et al., PNAS, 108, 20422, 2011 Lloyd-Hughes, Int. J. Climatol., 32, 406, 2012 Rammig et al., Biogeosc. Disc., 11, 2537, 2014 Zscheischler et al., Ecol. Inform., 15, 66, 2013

  1. Comparative analysis of European wide marine ecosystem shifts: a large-scale approach for developing the basis for ecosystem-based management

    OpenAIRE

    Möllmann, Christian; Conversi, Alessandra; Edwards, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Abrupt and rapid ecosystem shifts (where major reorganizations of food-web and community structures occur), commonly termed regime shifts, are changes between contrasting and persisting states of ecosystem structure and function. These shifts have been increasingly reported for exploited marine ecosystems around the world from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic. Understanding the drivers and mechanisms leading to marine ecosystem shifts is crucial in developing adaptive management strate...

  2. Applying Galois compliance for data analysis in information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the data analysis in information systems. The author discloses the possibility of using Galois compliance to identify the characteristics of the information system structure. The author reveals the specificity of the application of Galois compliance for the analysis of information system content with the use of invariants of graph theory. Aspects of introduction of mathematical apparatus of Galois compliance for research of interrelations between elements of the adaptive training information system of individual testing are analyzed.

  3. A New Digital Imaging and Analysis System for Plant and Ecosystem Phenological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, G.; Ramirez, G. A.; Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Luna, N. R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, environmental scientists have increasingly used low-cost sensors and custom software to gather and analyze environmental data. Included in this trend has been the use of imagery from field-mounted static digital cameras. Published literature has highlighted the challenge scientists have encountered with poor and problematic camera performance and power consumption, limited data download and wireless communication options, general ruggedness of off the shelf camera solutions, and time consuming and hard-to-reproduce digital image analysis options. Data loggers and sensors are typically limited to data storage in situ (requiring manual downloading) and/or expensive data streaming options. Here we highlight the features and functionality of a newly invented camera/data logger system and coupled image analysis software suited to plant and ecosystem phenological studies (patent pending). The camera has resulted from several years of development and prototype testing supported by several grants funded by the US NSF. These inventions have several unique features and functionality and have been field tested in desert, arctic, and tropical rainforest ecosystems. The system can be used to acquire imagery/data from static and mobile platforms. Data is collected, preprocessed, and streamed to the cloud without the need of an external computer and can run for extended time periods. The camera module is capable of acquiring RGB, IR, and thermal (LWIR) data and storing it in a variety of formats including RAW. The system is full customizable with a wide variety of passive and smart sensors. The camera can be triggered by state conditions detected by sensors and/or select time intervals. The device includes USB, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, serial, GSM, Ethernet, and Iridium connections and can be connected to commercial cloud servers such as Dropbox. The complementary image analysis software is compatible with all popular operating systems. Imagery can be viewed and

  4. Applied network security monitoring collection, detection, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Applied Network Security Monitoring is the essential guide to becoming an NSM analyst from the ground up. This book takes a fundamental approach to NSM, complete with dozens of real-world examples that teach you the key concepts of NSM. Network security monitoring is based on the principle that prevention eventually fails. In the current threat landscape, no matter how much you try, motivated attackers will eventually find their way into your network. At that point, it is your ability to detect and respond to that intrusion that can be the difference between a small incident and a major di

  5. Funding and stimulation mechanisms of the wetlands` ecosystem services conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Degtyar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to study the problems of funding conservation of wetlands ecosystem services and search of organizational and economic management tools of ecosystem services, which can be implemented in Ukraine. The results of the analysis. Summary of world practice implementation of organizational and economic management tools, based on payments for wetlands ecosystem services, determine the following basic principles of their formation: 1 enter into an agreement with stakeholders payment for ecosystem services on a voluntary basis; 2 payment perform beneficiaries of ecosystem services; 3 payments are made directly to providers of ecosystem services; 4 ecosystem value should prevail over the market interests of the ecosystem services provider; 5 payment is usually carried out by a wetland ecosystem services, although, in some cases, for receiving payments may be to force a certain way of land use, etc. The author generalized and systematized modern tools that are used to manage wetlands ecosystem services. Therefore, the author proposed to allocate financial and organizational tools of ecosystem services management into separate groups. Moreover, financial instruments can be divided into public and private (or voluntary. The government funding instruments primarily include national (local target program and budget, reduced taxes, duties and tariffs, government guarantees of financial transactions of wetland ecosystem services and securitization, joint financing, credit and deposit activities on wetland ecosystem services, etc. Conclusions and directions of further researches. In Ukraine the formation of organizational and economic tools of wetlands ecosystem services managing which is based primarily on a system of payments for ecosystem services needs to take into account the following measures: conducting thorough strategic research and applied ecological, economic and other sectorial studies, conducting

  6. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  7. Joint regression analysis and AMMI model applied to oat improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A.; Oliveira, T. A.; Mejza, S.

    2012-09-01

    In our work we present an application of some biometrical methods useful in genotype stability evaluation, namely AMMI model, Joint Regression Analysis (JRA) and multiple comparison tests. A genotype stability analysis of oat (Avena Sativa L.) grain yield was carried out using data of the Portuguese Plant Breeding Board, sample of the 22 different genotypes during the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 in six locations. In Ferreira et al. (2006) the authors state the relevance of the regression models and of the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI) model, to study and to estimate phenotypic stability effects. As computational techniques we use the Zigzag algorithm to estimate the regression coefficients and the agricolae-package available in R software for AMMI model analysis.

  8. The colour analysis method applied to homogeneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Amadé; Halmai, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    Computer-aided colour analysis can facilitate cyclostratigraphic studies. Here we report on a case study involving the development of a digital colour analysis method for examination of the Boda Claystone Formation which is the most suitable in Hungary for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Rock type colours are reddish brown or brownish red, or any shade between brown and red. The method presented here could be used to differentiate similar colours and to identify gradual transitions between these; the latter are of great importance in a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the succession. Geophysical well-logging has demonstrated the existence of characteristic cyclic units, as detected by colour and natural gamma. Based on our research, colour, natural gamma and lithology correlate well. For core Ib-4, these features reveal the presence of orderly cycles with thicknesses of roughly 0.64 to 13 metres. Once the core has been scanned, this is a time- and cost-effective method.

  9. Reliability analysis of reactor systems by applying probability method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probability method was chosen for analysing the reactor system reliability is considered realistic since it is based on verified experimental data. In fact this is a statistical method. The probability method developed takes into account the probability distribution of permitted levels of relevant parameters and their particular influence on the reliability of the system as a whole. The proposed method is rather general, and was used for problem of thermal safety analysis of reactor system. This analysis enables to analyze basic properties of the system under different operation conditions, expressed in form of probability they show the reliability of the system on the whole as well as reliability of each component

  10. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  11. Applying Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Persons with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark; Baker, Jonathan C.; Sadowski, Katherine Ann

    2011-01-01

    Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior has demonstrated a fair amount of utility to teach language to children with autism and other various disorders. However, the learning of language can be forgotten, as is the case for many elderly suffering from dementia or other degenerative diseases. It appears possible that Skinner's operants may…

  12. Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning…

  13. Valuation of Ecosystem Services:Research Progress and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ling

    2012-01-01

    The ecosystem services are material base and natural capital for sustainable development of human being. Valuation of ecosystem services is favorable for people realizing the importance of natural ecosystem to human being, and considering its long-term influence on sustainable development of human society when making decisions. Besides, it is an attempt of ecology, geography and other natural sciences to influence social decision process by economic methods. The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, written by Robert Costanza et al., in 1997, is generally regarded as a masterpiece for the research of valuing ecosystem services. However, the classifying standard of ecosystem services, the method of various services summation and the purpose for static global value, had confronted many criticisms. Still to now, accurately valuing ecosystem services is not easy, because of the complexity of natural ecosystem, the weak capability of economic system to pricing ecosystem services and the lack of more study in this field. Based on the criticisms summarizing and comprehensive analysis, further study suggestions of ecosystem services valuation is presented: multi-scale integrated and community participation applied in evaluation, dynamic changes of material value and intangible value of ecosystem services, investigation and simulation studies of the marginal value when ecosystem services changed, associated with related areas like ecological compensation research, and research on the market-oriented evaluation of ecosystem’s intangible values.

  14. Thermal Analysis Applied to Verapamil Hydrochloride Characterization in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Yoshida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC are useful techniques that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical industry to reveal important information regarding the physicochemical properties of drug and excipient molecules such as polymorphism, stability, purity, formulation compatibility among others. Verapamil hydrochloride shows thermal stability up to 180 °C and melts at 146 °C, followed by total degradation. The drug is compatible with all the excipients evaluated. The drug showed degradation when subjected to oxidizing conditions, suggesting that the degradation product is 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid derived from alkyl side chain oxidation. Verapamil hydrochloride does not present the phenomenon of polymorphism under the conditions evaluated. Assessing the drug degradation kinetics, the drug had a shelf life (t90 of 56.7 years and a pharmaceutical formulation showed t90 of 6.8 years showing their high stability.

  15. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  16. Nested sampling applied in Bayesian room-acoustics decay analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasa, Tomislav; Xiang, Ning

    2012-11-01

    Room-acoustic energy decays often exhibit single-rate or multiple-rate characteristics in a wide variety of rooms/halls. Both the energy decay order and decay parameter estimation are of practical significance in architectural acoustics applications, representing two different levels of Bayesian probabilistic inference. This paper discusses a model-based sound energy decay analysis within a Bayesian framework utilizing the nested sampling algorithm. The nested sampling algorithm is specifically developed to evaluate the Bayesian evidence required for determining the energy decay order with decay parameter estimates as a secondary result. Taking the energy decay analysis in architectural acoustics as an example, this paper demonstrates that two different levels of inference, decay model-selection and decay parameter estimation, can be cohesively accomplished by the nested sampling algorithm. PMID:23145609

  17. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: lorenzo.torrisi@unime.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Caridi, F.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Mondio, G.; Serafino, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia ed Ingegneria Elettronica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Caltabiano, M.; Castrizio, E.D. [Dipartimento di Lettere e Filosofia dell' Universita di Messina, Polo Universitario dell' Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Paniz, E.; Salici, A. [Carabinieri, Reparto Investigazioni Scientifiche, S.S. 114, Km. 6, 400 Tremestieri, Messina (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  18. Applying ABC analysis to the Navy's inventory management system

    OpenAIRE

    May, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited ABC Analysis is an inventory categorization technique used to classify and prioritize inventory items in an effort to better allocate business resources. A items are defined as the inventory items considered extremely important to the business, requiring strict oversight and control. B items are important to the business, but don’t require the tight controls and oversight required of the A items. C items are marginally important to the...

  19. Consumers' Demand for Pork Quality: Applying Semantic Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Carola Grebitus; Maike Bruhn

    2006-01-01

    Consideration of consumers' demand for food quality entails several aspects. Quality itself is a complex and dynamic concept, and constantly evolving technical progress may cause changes in consumers' judgment of quality. To improve our understanding of the factors influencing the demand for quality, food quality must be defined and measured from the consumer's perspective (Cardello, 1995). The present analysis addresses the issue of food quality, focusing on pork—the food that respondents ...

  20. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  1. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis strategies applied to mouse weight

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Tova F; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Aten, Jason E.; Drake, Thomas A; Lusis, Aldons J.; Horvath, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Systems-oriented genetic approaches that incorporate gene expression and genotype data are valuable in the quest for genetic regulatory loci underlying complex traits. Gene coexpression network analysis lends itself to identification of entire groups of differentially regulated genes—a highly relevant endeavor in finding the underpinnings of complex traits that are, by definition, polygenic in nature. Here we describe one such approach based on liver gene expression and genotype data from an ...

  2. Improving Credit Scorecard Modeling Through Applying Text Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ghailan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the credit card scoring and loans management, the prediction of the applicant’s future behavior is an important decision support tool and a key factor in reducing the risk of Loan Default. A lot of data mining and classification approaches have been developed for the credit scoring purpose. For the best of our knowledge, building a credit scorecard by analyzing the textual data in the application form has not been explored so far. This paper proposes a comprehensive credit scorecard model technique that improves credit scorecard modeling though employing textual data analysis. This study uses a sample of loan application forms of a financial institution providing loan services in Yemen, which represents a real-world situation of the credit scoring and loan management. The sample contains a set of Arabic textual data attributes defining the applicants. The credit scoring model based on the text mining pre-processing and logistic regression techniques is proposed and evaluated through a comparison with a group of credit scorecard modeling techniques that use only the numeric attributes in the application form. The results show that adding the textual attributes analysis achieves higher classification effectiveness and outperforms the other traditional numerical data analysis techniques.

  3. The colour analysis method applied to homogeneous rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halász Amadé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided colour analysis can facilitate cyclostratigraphic studies. Here we report on a case study involving the development of a digital colour analysis method for examination of the Boda Claystone Formation which is the most suitable in Hungary for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Rock type colours are reddish brown or brownish red, or any shade between brown and red. The method presented here could be used to differentiate similar colours and to identify gradual transitions between these; the latter are of great importance in a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the succession. Geophysical well-logging has demonstrated the existence of characteristic cyclic units, as detected by colour and natural gamma. Based on our research, colour, natural gamma and lithology correlate well. For core Ib-4, these features reveal the presence of orderly cycles with thicknesses of roughly 0.64 to 13 metres. Once the core has been scanned, this is a time- and cost-effective method.

  4. A Multifactorial Analysis of Reconstruction Methods Applied After Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction methods applied after total gastrectomy in terms of postoperative symptomology and nutrition. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 31 patients who underwent total gastrectomy due to gastric cancer in 2. Clinic of General Surgery, SSK Ankara Training Hospital. 6 different reconstruction methods were used and analyzed in terms of age, sex and postoperative complications. One from esophagus and two biopsy specimens from jejunum were taken through upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from all cases, and late period morphological and microbiological changes were examined. Postoperative weight change, dumping symptoms, reflux esophagitis, solid/liquid dysphagia, early satiety, postprandial pain, diarrhea and anorexia were assessed. Results: Of 31 patients,18 were males and 13 females; the youngest one was 33 years old, while the oldest- 69 years old. It was found that reconstruction without pouch was performed in 22 cases and with pouch in 9 cases. Early satiety, postprandial pain, dumping symptoms, diarrhea and anemia were found most commonly in cases with reconstruction without pouch. The rate of bacterial colonization of the jejunal mucosa was identical in both groups. Reflux esophagitis was most commonly seen in omega esophagojejunostomy (EJ, while the least-in Roux-en-Y, Tooley and Tanner 19 EJ. Conclusion: Reconstruction with pouch performed after total gastrectomy is still a preferable method. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48:126-31

  5. Framework for applying probabilistic safety analysis in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional regulatory framework has served well to assure the protection of public health and safety. It has been recognized, however, that in a few circumstances, this deterministic framework has lead to an extensive expenditure on matters hat have little to do with the safe and reliable operation of the plant. Developments of plant-specific PSA have offered a new and powerful analytical tool in the evaluation of the safety of the plant. Using PSA insights as an aid to decision making in the regulatory process is now known as 'risk-based' or 'risk-informed' regulation. Numerous activities in the U.S. nuclear industry are focusing on applying this new approach to modify regulatory requirements. In addition, other approaches to regulations are in the developmental phase and are being evaluated. One is based on the performance monitoring and results and it is known as performance-based regulation. The other, called the blended approach, combines traditional deterministic principles with PSA insights and performance results. (author)

  6. Image analysis technique applied to lock-exchange gravity currents

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Helena; Adduce, Claudia; Alves, Elsa; Franca, Rodrigues Pereira Da; Jorge, Mario

    2013-01-01

    An image analysis technique is used to estimate the two-dimensional instantaneous density field of unsteady gravity currents produced by full-depth lock-release of saline water. An experiment reproducing a gravity current was performed in a 3.0 m long, 0.20 m wide and 0.30 m deep Perspex flume with horizontal smooth bed and recorded with a 25 Hz CCD video camera under controlled light conditions. Using dye concentration as a tracer, a calibration procedure was established for each pixel in th...

  7. Applying temporal network analysis to the venture capital market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Feng, Ling; Zhu, Rongqian; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Using complex network theory to study the investment relationships of venture capital firms has produced a number of significant results. However, previous studies have often neglected the temporal properties of those relationships, which in real-world scenarios play a pivotal role. Here we examine the time-evolving dynamics of venture capital investment in China by constructing temporal networks to represent (i) investment relationships between venture capital firms and portfolio companies and (ii) the syndication ties between venture capital investors. The evolution of the networks exhibits rich variations in centrality, connectivity and local topology. We demonstrate that a temporal network approach provides a dynamic and comprehensive analysis of real-world networks.

  8. Risk Analysis of the applied RFID system : Project Stolpen

    OpenAIRE

    Grunzke, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will be a risk analysis of a RFID-system for a logistical application. The system works as follows: Around Karlstad in Sweden there are three new weighing machines for lorries. The load weight will be measured for the police to control overweight and for logistical reasons such as issuing invoices and optimising the supply chain. The lorries do not have to stop to be weighed. They have to drive slowly over the weighing machine, so the loss of time is minimal. The lorries will be i...

  9. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this and previous efforts ECON has provided economic assessment of a fusion research program. This phase of study focused on two tasks, the first concerned with the economics of fusion in an economy that relies heavily upon synthetic fuels, and the second concerned with the overall economic effects of pursuing soft energy technologies instead of hard technologies. This report is organized in two parts, the first entitled An Economic Analysis of Coproduction of Fusion-Electric Energy and Other Products, and the second entitled Arguments Associated with the Choice of Potential Energy Futures

  10. Statistical analysis applied to safety culture self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interviews and opinion surveys are instruments used to assess the safety culture in an organization as part of the Safety Culture Enhancement Programme. Specific statistical tools are used to analyse the survey results. This paper presents an example of an opinion survey with the corresponding application of the statistical analysis and the conclusions obtained. Survey validation, Frequency statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov non-parametric test, Student (T-test) and ANOVA means comparison tests and LSD post-hoc multiple comparison test, are discussed. (author)

  11. Dynamical systems analysis applied to working memory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimova, Fidan; Robitzsch, Alexander; Wilhelm, Oliver; Boker, Steven M; Hu, Yueqin; Hülür, Gizem

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we investigate weekly fluctuations in the working memory capacity (WMC) assessed over a period of 2 years. We use dynamical system analysis, specifically a second order linear differential equation, to model weekly variability in WMC in a sample of 112 9th graders. In our longitudinal data we use a B-spline imputation method to deal with missing data. The results show a significant negative frequency parameter in the data, indicating a cyclical pattern in weekly memory updating performance across time. We use a multilevel modeling approach to capture individual differences in model parameters and find that a higher initial performance level and a slower improvement at the MU task is associated with a slower frequency of oscillation. Additionally, we conduct a simulation study examining the analysis procedure's performance using different numbers of B-spline knots and values of time delay embedding dimensions. Results show that the number of knots in the B-spline imputation influence accuracy more than the number of embedding dimensions. PMID:25071657

  12. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Gyéresi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  13. Dynamical Systems Analysis Applied to Working Memory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidan eGasimova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we investigate weekly fluctuations in the working memory capacity (WMC assessed over a period of two years. We use dynamical system analysis, specifically a second order linear differential equation, to model weekly variability in WMC in a sample of 112 9th graders. In our longitudinal data we use a B-spline imputation method to deal with missing data. The results show a significant negative frequency parameter in the data, indicating a cyclical pattern in weekly memory updating performance across time. We use a multilevel modeling approach to capture individual differences in model parameters and find that a higher initial performance level and a slower improvement at the MU task is associated with a slower frequency of oscillation. Additionally, we conduct a simulation study examining the analysis procedure’s performance using different numbers of B-spline knots and values of time delay embedding dimensions. Results show that the number of knots in the B-spline imputation influence accuracy more than the number of embedding dimensions.

  14. An ecological model of the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea: Analysis of ecosystem structure and fishing impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Santojanni, Alberto; Palomera, Isabel; Tudela, Sergi; Arneri, Enrico

    2007-08-01

    A trophic mass-balance model was developed to characterise the food web structure and functioning of the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea and to quantify the ecosystem impacts of fishing during the 1990s. Forty functional groups were described, including target and non-target fish and invertebrate groups, and three detritus groups (natural detritus, discards and by-catch of cetaceans and marine turtles). Results highlighted that there was an important coupling between pelagic-benthic production of plankton, benthic invertebrates and detritus. Organisms located at low and medium trophic levels, (i.e. benthic invertebrates, zooplankton and anchovy), as well as dolphins, were identified as keystone groups of the ecosystem. Jellyfish were an important element in terms of consumption and production of trophic flows within the ecosystem. The analysis of trophic flows of zooplankton and detritus groups indirectly underlined the importance of the microbial food web in the Adriatic Sea. Fishing activities inflicted notable impacts on the ecosystem during the 1990s, with a high gross efficiency of the fishery, a high consumption of fishable production, high exploitation rates for various target and non target species, a low trophic level of the catch and medium values of primary production required to sustain the fishery. Moreover, the analysis of Odum's ecological indicators highlighted that the ecosystem was in a low-medium developmental stage. Bottom trawling ( Strascico), mid-water trawling ( Volante) and beam trawling ( Rapido) fleets had the highest impacts on both target and non target ecological groups. On the contrary, purse seining ( Lampara) showed medium to low impacts on the ecosystem; cetaceans, marine turtles and sea birds were not significantly involved in competition with fishing activity.

  15. Downside Risk analysis applied to the Hedge Funds universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Josep

    2007-09-01

    Hedge Funds are considered as one of the portfolio management sectors which shows a fastest growing for the past decade. An optimal Hedge Fund management requires an appropriate risk metrics. The classic CAPM theory and its Ratio Sharpe fail to capture some crucial aspects due to the strong non-Gaussian character of Hedge Funds statistics. A possible way out to this problem while keeping the CAPM simplicity is the so-called Downside Risk analysis. One important benefit lies in distinguishing between good and bad returns, that is: returns greater or lower than investor's goal. We revisit most popular Downside Risk indicators and provide new analytical results on them. We compute these measures by taking the Credit Suisse/Tremont Investable Hedge Fund Index Data and with the Gaussian case as a benchmark. In this way, an unusual transversal lecture of the existing Downside Risk measures is provided.

  16. Applying Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior to persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark; Baker, Jonathan C; Sadowski, Katherine Ann

    2011-03-01

    Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior has demonstrated a fair amount of utility to teach language to children with autism and other various disorders. However, the learning of language can be forgotten, as is the case for many elderly suffering from dementia or other degenerative diseases. It appears possible that Skinner's operants may facilitate not only acquisition of language but also the ability to recall items or objects that may have appeared to be "forgotten." The present study examined the utility of having a series of adults in long-term care emit tacts, echoics, or intraverbals upon presentation of various visual stimuli. Compared to a no-verbal response condition, it appears that the incorporation of Skinner's verbal operants can in fact improve recall for this population. Implications for the retraining of lost language are presented. PMID:21292058

  17. Sensitivity Analysis Applied in Design of Low Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Building performance can be expressed by different indicators as primary energy use, environmental load and/or the indoor environmental quality and a building performance simulation can provide the decision maker with a quantitative measure of the extent to which an integrated design solution...... satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible...... to identify the most important parameters in relation to building performance and to focus design and optimization of sustainable buildings on these fewer, but most important parameters. The sensitivity analyses will typically be performed at a reasonably early stage of the building design process, where...

  18. Applying importance-performance analysis to evaluate banking service quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Policani Freitas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive market, the identification of the most important aspects and the measurement of service quality as perceived by the customers are important actions taken by organizations which seek the competitive advantage. In particular, this scenario is typical of Brazilian banking sector. In this context, this article presents an exploratory case study in which the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA was used to identify the strong and the weak points related to services provided by a bank. In order to check the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha and correlation analyses were used. The results are presented and some actions have been defined in order to improve the quality of services.

  19. Applying Hybrid-Quantity Analysis in the Asia Semiconductor Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yuan Fan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor market has gradually transitioned from advanced countries to the Asian-Pacific region. Since the 1980s, Taiwan has been developing its own semiconductor industry, and after 20 years of effort, has become one of the world's major exporters of semiconductor products. Therefore, to position Taiwan in relation to other countries for competitive advantage, as defined by technology and industrial development, requires a better understanding of the developmental trends of the semiconductor technology of major competing countries in the Asian-Pacific region. This can further provide the Taiwanese government with additional strategic development proposals. We used a combination of patents, data-mining methods [multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis, and K-means clustering] to explore competing technological and strategic-group relationships within the semiconductor industry in the Asian-Pacific region. We assessed the relative technological advantages of various organizations and proposed additional technology development strategy recommendations to the Taiwanese semiconductor industry.

  20. An improved state-parameter analysis of ecosystem models using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Liu, S.; Tieszen, L.L.; Hollinger, D.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the effort spent in developing data assimilation methods for carbon dynamics analysis has focused on estimating optimal values for either model parameters or state variables. The main weakness of estimating parameter values alone (i.e., without considering state variables) is that all errors from input, output, and model structure are attributed to model parameter uncertainties. On the other hand, the accuracy of estimating state variables may be lowered if the temporal evolution of parameter values is not incorporated. This research develops a smoothed ensemble Kalman filter (SEnKF) by combining ensemble Kalman filter with kernel smoothing technique. SEnKF has following characteristics: (1) to estimate simultaneously the model states and parameters through concatenating unknown parameters and state variables into a joint state vector; (2) to mitigate dramatic, sudden changes of parameter values in parameter sampling and parameter evolution process, and control narrowing of parameter variance which results in filter divergence through adjusting smoothing factor in kernel smoothing algorithm; (3) to assimilate recursively data into the model and thus detect possible time variation of parameters; and (4) to address properly various sources of uncertainties stemming from input, output and parameter uncertainties. The SEnKF is tested by assimilating observed fluxes of carbon dioxide and environmental driving factor data from an AmeriFlux forest station located near Howland, Maine, USA, into a partition eddy flux model. Our analysis demonstrates that model parameters, such as light use efficiency, respiration coefficients, minimum and optimum temperatures for photosynthetic activity, and others, are highly constrained by eddy flux data at daily-to-seasonal time scales. The SEnKF stabilizes parameter values quickly regardless of the initial values of the parameters. Potential ecosystem light use efficiency demonstrates a strong seasonality. Results show that the

  1. Gap analysis of marine ecosystem data for the Department of Interior, National Park Service Inventory & Monitoring Program

    OpenAIRE

    Dorfman, Dan; Battista, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The Gap Analysis of Marine Ecosystem Data project is a review of available geospatial data which can assist in marine natural resource management for eight park units. The project includes the collection of geospatial information and its incorporation in a single consistent geodatabase format. The project also includes a mapping portal which can be seen at: http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/explorer/gapanalysis/gap_analysis.html In addition to the collection of geospatial information and mapping po...

  2. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Seppelt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  3. Fractographic principles applied to Y-TZP mechanical behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Carla Müller; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Bonfante, Estevam Augusto; Rubo, José Henrique; Wang, Linda; Borges, Ana Flávia Sanches

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of fractography principles to determine the fracture toughness of Y-TZP dental ceramic in which KIc was measured fractographically using controlled-flaw beam bending techniques and to correlate the flaw distribution with the mechanical properties. The Y-TZP blocks studied were: Zirconia Zirklein (ZZ); Zirconcad (ZCA); IPS e.max ZirCad (ZMAX); and In Ceram YZ (ZYZ). Samples were prepared (16mm×4mm×2mm) according to ISO 6872 specifications and subjected to three-point bending at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. Weibull probability curves (95% confidence bounds) were calculated and a contour plot with the Weibull modulus (m) versus characteristic strength (σ0) was used to examine the differences among groups. The fractured surface of each specimen was inspected in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for qualitative and quantitative fractographic analysis. The critical defect size (c) and fracture toughness (KIc) were estimated. The fractured surfaces of the samples from all groups showed similar fractographic characteristics, except ZCA showed pores and defects. Fracture toughness and the flexural strength values were not different among the groups except for ZCA. The characteristic strength (pzirconia polycrystalline ceramics. PMID:26722988

  4. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, M.; Macková, A.; Havranek, V.; Malinsky, P.; Torrisi, L.; Kormunda, M.; Barchuk, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the research activity on Ion Beam Analysis methods performed at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR, Rez, Czech Republic. Recently, many groups are paying attention to implantation by laser generated plasma. This process allows to insert a controllable amount of energetic ions into the surface layers of different materials modifying the physical and chemical properties of the surface material. Different substrates are implanted by accelerated ions from plasma through terawatt iodine laser, at nominal intensity of 1015 W/cm2, at the PALS Research Infrastructure AS CR, in the Czech Republic. This regime of the laser matter interaction generates, multi-MeV proton beams, and multi-charged ions that are tightly confined in time (hundreds ps) and space (source radius of a few microns). These ion beams have a much lower transverse temperature, a much shorter duration and a much higher current than those obtainable from conventional accelerators. The implementation of protons and ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high intensity lasers is exhibited by adopting suitable irradiation conditions as well as tailored targets. An overview of implanted targets and their morphological and structural characterizations is presented and discussed.

  5. Q uantitative methods applied in the analysis of teenagers problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the article is the study of teenagers problems based on quantitative methods, the scientific approach is divided into two parts: the part of knowledge and the practical approach. During the first part we describe the problems of adolescents based on national and international literature, and during the second part we use some quantitative methods (diagnosis, regression and investigation we aim to achieve an in-depth analysis of the addressed topic. Through the diagnosis we highlight changes in numerical terms of the number of adolescents, and also their problems: poverty and delinquency. Regression functions are used to show the nature, direction and intensity of the relationship between a number of causal variables and the outcome variable. The investigation aims to identify the extent to which cultural values of the country leave their mark on the perception of the importance of family and friends for teens. The main conclusions of the research points out the fact that the decrease in the number of Romanian teenagers their problems still persist.

  6. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the research activity on Ion Beam Analysis methods performed at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR, Rez, Czech Republic. Recently, many groups are paying attention to implantation by laser generated plasma. This process allows to insert a controllable amount of energetic ions into the surface layers of different materials modifying the physical and chemical properties of the surface material. Different substrates are implanted by accelerated ions from plasma through terawatt iodine laser, at nominal intensity of 1015 W/cm2, at the PALS Research Infrastructure AS CR, in the Czech Republic. This regime of the laser matter interaction generates, multi-MeV proton beams, and multi-charged ions that are tightly confined in time (hundreds ps) and space (source radius of a few microns). These ion beams have a much lower transverse temperature, a much shorter duration and a much higher current than those obtainable from conventional accelerators. The implementation of protons and ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high intensity lasers is exhibited by adopting suitable irradiation conditions as well as tailored targets. An overview of implanted targets and their morphological and structural characterizations is presented and discussed

  7. Biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools in terrestrial ecosystems: results from a novel analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barao, Lucia; Vandevenne, Floor; Clymans, Wim; Meire, Patrick; Frings, Patrick; Conley, Daniel; Struyf, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is a chemical element frequently associated with highly abundant silicate minerals in the Earth crust. Over millions of years, the interaction of such minerals with the atmosphere and hydrosphere produces a myriad of processed compounds, and the mineral weathering consumes CO2 during the process. The weathering of minerals also triggers the export of dissolved Si (DSi) to coastal waters and the ocean. Here, DSi is deposited in diatom frustules, in an amorphous biogenic form (BSi). Diatoms account for 50% of the primary production and are crucial for the export of carbon into the deep sea. In recent years, it was acknowledged that terrestrial systems filter the Si transition from the terrestrial mineral to the marine and coastal biological pool, by the incorporation of DSi into plants. In this process, DSi is taken up by roots together with other nutrients and precipitates in plant cells in amorphous structures named phytoliths. After dead, plant tissues become mixed in the top soil, where BSi is available for dissolution and will control the DSi availability in short time scales. Additionally, Si originated from soil forming processes can also significantly interfere with the global cycle. The Si cycle in terrestrial ecosystems is a key factor to coastal ecology, plant ecology, biogeochemistry and agro-sciences, but the high variability of different biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools remains as an obstacle to obtain accurate measurements. The traditional methods, developed to isolate diatoms in ocean sediments, only account for simple mineral corrections. In this dissertation we have adapted a novel continuous analysis method (during alkaline extraction) that uses Si-Al ratios and reactivity to differ biogenic from non-biogenic fractions. The method was originally used in marine sediments, but we have developed it to be applicable in a wide range of terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We first focused on soils under strong human impact in

  8. Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2009-09-01

    Flash floods are one of the natural hazards that cause major damages worldwide. Especially in Mediterranean areas they provoke high economic losses every year. In mountain areas with high stream gradients, floods events are characterized by extremely high flow and debris transport rates. Flash flood analysis in mountain areas presents specific scientific challenges. On one hand, there is a lack of information on precipitation and discharge due to a lack of spatially well distributed gauge stations with long records. On the other hand, gauge stations may not record correctly during extreme events when they are damaged or the discharge exceeds the recordable level. In this case, no systematic data allows improvement of the understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of the process. Since historic documentation is normally scarce or even completely missing in mountain areas, tree-ring analysis can provide an alternative approach. Flash floods may influence trees in different ways: (1) tilting of the stem through the unilateral pressure of the flowing mass or individual boulders; (2) root exposure through erosion of the banks; (3) injuries and scars caused by boulders and wood transported in the flow; (4) decapitation of the stem and resulting candelabra growth through the severe impact of boulders; (5) stem burial through deposition of material. The trees react to these disturbances with specific growth changes such as abrupt change of the yearly increment and anatomical changes like reaction wood or callus tissue. In this study, we sampled 90 cross sections and 265 increment cores of trees heavily affected by past flash floods in order to date past events and to reconstruct recurrence intervals in two torrent channels located in the Spanish Central System. The first study site is located along the Pelayo River, a torrent in natural conditions. Based on the external disturbances of trees and their geomorphological position, 114 Pinus pinaster (Ait

  9. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  10. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 1. Concepts for understanding and applying restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2015-10-26

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a landscape-dependent bird that requires intact habitat and combinations of sagebrush and perennial grasses to exist. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals also have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrushobligate animals. This restoration handbook is the first in a three-part series on restoration of sagebrush ecosystems. In Part 1, we discuss concepts surrounding landscape and restoration ecology of sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse that habitat managers and restoration practitioners need to know to make informed decisions regarding where and how to restore specific areas. We will describe the plant dynamics of sagebrush steppe ecosystems and their responses to major disturbances, fire, and defoliation. We will introduce the concepts of ecosystem resilience to disturbances and resistance to invasions of annual grasses within sagebrush steppe. An introduction to soils and ecological site information will provide insights into the specific plants that can be restored in a location. Soil temperature and moisture regimes are described as a tool for determining resilience and resistance and the potential for various restoration actions. Greater sage-grouse are considered landscape birds that require large areas of intact sagebrush steppe; therefore, we describe concepts of landscape ecology that aid our decisions regarding habitat restoration. We provide a brief overview of

  11. Partition of some key regulating services in terrestrial ecosystems: Meta-analysis and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglizzo, E F; Jobbágy, E G; Ricard, M F; Paruelo, J M

    2016-08-15

    Our knowledge about the functional foundations of ecosystem service (ES) provision is still limited and more research is needed to elucidate key functional mechanisms. Using a simplified eco-hydrological scheme, in this work we analyzed how land-use decisions modify the partition of some essential regulatory ES by altering basic relationships between biomass stocks and water flows. A comprehensive meta-analysis and review was conducted based on global, regional and local data from peer-reviewed publications. We analyzed five datasets comprising 1348 studies and 3948 records on precipitation (PPT), aboveground biomass (AGB), AGB change, evapotranspiration (ET), water yield (WY), WY change, runoff (R) and infiltration (I). The conceptual framework was focused on ES that are associated with the ecological functions (e.g., intermediate ES) of ET, WY, R and I. ES included soil protection, carbon sequestration, local climate regulation, water-flow regulation and water recharge. To address the problem of data normality, the analysis included both parametric and non-parametric regression analysis. Results demonstrate that PPT is a first-order biophysical factor that controls ES release at the broader scales. At decreasing scales, ES are partitioned as result of PPT interactions with other biophysical and anthropogenic factors. At intermediate scales, land-use change interacts with PPT modifying ES partition as it the case of afforestation in dry regions, where ET and climate regulation may be enhanced at the expense of R and water-flow regulation. At smaller scales, site-specific conditions such as topography interact with PPT and AGB displaying different ES partition formats. The probable implications of future land-use and climate change on some key ES production and partition are discussed. PMID:27096628

  12. Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M. Daw

    2016-06-01

    losers. We discuss conceptual and practical challenges of applying such a framework and conclude on its utility as a heuristic for structuring interdisciplinary analysis of ecosystem services and human well-being.

  13. The flux of organic matter through a peatland ecosystem - evidence from thermogravimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Moody, Catherine; Clay, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    Carbon budgets of peatlands are now common and studies have considered nitrogen, oxygen and energy budgets, but no study has considered the whole composition of the organic matter as it transfers through and into a peatland. Organic matter samples were taken from each organic matter reservoir found in and each fluvial flux from a peatland and analysed the samples by thermogravimetric analysis. The samples analysed were: aboveground, belowground, heather, mosses and sedges, litter layer, a peat core, and monthly samples of particulate and dissolved organic matter. All organic matter samples were taken from a 100% peat catchment within Moor House National Nature Reserve in the North Pennines, UK, and collected samples were compared to standards of lignin, cellulose, humic acid and plant protein. Results showed that the thermogravimetric trace of the sampled organic matter were distinctive with the DOM traces being marked out by very low thermal stability relative other organic matter types. The peat profile shows a significant trend with depth from vegetation- to lignin-like composition. When all traces are weighted according to the observed dry matter and carbon budgets for the catchment then it is possible to judge what has been lost in the transition through and into the ecosystem. By plotting this "lost" trace it possible to assess its composition which is either 97% cellulose and 3% humic acid or 92% and 8% lignin. This has important implications for what controls the organic matter balance of peatlands and it suggests that the oxidation state (OR) of peatland is less than 1.

  14. Bi-directional exchange of ammonia in a pine forest ecosystem - a model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, Alexander; Hrdina, Amy; Murphy, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key component in the global nitrogen cycle and of great importance for atmospheric chemistry, neutralizing atmospheric acids and leading to the formation of aerosol particles. For understanding the role of NH3 in both natural and anthropogenically influenced environments, the knowledge of processes regulating its exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere is essential. A two-layer canopy compensation point model is used to evaluate the NH3 exchange in a pine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The net flux comprises the NH3 exchange of leaf stomata, its deposition to leaf cuticles and exchange with the forest ground. As key parameters the model uses in-canopy NH3 mixing ratios as well as leaf and soil emission potentials measured at the site in summer 2015. A sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate the major exchange pathways as well as the model's constraints. In addition, the NH3 exchange is examined for an extended range of environmental conditions, such as droughts or varying concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, in order to investigate their influence on the overall net exchange.

  15. The interannual variability of Africa's ecosystem productivity: a multi-model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Weber

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We are comparing spatially explicit process-model based estimates of the terrestrial carbon balance and its components over Africa and confront them with remote sensing based proxies of vegetation productivity and atmospheric inversions of land-atmosphere net carbon exchange. Particular emphasis is on characterizing the patterns of interannual variability of carbon fluxes and analyzing the factors and processes responsible for it. For this purpose simulations with the terrestrial biosphere models ORCHIDEE, LPJ-DGVM, LPJ-Guess and JULES have been performed using a standardized modeling protocol and a uniform set of corrected climate forcing data.

    While the models differ concerning the absolute magnitude of carbon fluxes, we find several robust patterns of interannual variability among the models. Models exhibit largest interannual variability in southern and eastern Africa, regions which are primarily covered by herbaceous vegetation. Interannual variability of the net carbon balance appears to be more strongly influenced by gross primary production than by ecosystem respiration. A principal component analysis indicates that moisture is the main driving factor of interannual gross primary production variability for those regions. On the contrary in a large part of the inner tropics radiation appears to be limiting in two models. These patterns are partly corroborated by remotely sensed vegetation properties from the SeaWiFS satellite sensor. Inverse atmospheric modeling estimates of surface carbon fluxes are less conclusive at this point, implying the need for a denser network of observation stations over Africa.

  16. A participatory approach to ecosystem conservation: fuzzy cognitive maps and stakeholder group analysis in Uluabat Lake, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozesmi, Uygar; Ozesmi, Stacy

    2003-04-01

    Fuzzy cognitive mapping was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management plan for Uluabat Lake, Turkey. Interviews were conducted with stakeholders belonging to six different groups. Lake pollution was the most central and most mentioned variable for stakeholders. Stakeholder groups agree that lake pollution is negatively affecting ecosystem health and thereby local economies. Thus, reducing lake pollution was chosen as the overall goal for the management plan. Possible ways to reduce lake pollution and increase ecosystem health were seen differently by the different groups. Hunters, factory managers, NGO personnel, and local people thought industry was the main cause of lake pollution, while officials from the government and local municipalities thought roads and urban development contributed the most to lake pollution. Generally the stakeholder groups did not perceive their own actions as affecting the lake as strongly as other groups thought. For example, factory managers viewed factory pollution as negatively affecting the lake but less strongly than the other groups did. According to policy option simulations, reducing lake pollution had positive effects on all variables, especially fish, birds, animal husbandry, irrigation, agriculture, and the ecological balance of the lake. Results of this analysis were used to facilitate meetings among stakeholder groups and to develop a participatory ecosystem management plan. The analysis was useful for pointing out the similarities as well as the differences among the groups. It also helped the facilitators understand the focus of each stakeholder group and enabled them to suggest activities in which each group would want to participate. PMID:12677297

  17. Neighbourhood-scale urban forest ecosystem classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Duinker, Peter N; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Urban forests are now recognized as essential components of sustainable cities, but there remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. Ecosystem classification is an approach that entails quantifying the social and ecological processes that shape ecosystem conditions into logical and relatively homogeneous management units, making the potential for ecosystem-based decision support available to urban planners. The purpose of this study is to develop and propose a framework for urban forest ecosystem classification (UFEC). The multifactor framework integrates 12 ecosystem components that characterize the biophysical landscape, built environment, and human population. This framework is then applied at the neighbourhood scale in Toronto, Canada, using hierarchical cluster analysis. The analysis used 27 spatially-explicit variables to quantify the ecosystem components in Toronto. Twelve ecosystem classes were identified in this UFEC application. Across the ecosystem classes, tree canopy cover was positively related to economic wealth, especially income. However, education levels and homeownership were occasionally inconsistent with the expected positive relationship with canopy cover. Open green space and stocking had variable relationships with economic wealth and were more closely related to population density, building intensity, and land use. The UFEC can provide ecosystem-based information for greening initiatives, tree planting, and the maintenance of the existing canopy. Moreover, its use has the potential to inform the prioritization of limited municipal resources according to ecological conditions and to concerns of social equity in the access to nature and distribution of ecosystem service supply. PMID:26311086

  18. Beyond Time out and Table Time: Today's Applied Behavior Analysis for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Hume, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Recent mandates related to the implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require that autism professionals both understand and are able to implement practices based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The use of the term "applied behavior analysis" and its related concepts…

  19. Policy Analysis: Valuation of Ecosystem Services in the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, H Spencer; Burtraw, Dallas; Criscimagna, Susie Chung; Cosby, Bernard J; Evans, David A; Krupnick, Alan J; Siikamäki, Juha V

    2016-03-15

    This study estimates the economic value of an increase in ecosystem services attributable to the reduced acidification expected from more stringent air pollution policy. By integrating a detailed biogeochemical model that projects future ecological recovery with economic methods that measure preferences for specific ecological improvements, we estimate the economic value of ecological benefits from new air pollution policies in the Southern Appalachian ecosystem. Our results indicate that these policies generate aggregate benefits of about $3.7 billion, or about $16 per year per household in the region. The study provides currently missing information about the ecological benefits from air pollution policies that is needed to evaluate such policies comprehensively. More broadly, the study also illustrates how integrated biogeochemical and economic assessments of multidimensional ecosystems can evaluate the relative benefits of different policy options that vary by scale and across ecosystem attributes. PMID:26871484

  20. Field Monitoring and Analysis of Climate Change Across a Wide Range of Ecosystems in Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this ongoing project is to ensure continued operation and maintenance of the HaleNet climate and ecosystem monitoring network, including field...

  1. Energy analysis for a sustainable future multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    Giampietro, Mario; Sorman, Alevgül H

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of the countries of the world are now facing an imminent energy crisis, particularly the USA, China, India, Japan and EU countries, but also developing countries having to boost their economic growth precisely when more powerful economies will prevent them from using the limited supply of fossil energy. Despite this crisis, current protocols of energy accounting have been developed for dealing with fossil energy exclusively and are therefore not useful for the analysis of alternative energy sources. The first part of the book illustrates the weakness of existing analyses of energy problems: the science of energy was born and developed neglecting the issue of scale. The authors argue that it is necessary to adopt more complex protocols of accounting and analysis in order to generate robust energy scenarios and effective assessments of the quality of alternative energy sources. The second part of the book introduces the concept of energetic metabolism of modern societies and uses empirical res...

  2. Capturing multiple values of ecosystem services shaped by environmental worldviews: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Carena J; Kyle, Gerard T

    2014-12-01

    Two related approaches to valuing nature have been advanced in past research including the study of ecosystem services and psychological investigations of the factors that shape behavior. Stronger integration of the insights that emerge from these two lines of enquiry can more effectively sustain ecosystems, economies, and human well-being. Drawing on survey data collected from outdoor recreationists on Santa Cruz Island within Channel Islands National Park, U.S., our study blends these two research approaches to examine a range of tangible and intangible values of ecosystem services provided to stakeholders with differing biocentric and anthropocentric worldviews. We used Public Participation Geographic Information System methods to collect survey data and a Social Values for Ecosystem Services mapping application to spatially analyze a range of values assigned to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the park. Our results showed that preferences for the provision of biological diversity, recreation, and scientific-based values of ecosystem services varied across a spatial gradient. We also observed differences that emerged from a comparison between survey subgroups defined by their worldviews. The implications emanating from this investigation aim to support environmental management decision-making in the context of protected areas.

  3. Introduction to applied statistical signal analysis guide to biomedical and electrical engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shiavi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Statistical Signal Analysis is designed for the experienced individual with a basic background in mathematics, science, and computer. With this predisposed knowledge, the reader will coast through the practical introduction and move on to signal analysis techniques, commonly used in a broad range of engineering areas such as biomedical engineering, communications, geophysics, and speech.Introduction to Applied Statistical Signal Analysis intertwines theory and implementation with practical examples and exercises. Topics presented in detail include: mathematical

  4. Ecosystem-management-based Management Models of Fast-growing and High-yield Plantation and Its Eco-economic Benefits Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper expounded the basic concept and principles of ecosystem management,and analyzed the state and trend of industrial plantation ecosystem management in other countries.Based on the analysis of typical case studies,the eco-economic benefits were evaluated for the management models of fast-growing and high-yield plantations.

  5. Inclusive Elementary Classroom Teacher Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Use of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine inclusive elementary teacher knowledge and attitude toward Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and applied behavior analysis (ABA) and their use of ABA. Furthermore, this study examined if knowledge and attitude predicted use of ABA. A survey was developed and administered through a web-based program. Of the…

  6. Partial valuation of the goods and services that it provides the mangrove ecosystem: An integrated ecological-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents a methodology to value the economic benefits of the use of some goods and services that provides the mangrove ecosystem, located in the municipality of Tumaco. An ecological analysis is developed integrated to an economic evaluation that allows expressing in monetary terms some values of use of the mangrove; this value are compared with the profitability that reports the Camaroniculture, productive activity that is constituted at the moment, in the most profitable alternative use

  7. Ecosystem Service Value Assessment and Contribution Factor Analysis of Land Use Change in Miyun County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unreasonable land use planning can reduce ecosystem service value and result in unsustainable land use. In this paper, the changes of ecosystem service value were investigated by using the GIS and dynamic simulation model of land use in Miyun of Beijing, China, based on the land use at four time points including 1991, 2006, 2021 and one improved scenario, respectively. The results showed the total ecosystem service value of Miyun was about 2968.34 million Yuan in 1991, 3304.72 million Yuan in 2006, 3106.48 million Yuan in 2021, and 3759.77 million Yuan in the improved scenario. In terms of ecosystem service function, the functions of water supply and soil formation and retention accounted for the largest proportion, which were 19.99% and 14.58% respectively; whereas the functions of food supply and recreation and culture were only 1.83% and 5.99%, respectively. Coefficients of sensitivity for forest cover, water bodies and arable land were relatively large, which were 0.73, 0.28 and 0.14, respectively. The contribution factors of total ecosystem service value with the land use change during different periods were mainly the unused land to forest cover and arable land, which respectively accounted for more than 63% and 21% of the contribution rate. These results suggested that sustainable land use planning should be undertaken with emphasis on vegetation restoration and protection of water bodies.

  8. Restoration enhances wetland biodiversity and ecosystem service supply, but results are context-dependent: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Paula; Rey Benayas, José María; Balvanera, Patricia; Martínez Ramos, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable ecosystems because they harbor a huge biodiversity and provide key services to societies. When natural or human factors degrade wetlands, ecological restoration is often carried out to recover biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES). Although such restorations are routinely performed, we lack systematic, evidence-based assessments of their effectiveness on the recovery of biodiversity and ES. Here we performed a meta-analysis of 70 experimental studies in order to assess the effectiveness of ecological restoration and identify what factors affect it. We compared selected ecosystem performance variables between degraded and restored wetlands and between restored and natural wetlands using response ratios and random-effects categorical modeling. We assessed how context factors such as ecosystem type, main agent of degradation, restoration action, experimental design, and restoration age influenced post-restoration biodiversity and ES. Biodiversity showed excellent recovery, though the precise recovery depended strongly on the type of organisms involved. Restored wetlands showed 36% higher levels of provisioning, regulating and supporting ES than did degraded wetlands. In fact, wetlands showed levels of provisioning and cultural ES similar to those of natural wetlands; however, their levels of supporting and regulating ES were, respectively, 16% and 22% lower than in natural wetlands. Recovery of biodiversity and of ES were positively correlated, indicating a win-win restoration outcome. The extent to which restoration increased biodiversity and ES in degraded wetlands depended primarily on the main agent of degradation, restoration actions, experimental design, and ecosystem type. In contrast, the choice of specific restoration actions alone explained most differences between restored and natural wetlands. These results highlight the importance of comprehensive, multi-factorial assessment to determine the ecological status of degraded, restored

  9. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  10. Spherical harmonic decomposition applied to spatial-temporal analysis of human high-density EEG

    CERN Document Server

    Wingeier, B M; Silberstein, R B; Wingeier, Brett M.; Nunez, Paul L.; Silberstein, Richard B.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate an application of spherical harmonic decomposition to analysis of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). We implement two methods and discuss issues specific to analysis of hemispherical, irregularly sampled data. Performance of the methods and spatial sampling requirements are quantified using simulated data. The analysis is applied to experimental EEG data, confirming earlier reports of an approximate frequency-wavenumber relationship in some bands.

  11. A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Nykvist, Björn; Malinga, Rebecka; Jaramillo, Fernando; Lindborg, Regina

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  12. Comparative analysis of marine ecosystems: workshop on predator-prey interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Kevin M.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Hunsicker, Mary;

    2010-01-01

    Climate and human influences on marine ecosystems are largely manifested by changes in predator–prey interactions. It follows that ecosystem-based management of the world's oceans requires a better understanding of food web relationships. An international workshop on predator–prey interactions....... The goals of the workshop were to critically examine the methods of scaling-up predator–prey interactions from local observations to systems, the role of shifting ecological processes with scale changes, and the complexity and organizational structure in trophic interactions....

  13. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  14. Investigating fine-scale spatio-temporal predator-prey patterns in dynamic marine ecosystems: a functional data analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embling, C.B.; Illian, J.; Armstrong, E.; van der Kooij, J.; Sharples, J.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Scott, B.E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Spatial management of marine ecosystems requires detailed knowledge of spatio-temporal mechanisms linking physical and biological processes. Tidal currents, the main driver of ecosystem dynamics in temperate coastal ecosystems, influence predator foraging ecology by affecting prey distribution an

  15. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.

  16. Model Proposition for the Fiscal Policies Analysis Applied in Economic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Preda

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about fiscal policy applied in economic development. Correlations between macroeconomics and fiscal indicators signify the first steep in our analysis. Next step is a new model proposal for the fiscal and budgetary choices. This model is applied on the date of the Romanian case.

  17. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    CERN Document Server

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  18. Applying static code analysis to firewall policies for the purpose of anomaly detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zaliva, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    Treating modern firewall policy languages as imperative, special purpose programming languages, in this article we will try to apply static code analysis techniques for the purpose of anomaly detection. We will first abstract a policy in common firewall policy language into an intermediate language, and then we will try to apply anomaly detection algorithms to it. The contributions made by this work are: 1. An analysis of various control flow instructions in popular firewall policy languages ...

  19. Risk analysis for confined space entries: Critical analysis of four tools applied to three risk scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet-Vienney, Damien; Chinniah, Yuvin; Bahloul, Ali; Roberge, Brigitte

    2016-06-01

    Investigation reports of fatal confined space accidents nearly always point to a problem of identifying or underestimating risks. This paper compares 4 different risk analysis tools developed for confined spaces by applying them to 3 hazardous scenarios. The tools were namely 1. a checklist without risk estimation (Tool A), 2. a checklist with a risk scale (Tool B), 3. a risk calculation without a formal hazard identification stage (Tool C), and 4. a questionnaire followed by a risk matrix (Tool D). Each tool's structure and practical application were studied. Tools A and B gave crude results comparable to those of more analytic tools in less time. Their main limitations were lack of contextual information for the identified hazards and greater dependency on the user's expertise and ability to tackle hazards of different nature. Tools C and D utilized more systematic approaches than tools A and B by supporting risk reduction based on the description of the risk factors. Tool D is distinctive because of 1. its comprehensive structure with respect to the steps suggested in risk management, 2. its dynamic approach to hazard identification, and 3. its use of data resulting from the risk analysis. PMID:26864350

  20. Performance analysis of high quality parallel preconditioners applied to 3D finite element structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotilina, L.; Nikishin, A.; Yeremin, A. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The solution of large systems of linear equations is a crucial bottleneck when performing 3D finite element analysis of structures. Also, in many cases the reliability and robustness of iterative solution strategies, and their efficiency when exploiting hardware resources, fully determine the scope of industrial applications which can be solved on a particular computer platform. This is especially true for modern vector/parallel supercomputers with large vector length and for modern massively parallel supercomputers. Preconditioned iterative methods have been successfully applied to industrial class finite element analysis of structures. The construction and application of high quality preconditioners constitutes a high percentage of the total solution time. Parallel implementation of high quality preconditioners on such architectures is a formidable challenge. Two common types of existing preconditioners are the implicit preconditioners and the explicit preconditioners. The implicit preconditioners (e.g. incomplete factorizations of several types) are generally high quality but require solution of lower and upper triangular systems of equations per iteration which are difficult to parallelize without deteriorating the convergence rate. The explicit type of preconditionings (e.g. polynomial preconditioners or Jacobi-like preconditioners) require sparse matrix-vector multiplications and can be parallelized but their preconditioning qualities are less than desirable. The authors present results of numerical experiments with Factorized Sparse Approximate Inverses (FSAI) for symmetric positive definite linear systems. These are high quality preconditioners that possess a large resource of parallelism by construction without increasing the serial complexity.

  1. Analysis of ecosystem services provision in the Colombian Amazon using participatory research and mapping techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez-Gomez, Sara O I; Torres-Vitolas, Carlos A.; Schreckenberg, Kate; Honzák, Miroslav; Cruz-Garcia, Gisella S.; Willcock, Simon; Palacios, Erwin; Pérez-Miñana, Elena; Verweij, Pita A.; Poppy, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades indigenous peoples in the lower Caquetá River basin in Colombia have experienced detrimental changes in the provision of important ecosystem services in ways that have significant implications for the maintenance of their traditional livelihoods. To assess these changes we

  2. The economics of ecosystem services: from local analysis to national policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.; Brondizio, E.S.; Gatzweiler, F.; Gowdy, J.; Groot, de R.S.; Pascual, U.; Reyers, B.; Sukhdev, P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper builds around the key messages from the recently completed study — The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB). The paper essentially attempts to map the problem encountered in up scaling the findings from site/local scale to national scale. First, the rationale for economic analys

  3. Wildlife dynamics : an analysis of change in the Masai Mara ecosystem of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottichilo, W.K.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the dynamics of large herbivores in the Masai Mara ecosystem in Kenya. The study area is famous for the annual migration of wildebeest and common zebra from and back to the Serengeti in Tanzania. In this study we made a distinction between these two migratory species and the o

  4. What can stable isotope analysis of top predator tissues contribute to monitoring of tundra ecosystems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrich, D.; Ims, R.A.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Lecomte, N.; Killengreen, S.T.; Fuglei, E.; Rodnikova, A.Y.; Ebbinge, B.S.; Menyushina, I.E.; Nolet, Bart; Prokovsky, I.G.; Popov, I.Y.; Schmidt, N.M.; Sokolov, A.; Sokolova, N.A.; Sokolov, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how climate change and increasing human impacts may exert pressure on ecosystems and threaten biodiversity requires efficient monitoring programs. Indicator species have been proposed as useful tools, and predators and their diet may be particularly suitable. The vast and remote arctic

  5. Seeking Energy System Pathways to Reduce Ozone Damage to Ecosystems through Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, S. L.; Pinder, R. W.; Loughlin, D. H.; Bash, J. O.; Turner, M. D.; Henze, D. K.; Percell, P.; Zhao, S.; Russell, M. G.; Hakami, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) affects the productivity of ecosystems in addition to degrading human health. Concentrations of this pollutant are significantly influenced by precursor gas emissions, many of which emanate from energy production and use processes. Energy system optimization models could inform policy decisions that are intended to reduce these harmful effects if the contribution of precursor gas emissions to human health and ecosystem degradation could be elucidated. Nevertheless, determining the degree to which precursor gas emissions harm ecosystems and human health is challenging because of the photochemical production of ozone and the distinct mechanisms by which ozone causes harm to different crops, tree species, and humans. Here, the adjoint of a regional chemical transport model is employed to efficiently calculate the relative influences of ozone precursor gas emissions on ecosystem and human health degradation, which informs an energy system optimization. Specifically, for the summer of 2007 the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model adjoint is used to calculate the location- and sector-specific influences of precursor gas emissions on potential productivity losses for the major crops and sensitive tree species as well as human mortality attributable to chronic ozone exposure in the continental U.S. The atmospheric concentrations are evaluated with 12-km horizontal resolution with crop production and timber biomass data gridded similarly. These location-specific factors inform the energy production and use technologies selected in the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model.

  6. ECOSMO, a coupled ecosystem model of the North Sea and Baltic Sea: Part II. Spatial-seasonal characteristics in the North Sea as revealed by EOF analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrum, Corinna; St. John, Michael; Alekseeva, I.

    2006-01-01

    on empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF) are introduced to biological oceanography and ecosystem research as valuable tool to investigate spatial temporal variability. These methods are used to describe the spatial temporal characteristics of the seasonal signal of phytoplankton and...

  7. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  8. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  9. A review of the technology and process on integrated circuits failure analysis applied in communications products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Zhimao; Ling, Xiaodong; Bai, Xiaoshu; Zong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The failure analysis of integrated circuits plays a very important role in the improvement of the reliability in communications products. This paper intends to mainly introduce the failure analysis technology and process of integrated circuits applied in the communication products. There are many technologies for failure analysis, include optical microscopic analysis, infrared microscopic analysis, acoustic microscopy analysis, liquid crystal hot spot detection technology, optical microscopic analysis technology, micro analysis technology, electrical measurement, microprobe technology, chemical etching technology and ion etching technology. The integrated circuit failure analysis depends on the accurate confirmation and analysis of chip failure mode, the search of the root failure cause, the summary of failure mechanism and the implement of the improvement measures. Through the failure analysis, the reliability of integrated circuit and rate of good products can improve.

  10. Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2013-04-01

    Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is

  11. Sociosexuality Education for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; Condo, Bethany; Hardaway, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has emerged as one of the most effective empirically based strategies for instructing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four ABA-based strategies that have been found effective are video modeling, visual strategies, social script fading, and task analysis. Individuals with ASD often struggle with…

  12. An Objective Comparison of Applied Behavior Analysis and Organizational Behavior Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; McGee, Heather M.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an objective review, analysis, and comparison of empirical studies targeting the behavior of adults published in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) between 1997 and 2001. The purpose of the comparisons was to identify similarities and differences with respect to…

  13. Causal Modeling--Path Analysis a New Trend in Research in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Mina

    2006-01-01

    This article aims at discussing a new statistical trend in research in applied linguistics. This rather new statistical procedure is causal modeling--path analysis. The article demonstrates that causal modeling--path analysis is the best statistical option to use when the effects of a multitude of L2 learners' variables on language achievement are…

  14. Critical Analysis of a Website: A Critique based on Critical Applied Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Agustina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available E-learning was easily found through browsing internet, which was mostly free of charge and provided various learning materials. Spellingcity.com was one of e-learning websites for teaching and learning English to learn spelling, vocabulary and writing, which offered various games and activities for young learners, 6 until 8 year old learners in particular. Having considered those constraints, this paper aimed to analyse the website from two different views: (1 critical applied linguistics  (CAL aspects and (2 critical  discourse analysis (CDA. After analysing the website using CAL and CDA, it was found that the website was adequate for beginner, in which it provided fun learning through games as well as challenged learners’ to test their vocabulary. Despite of these strengths, there were several issues required further thinking in terms of learners’ broad knowledge, such as, some of learning materials focused on states in America. It was quite difficult for EFL learners if they did not have adequate general knowledge. Thus, the findings implied that the website could be used as a supporting learning material, which accompanied textbooks and vocabulary exercise books.

  15. Audible Ecosystems and emergent sound structures in Di Scipio's music. Music philosophy enhances musical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meric, Renaud; Solomos, Makis

    2008-01-01

    International audience While composing with an ecosystemic approach, Di Scipio creates an audio system that interacts with the environment, i.e. space. This space, in which and from which music emerges, is also the listener's space. The notion of emergence is complex: what emerges is the result of a confrontation between the listener's cognitive system and the audio system used in the musical work. This emergent result can be termed musical "structure" or sound "structure", but it is diffi...

  16. Application of Remote Sensing and Ecology Analysis Method for Geographic Information System of Coastal Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Bangun Muljo Sukojo

    2003-01-01

    With the development that have been done on all Indonesian coastal area, the damaged can be suffered from day to day. The decrease of environmental or ecosystem quality occurred and effected the economic, social and cultural life directly or indirectly. Based on that condition, data or information is needed to look accurately the decrement level and the way to handle it. One method that can be used is a computer based technology which commonly called Geographic Information System (GIS). The t...

  17. ET743: Chemical analysis of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Thomas; Rhodes, Emily; Loftis, Richard; Phillips, Dennis; Demaria, Don; Newman, David; Rudloe, Jack

    2006-05-10

    The sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata produces the powerful drug ET743. In this study Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are systematically used to measure elemental and molecular species in a Florida Keys mangrove ecosystem that contains the sea squirt. ICP-AES is used to measure the concentration of 27 elements down to the parts per billion level in 16 organisms and 3 sediment samples that reside in the mangrove ecosystem including turtle grass, blue crabs, fire sponge, and lettuce slugs. MALDI-MS is used to search for ET743 in these same organisms and sediment samples. A mass spectral feature corresponding to ET743 is identified in the extract of the sea squirt, red mangrove root (Rhizophera mangle), the schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and a sediment sample taken from the ecosystem. We use MALDI-MS to study the impact that various environmental conditions, such as UV light, I(2), cation binding (Fe(+3), Zn(+2), Pb(+2), Cu(+2)), metal oxide nanoparticles (FeO, CuO, TiO(2), ZnO, Al(2)O(3)), a common mineral (CaCO(3)), and extremes in acidity (0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH) have on the ET743 structure. The data provide potential structures (degradation products, metal-ligand complexes, etc.) that might be present in organism or sedimentary extracts that are similar to ET743. We are studying the marine geochemistry of this ecosystem so a broth can be developed and tested for producing this marine natural product. PMID:16644544

  18. Net effects of multiple stressors in freshwater ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michelle C; Loewen, Charlie J G; Vinebrooke, Rolf D; Chimimba, Christian T

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating rate of global change has focused attention on the cumulative impacts of novel and extreme environmental changes (i.e. stressors), especially in marine ecosystems. As integrators of local catchment and regional processes, freshwater ecosystems are also ranked highly sensitive to the net effects of multiple stressors, yet there has not been a large-scale quantitative synthesis. We analysed data from 88 papers including 286 responses of freshwater ecosystems to paired stressors and discovered that overall, their cumulative mean effect size was less than the sum of their single effects (i.e. an antagonistic interaction). Net effects of dual stressors on diversity and functional performance response metrics were additive and antagonistic, respectively. Across individual studies, a simple vote-counting method revealed that the net effects of stressor pairs were frequently more antagonistic (41%) than synergistic (28%), additive (16%) or reversed (15%). Here, we define a reversal as occurring when the net impact of two stressors is in the opposite direction (negative or positive) from that of the sum of their single effects. While warming paired with nutrification resulted in additive net effects, the overall mean net effect of warming combined with a second stressor was antagonistic. Most importantly, the mean net effects across all stressor pairs and response metrics were consistently antagonistic or additive, contrasting the greater prevalence of reported synergies in marine systems. Here, a possible explanation for more antagonistic responses by freshwater biota to stressors is that the inherent greater environmental variability of smaller aquatic ecosystems fosters greater potential for acclimation and co-adaptation to multiple stressors.

  19. The application of methods of ecosystem analysis to the evaluation of water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Kozhova, O.M.

    1980-01-01

    Guided by experience and the theoretical development of hydrobiology, it can be considered that the main aim of water quality control should be the establishment of the rates of the self-purification process of water bodies which are capable of maintaining communities in a state of dynamic balance without changing the integrity of the ecosystem. Hence, general approaches in the elaboration of methods for hydrobiological control are based on the following principles: a. the balance of matter a...

  20. Digital Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    We view Digital Ecosystems to be the digital counterparts of biological ecosystems, which are considered to be robust, self-organising and scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. So, this work is concerned with the creation, investigation, and optimisation of Digital Ecosystems, exploiting the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. First, we created the Digital Ecosystem, a novel optimisation technique inspired by biological ecosystems, where the optimisation works at two levels: a first optimisation, migration of agents which are distributed in a decentralised peer-to-peer network, operating continuously in time; this process feeds a second optimisation based on evolutionary computing that operates locally on single peers and is aimed at finding solutions to satisfy locally relevant constraints. We then investigated its self-organising aspects, starting with an extension to the definition of Physical Complexity to include evolving agent populations. Next, ...

  1. Faunistic analysis of Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in degraded ecosystems of Chapecó town, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia; Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to investigate the ant fauna in degraded environments and to comprehend how this group behaves in such ecosystems, faunistic analysis was initially conducted with the ants collected in an area in Chapecó town that had been subjected to flooding in function of the construction of the mouth of a dam on the Chapecó River (a branch of the larger Uruguay River). The collections were carried out between October 2001 and September 2002. We used pit-fall traps, sweeping nets, entomologic umbr...

  2. Trends in applied econometrics software development 1985-2008, an analysis of Journal of Applied Econometrics research articles, software reviews, data and code

    OpenAIRE

    Ooms, M.

    2008-01-01

    Trends in software development for applied econometrics emerge from an analysis of the research articles and software reviews of the Journal of Applied Econometrics, appearing since 1986. The data and code archive of the journal provides more specific information on software use for applied econometrics since 1995. GAUSS, Stata, MATLAB and Ox have been the most important softwares after 2001. I compare these higher level programming languages and R in somewhat more detail. An increasing numbe...

  3. A spatial analysis of cultural ecosystem service valuation by regional stakeholders in Florida: a coastal application of the social values for ecosystem services (SolVES) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Alisa W.; Swett, Robert A.; Cole, Zachary D.

    2012-01-01

    Livelihoods and lifestyles of people throughout the world depend on essential goods and services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. However, as societal demand increases and available ocean and coastal space diminish, better methods are needed to spatially and temporally allocate ocean and coastal activities such as shipping, energy production, tourism, and fishing. While economic valuation is an important mechanism for doing so, cultural ecosystem services often do not lend themselves to this method. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey are working collaboratively with the Florida Sea Grant College Program to map nonmonetary values of cultural ecosystem services for a pilot area (Sarasota Bay) in the Gulf of Mexico. The research seeks to close knowledge gaps about the attitudes and perceptions, or nonmonetary values, held by coastal residents toward cultural ecosystem services, and to adapt related, terrestrial-based research methods to a coastal setting. A critical goal is to integrate research results with coastal and marine spatial planning applications, thus making them relevant to coastal planners and managers in their daily efforts to sustainably manage coastal resources. Using information about the attitudes and preferences of people toward places and uses in the landscape, collected from value and preference surveys, the USGS SolVES 2.0 tool will provide quantitative models to relate social values, or perceived nonmonetary values, assigned to locations by survey respondents with the underlying environmental characteristics of those same locations. Project results will increase scientific and geographic knowledge of how Sarasota Bay residents value their area’s cultural ecosystem services.

  4. Variability in net ecosystem exchange from hourly to inter-annual time scales at adjacent pine and hardwood forests: a wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Paul C; Katul, Gabriel G; Siqueira, Mario B S; Juang, Jehn-Yih; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Oishi, A Christopher; Oren, Ram

    2005-07-01

    Orthonormal wavelet transformation (OWT) is a computationally efficient technique for quantifying underlying frequencies in nonstationary and gap-infested time series, such as eddy-covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE). We employed OWT to analyze the frequency characteristics of synchronously measured and modeled NEE at adjacent pine (PP) and hardwood (HW) ecosystems. Wavelet cospectral analysis showed that NEE at PP was more correlated to light and vapor pressure deficit at the daily time scale, and NEE at HW was more correlated to leaf area index (LAI) and temperature, especially soil temperature, at seasonal time scales. Models were required to disentangle the impacts of environmental drivers on the components of NEE, ecosystem carbon assimilation (Ac) and ecosystem respiration (RE). Sensitivity analyses revealed that using air temperature rather than soil temperature in RE models improved the modeled wavelet spectral frequency response on time scales longer than 1 day at both ecosystems. Including LAI improved RE model fit on seasonal time scales at HW, and incorporating parameter variability improved the RE model response at annual time scales at both ecosystems. Resolving variability in canopy conductance, rather than leaf-internal CO2, was more important for modeling Ac at both ecosystems. The PP ecosystem was more sensitive to hydrologic variables that regulate canopy conductance: vapor pressure deficit on weekly time scales and soil moisture on seasonal to interannual time scales. The HW ecosystem was sensitive to water limitation on weekly time scales. A combination of intrinsic drought sensitivity and non-conservative water use at PP was the basis for this response. At both ecosystems, incorporating variability in LAI was required for an accurate spectral representation of modeled NEE. However, nonlinearities imposed by canopy light attenuation were of little importance to spectral fit. The OWT revealed similarities and differences in

  5. Analysis of Future Streamflow Regimes under Global Change Scenarios in Central Chile for Ecosystem Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez Dole, L. E.; Gironas, J. A.; Vicuna, S.

    2015-12-01

    Given the critical role of the streamflow regime for ecosystem sustainability, modeling long term effects of climate change and land use change on streamflow is important to predict possible impacts in stream ecosystems. Because flow duration curves are largely used to characterize the streamflow regime and define indices of ecosystem health, they were used to represent and analyze in this study the stream regime in the Maipo River Basin in Central Chile. Water and Environmental Assessment and Planning (WEAP) model and the Plant Growth Model (PGM) were used to simulate water distribution, consumption in rural areas and stream flows on a weekly basis. Historical data (1990-2014), future land use scenarios (2030/2050) and climate change scenarios were included in the process. Historical data show a declining trend in flows mainly by unprecedented climatic conditions, increasing interest among users on future streamflow scenarios. In the future, under an expected decline in water availability coupled with changes in crop water demand, water users will be forced to adapt by changing water allocation rules. Such adaptation actions would in turns affect the streamflow regime. Future scenarios for streamflow regime show dramatic changes in water availability and temporal distribution. Annual weekly mean flows can reduce in 19% in the worst scenario and increase in 3.3% in the best of them, and variability in streamflow increases nearly 90% in all scenarios under evaluation. The occurrence of maximum and minimum monthly flows changes, as June instead of July becomes the driest month, and December instead of January becomes the month with maximum flows. Overall, results show that under future scenarios streamflow is affected and altered by water allocation rules to satisfy water demands, and thus decisions will need to consider the streamflow regime (and habitat) in order to be sustainable.

  6. Analysis of chemical factors affecting marine ecosystem around nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Chun, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jin Kyu; Jung, Kyeong Chai; Lee, Yeong Keun; Park, Hyo Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    The ecological data of the coastal area of Youngkwang nuclear power plant from 1987 to 1993 were comprehensively analyzed, and various physical and chemical properties of sea water and sediments were measured. Major factors affecting phytoplankton standing crops were suspended substances, nitrate, and silicate. The contents of iron, chromium, copper, and sulfur in sediments sampled from the discharge channel were slightly higher than those in the other areas. In order to qantify the chemical impacts on marine ecosystem, it is desirable that a systematic survey be made through the whole year cycle to assure the consistency and confidence of the related data. (Author).

  7. Effect of the ICT Ecosystem Structure on the Sustainable Growth of ICT Firms: A Metafrontier Analysis on China, South Korea, the United States, and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoungsun Lee; Yuri Park; Daeho Lee

    2016-01-01

    We study how the information and communications technology (ICT) ecosystem affects the sustainable growth of ICT firms. For our study, we analyze the efficiencies of ICT firms in China, South Korea, the United States, and Japan, which are the current leaders in the global ICT industry, each with different ICT ecosystem structures. We use metafrontier analysis (MFA) to compare the efficiencies among countries with different structures, and then use Tobit regression to identify the causes of th...

  8. Global sensitivity analysis of an end-to-end marine ecosystem model of the North Sea: Factors affecting the biomass of fish and benthos

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, David J.; Speir, Douglas C.; Cameron, Angus I; Heath, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of parameter and driver sensitivity is key to establishing the credibility of models representing complex systems. This is especially so for models of natural systems where experimental manipulation of the real-world to provide controlled validation data is not possible. End-to-end ecosystem models (nutrients to birds and mammals) of marine ecosystems fall into this category with applications for evaluating the effects of climate change and fishing on nutrient fluxes an...

  9. Lessons Learned from Applying Social Network Analysis on an Industrial Free/Libre/Open Source Software Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Jose; Robles, Gregorio; González-Barahona, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Many software projects are no longer done in-house by a single organization. Instead, we are in a new age where software is developed by a networked community of individuals and organizations, which base their relations to each other on mutual interest. Paradoxically, recent research suggests that software development can actually be jointly-developed by rival firms. For instance, it is known that the mobile-device makers Apple and Samsung kept collaborating in open source projects while runn...

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF POLYELEMENT CONTAMINATION SOIL OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T. F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In modern conditions, anthropogenic impact to the soil urban ecosystems is fairly stable over time and space, is manifested in various forms, as the transformation of the soil profile, the change in direction of the soil-forming processes, contamination of the various pollutants, and, above all, heavy metals (HM – elements of the first class of the danger. Their sources of the income to the urban environment are industrial enterprises, transport, housing and communal services. Determination of the anthropogenic pressure to the urban soil is carried out by the environmental assessment of the HM polyelement contamination, which allows to establish not only the fact of pollution, but also limits of the possible load with considering regional background or sanitary standards – MPC. However, until now discussions arise regarding the index which will be carried out the valuation – the cornerstone of any methodological approach to the environmental assessment of the soil polyelement contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems, which allows to establish not only the fact of contamination, but also limits the possible load, taking into account the regional background or sanitary norm – MPC. Purpose. Lies in the grounded selection of the environmental assessment indexes of the soil contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems through a comparative analysis of the existing approaches, such as the determination of the summary contamination index (SCI, the index of the soil contamination (ISC, factor imbalance (Sd, taking into account environmental safety standards and binding to the specific conditions territory. Conclusion. In summary it should be noted that it is necessary to use a set of integrated indexes, including the SCI to determine the violation of the metals content with respect to the geochemical background of zonal soil, ISC – link the contamination level with health indexes of the environmental safety

  11. Applying Multiscale Entropy to the Complexity Analysis of Rainfall-Runoff Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ming Chou

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for the complexity analysis of rainfall, runoff, and runoff coefficient (RC) time series using multiscale entropy (MSE). The MSE analysis of RC time series was used to investigate changes in the complexity of rainfall-runoff processes due to human activities. Firstly, a coarse graining process was applied to a time series. The sample entropy was then computed for each coarse-grained time series, and plotted as a function of the scale factor. The proposed ...

  12. Dimensional analysis and extended hydrodynamic theory applied to long-rod penetration of ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Principles of dimensional analysis are applied in a new interpretation of penetration of ceramic targets subjected to hypervelocity impact. The analysis results in a power series representation – in terms of inverse velocity – of normalized depth of penetration that reduces to the hydrodynamic solution at high impact velocities. Specifically considered are test data from four literature sources involving penetration of confined thick ceramic targets by tungsten long rod projectiles. The ceram...

  13. Does size matter? Separations on guard columns for fast sample analysis applied to bioenergy research

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Stefan; Ibanez, Ana B

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing sample throughput is needed when large numbers of samples have to be processed. In chromatography, one strategy is to reduce column length for decreased analysis time. Therefore, the feasibility of analyzing samples simply on a guard column was explored using refractive index and ultraviolet detection. Results from the guard columns were compared to the analyses using the standard 300 mm Aminex HPX-87H column which is widely applied to the analysis of samples from many b...

  14. Structural Integrity Analysis of the RBMK Reactor Critical Structures Applying Probabilistic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dundulis, Gintautas; Kulak, Ronald; Alzbutas, Robertas; Uspuras, Eugenijus

    2010-01-01

    The probability-based approach that integrates deterministic and probabilistic methods was developed to analyse failures of NPP buildings and components. This methodology was applied to safety analysis of the Ignalina NPP. The application of this methodology to two postulated accidents―pipe whip impact and aircraft crash―is presented in this chapter. The NEPTUNE software system was used for the deterministic transient analysis of the pipe whip impact and aircraft crash accidents. Many det...

  15. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems.......‘Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...

  16. Analysis and Reconstitution on Talent Cultivating Objective Positioning for University of Applied Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成伟伟

    2016-01-01

    As an emerging and multidisciplinary college, University of Applied Technology features the certain kind of applied technology, and the technical talents from the university like this have drew great attention from society. However, how to positioning the talent cultivating objective is very critical to balance the mismatching between talents supply of universities and talents demand of the society. This article focuses on the analysis of existing issue that lays in talent cultivating objective positioning for transitioning from academic universities to technology applied universities for local institutes, and clarification of the characteristics of talent training objective positioning in western developed countries as well. Given this, put forward how domestic universities of applied technology locate and reconstitute talent cultivating objectives.

  17. August Dvorak (1894-1975): Early expressions of applied behavior analysis and precision teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, B; Moxley, R A

    1988-01-01

    August Dvorak is best known for his development of the Dvorak keyboard. However, Dvorak also adapted and applied many behavioral and scientific management techniques to the field of education. Taken collectively, these techniques are representative of many of the procedures currently used in applied behavior analysis, in general, and especially in precision teaching. The failure to consider Dvorak's instructional methods may explain some of the discrepant findings in studies which compare the efficiency of the Dvorak to the standard keyboard. This article presents a brief background on the development of the standard (QWERTY) and Dvorak keyboards, describes parallels between Dvorak's teaching procedures and those used in precision teaching, reviews some of the comparative research on the Dvorak keyboard, and suggests some implications for further research in applying the principles of behavior analysis.

  18. A Numerical Procedure for Model Identifiability Analysis Applied to Enzyme Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daele, Timothy, Van; Van Hoey, Stijn; Gernaey, Krist;

    2015-01-01

    structure evaluation by assessing the local identifiability characteristics of the parameters. Moreover, such a procedure should be generic to make sure it can be applied independent from the structure of the model. We hereby apply a numerical identifiability approach which is based on the work of Walter...... and Pronzato (1997) and which can be easily set up for any type of model. In this paper the proposed approach is applied to the forward reaction rate of the enzyme kinetics proposed by Shin and Kim(1998). Structural identifiability analysis showed that no local structural model problems were occurring....... In contrast, the practical identifiability analysis revealed that high values of the forward rate parameter Vf led to identifiability problems. These problems were even more pronounced athigher substrate concentrations, which illustrates the importance of a proper experimental designto avoid...

  19. A National UK Census of Applied Behavior Analysis School Provision for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G. M.; Fletcher, R.; Hastings, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Over more than a decade, specialist Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) schools or classes for children with autism have developed in the UK and Ireland. However, very little is known internationally about how ABA is defined in practice in school settings, the characteristics of children supported in ABA school settings, and the staffing structures…

  20. Applied Behavior Analysis in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Recent Developments, Strengths, and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Turygin, Nicole C.; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert; Tureck, Kimberly; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism has become one of the most heavily researched topics in the field of mental health and education. While genetics has been the most studied of all topics, applied behavior analysis (ABA) has also received a great deal of attention, and has arguably yielded the most promising results of any research area to date. The current paper provides a…

  1. Applied Behaviour Analysis. It Works, It's Positive; Now What's the Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ken P.; Mulhern, F.; McDowell, C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes key findings concerning the effectiveness of applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism. Discusses obstacles present in Ireland to treating children with autism using ABA techniques. Describes the work of Parents' Education as Autism Therapists and the Irish Children's Autism Network for Developmental Opportunities to…

  2. Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Autism: Sibling Psychosocial Adjustment during and Following Intervention Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, Katie R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither…

  3. Applied Behaviour Analysis: Does Intervention Intensity Relate to Family Stressors and Maternal Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A.; Poehlmann, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Interventions based on applied behaviour analysis (ABA) are commonly recommended for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, few studies address how this intervention model impacts families. The intense requirements that ABA programmes place on children and families are often cited as a critique of the programme,…

  4. Structure analysis of interstellar clouds - II. Applying the Delta-variance method to interstellar turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkopf, V.; Krips, M.; Stutzki, J.

    2008-01-01

    Context. The Delta-variance analysis is an efficient tool for measuring the structural scaling behaviour of interstellar turbulence in astronomical maps. It has been applied both to simulations of interstellar turbulence and to observed molecular cloud maps. In Paper I we proposed essential improvem

  5. A Self-Administered Parent Training Program Based upon the Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents often respond to challenging behavior exhibited by their children in such a way that unintentionally strengthens it. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a research-based science that has been proven effective in remediating challenging behavior in children. Although many parents could benefit from using strategies from the field of ABA with…

  6. Using Applied Behaviour Analysis as Standard Practice in a UK Special Needs School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Denise; Hoerger, Marguerite; Philpott, Hannah; Jones, Elin Walker; Hughes, J. Carl; Morgan, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how applied behaviour analysis can be implemented effectively and affordably in a maintained special needs school in the UK. Behaviour analysts collaborate with classroom teachers to provide early intensive behaviour education for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and function based behavioural…

  7. Reliability analysis method applied in slope stability: slope prediction and forecast on stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjuan ZHANG; Li CHEN; Ning QU; Hai'an LIANG

    2006-01-01

    Landslide is one kind of geologic hazards that often happens all over the world. It brings huge losses to human life and property; therefore, it is very important to research it. This study focused in combination between single and regional landslide, traditional slope stability analysis method and reliability analysis method. Meanwhile, methods of prediction of slopes and reliability analysis were discussed.

  8. Vulnerability and resilience of European ecosystems towards extreme climatic events: The ecosystem perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonicke, Kirsten; Rolinski, Susanne; Walz, Ariane; von Bloh, Werner; van Oijen, Marcel; Davin, Edouard; Vieli, Barla; Kato, Tomomichi; Beer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Extremes of meteorological events may but do not have to cause damages in ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have a strong impact on the resilience and stability of ecosystems worldwide. So far, the impacts of trends and extremes of physical drivers on ecosystems have generally been studied regardless of the extremeness of the ecosystem response. We base our analysis on a Probabilistic Risk Assessment concept of Van Oijen et al. (2013) quantifying the vulnerability of vegetation dynamics in relation to the extremeness of meteorological drivers such as temperature, precipitation or drought indices. Here, the definition of extreme, hazardous weather conditions is based on the ecosystem response. Instead of searching for extreme meteorological events, we define extreme ecosystem responses in terms of threshold levels of carbon uptake, and search for the meteorological conditions which are responsible. Having defined hazardous events in this way, we quantify the vulnerability or resilience of ecosystems to such hazards. We apply this approach on results of different vegetation models (such as LPJmL, Orchidee, JSBACH or CLM4) and the forest model BASFOR using climatic input for Europe from the WATCH-ERAI-REMO climate dataset with the SRES A1B emission scenario. Our results show that under current climatic conditions, the southern part of Europe already suffers severe heat and drought stress which is reflected in our approach by vulnerability values being high for precipitation, relatively high for the SPEI index, moderately high for temperature and quite high for the consecutive dry days. Thus, hazard occurrence is frequent enough to determine ecosystem vulnerability but this depends on the definition of the threshold of hazardous ecosystem responses. Vulnerability values in the Mediterranean increase towards the end of the 21st century for all models indicating that a tipping point towards drought damages has been reached for the chosen climate scenario.

  9. Social network analysis on mangrove ecosystem management of Welu Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thak Thongphubate

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of social network for support mangrove ecosystem management in terms of proposed policy was studied. The results show that most samples, live in Baan Si Lamtian and Baan Paaknam Welu. Majorities of samples are women in the age range of 51-60 years old and they are fishery and have own business, respectively. The social network characteristics are the center person of the network who is the mainstay of Baan Nagoong and close-by the person on a network cultivating farmers group of Baan Si Lamtian. Two main proposed policies are hastening to the control of encroach on forests, fishing gears uses and illegal germinate aquatic animals. In addition, information including coincide planning with fishermen who set the fish traps and specify Tambon Bangchan to be the special area for aquatics management were proposed by setting the measurement with community for farm control and cultivate plot which caused shallow in the basin.

  10. Climaite - a three factor climate change ecosystem manipulation study: set up and approaches for data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Beier, Claus; Schmidt, Inger Kappel;

    In a new Danish climate change related field scale experiment, CLIMAITE, we are investigating the impacts of individual and multiple simultaneous global changes on ecosystem processes and functioning in a Danish semi natural grassland vegetation dominated by Deschampsia flexuosa and Calluna...... vulgaris. The Climaite experiment involves three global change factors: elevated CO2 (510 ppm), elevated temperature (+ 1-2 C) and altered precipitation (1-1.5 months extended drought in May-July) all compared to ambient conditions in a complete factorial design. The experiment includes six replicates......, the physiological status of plants, soil water chemistry and emission of green house gasses. The CO2 is enhanced all year around during daylight hours in 6 plots by the use of a FACE system (F. Miglietta design). Temperature elevation is achieved by night time warming where IR reflective curtains automatically...

  11. The Electric Vehicles Ecosystem Model: Construct, Analysis and Identification of Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds a conceptual model of electric vehicles’ (EV ecosystem and value chain build-up. Based on the literature, the research distinguishes the most critical challenges that are on the way of mobility systems’ electrification. Consumers still have some questions that call for answers before they are ready to adopt evs.With regard to technical aspects, some challenges are coming from vehicles, charging infrastructure, battery technology, and standardization. The use of battery in EVs will bring in additional environmental challenges, coming from the battery life cycle for used battery, the manufacturing, and from some materials used and treated in the manufacturing process. The policy aspects include mostly taxation strategies. For most part, established market conditions are still lacking and there are a number of unresolved challenges on both supply and demand side of the EV market.

  12. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  13. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  14. Analysis of reproductive patterns of fishes from three Large Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac eTrindade-Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish reproductive biology plays an important role for fishery management, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to compile all available information and analyze reproduction patterns of marine fishes in three Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs: North, East, and South Brazil Shelves. We tested the hypothesis that the onset and duration of spawning season differ among these three LMEs; compared the ratio between length at first maturity and asymptotic length with the global trend observed; analyzed sex ratios; and tested whether females allocate more energy into reproduction than males. The following data were compiled from published sources and ‘grey’ literature: sex ratio, spawning season, gonadosomatic indices (GSI, and length at first maturity (Lm. The reproductive load was estimated as Lm/L∞. The median extension of the spawning season in the North, East, and South Brazil Shelves were 6.5, 6.0 and 5.0 months, respectively, with higher frequency during austral summer in South Brazil. Marine fishes from these three LMEs can be grouped in summer and non-summer spawners. About ninety six percent of the cases the reproductive load was between 0.3 and 0.8, which is slightly shifted toward smaller values, compared with the global range of 0.4-0.9. Gonadosomatic indices for females were higher. Contrary to some expectations, there is seasonality in the reproduction of tropical fishes. However, seasonality is stronger in southern populations. Size at first maturity is not efficiently used as a tool for fisheries management in the ecosystems analyzed.

  15. Forest Monitoring - Assessment, Analysis and Warning System for Forest Ecosystem Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu BADEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide essential benefits and services as an important component of terrestrial ecosystems. Their functionality and health result from multiple and cumulative interactions of biotic and abiotic stress factors such as air pollution, climate change, changes in land use, and poor management practices. A forest monitoring system was established to identify, analyse and assess the degradation of European forests. Two levels of forest monitoring were developed: I large-scale forest condition surveys, based on an European grid system starting in 1986 and II an intensive non-systematic survey network placed in representative forest ecosystems starting in 1994. Romania implemented both level I (1990-1991 and level II (1991-1992 forest monitoring surveys with the results showing the effects of increased air temperatures and a drastic decrease of precipitation since the decade of 1971-1980. Thus, the highest values of damaged trees (crown defoliation >25% percent were recorded in 1993, 1994, 2000 and 2003 both in the national and European networks. Also, in southern and South-Eastern Romania the forests are more frequently damaged as a response to worsening of climatic factors in this region in recent decades, with temperatures rising 0.7-0.8°C. In general, in Romania, ozone concentrations remained below the critical threshold (40-50 ppb for affecting growth or health of trees. The levels of S-SO4 and N-NO3 declined in the atmosphere but the accumulation continued to increase in the soil, leading to soil acidification, mainly at depths of 10-40 cm. In general, during the last decade, Romanian forests were affected at low to medium intensities with damage rate up to 11% of the trees and the status of general forest health improved slightly.

  16. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  17. INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS (ICA) APPLIED TO LONG BUNCH BEAMS IN THE LOS ALAMOS PROTON STORAGE RING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolski, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macek, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCrady, Rodney C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pang, Xiaoying [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-14

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful blind source separation (BSS) method. Compared to the typical BSS method, principal component analysis (PCA), which is the BSS foundation of the well known model independent analysis (MIA), ICA is more robust to noise, coupling, and nonlinearity. ICA of turn-by-turn beam position data has been used to measure the transverse betatron phase and amplitude functions, dispersion function, linear coupling, sextupole strength, and nonlinear beam dynamics. We apply ICA in a new way to slices along the bunch and discuss the source signals identified as betatron motion and longitudinal beam structure.

  18. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.

  19. Governing ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, René; Selnes, Trond; Verweij, Pita

    2016-01-01

    The TEEB approach to the use of ecosystem services has found its way to policy as a means to biodiversity conservation and greening of the economy. In this paper we analysed the uptake of the TEEB approach at national and local levels by applying a framework that revolves around the problem, appr

  20. Structure analysis of interstellar clouds: II. Applying the Delta-variance method to interstellar turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ossenkopf, V; Stutzki, J

    2008-01-01

    The Delta-variance analysis is an efficient tool for measuring the structural scaling behaviour of interstellar turbulence in astronomical maps. In paper I we proposed essential improvements to the Delta-variance analysis. In this paper we apply the improved Delta-variance analysis to i) a hydrodynamic turbulence simulation with prominent density and velocity structures, ii) an observed intensity map of rho Oph with irregular boundaries and variable uncertainties of the different data points, and iii) a map of the turbulent velocity structure in the Polaris Flare affected by the intensity dependence on the centroid velocity determination. The tests confirm the extended capabilities of the improved Delta-variance analysis. Prominent spatial scales were accurately identified and artifacts from a variable reliability of the data were removed. The analysis of the hydrodynamic simulations showed that the injection of a turbulent velocity structure creates the most prominent density structures are produced on a sca...

  1. Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Ghirmay, Hiyoba

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we propose an ecosystem service framework to support integrated water resource management and apply it to the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin have been over-allocated for irrigation use with the consequent degradation of freshwater ecosystems. In line with integrated water resource management principles, Australian Government reforms are reducing the amount of water diverted for irrigation to improve ecosystem health. However, limited understanding of the broader benefits and trade-offs associated with reducing irrigation diversions has hampered the planning process supporting this reform. Ecosystem services offer an integrative framework to identify the broader benefits associated with integrated water resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin, thereby providing support for the Government to reform decision-making. We conducted a multi-criteria decision analysis for ranking regional potentials to provide ecosystem services at river basin scale. We surveyed the wider public about their understanding of, and priorities for, managing ecosystem services and then integrated the results with spatially explicit indicators of ecosystem service provision. The preliminary results of this work identified the sub-catchments with the greatest potential synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem service provision under the integrated water resources management reform process. With future development, our framework could be used as a decision support tool by those grappling with the challenge of the sustainable allocation of water between irrigation and the environment.

  2. Functional resilience of microbial ecosystems in soil: How important is a spatial analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Sara; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial life in soil is exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions influencing the performance of microbially mediated ecosystem services such as biodegradation of contaminants. However, as this environment is typically very heterogeneous, spatial aspects can be expected to play a major role for the ability to recover from a stress event. To determine key processes for functional resilience, simple scenarios with varying stress intensities were simulated within a microbial simulation model and the biodegradation rate in the recovery phase monitored. Parameters including microbial growth and dispersal rates were varied over a typical range to consider microorganisms with varying properties. Besides an aggregated temporal monitoring, the explicit observation of the spatio-temporal dynamics proved essential to understand the recovery process. For a mechanistic understanding of the model system, scenarios were also simulated with selected processes being switched-off. Results of the mechanistic and the spatial view show that the key factors for functional recovery with respect to biodegradation after a simple stress event depend on the location of the observed habitats. The limiting factors near unstressed areas are spatial processes - the mobility of the bacteria as well as substrate diffusion - the longer the distance to the unstressed region the more important becomes the process growth. Furthermore, recovery depends on the stress intensity - after a low stress event the spatial configuration has no influence on the key factors for functional resilience. To confirm these results, we repeated the stress scenarios but this time including an additional dispersal network representing a fungal network in soil. The system benefits from an increased spatial performance due to the higher mobility of the degrading microorganisms. However, this effect appears only in scenarios where the spatial distribution of the stressed area plays a role. With these simulations we

  3. The impact of livestock grazing on plant diversity: an analysis across dryland ecosystems and scales in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wiebke; Böhner, Jürgen; Dreber, Niels; Jürgens, Norbert; Schmiedel, Ute; Wesuls, Dirk; Dengler, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    A general understanding of grazing effects on plant diversity in drylands is still missing, despite an extensive theoretical background. Cross-biome syntheses are hindered by the fact that the outcomes of disturbance studies are strongly affected by the choice of diversity measures, and the spatial and temporal scales of measurements. The aim of this study is to overcome these weaknesses by applying a wide range of diversity measures to a data set derived from identical sampling in three distinct ecosystems. We analyzed three fence-line contrasts (heavier vs. lighter grazing intensity), representing different degrees of aridity (from arid to semiarid) and precipitation regimes (summer rain vs. winter rain) in southern Africa. We tested the impact of grazing intensity on multiple aspects of plant diversity (species and functional group level, richness and evenness components, alpha and beta diversity, and composition) at two spatial scales, and for both 5-yr means and interannual variability. Heavier grazing reduced total plant cover and substantially altered the species and functional composition at all sites. However, a significant decrease in species alpha diversity was detected at only one of the three sites. By contrast, alpha diversity of plant functional groups responded consistently across ecosystems and scales, with a significant decrease at heavier grazing intensity. The cover-based measures of functional group diversity responded more sensitively and more consistently than functional group richness. Beta diversity of species and functional types increased under heavier grazing, showing that at larger scales, the heterogeneity of the community composition and the functional structure were increased. Heavier grazing mostly increased interannual variability of alpha diversity, while effects on beta diversity and cover were inconsistent. Our results suggest that species diversity alone may not adequately reflect the shifts in vegetation structure that occur

  4. Analysis of change of red tide species in Yodo River estuary by the numerical ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Mitsuru; Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Occurrence number of red tides in Osaka Bay in Japan is more than 20 cases every year. Diatom red tide was dominant in Osaka Bay, but the non-diatom red tide was dominant in early 1990s. Therefore, the material cycling in Yodo River estuary in Osaka Bay during August from 1991 to 2000 was analyzed by using the numerical ecosystem model and field observation data to clarify the reasons of change in red tide species. Year-to-year variation in calculated concentration ratio of diatom to non-diatom corresponds to the variation in observed ratio of red tide days of diatom to non-diatom. Limiting nutrient of primary production is phosphate over the period. Diatom dominated from 1991 to 1993, but it was difficult for non-diatom to grow due to the limitation by physical condition. Non-diatom was able to grow because of good physical and nutrient conditions from 1994 to 1996. And diatom dominated again under the good physical condition, and phosphorus supply was not enough for non-diatom to grow from 1998 to 2000. Phosphate concentration in the lower layer of Yodo River estuary was important to the variation in red tide species in the upper layer of Yodo River estuary. PMID:18513758

  5. A Review of Temporal Aspects of Hand Gesture Analysis Applied to Discourse Analysis and Natural Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. B. Madeo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lately, there has been an increasinginterest in hand gesture analysis systems. Recent works have employedpattern recognition techniques and have focused on the development of systems with more natural userinterfaces. These systems may use gestures to control interfaces or recognize sign language gestures, whichcan provide systems with multimodal interaction; or consist in multimodal tools to help psycholinguists tounderstand new aspects of discourse analysis and to automate laborious tasks.Gestures are characterizedby several aspects, mainly by movementsand sequence of postures. Since data referring to movementsorsequencescarry temporal information, this paper presents aliteraturereviewabouttemporal aspects ofhand gesture analysis, focusing on applications related to natural conversation and psycholinguisticanalysis, using Systematic Literature Review methodology. In our results, we organized works according totype of analysis, methods, highlighting the use of Machine Learning techniques, and applications.

  6. Inferring time-variable effects of nutrient enrichment on marine ecosystems using inverse modelling and ecological network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Anh D; De Laender, Frederik; Olsen, Yngvar; Vadstein, Olav; Dewulf, Jo; Janssen, Colin R

    2014-09-15

    We combined data from an outdoor mesocosm experiment with carbon budget modelling and an ecological network analysis to assess the effects of continuous nutrient additions on the structural and functional dynamics of a marine planktonic ecosystem. The food web receiving no nutrient additions was fuelled by detritus, as zooplankton consumed 7.2 times more detritus than they consumed algae. Nutrient supply instantly promoted herbivory so that it was comparable to detritivory at the highest nutrient addition rate. Nutrient-induced food web restructuring reduced carbon cycling and decreased the average number of compartments a unit flow of carbon crosses before dissipation. Also, the efficiency of copepod production, the link to higher trophic levels harvestable by man, was lowered up to 35 times by nutrient addition, but showed signs of recovery after 9 to 11 days. The dependency of the food web on exogenous input was not changed by the nutrient additions.

  7. Faunistic analysis of Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita in degraded ecosystems of Chapecó town, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to investigate the ant fauna in degraded environments and to comprehend how this group behaves in such ecosystems, faunistic analysis was initially conducted with the ants collected in an area in Chapecó town that had been subjected to flooding in function of the construction of the mouth of a dam on the Chapecó River (a branch of the larger Uruguay River. The collections were carried out between October 2001 and September 2002. We used pit-fall traps, sweeping nets, entomologic umbrellas and leaf litter collections for fragments covered by bushes and grass. The fauna was characterized through the constancy and dominancy indexes. A number of 34.642 specimens of ants, belonging to 32 species, 19 genera and six subfamilies, were collected. The species Labidus sp., Atta sp. and Ectatomma edentatum stood out as being either accessory or both constant and dominant.

  8. Common cause evaluations in applied risk analysis of nuclear power plants. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, T.; Ligon, D.; Stamatelatos, M.

    1983-04-01

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches were developed for the evaluation of common cause failures (CCFs) in nuclear power plants and were applied to the analysis of the auxiliary feedwater systems of several pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Key CCF variables were identified through a survey of experts in the field and a review of failure experience in operating PWRs. These variables were classified into categories of high, medium, and low defense against a CCF. Based on the results, a checklist was developed for analyzing CCFs of systems. Several known techniques for quantifying CCFs were also reviewed. The information provided valuable insights in the development of a new model for estimating CCF probabilities, which is an extension of and improvement over the Beta Factor method. As applied to the analysis of the PWR auxiliary feedwater systems, the method yielded much more realistic values than the original Beta Factor method for a one-out-of-three system.

  9. TAPPS Release 1: Plugin-Extensible Platform for Technical Analysis and Applied Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Sam Chew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first release of TAPPS (Technical Analysis and Applied Statistics System; a Python implementation of a thin software platform aimed towards technical analyses and applied statistics. The core of TAPPS is a container for 2-dimensional data frame objects and a TAPPS command language. TAPPS language is not meant to be a programming language for script and plugin development but for the operational purposes. In this aspect, TAPPS language takes on the flavor of SQL rather than R, resulting in a shallower learning curve. All analytical functions are implemented as plugins. This results in a defined plugin system, which enables rapid development and incorporation of analysis functions. TAPPS Release 1 is released under GNU General Public License 3 for academic and non-commercial use. TAPPS code repository can be found at http://github.com/mauriceling/tapps.

  10. Common cause evaluations in applied risk analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches were developed for the evaluation of common cause failures (CCFs) in nuclear power plants and were applied to the analysis of the auxiliary feedwater systems of several pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Key CCF variables were identified through a survey of experts in the field and a review of failure experience in operating PWRs. These variables were classified into categories of high, medium, and low defense against a CCF. Based on the results, a checklist was developed for analyzing CCFs of systems. Several known techniques for quantifying CCFs were also reviewed. The information provided valuable insights in the development of a new model for estimating CCF probabilities, which is an extension of and improvement over the Beta Factor method. As applied to the analysis of the PWR auxiliary feedwater systems, the method yielded much more realistic values than the original Beta Factor method for a one-out-of-three system

  11. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439

  12. Applied behavior analysis as intervention for autism: definition, features and philosophical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.

  13. High-resolution frequency analysis as applied to the singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsomme, D; Remacle, M; Millet, B

    1993-01-01

    We have applied high-resolution vocal frequent analysis to a population of singing voices. Two important elements have become apparent: (1) Confirmation that the singing formant originates in the resonators. This is observed especially on a low fundamental, and it is acquired through technical skill and experience. (2) Observation of the vibrato, which, isolated from the clinical study, regarding only its graphic presentation, could have been interpreted as 'abnormal'. PMID:8253452

  14. Stability analysis of multi-infeed HVDC system applying VSC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    on this model is analyzed under steady state and different kinds of grid fault transient situations. Two main control methods applied on VSC-HVDC link in this dual infeed HVDC system are investigated, and comparative analysis of them under transient situation is presented. A simulation model is built in PSCAD....../EMTDC to verify the theoretical analysis. Simulation results indicate that this dual infeed HVDC system can realize higher stability than single infeed HVDC system. And different control strategies on a VSC-HVDC link may result in different influence on AC voltage and active power oscillation during transient...... situation....

  15. Applying Fuzzy and Probabilistic Uncertainty Concepts to the Material Flow Analysis of Palladium in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) is a widely applied tool to investigate resource and recycling systems of metals and minerals. Owing to data limitations and restricted system understanding, MFA results are inherently uncertain. To demonstrate the systematic implementation of uncertainty analysis...... the plausibility of the model results. With respect to Pd resource management, improved formal collection of end-of-life (EOL) consumer products is identified as a key factor in increasing the recycling efficiency. In particular, the partial export of EOL vehicles represents a substantial loss of Pd from...

  16. The x-rays fluorescence applied to the analysis of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is based on the utilization of the Fluorescence of X Rays. This technique of non destructive trial, has the purpose to establish a routine method, for the control of the conformation of industrial samples used. It makes an analysis with a combination of the algorithms of Rasberry-Heinrich and Claisse-Thinh. Besides, the numerical implementation of non usual techniques in this type of analysis. Such as the Linear Programming applied to the solution of super determined systems, of equations and the utilization of methods of relaxation to facilitate the convergence to the solutions. (author)

  17. Improving skill development: an exploratory study comparing a philosophical and an applied ethical analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of ICT students and professionals. In particular the skill development focused on includes: being able to recognise ethical challenges and formulate coherent responses; distancing oneself from subjective judgements; developing ethical literacy; identifying stakeholders; and communicating ethical decisions made, to name a few.

  18. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis applied to a repository in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with UNCSAM, as applied to a repository in rock salt for the EVEREST project. UNCSAM is a dedicated software package for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, which was already used within the preceding PROSA project. The use of UNCSAM provides a flexible interface to EMOSECN by substituting the sampled values in the various input files to be used by EMOSECN; the model calculations for this repository were performed with the EMOSECN code. Preceding the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, a number of preparations has been carried out to facilitate EMOSECN with the probabilistic input data. For post-processing the EMOSECN results, the characteristic output signals were processed. For the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with UNCSAM the stochastic input, i.e. sampled values, and the output for the various EMOSECN runs have been analyzed. (orig.)

  19. Sequential analysis applied to clinical trials in dentistry: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogowicz, P; Flores-Mir, C; Major, P W; Heo, G

    2008-01-01

    Clinical trials employ sequential analysis for the ethical and economic benefits it brings. In dentistry, as in other fields, resources are scarce and efforts are made to ensure that patients are treated ethically. The objective of this systematic review was to characterise the use of sequential analysis for clinical trials in dentistry. We searched various databases from 1900 through to January 2008. Articles were selected for review if they were clinical trials in the field of dentistry that had applied some form of sequential analysis. Selection was carried out independently by two of the authors. We included 18 trials from various specialties, which involved many different interventions. We conclude that sequential analysis seems to be underused in this field but that there are sufficient methodological resources in place for future applications.Evidence-Based Dentistry (2008) 9, 55-62. doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400587. PMID:18584009

  20. [Clustering analysis applied to near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of Chinese traditional medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mu-qing; Zhou, De-cheng; Xu, Xin-yuan; Sun, Yao-jie; Zhou, Xiao-li; Han, Lei

    2007-10-01

    The present article discusses the clustering analysis used in the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy analysis of Chinese traditional medicines, which provides a new method for the classification of Chinese traditional medicines. Samples selected purposely in the authors' research to measure their absorption spectra in seconds by a multi-channel NIR spectrometer developed in the authors' lab were safrole, eucalypt oil, laurel oil, turpentine, clove oil and three samples of costmary oil from different suppliers. The spectra in the range of 0.70-1.7 microm were measured with air as background and the results indicated that they are quite distinct. Qualitative mathematical model was set up and cluster analysis based on the spectra was carried out through different clustering methods for optimization, and came out the cluster correlation coefficient of 0.9742 in the authors' research. This indicated that cluster analysis of the group of samples is practicable. Also it is reasonable to get the result that the calculated classification of 8 samples was quite accorded with their characteristics, especially the three samples of costmary oil were in the closest classification of the clustering analysis. PMID:18306778

  1. Applying observations of work activity in designing prototype data analysis tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springmeyer, R.R.

    1993-07-06

    Designers, implementers, and marketers of data analysis tools typically have different perspectives than users. Consequently, data analysis often find themselves using tools focused on graphics and programming concepts rather than concepts which reflect their own domain and the context of their work. Some user studies focus on usability tests late in development; others observe work activity, but fail to show how to apply that knowledge in design. This paper describes a methodology for applying observations of data analysis work activity in prototype tool design. The approach can be used both in designing improved data analysis tools, and customizing visualization environments to specific applications. We present an example of user-centered design for a prototype tool to cull large data sets. We revisit the typical graphical approach of animating a large data set from the point of view of an analysis who is culling data. Field evaluations using the prototype tool not only revealed valuable usability information, but initiated in-depth discussions about user`s work, tools, technology, and requirements.

  2. PRO-ELICERE: A Hazard Analysis Automation Process Applied to Space Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharcius Augusto Pivetta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, critical systems have increasingly been developed using computers and software even in space area, where the project approach is usually very conservative. In the projects of rockets, satellites and its facilities, like ground support systems, simulators, among other critical operations for the space mission, it must be applied a hazard analysis. The ELICERE process was created to perform a hazard analysis mainly over computer critical systems, in order to define or evaluate its safety and dependability requirements, strongly based on Hazards and Operability Study and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis techniques. It aims to improve the project design or understand the potential hazards of existing systems improving their functions related to functional or non-functional requirements. Then, the main goal of the ELICERE process is to ensure the safety and dependability goals of a space mission. The process, at the beginning, was created to operate manually in a gradual way. Nowadays, a software tool called PRO-ELICERE was developed, in such a way to facilitate the analysis process and store the results for reuse in another system analysis. To understand how ELICERE works and its tool, a small example of space study case was applied, based on a hypothetical rocket of the Cruzeiro do Sul family, developed by the Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço in Brazil.

  3. Bioenergetics in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for a fish can be defined as a quantitative description of the fish’s energy budget. Bioenergetics modeling can be applied to a fish population in a lake, river, or ocean to estimate the annual consumption of food by the fish population; such applications have proved to be useful in managing fisheries. In addition, bioenergetics models have been used to better understand fish growth and consumption in ecosystems, to determine the importance of the role of fish in cycling nutrients within ecosystems, and to identify the important factors regulating contaminant accumulation in fish from lakes, rivers, and oceans.

  4. Sustainability analysis of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou City based on information entropy between 2004 and 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhenming; XIA Bin

    2013-01-01

    The urban ecosystem possesses dissipating structures that can absorb substances and energy from the external environment and export products and wastes to maintain order within the system.Given these circumstances,this paper analyzed the ability of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou City to sustain development from the perspective of entropy.The research was carried out in three steps.First,an evaluation index system that considers the ability of the urban ecosystem for sustainable development was formed based on the structures and functions of the urban ecosystem and the change in the entropy of the urban socioeconomic ecosystem.Second,the sustainable development ability assessment model for the urban ecosystem was built using information entropy.Last,by combining the time series variation of the evaluation indicators with the entropy weights,this paper analyzed the influence of the combined factors on the sustainable development ability of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou and suggested some measures to promote the sustainable development of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou.The conclusions of this study can be summarized as follows:(1) The urban ecosystem has developed in an orderly and healthy direction,with effective control over the urban environmental pollution problems in Guangzhou between 2004 and 2010.(2) The sustainable development ability of the urban ecosystem had been on an upward trend in Guangzhou during the study period.The ability of the natural urban ecosystem to support the urban socioeconomic ecosystem increased continuously,and the improved ecoenvironment enhanced the harmony and vitality of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou.

  5. Use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate as applied to closed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The technology of ‘wet incineration' of human exometabolites and inedible plants biomass by means of H2 O2 in alternating electromagnetic field to increase a closure of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) was developed at the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). Human exometabolites mineralized can be used in a nutrient solution for plants cultivation in the BLSS phototrophic link. The objective of the given work appears to be the study of use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels processed by the abovementioned method for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The mineralized human wastes were tested for the purpose of their sterility. Then the effect of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels both on wheat productivity and on the SLS microflora composition was examined. The SLS extract with a definite amount of human mineralized wastes was used as an irrigation solution. The conducted experiments demonstrated that the H2 O2 decreasing to 1 ml on 1 g of feces and to 0.25 ml on 1 ml of urine had not affected the sterility of mineralized human wastes. Wheat cultivation on the SLS with the addition in an irrigation solution of mineralized human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of a daily human diet showed the absence of basic dependence of plants productivity on oxidation level of human exometabolites. Yet the analysis of the microflora composition of the irrigation solutions demonstrated its dependence on the oxidation level of the exometabolites introduced. The amount of yeast-like fungi increased in 20 times in the solutions containing less oxidized exometabolites in comparison with the variant in which the human wastes were subjected to a full-scale oxidation. Besides, the solutions with less oxidized exometabolites displayed a bigger content of plant pathogenic bacteria and denitrifies. Consequently the

  6. Reliability analysis of protection systems in NPP applying fault-tree analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the applicability and limits of dependability analysis in nuclear power plants (NPPS) based on the reactor protection refurbishment project (RRP) in NPP Paks. This paper illustrates case studies from the reliability analysis for NPP Paks. It also investigates the solutions for the connection between the data acquisition and subsystem control units (TSs) and the voter units (VTs), it analyzes the influence of the voting in the VT computer level, it studies the effects of the testing procedures to the dependability parameters. (author)

  7. Relationship between ecosystem respiration and aeration constant in open channel dissolved oxygen analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S. J.; Butler, A. P.; Heppell, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Using the open channel diel method of Odum (1956) and the night-time regression method (Hornberger and Kelly, 1985), we analysed a time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) in two slow flowing streams for a two month period in summer 2014 and obtained values for ecosystem respiration and the aeration constant for each day in the period. We then used the standard dissolved oxygen lumped model to generate a DO time series behaviour for one of those rivers selecting respiration and aeration parameters by randomly sampling from the values obtained from the data. Two synthetic time series were created, one where respiration and aeration were independent of temperature and a second where respiration and aeration were affected by temperature according to the modified Arrhenius relationship. With these two synthetic time series, we again recovered the respiration and aeration input parameters using the night- time regression method and compared those recovered parameters with the input parameters. Because the simulations were conducted with parameters that were known, the values recovered using the night-time regression method (i.e post-simulation) could be compared with parameters driving the simulation (i.e. pre-simulation input values). For values based on data, we found a strong correlation between the aeration constant and respiration for both rivers. For the synthetic time series, no such correlation was found, either with the temperature independent or temperature dependent time series. The night-time regression method also recovered perfectly the input parameters, so the correlation was not brought about as a result of implementing the method itself. We are currently investigating the cause of the correlation.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of gross primary production partitioned from net ecosystem exchange measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP, separated from flux tower measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE of CO2, is used increasingly to validate process-based simulators and remote sensing-derived estimates of simulated GPP at various time steps. Proper validation should include the uncertainty associated with this separation at different time steps. This can be achieved by using a Bayesian framework. In this study, we estimated the uncertainty in GPP at half hourly time steps. We used a non-rectangular hyperbola (NRH model to separate GPP from flux tower measurements of NEE at the Speulderbos forest site, The Netherlands. The NRH model included the variables that influence GPP, in particular radiation, and temperature. In addition, the NRH model provided a robust empirical relationship between radiation and GPP by including the degree of curvature of the light response curve. Parameters of the NRH model were fitted to the measured NEE data for every 10-day period during the growing season (April to October in 2009. Adopting a Bayesian approach, we defined the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation was used to update the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. This allowed us to estimate the uncertainty in the separated GPP at half-hourly time steps. This yielded the posterior distribution of GPP at each half hour and allowed the quantification of uncertainty. The time series of posterior distributions thus obtained allowed us to estimate the uncertainty at daily time steps. We compared the informative with non-informative prior distributions of the NRH parameters. The results showed that both choices of prior produced similar posterior distributions GPP. This will provide relevant and important information for the validation of process-based simulators in the future. Furthermore, the obtained posterior distributions of NEE and the NRH parameters are of interest for a range of applications.

  9. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protected areas in conserving both habitat and ecosystem services. Selected areas for conserving habitat had an overlap of carbon and soil ecosystem services. Yet, selected areas for water yield did not have this overlap. Furthermore, selected areas with relatively high overlap of ecosystem services tended to be inside protected areas; however, other important areas for ecosystem services (i.e., central highlands do not have legal protection, revealing the importance of enforcing existing environmental regulations in these areas.

  10. Criticality analysis of thermal reactors for two energy groups applying Monte Carlo and neutron Albedo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Albedo method applied to criticality calculations to nuclear reactors is characterized by following the neutron currents, allowing to make detailed analyses of the physics phenomena about interactions of the neutrons with the core-reflector set, by the determination of the probabilities of reflection, absorption, and transmission. Then, allowing to make detailed appreciations of the variation of the effective neutron multiplication factor, keff. In the present work, motivated for excellent results presented in dissertations applied to thermal reactors and shieldings, was described the methodology to Albedo method for the analysis criticality of thermal reactors by using two energy groups admitting variable core coefficients to each re-entrant current. By using the Monte Carlo KENO IV code was analyzed relation between the total fraction of neutrons absorbed in the core reactor and the fraction of neutrons that never have stayed into the reflector but were absorbed into the core. As parameters of comparison and analysis of the results obtained by the Albedo method were used one dimensional deterministic code ANISN (ANIsotropic SN transport code) and Diffusion method. The keff results determined by the Albedo method, to the type of analyzed reactor, showed excellent agreement. Thus were obtained relative errors of keff values smaller than 0,78% between the Albedo method and code ANISN. In relation to the Diffusion method were obtained errors smaller than 0,35%, showing the effectiveness of the Albedo method applied to criticality analysis. The easiness of application, simplicity and clarity of the Albedo method constitute a valuable instrument to neutronic calculations applied to nonmultiplying and multiplying media. (author)

  11. Analysis on the economic valuation of ecosystem services : a case study on LuGu Lake basin

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is an empirical investigation and application of conomic valuation of ecosystem in Lugu Lake, southern China. Ecosystem Services (ES) and their quantitative assessment have become one of ecological economics research focuses since 1997, especially the Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services (EVES). An essential reason of the controversies is they are reviewed from different study angles. Different disciplinary paradigms lead to the debate that whether EVES study is necessary...

  12. Dimensional analysis and extended hydrodynamic theory applied to long-rod penetration of ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Clayton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Principles of dimensional analysis are applied in a new interpretation of penetration of ceramic targets subjected to hypervelocity impact. The analysis results in a power series representation – in terms of inverse velocity – of normalized depth of penetration that reduces to the hydrodynamic solution at high impact velocities. Specifically considered are test data from four literature sources involving penetration of confined thick ceramic targets by tungsten long rod projectiles. The ceramics are AD-995 alumina, aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, and boron carbide. Test data can be accurately represented by the linear form of the power series, whereby the same value of a single fitting parameter applies remarkably well for all four ceramics. Comparison of the present model with others in the literature (e.g., Tate's theory demonstrates a target resistance stress that depends on impact velocity, linearly in the limiting case. Comparison of the present analysis with recent research involving penetration of thin ceramic tiles at lower typical impact velocities confirms the importance of target properties related to fracture and shear strength at the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL only in the latter. In contrast, in the former (i.e., hypervelocity and thick target experiments, the current analysis demonstrates dominant dependence of penetration depth only by target mass density. Such comparisons suggest transitions from microstructure-controlled to density-controlled penetration resistance with increasing impact velocity and ceramic target thickness.

  13. Neutron activation analysis as applied to instrumental analysis of trace elements from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter collected from the coastal area delimited by the mouth of the river Volturno and the Sabaudia lake has been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for its content of twenty-two trace elements. The results for surface water and bottom water are reported separately, thus evidencing the effect of sampling depth on the concentration of many elements. The necessity of accurately 'cleaning' the filters before use is stressed

  14. Phytosociological analysis of a traditionally managed sacred grove in transitional ecosystem of eastern lateritic part of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Manna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally managed sacred groves in the lateritic parts of eastern India are a common phenomenon. Groves located in the transitional ecosystem are characteristically rich in biodiversity and are found to be showcasing local refuges. Besides the cultural and aesthetic needs of mankind, these ancient forest remnants are the center of attraction to the researchers for their immense veritable gene pool thriving on sacred belief. Present study highlights the phytosociological characteristics along with the way of traditional management of a sacred grove. Materials and Methods: Traditional management practices were observed from the local community. Plants were identified following standard literature. Nature of relationship between different climbers and lianas with the major tree species of the grove was studied through cluster analysis, based on percentage cover data of each of the major climbers and lianas on the host trees. Results: Syzygium cumini, Shorea robusta and Terminalia arjuna contributed most to the architecture built up of the grove. Out of 12 major species of climbers and lianas, Derris scandens showed its maximum abundance in terms of canopy coverage throughout the grove followed by Tinospora cordifolia and Gouania tiliaefolia. Certain degree of positive correlation was observed between different climbers and lianas with the mean height and mean diameter at breast height of the major tree species. Conclusion: High species richness, confinement of the species and less undergrowth are the key characteristics of a sacred grove in transitional ecosystem. Opportunistic and aggressive nature of spreading have rendered Derris scandens, Tinospora cordifolia and Gouania tiliaefolia fittest in these highly overlapping niches of the grove. Adaptive management involving the local folk may help the Government in formulating the conservation strategies especially in non forest areas.

  15. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES TO DETERMINE IMPACTS ON ROCKY MOUNTAIN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reduncancy (RDA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) we assessed relationships between chemical and physical characteristics and periphyton at 105 stream sites sampled by REMAP in the mineral belt of the southern Rockies ecoregion in Colorado. We contrasted results ob...

  16. Statistical, Ecosystems and Competitiveness Analysis of the Media and Content Industries: The Film Sector

    OpenAIRE

    De Vinck, Sophie; Lindmark, Sven

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments of the film industry. The object of analysis is feature films, encompassing their production as well as distribution through and exhibition across different channels. It reviews the economic characteristics of the film industry, some of which it shares with other media and content industries. The report includes a database of 10 EU and 10 non-EU companies plus two company case studies (Netflix and Universciné). The rep...

  17. Analysis of the production stability of mixed grasslands. II. A mathematical framework for the quantification of production stability of grassland ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, R.P.O.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of the intrinsic properties and processes of ecosystems, which regulate the production stability of mixed grasslands, has been complicated by the environmental noise caused by stochastic weather fluctuations. A mathematical framework is presented to deduct the actual, the extrinsic and

  18. Integrated software for imaging data analysis applied to edge plasma physic and operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V.; Moncada, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dunand, G. [Sophia Conseil Company, F-06560 Sophia Antipolis (France); Corre, Y.; Delchambre, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Travere, J.M., E-mail: jean-marcel.travere@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-06-15

    Fusion tokamaks are complex devices requiring many diagnostics for real time control of the plasma and off-line physical analysis. In current tokamaks, imaging diagnostics have become increasingly used for these two purposes. Such systems produce a lot of data encouraging physicists to use shared tools and codes for data access and analysis. If general purpose software programs for data display and analysis are widely spread, a need exists in developing similar applications for quantitative imaging data analysis applied to plasma physic. In this paper, we introduce a new integrated software program, named WOLFF, dedicated to this task. The main contribution of this software is to gather under the same framework different functionalities for (1) data access and display, (2) signal, image, and video processing, and (3) quantitative analysis based on physical models. After an overview of existing solutions for data processing in the field of plasma data, we present the WOLFF architecture and its currently implemented features. The capabilities of the software are then demonstrated through three applications in the field of physical analysis (heat and particle flux calculations) and tokamak operational safety.

  19. [Ecosystem services evaluation based on geographic information system and remote sensing technology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Shi-Huang; Wang, Hui-Min

    2011-12-01

    Ecosystem services evaluation is a hot topic in current ecosystem management, and has a close link with human beings welfare. This paper summarized the research progress on the evaluation of ecosystem services based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology, which could be reduced to the following three characters, i. e., ecological economics theory is widely applied as a key method in quantifying ecosystem services, GIS and RS technology play a key role in multi-source data acquisition, spatiotemporal analysis, and integrated platform, and ecosystem mechanism model becomes a powerful tool for understanding the relationships between natural phenomena and human activities. Aiming at the present research status and its inadequacies, this paper put forward an "Assembly Line" framework, which was a distributed one with scalable characteristics, and discussed the future development trend of the integration research on ecosystem services evaluation based on GIS and RS technologies.

  20. Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism, and Occupational Therapy: A Search for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically.

  1. Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism, and Occupational Therapy: A Search for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically. PMID:27295000

  2. Social Network Analysis and Big Data tools applied to the Systemic Risk supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Carmen Mochón

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After the financial crisis initiated in 2008, international market supervisors of the G20 agreed to reinforce their systemic risk supervisory duties. For this purpose, several regulatory reporting obligations were imposed to the market participants. As a consequence, millions of trade details are now available to National Competent Authorities on a daily basis. Traditional monitoring tools may not be capable of analyzing such volumes of data and extracting the relevant information, in order to identify the potential risks hidden behind the market. Big Data solutions currently applied to the Social Network Analysis (SNA, can be successfully applied the systemic risk supervision. This case of study proposes how relations established between the financial market participants could be analyzed, in order to identify risk of propagation and market behavior, without the necessity of expensive and demanding technical architectures.

  3. The Renormalization-Group Method Applied to Asymptotic Analysis of Vector Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kunihiro, T

    1996-01-01

    The renormalization group method of Goldenfeld, Oono and their collaborators is applied to asymptotic analysis of vector fields. The method is formulated on the basis of the theory of envelopes, as was done for scalar fields. This formulation actually completes the discussion of the previous work for scalar equations. It is shown in a generic way that the method applied to equations with a bifurcation leads to the Landau-Stuart and the (time-dependent) Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is confirmed that this method is actually a powerful theory for the reduction of the dynamics as the reductive perturbation method is. Some examples for ordinary diferential equations, such as the forced Duffing, the Lotka-Volterra and the Lorenz equations, are worked out in this method: The time evolution of the solution of the Lotka-Volterra equation is explicitly given, while the center manifolds of the Lorenz equation are constructed in a simple way in the RG method.

  4. Ecosystem Services : In Nordic Freshwater Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Kristin; Hasler, Berit; Zandersen, Marianne

    Human wellbeing is dependent upon and benefit from ecosystem services which are delivered by well-functioning ecosystems. Ecosystem services can be mapped and assessed consistently within an ecosystem service framework. This project aims to explore the use and usefulness of the ecosystem service...... framework in freshwater management, particularly water management according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD). There are several examples of how ecosystem services have been used in WFD related studies in all the Nordic countries. Most of them involve listing, describing and categorizing freshwater...... ecosystem services, while there are few comprehensive Cost Benefit Analyses and analyses of disproportionate costs that apply this framework. More knowledge about ecosystem services and the value of ecosystem services for freshwater systems is needed....

  5. Designer ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Singh, Kripal; O'Grady, Audrey; Courtney, Ronan; Kalra, Alok; Singh, Rana Pratap; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Steinberger, Yosef; Patra, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in human population is accelerating the rate of land use change, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, triggering a serious threat to life supporting ecosystem services. Existing strategies for biological conservation remain insufficient to achieve a sustainable human-nature relatio

  6. Analysis of possibility of applying the PVDF foil in industrial vibration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.

    2015-11-01

    There are many machines using the piezoelectric effects. Systems with smart materials are often used because they have high potential applications for example transducers can be applied to receive required characteristic of projected system. Every engineer and designer know how important it is properly mathematical model and method of the analysis. Also it is important to consider all parameters of analyzed system for example glue layer between elements. Geometrical and material parameters has a significant impact on the characteristics of the all system's components because the omission of the influence of one of them results in inaccuracy in the analysis of the system. In article the modeling and testing of vibrating systems with piezoelectric ceramic materials transducers used as actuators and vibration dampers. The method of analysis of the vibrating sensor systems will be presented, mathematical model, and characteristics, to determine the influence of the system's properties on these characteristics. Main scientific point of the project is to analyze and demonstrate possibility of applying new construction with the PVDF foil or any other belonging to a group of smart materials in industrial sensors. Currently, the vibration level sensors are used by practically all manufacturers of piezoelectric ceramic plates to generate and detect the vibration of the fork.

  7. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : The Newspaper Publishing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Slot, M.; Nieuwenhuis, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers

  8. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : A quantitative overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Munck, S.G.E. de; Broek, T.A. van den; Plas, A.P. van der; Manshanden, W.J.J.; Rietveld, E.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers

  9. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : The Music Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Nieuwenhuis, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers

  10. PROOF as a Service on the Cloud: a Virtual Analysis Facility based on the CernVM ecosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Berzano, Dario; Buncic, Predrag; Charalampidis, Ioannis; Ganis, Gerardo; Lestaris, Georgios; Meusel, René

    2014-01-01

    PROOF, the Parallel ROOT Facility, is a ROOT-based framework which enables interactive parallelism for event-based tasks on a cluster of computing nodes. Although PROOF can be used simply from within a ROOT session with no additional requirements, deploying and configuring a PROOF cluster used to be not as straightforward. Recently great efforts have been spent to make the provisioning of generic PROOF analysis facilities with zero configuration, with the added advantages of positively affecting both stability and scalability, making the deployment operations feasible even for the end user. Since a growing amount of large-scale computing resources are nowadays made available by Cloud providers in a virtualized form, we have developed the Virtual PROOF-based Analysis Facility: a cluster appliance combining the solid CernVM ecosystem and PoD (PROOF on Demand), ready to be deployed on the Cloud and leveraging some peculiar Cloud features such as elasticity. We will show how this approach is effective both for sy...

  11. Ecosystems, ecological restoration, and economics: does habitat or resource equivalency analysis mean other economic valuation methods are not needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W Douglass; Wlodarz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    Coastal and other area resources such as tidal wetlands, seagrasses, coral reefs, wetlands, and other ecosystems are often harmed by environmental damage that might be inflicted by human actions, or could occur from natural hazards such as hurricanes. Society may wish to restore resources to offset the harm, or receive compensation if this is not possible, but faces difficult choices among potential compensation projects. The optimal amount of restoration efforts can be determined by non-market valuation methods, service-to-service, or resource-to-resource approaches such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). HEA scales injured resources and lost services on a one-to-one trade-off basis. Here, we present the main differences between the HEA approach and other non-market valuation approaches. Particular focus is on the role of the social discount rate, which appears in the HEA equation and underlies calculations of the present value of future damages. We argue that while HEA involves elements of economic analysis, the assumption of a one-to-one trade-off between lost and restored services sometimes does not hold, and then other non-market economic valuation approaches may help in restoration scaling or in damage determination.

  12. Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Lluís; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-10-01

    Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Besòs catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables.

  13. A general one-dimensional vertical ecosystem model of Lake Shira (Russia, Khakasia): description, parametrization and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopkin, I.; Mooij, W.M.; Janse, J.H.; Degermendzhy, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    A one-dimensional ecological model of the meromictic brackish Lake Shira (Russia, Khakasia) was developed. The model incorporates state-of-the-art knowledge about the functioning of the lake ecosystem using the most recent field observations and ideas from PCLake, a general ecosystem model of shallo

  14. Logistics Enterprise Development Analysis: Based on the Business Ecosystems%基于商业生态系统的物流企业发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏华

    2012-01-01

    分析了一般工商企业主导和物流企业主导的商业生态系统,得出中小物流企业应该选择缝隙型发展战略与多系统参与策略,以及基于商业生态系统理论的我国物流企业发展路径:少数企业通过不断提高竞争力,最终选择改变企业在生态系统的生态位或构建新的商业生态系统,成为骨干型企业从而主导物流生态系统。%Analysis of the general business-oriented and enterprise-led logistics business ecosystem, come to the conclusion that small and mediu,n-sized logistics enterprises should choose a gap-based development strategies and multi-system involvement in strategy, and based on the theory of business ecosystem development path of China's logistics enterprises: a small number of en- terprises to continuously improve the competitiveness of enterprises chose to change the ecology of the ecosystem or to buiht new business ecosystems, and thus become the backbone of enterprise-led logistics ecosystems.

  15. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. C.; Fujimaru, S.

    2012-12-01

    Time-of-arrival (TOA) analysis is applied to observations performed during ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. In 2012, a variety of ELF/VLF wave generation techniques were employed to identify the dominant source altitude for each case. Observations were performed for beat-wave modulation, AM modulation, STF modulation, ICD modulation, and cubic frequency modulation, among others. For each of these cases, we identify the dominant ELF/VLF source altitude and compare the experimental results with theoretical HF heating predictions.

  16. Applied behavior analysis treatment of autism: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, Richard M

    2008-10-01

    The treatment of individuals with autism is associated with fad, controversial, unsupported, disproven, and unvalidated treatments. Eclecticism is not the best approach for treating and educating children and adolescents who have autism. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) uses methods derived from scientifically established principles of behavior and incorporates all of the factors identified by the US National Research Council as characteristic of effective interventions in educational and treatment programs for children who have autism. ABA is a primary method of treating aberrant behavior in individuals who have autism. The only interventions that have been shown to produce comprehensive, lasting results in autism have been based on the principles of ABA. PMID:18775372

  17. Advantages and Drawbacks of Applying Periodic Time-Variant Modal Analysis to Spur Gear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune; Santos, Ilmar; Hede, Ivan Arthur

    2010-01-01

    A simplified torsional model with a reduced number of degrees-of-freedom is used in order to investigate the potential of the technique. A time-dependent gear mesh stiffness function is introduced and expanded in a Fourier series. The necessary number of Fourier terms is determined in order...... to ensure sufficient accuracy of the results. The method of time-variant modal analysis is applied, and the changes in the fundamental and the parametric resonance frequencies as a function of the rotational speed of the gears, are found. By obtaining the stationary and parametric parts of the time...

  18. Improving detection of differentially expressed gene sets by applying cluster enrichment analysis to Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu JianLei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene set analysis based on Gene Ontology (GO can be a promising method for the analysis of differential expression patterns. However, current studies that focus on individual GO terms have limited analytical power, because the complex structure of GO introduces strong dependencies among the terms, and some genes that are annotated to a GO term cannot be found by statistically significant enrichment. Results We proposed a method for enriching clustered GO terms based on semantic similarity, namely cluster enrichment analysis based on GO (CeaGO, to extend the individual term analysis method. Using an Affymetrix HGU95aV2 chip dataset with simulated gene sets, we illustrated that CeaGO was sensitive enough to detect moderate expression changes. When compared to parent-based individual term analysis methods, the results showed that CeaGO may provide more accurate differentiation of gene expression results. When used with two acute leukemia (ALL and ALL/AML microarray expression datasets, CeaGO correctly identified specifically enriched GO groups that were overlooked by other individual test methods. Conclusion By applying CeaGO to both simulated and real microarray data, we showed that this approach could enhance the interpretation of microarray experiments. CeaGO is currently available at http://chgc.sh.cn/en/software/CeaGO/.

  19. Understanding the mobile money ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobbin, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the structure of the new mobile money ecosystem and the roles of its key players. Mobile money is an evolving sector both in volume and in economic impact especially in the developing world. The paper is an exploratory study that investigates the structure of the ecosystem......, providing a foundation for future strategic analysis of the system. We adopt a theoretical insight from Moore's business ecosystem theory to explain the key roles of the actors in the mobile money ecosystem. And also draw extensively from the work of Iansiti and Levien to explain the best strategies...

  20. Science for Managing Riverine Ecosystems: Actions for the USGS Identified in the Workshop "Analysis of Flow and Habitat for Instream Aquatic Communities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencala, Kenneth E.; Hamilton, David B.; Petersen, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state agencies need improved scientific analysis to support riverine ecosystem management. The ability of the USGS to integrate geologic, hydrologic, chemical, geographic, and biological data into new tools and models provides unparalleled opportunities to translate the best riverine science into useful approaches and usable information to address issues faced by river managers. In addition to this capability to provide integrated science, the USGS has a long history of providing long-term and nationwide information about natural resources. The USGS is now in a position to advance its ability to provide the scientific support for the management of riverine ecosystems. To address this need, the USGS held a listening session in Fort Collins, Colorado in April 2006. Goals of the workshop were to: 1) learn about the key resource issues facing DOI, other Federal, and state resource management agencies; 2) discuss new approaches and information needs for addressing these issues; and 3) outline a strategy for the USGS role in supporting riverine ecosystem management. Workshop discussions focused on key components of a USGS strategy: Communications, Synthesis, and Research. The workshop identified 3 priority actions the USGS can initiate now to advance its capabilities to support integrated science for resource managers in partner government agencies and non-governmental organizations: 1) Synthesize the existing science of riverine ecosystem processes to produce broadly applicable conceptual models, 2) Enhance selected ongoing instream flow projects with complementary interdisciplinary studies, and 3) Design a long-term, watershed-scale research program that will substantively reinvent riverine ecosystem science. In addition, topical discussion groups on hydrology, geomorphology, aquatic habitat and populations, and socio-economic analysis and negotiation identified eleven important complementary actions required to advance the state of the science and to

  1. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : A quantitative overview

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Munck, S.G.E. de; Broek, T.A. van den; Plas, A.P. van der; W.J.J. Manshanden; Rietveld, E.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers. It also looks at the organisation of live performances and the exploitation of music copyright, though data on how these activities contribute to revenues in the sector are less systematically av...

  2. Statistical, Ecosystems and Competitiveness Analysis of the Media and Content Industries: The Newspaper Publishing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Leurdijk, Andra; SLOT Mijke; NIEUWENHUIS Ottilie

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers. It also looks at the organisation of live performances and the exploitation of music copyright, though data on how these activities contribute to revenues in the sector are less systematically av...

  3. Statistical, Ecosystems and Competitiveness Analysis of the Media and Content Industries: The Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Leurdijk, Andra; NIEUWENHUIS Ottilie

    2012-01-01

    music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers. It also looks at the organisation of live performances and the exploitation of music copyright, though data on how these activities contribute to revenues in the sector are less systematically available. The analysis integrates data from this project’s statistical report and includes a database of the ma...

  4. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : The Newspaper Publishing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Slot, M.; Nieuwenhuis, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers. It also looks at the organisation of live performances and the exploitation of music copyright, though data on how these activities contribute to revenues in the sector are less systematically av...

  5. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : The Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Nieuwenhuis, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers. It also looks at the organisation of live performances and the exploitation of music copyright, though data on how these activities contribute to revenues in the sector are less systematically av...

  6. Escalation research: providing new frontiers for applying behavior analysis to organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, S M

    2000-01-01

    Decision fiascoes such as escalation of commitment, the tendency of decision makers to "throw good money after bad," can have serious consequences for organizations and are therefore of great interest in applied research. This paper discusses the use of behavior analysis in organizational behavior research on escalation. Among the most significant aspects of behavior-analytic research on escalation is that it has indicated that both the patterns of outcomes that decision makers have experienced for past decisions and the patterns of responses that they make are critical for understanding escalation. This research has also stimulated the refinement of methods by researchers to better assess decision making and the role reinforcement plays in it. Finally, behavior-analytic escalation research has not only indicated the utility of reinforcement principles for predicting more complex human behavior but has also suggested some additional areas for future exploration of decision making using behavior analysis.

  7. Graphical Analysis of PET Data Applied to Reversible and Irreversible Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jean

    1999-11-18

    Graphical analysis refers to the transformation of multiple time measurements of plasma and tissue uptake data into a linear plot, the slope of which is related to the number of available tracer binding sites. This type of analysis allows easy comparisons among experiments. No particular model structure is assumed, however it is assumed that the tracer is given by bolus injection and that both tissue uptake and the plasma concentration of unchanged tracer are monitored following tracer injection. The requirement of plasma measurements can be eliminated in some cases when a reference region is available. There are two categories of graphical methods which apply to two general types of ligands--those which bind reversibly during the scanning procedure and those which are irreversible or trapped during the time of the scanning procedure.

  8. Analysis of the concept of nursing educational technology applied to the patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cruz Esmeraldo Áfio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed at analyzing the concept of educational technology, produced by nursing, applied to the patient. Rodgers´ Evolutionary Method of Concept Analysis was used, identifying background, attributes and consequential damages. 13 articles were selected for analysis in which the background was identified: knowledge deficiency, shortage of nursing professionals' time, to optimize nursing work, the need to achieve the goals of the patients. Attributes: tool, strategy, innovative approach, pedagogical approach, mediator of knowledge, creative way to encourage the acquisition of skills, health production instrument. Consequences: to improve the quality of life, encouraging healthy behavior, empowerment, reflection and link. It emphasizes the importance of educational technologies for the care in nursing, to boost health education activities.

  9. Functional analysis and applied optimization in Banach spaces applications to non-convex variational models

    CERN Document Server

    Botelho, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of real and functional analysis. It presents the fundamentals of the calculus of variations, convex analysis, duality, and optimization that are necessary to develop applications to physics and engineering problems. The book includes introductory and advanced concepts in measure and integration, as well as an introduction to Sobolev spaces. The problems presented are nonlinear, with non-convex variational formulation. Notably, the primal global minima may not be attained in some situations, in which cases the solution of the dual problem corresponds to an appropriate weak cluster point of minimizing sequences for the primal one. Indeed, the dual approach more readily facilitates numerical computations for some of the selected models. While intended primarily for applied mathematicians, the text will also be of interest to engineers, physicists, and other researchers in related fields.

  10. A comparative assessment of texture analysis techniques applied to bone tool use-wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Adam S.; Gleason, Matthew A.

    2016-06-01

    The study of bone tools, a specific class of artifacts often essential to perishable craft production, provides insight into industries otherwise largely invisible archaeologically. Building on recent breakthroughs in the analysis of microwear, this research applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and texture analysis techniques drawn from the field of surface metrology to identify use-wear patterns on experimental and archaeological bone artifacts. Our approach utilizes both conventional parameters and multi-scale geometric characterizations of the areas of worn surfaces to identify statistical similarities as a function of scale. The introduction of this quantitative approach to the study of microtopography holds significant potential for advancement in use-wear studies by reducing inter-observer variability and identifying new parameters useful in the detection of differential wear-patterns.

  11. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  12. Human attitudes in environmental management: Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and policy option simulations analysis for a coal-mine ecosystem in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Song, Jie; Su, Chao; He, Mengying

    2013-01-30

    Ecosystem management is a complex process, and every stakeholder's cognition plays a crucial role in it. In order to manage the ecosystem better, it is significant for the coal-mining environmental managers to choose appropriate measures, in accord with the stakeholders' interests. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards coal-mine ecosystems among stakeholders and then simulate policy options in a typical coal-mine region in China. The Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) method was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management model in research area. Combining the initial state of variables and the adjacency matrix getting from FCM, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to conduct simulations. The results found that among stakeholder groups' FCM model, 'air pollution' and 'water pollution' are the most frequently mentioned variables, while 'health effects' and 'expansion of related industries' are the core variables. However, different stakeholders expressed diverse perceptions on coal-mine ecosystem management. Mine workers paid more attention to occupational safety and their health impacts inducted by air and water pollution during coal-mine process. Local residents were concerned with local economic development and welfare facilities improvement; they also concerned their health impacts raised by coal-mine related problems such as air and water pollution, traffic and noises. Managers emphasized economic interests and environmental projects with immediate environmental effects other than long-term ecosystem improvement. Engineers mentioned more variables than other groups; they believed that air pollution, water pollution, soil erosion and biodiversity loss were important. Scenario analysis for policy simulation based on ANN suggested that the local governments and enterprises should place an emphasis on protecting farmland, increasing vegetation coverage, reducing solid contamination and improving energy efficiency to

  13. Adding value in oil and gas by applying decision analysis methodologies: case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marot, Nicolas [Petro Andina Resources Inc., Alberta (Canada); Francese, Gaston [Tandem Decision Solutions, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    Petro Andina Resources Ltd. together with Tandem Decision Solutions developed a strategic long range plan applying decision analysis methodology. The objective was to build a robust and fully integrated strategic plan that accomplishes company growth goals to set the strategic directions for the long range. The stochastic methodology and the Integrated Decision Management (IDM{sup TM}) staged approach allowed the company to visualize the associated value and risk of the different strategies while achieving organizational alignment, clarity of action and confidence in the path forward. A decision team involving jointly PAR representatives and Tandem consultants was established to carry out this four month project. Discovery and framing sessions allow the team to disrupt the status quo, discuss near and far reaching ideas and gather the building blocks from which creative strategic alternatives were developed. A comprehensive stochastic valuation model was developed to assess the potential value of each strategy applying simulation tools, sensitivity analysis tools and contingency planning techniques. Final insights and results have been used to populate the final strategic plan presented to the company board providing confidence to the team, assuring that the work embodies the best available ideas, data and expertise, and that the proposed strategy was ready to be elaborated into an optimized course of action. (author)

  14. Performance Analysis of Neuro Genetic Algorithm Applied on Detecting Proportion of Components in Manhole Gas Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar Ojha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents performance analysis of a real valued neuro genetic algorithm applied for thedetection of proportion of the gases found in manhole gas mixture. The neural network (NN trained usinggenetic algorithm (GA leads to concept of neuro genetic algorithm, which is used for implementing anintelligent sensory system for the detection of component gases present in manhole gas mixture Usually amanhole gas mixture contains several toxic gases like Hydrogen Sulfide, Ammonia, Methane, CarbonDioxide, Nitrogen Oxide, and Carbon Monoxide. A semiconductor based gas sensor array used for sensingmanhole gas components is an integral part of the proposed intelligent system. It consists of many sensorelements, where each sensor element is responsible for sensing particular gas component. Multiple sensorsof different gases used for detecting gas mixture of multiple gases, results in cross-sensitivity. The crosssensitivity is a major issue and the problem is viewed as pattern recognition problem. The objective of thisarticle is to present performance analysis of the real valued neuro genetic algorithm which is applied formultiple gas detection.

  15. Performance Analysis of Neuro Genetic Algorithm Applied on Detecting Proportion of Components in Manhole Gas Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar Ojha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents performance analysis of a real valued neuro genetic algorithm applied for the detection of proportion of the gases found in manhole gas mixture. The neural network (NN trained using genetic algorithm (GA leads to concept of neuro genetic algorithm, which is used for implementing an intelligent sensory system for the detection of component gases present in manhole gas mixture Usually a manhole gas mixture contains several toxic gases like Hydrogen Sulfide, Ammonia, Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxide, and Carbon Monoxide. A semiconductor based gas sensor array used for sensing manhole gas components is an integral part of the proposed intelligent system. It consists of many sensor elements, where each sensor element is responsible for sensing particular gas component. Multiple sensors of different gases used for detecting gas mixture of multiple gases, results in cross-sensitivity. The crosssensitivity is a major issue and the problem is viewed as pattern recognition problem. The objective of this article is to present performance analysis of the real valued neuro genetic algorithm which is applied for multiple gas detection.

  16. Lévy scaling: The diffusion entropy analysis applied to DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Latora, Vito; Grigolini, Paolo

    2002-09-01

    We address the problem of the statistical analysis of a time series generated by complex dynamics with the diffusion entropy analysis (DEA) [N. Scafetta, P. Hamilton, and P. Grigolini, Fractals 9, 193 (2001)]. This method is based on the evaluation of the Shannon entropy of the diffusion process generated by the time series imagined as a physical source of fluctuations, rather than on the measurement of the variance of this diffusion process, as done with the traditional methods. We compare the DEA to the traditional methods of scaling detection and prove that the DEA is the only method that always yields the correct scaling value, if the scaling condition applies. Furthermore, DEA detects the real scaling of a time series without requiring any form of detrending. We show that the joint use of DEA and variance method allows to assess whether a time series is characterized by Lévy or Gauss statistics. We apply the DEA to the study of DNA sequences and prove that their large-time scales are characterized by Lévy statistics, regardless of whether they are coding or noncoding sequences. We show that the DEA is a reliable technique and, at the same time, we use it to confirm the validity of the dynamic approach to the DNA sequences, proposed in earlier work.

  17. Spatial Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Functions and Services using Human Relating Factors for SDG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.; Kim, T.; Lim, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Application of ecosystem service concept in environmental related decision making could be numerical and objective standard for policy maker between preserving and developing perspective of environment. However, pursuing maximum benefit from natural capital through ecosystem services caused failure by losing ecosystem functions through its trade-offs. Therefore, difference between ecosystem functions and services were demonstrated and would apply human relating perspectives. Assessment results of ecosystem functions and services can be divided 3 parts. Tree growth per year set as the ecosystem function factor and indicated through so called pure function map. After that, relating functions can be driven such as water conservation, air pollutant purification, climate change regulation, and timber production. Overall process and amount are numerically quantified. These functional results can be transferred to ecosystem services by multiplying economic unit value, so function reflecting service maps can be generated. On the other hand, above services, to implement more reliable human demand, human reflecting service maps are also be developed. As the validation, quantified ecosystem functions are compared with former results through pixel based analysis. Three maps are compared, and through comparing difference between ecosystem function and services and inversed trends in function based and human based service are analysed. In this study, we could find differences in PF, FRS, and HRS in relation to based ecosystem conditions. This study suggests that the differences in PF, FRS, and HRS should be understood in the decision making process for sustainable management of ecosystem services. Although the analysis is based on in sort existing process separation, it is important to consider the possibility of different usage of ecosystem function assessment results and ecosystem service assessment results in SDG policy making. Furthermore, process based functional approach

  18. Identification of model structure for aquatic ecosystems using regionalized sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osidele, O O; Beck, M B

    2001-01-01

    The Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis (RSA) was developed in 1978, for identifying critical unknown processes in poorly defined systems, thus directing the focus of further scientific investigations. Here, we demonstrate its application to model structure identification, by ranking the constituent hypotheses and identifying the critical elements for progressive revision of the model. Our case study is Lake Oglethorpe--a small monomictic impoundment in South-eastern Georgia, USA. Recent studies indicate that the warm temperate regional climate affords an extended growing season--typically from March to October--which promotes bacterial productivity in the lake. The result is a summer food web dominated by microbial processes, in contrast to the conventional phytoplankton-dominated food chains typically observed in the cold temperate lakes of Europe and North America. Starting with a simple phytoplankton-based food web model and a qualitative definition of system behaviour, we use the RSA procedure to establish the critical role of bacteria-mediated decomposition in Lake Oglethorpe, thus justifying the inclusion of microbial processes. Further analysis reveals the importance of size-dependent selective consumption of phytoplankton and bacteria. Finally, we discuss important practical implications of this novel application of the RSA regarding sampling efficiency and statistical robustness.

  19. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA applied to the tomato fruit metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew V DiLeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in "omics" technologies have revolutionized the collection of biological data. A matching revolution in our understanding of biological systems, however, will only be realized when similar advances are made in informatic analysis of the resulting "big data." Here, we compare the capabilities of three conventional and novel statistical approaches to summarize and decipher the tomato metabolome. METHODOLOGY: Principal component analysis (PCA, batch learning self-organizing maps (BL-SOM and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA were applied to a multivariate NMR dataset collected from developmentally staged tomato fruits belonging to several genotypes. While PCA and BL-SOM are appropriate and commonly used methods, WGCNA holds several advantages in the analysis of highly multivariate, complex data. CONCLUSIONS: PCA separated the two major genetic backgrounds (AC and NC, but provided little further information. Both BL-SOM and WGCNA clustered metabolites by expression, but WGCNA additionally defined "modules" of co-expressed metabolites explicitly and provided additional network statistics that described the systems properties of the tomato metabolic network. Our first application of WGCNA to tomato metabolomics data identified three major modules of metabolites that were associated with ripening-related traits and genetic background.

  20. AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE FIRMS: BUDGETARY ADJUSTMENTS AND ANALYSIS OF CREDIT ACCESS APPLYING SCORING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bonazzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperatives are one of the most important types of companies in the agricultural sector. Cooperatives allow overcoming the limitations of the fragmentation of agricultural property, increasing the level of production of small-sized farms and selling the product so that it reaches a sufficient critical mass. Moreover, cooperatives are often characterized by undercapitalization and even difficult credit access because banks conduct their analysis applying rating systems that do not take into account the typicality of the cooperative budget. To assess this topic, in this article, an analysis has been conducted on a sample of 100 cooperatives, making adjustments to the annual budget in order to consider the typicality of their annual accounts. The results of the analysis show that suggested adjustments allow a more correct expression of the economic results and capital adequacy of the cooperative and that the results, expressed in terms of scoring, are higher than that achieved by a traditional analysis. This methodology could improve the credit access capacity for agricultural cooperatives and then reduce financial constraints, particularly in developing countries.

  1. Clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying rasch analysis in predicting of cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Doo Han; Lee, Jae Shin

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying Rasch analysis for predicting the level of cognitive impairment. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 187 stroke patients with cognitive impairment were enrolled in this study. The 187 patients were evaluated by the clock drawing test developed through Rasch analysis along with the mini-mental state examination of cognitive evaluation tool. An analysis of the variance was performed to examine the significance of the mini-mental state examination and the clock drawing test according to the general characteristics of the subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cutoff point for cognitive impairment and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity values. [Results] The results of comparison of the clock drawing test with the mini-mental state showed significant differences in according to gender, age, education, and affected side. A total CDT of 10.5, which was selected as the cutoff point to identify cognitive impairement, showed a sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, positive predictive, and negative predicive values of 86.4%, 91.5%, 0.8, 95%, and 88.2%. [Conclusion] The clock drawing test is believed to be useful in assessments and interventions based on its excellent ability to identify cognitive disorders.

  2. Ecosystems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Guhl Nannetti

    2015-01-01

    The article begins by referring to the evolution of engineering with the advancement of natural and physical sciences and the resulting specialization, which has blurred the boundaries of its integrating and holistic nature. This process is illustrated through the expansion of the programs and denominations in Colombia. Further on, it attempts to establish a relationship between engineering and sustainability, and it presents the strong impact of development on the planet's ecosystems, which ...

  3. The inter-annual variability of Africa's ecosystem productivity: a multi-model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Weber

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We are comparing spatially explicit process-model based estimates of the terrestrial carbon balance and its components over Africa and confront them with remote sensing based proxies of vegetation productivity and atmospheric inversions of land-atmosphere net carbon exchange. Particular emphasis is on characterizing the patterns of interannual variability of carbon fluxes and analyzing the factors and processes responsible for it. For this purpose simulations with the terrestrial biosphere models ORCHIDEE, LPJ-DGVM, LPJ-Guess and JULES have been performed using a standardized modeling protocol and a uniform set of corrected climate forcing data. While the models differ concerning the absolute magnitude of carbon fluxes, we find several robust patterns of interannual variability among the models. Models exhibit largest interannual variability in southern and eastern Africa, regions which are primarily covered by herbaceous vegetation. Interannual variability of the net carbon balance appears to be more strongly influenced by gross primary production than by ecosystem respiration. A principal component analysis indicates that moisture is the main driving factor of interannual gross primary production variability for those regions. On the contrary in a large part of the inner tropics radiation appears to be limiting in two models. These patterns are corroborated by remotely sensed vegetation properties from the SeaWiFS satellite sensor. Inverse atmospheric modeling estimates of surface carbon fluxes are less conclusive at this point, implying the need for a denser network of observation stations over Africa.

  4. Narrative ecosystems through the network analysis lens. Step one: The production of U.S. TV series, between capital and labor strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruffino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a first step in the investigation of the environment hosting narrative ecosystems through the tools offered by Social Network Analysis (SNA. The narrative ecosystem paradigm is a cross-disciplinary approach that considers vast narratives as the result of an ecosystemic design, where a general model is developed in advance as an evolutionary system. Consistently with this systemic view, our idea is to bring the relations among the components of the ecosystems and the environment that host them (i.e. the entertainment industry to the fore through the implementation of SNA. In order to do so, we focused on the relational patterns characterizing a sample of 164 U.S. TV series aired between 1984 and 2013. For each one of them, we collected data on executive producers, broadcasters, production studios, actors and writers. Through the analysis of the networks we obtained by computing the data, we drew some conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the ecological and evolutionary paradigm, the non-rigid and opportunistic patterns of alliances and coalitions among competitive firms, the relevance of the strategies of capital implemented by the firms and the strategies of labor implemented by the people.

  5. Common reduced spaces of representation applied to multispectral texture analysis in cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvo, Joris; Angulo, Jesus; Breugnot, Josselin; Borbes, Sylvie; Closs, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a technique of multivariate data analysis widely used in various fields like biology, ecology or economy to reduce data dimensionality while retaining most important information. It is becoming a standard practice in multispectral/hyperspectral imaging since those multivariate data generally suffer from a high redundancy level. Nevertheless, by definition, PCA is meant to be applied to a single multispectral/hyperspectral image at a time. When several images have to be treated, running a PCA on each image would generate specific reduced spaces, which is not suitable for comparison between results. Thus, we focus on two PCA based algorithms that could define common reduced spaces of representation. The first method arises from literature and is computed with the barycenter covariance matrix. On the contrary, we designed the second algorithm with the idea of correcting standard PCA using permutations and inversions of eigenvectors. These dimensionality reduction methods are used within the context of a cosmetological study of a foundation make-up. Available data are in-vivo multispectral images of skin acquired on different volunteers in time series. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the make-up degradation especially in terms of texture analysis. Results have to be validate by statistical prediction of time since applying the product. PCA algorithms produce eigenimages that separately enhance skin components (pores, radiance, vessels...). From these eigenimages, we extract morphological texture descriptors and intent a time prediction. Accuracy of common reduced spaces outperform classical PCA one. In this paper, we detail how PCA is extended to the multiple groups case and explain what are the advantages of common reduced spaces when it comes to study several multispectral images.

  6. IMPORTANCE OF APPLYING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS IN CASE OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, the saying predominates better and better according to which a strong target rationalism has to characterize the higher educational institutions due to the scarce resources and the limitlessness of user demands. Now in Hungary, the funding of higher educational system goes through a total transformation thus the leadership has continuously to reckon with the changes of environment and, in tune with these ones, has to modify the goals existing already. Nowadays, it becomes more and more important to measure the effectiveness of the organizations – organizational units pursuing the same or similar activities relative to each other. Benchmarking helps this procedure. Benchmarking is none other than such a tool of analysis and planning which allows comparing the organizations with the best of the competitors. Applying the method with regard to the higher educational institutions is really nothing but a procedure which focuses on comparing processes and results of the institutions’ different functional areas in order to bring to light the opportunities for the rationality as well as the quality and performance improvement. Those benefits could be managed and used as breakthrough possibilities which have been already developed/applied by other organizations and are given by the way leading to a more effective management.The main goal of my monograph is to show a kind of application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method in the higher education. DEA itself is a performance measuring methodology which is a part of benchmarking and uses the linear programming as a method. By means of its application, the effectiveness of different decision-making units can be compared numerically. In our forcefully varying environment, the managerial decision making can be largely supported in each case by such information that is numerically able to identify which organizational units and activities are effective or less effective. Its advantage is that

  7. SPATIAL AND MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE SURFACE WATER AND DEEP SEDIMENTS OF FRESH WATER AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantha Deivi Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of various trace metals present in water and sediment of fresh water aquatic ecosystem during the post monsoon season. The study was extended to identify the trace metal contamination in the water and sediment samples collected along the shores of Lambapur and Peddagattu the tribal villages in India using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPMS. The trace metal contents in water samples were copper- 24.2 to 47.5, chromium- 4.4 to 8.2, cadmium- 0.1 to 0.3, lead- 2.1 to 3.8, Nickel- 5.9 to 9.7, Zinc- 4.6 to 9.7, Manganese- 10.8 to 13.2, Iron- 52.9 to 157.2 (µg L-1 cobalt and arsenic were in BDL and the values were within the limits of Indian drinking water standards (BIS 10500: 1991. The trace metals concentration in the sediment samples ranged from (mg kg-1: Copper- 61.5 to 113.7, chromium- 138.4 to 177.5, cobalt- 33.2 to 42.7, cadmium- 1.0 to 2.1, lead- 57.9 to 103.4, Nickel- 36.1 to 56.6, Zinc- 51.2 to 102.1, Manganese- 610.8 to 1301.7 and Iron- 2.5 to 2.9%. In our study, four reliable indices such as Enrichment factor, Contamination factor, Geoaccumulation Index and Pollution Load Index were applied to estimate metal pollution and the results comparison are discussed below. The data generated were used to determine the quality of the sediments based on the enrichment factor, contamination factor and degree of contamination, geochemical index and Pollution Load Index (PLI.

  8. Retrospective analysis of bottlenose dolphin foraging: a legacy of anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Sam; Barros, Nélio B.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Stricker, Craig A.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Gandhi, Hasand; Wells, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    We used stable isotope analysis to investigate the foraging ecology of coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in relation to a series of anthropogenic disturbances. We first demonstrated that stable isotopes are a faithful indicator of habitat use by comparing muscle isotope values to behavioral foraging data from the same individuals. δ13C values increased, while δ34S and δ15N values decreased with the percentage of feeding observations in seagrass habitat. We then utilized stable isotope values of muscle to assess temporal variation in foraging habitat from 1991 to 2010 and collagen from tooth crown tips to assess the time period 1944 to 2007. From 1991 to 2010, δ13C values of muscle decreased while δ34S values increased indicating reduced utilization of seagrass habitat. From 1944 to 1989 δ13C values of the crown tip declined significantly, likely due to a reduction in the coverage of seagrass habitat and δ15N values significantly increased, a trend we attribute to nutrient loading from a rapidly increasing human population. Our results demonstrate the utility of using marine mammal foraging habits to retrospectively assess the extent to which anthropogenic disturbance impacts coastal food webs.

  9. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal dynamics of green house gases emission urban ecosystems of forest-steppe zone of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzhanov, Dmitrii; Vasenev, Viacheslav; Sotnikova, Iuliia; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change, mainly determined by increased anthropic emissions of green house gases (GHG) (CO2, CH4, N2O), is among the key contemporary environmental problems. Land use is a principal parameter, distinguishing GHG fluxed in terrestrial ecosystems. Urbanization increase is an important feature of recent land-use change. Formation of urban soils, which are significantly different form natural ones, is one of urbanization results. Urban soils provide a key element of urban ecosystems. Urban ecosystems located in forest-steppe zone in Central-Chernozemic region of Russia are of especial interest, since zonal soil in the region are represented by chernozems and dark grey soils, having the largest carbon stocks and the highest rate of soil respiration. Spatial and temporal variability of urban soil's respiration was carried out over vegetation seasons of 2013-2014 in different functional zone of the Kursk city: residential, recreational and industrial. GHG fluxes were measured once in 10 days before 12 am by chamber approach. CO2 flux was measured in situ using Li-820 close-path analyzer. Diurnal dynamic of CO2 efflux from soil was measured twice a year: in cold and warm season. Soil air samples were collected by syringe into glass vials and further analyzed on GC to estimate CH4 and N2O fluxes. Soil temperature and moisture was measured in parallel to soil respiration. CO2emission estimated for urban soils in 2013-2014 was 20-25% higher than in reference zonal soils. Obtained seasonal dynamics showed the highest СО2 emissions in August of 2013 (39-83 g СО2/m2 day) with further decrease by the end of October for major part of the plots. Significant diurnal dynamics was found for the case of the industrial zone. Maximal CO2 emission was obtained between maximal 40 g СО2/m2 day at 5 AM and 1 PM and minimal 28 g СО2/m2 day at 23 PM in June. Soil CO2 efflux was positively correlated with soil temperature (r = 0.65) and negatively correlated with soil

  10. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  11. UNCERT: geostatistics, uncertainty analysis and visualization software applied to groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingle, William L.; Poeter, Eileen P.; McKenna, Sean A.

    1999-05-01

    UNCERT is a 2D and 3D geostatistics, uncertainty analysis and visualization software package applied to ground water flow and contaminant transport modeling. It is a collection of modules that provides tools for linear regression, univariate statistics, semivariogram analysis, inverse-distance gridding, trend-surface analysis, simple and ordinary kriging and discrete conditional indicator simulation. Graphical user interfaces for MODFLOW and MT3D, ground water flow and contaminant transport models, are provided for streamlined data input and result analysis. Visualization tools are included for displaying data input and output. These include, but are not limited to, 2D and 3D scatter plots, histograms, box and whisker plots, 2D contour maps, surface renderings of 2D gridded data and 3D views of gridded data. By design, UNCERT's graphical user interface and visualization tools facilitate model design and analysis. There are few built in restrictions on data set sizes and each module (with two exceptions) can be run in either graphical or batch mode. UNCERT is in the public domain and is available from the World Wide Web with complete on-line and printable (PDF) documentation. UNCERT is written in ANSI-C with a small amount of FORTRAN77, for UNIX workstations running X-Windows and Motif (or Lesstif). This article discusses the features of each module and demonstrates how they can be used individually and in combination. The tools are applicable to a wide range of fields and are currently used by researchers in the ground water, mining, mathematics, chemistry and geophysics, to name a few disciplines.

  12. Global Appearance Applied to Visual Map Building and Path Estimation Using Multiscale Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Amorós

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a topological map building and localization system for mobile robots based on global appearance of visual information. We include a comparison and analysis of global-appearance techniques applied to wide-angle scenes in retrieval tasks. Next, we define multiscale analysis, which permits improving the association between images and extracting topological distances. Then, a topological map-building algorithm is proposed. At first, the algorithm has information only of some isolated positions of the navigation area in the form of nodes. Each node is composed of a collection of images that covers the complete field of view from a certain position. The algorithm solves the node retrieval and estimates their spatial arrangement. With these aims, it uses the visual information captured along some routes that cover the navigation area. As a result, the algorithm builds a graph that reflects the distribution and adjacency relations between nodes (map. After the map building, we also propose a route path estimation system. This algorithm takes advantage of the multiscale analysis. The accuracy in the pose estimation is not reduced to the nodes locations but also to intermediate positions between them. The algorithms have been tested using two different databases captured in real indoor environments under dynamic conditions.

  13. Multilayers quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis applied to easel paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viguerie, Laurence; Sole, V Armando; Walter, Philippe

    2009-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) allows a rapid and simple determination of the elemental composition of a material. As a non-destructive tool, it has been extensively used for analysis in art and archaeology since the early 1970s. Whereas it is commonly used for qualitative analysis, recent efforts have been made to develop quantitative treatment even with portable systems. However, the interpretation of the results obtained with this technique can turn out to be problematic in the case of layered structures such as easel paintings. The use of differential X-ray attenuation enables modelling of the various layers: indeed, the absorption of X-rays through different layers will result in modification of intensity ratio between the different characteristic lines. This work focuses on the possibility to use XRF with the fundamental parameters method to reconstruct the composition and thickness of the layers. This method was tested on several multilayers standards and gives a maximum error of 15% for thicknesses and errors of 10% for concentrations. On a painting test sample that was rather inhomogeneous, the XRF analysis provides an average value. This method was applied in situ to estimate the thickness of the layers a painting from Marco d'Oggiono, pupil of Leonardo da Vinci.

  14. Collaboration mechanism of intercity emergency rescue ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yiping; Zhao Lindu

    2009-01-01

    With the development of metropolitan regions and the appearance of urban agglomerations,cities have been more closely related.For the restricted emergency rescue resource in a single city,it has become more and more imminent for the demand of the intercity collaborative resistance to major accident,so as to improve the protection capacity of urban security.In order to find an effective intercity emergency rescue collaborative system,this paper introduces the concept and analysis method of ecosystem theory into intercity emergency rescue.Based on theanalysis of the formation-process of emergency rescue individual,population and community,a three-level intercity emergency rescue collaborative system is constructed according to the characteristics of dynamics and structure of intercity emergency rescue ecosystem,then the collaboration mechanism of information,resource and process in the intercity emergency rescue ecosystem is also studied in this paper,so as to offer available strategy and method for the ecosystem theory applied to intercity emergency rescue.Through the studies of intercity emergency rescue eco,system,it illuminates that the proposed emergency system can not only cope with the major accident more timely and effectively,but also integrate the intercity information resources and emergency rescue resource and process optimi,zation.

  15. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew L. Clark; Andrea E. Izquierdo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan) to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield) in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protecte...

  16. Possible Food Sources of Macrozoobenthos in the Manko Mangrove Ecosystem, Okinawa (Japan): A Stable Isotope Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah,; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropo...

  17. The Inter-Annual Variability Analysis of Carbon Exchange in Low Artic Fen Uncovers The Climate Sensitivity And The Uncertainties Around Net Ecosystem Exchange Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, E. L.; Lund, M.; Williams, M. D.; Christensen, T. R.; Tamstorf, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    An improvement in our process-based understanding of CO2 exchanges in the Arctic, and their climate sensitivity, is critical for examining the role of tundra ecosystems in changing climates. Arctic organic carbon storage has seen increased attention in recent years due to large potential for carbon releases following thaw. Our knowledge about the exact scale and sensitivity for a phase-change of these C stocks are, however, limited. Minor variations in Gross Primary Production (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) driven by changes in the climate can lead to either C sink or C source states, which likely will impact the overall C cycle of the ecosystem. Eddy covariance data is usually used to partition Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) into GPP and Reco achieved by flux separation algorithms. However, different partitioning approaches lead to different estimates. as well as undefined uncertainties. The main objectives of this study are to use model-data fusion approaches to (1) determine the inter-annual variability in C source/sink strength for an Arctic fen, and attribute such variations to GPP vs Reco, (2) investigate the climate sensitivity of these processes and (3) explore the uncertainties in NEE partitioning. The intention is to elaborate on the information gathered in an existing catchment area under an extensive cross-disciplinary ecological monitoring program in low Arctic West Greenland, established under the auspices of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program. The use of such a thorough long-term (7 years) dataset applied to the exploration in inter-annual variability of carbon exchange, related driving factors and NEE partition uncertainties provides a novel input into our understanding about land-atmosphere CO2 exchange.

  18. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  19. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems. PMID:27209800

  20. [Risk Analysis applied to food safety in Brazil: prospects and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana Virgínia de Almeida; Miranda, Maria Spínola

    2011-04-01

    The scope of this case study is to discuss the ideas of the Brazilian Codex Alimentarius Committee (CCAB) coordinated by National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality (Inmetro), with respect to the Codex Alimentarius norm on Risk Analysis (RA) applied to Food Safety. The objectives of this investigation were to identify and analyze the opinion of CCAB members on RA and to register their proposals for the application of this norm in Brazil, highlighting the local limitations and potential detected. CCAB members were found to be in favor of the Codex Alimentarius initiative of instituting an RA norm to promote the health safety of foods that circulate on the international market. There was a consensus that the Brazilian government should incorporate RA as official policy to improve the country's system of food control and leverage Brazilian food exports. They acknowledge that Brazil has the technical-scientific capacity to apply this norm, though they stressed several political and institutional limitations. The members consider RA to be a valid initiative for tackling risks in food, due to its ability to improve food safety control measures adopted by the government.

  1. Applying different independent component analysis algorithms and support vector regression for IT chain store sales forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wensheng; Wu, Jui-Yu; Lu, Chi-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting is one of the most important issues in managing information technology (IT) chain store sales since an IT chain store has many branches. Integrating feature extraction method and prediction tool, such as support vector regression (SVR), is a useful method for constructing an effective sales forecasting scheme. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a novel feature extraction technique and has been widely applied to deal with various forecasting problems. But, up to now, only the basic ICA method (i.e., temporal ICA model) was applied to sale forecasting problem. In this paper, we utilize three different ICA methods including spatial ICA (sICA), temporal ICA (tICA), and spatiotemporal ICA (stICA) to extract features from the sales data and compare their performance in sales forecasting of IT chain store. Experimental results from a real sales data show that the sales forecasting scheme by integrating stICA and SVR outperforms the comparison models in terms of forecasting error. The stICA is a promising tool for extracting effective features from branch sales data and the extracted features can improve the prediction performance of SVR for sales forecasting.

  2. Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis applied to forensic colour inkjet printer inks analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Małgorzata; Karoly, Agnes; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    Forensic laboratories are increasingly engaged in the examination of fraudulent documents, and what is important, in many cases these are inkjet-printed documents. That is why systematic approaches to inkjet printer inks comparison and identification have been carried out by both non-destructive and destructive methods. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE) were applied to the analysis of colour inkjet printer inks. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the chemical composition of colour inks in situ on a paper surface. It helps to characterize and differentiate inkjet inks, and can be used to create a spectra database of inks taken from different cartridge brands and cartridge numbers. Capillary electrophoresis in micellar electrophoretic capillary chromatography mode was applied to separate colour and colourless components of inks, enabling group identification of those components which occur in a sufficient concentration (giving intensive peaks). Finally, on the basis of the obtained results, differentiation of the analysed inks was performed. Twenty-three samples of inkjet printer inks were examined and the discriminating power (DP) values for both presented methods were established in the routine work of experts during the result interpretation step. DP was found to be 94.0% (Raman) and 95.6% (CE) when all the analysed ink samples were taken into account, and it was 96.7% (Raman) and 98.4% (CE), when only cartridges with different index numbers were considered.

  3. Independent comparison study of six different electronic tongues applied for pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pein, Miriam; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Ciosek, Patrycja; del Valle, Manel; Yaroshenko, Irina; Wesoły, Małgorzata; Zabadaj, Marcin; Gonzalez-Calabuig, Andreu; Wróblewski, Wojciech; Legin, Andrey

    2015-10-10

    Electronic tongue technology based on arrays of cross-sensitive chemical sensors and chemometric data processing has attracted a lot of researchers' attention through the last years. Several so far reported applications dealing with pharmaceutical related tasks employed different e-tongue systems to address different objectives. In this situation, it is hard to judge on the benefits and drawbacks of particular e-tongue implementations for R&D in pharmaceutics. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of six different e-tongues applied to the same set of pharmaceutical samples. For this purpose, two commercially available systems (from Insent and AlphaMOS) and four laboratory prototype systems (two potentiometric systems from Warsaw operating in flow and static modes, one potentiometric system from St. Petersburg, one voltammetric system from Barcelona) were employed. The sample set addressed in the study comprised nine different formulations based on caffeine citrate, lactose monohydrate, maltodextrine, saccharin sodium and citric acid in various combinations. To provide for the fair and unbiased comparison, samples were evaluated under blind conditions and data processing from all the systems was performed in a uniform way. Different mathematical methods were applied to judge on similarity of the e-tongues response from the samples. These were principal component analysis (PCA), RV' matrix correlation coefficients and Tuckeŕs congruency coefficients.

  4. A Genre Analysis of English and Iranian Research Articles Abstracts in Applied Linguistics and Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biook Behnam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, genre studies have attracted the attention of many researchers. The aim of the present study was to observe the differences in generic structure of abstract written by English native and non-native (Iranian students in two disciplines of mathematics and applied linguistics. To this end, twenty native English students’ abstract texts from each discipline and the same number of non-native (Iranian ones were selected. In this study, Hyland’s (2000 five‐move model was used to identify the rhetorical structure of the four sets of texts. After analyzing each text, the main moves were extracted and the frequencies of each one were calculated and compared. The cross-disciplinary and cross‐linguistic analyses reveal that linguistics abstracts follow a conventional scheme, but mathematics abstracts in these two languages do not exhibit the usual norms in terms of moves. Besides, greater difference in move structure is seen across languages in mathematics. The findings of the study have some pedagogical implications for academic writing courses for graduate students, especially students from non-English backgrounds in order to facilitate their successful acculturation into these disciplinary communities.Keywords: Genre Analysis, mathematics, applied linguistics

  5. Essays on environmental policy analysis: Computable general equilibrium approaches applied to Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis consists of three essays within the field of applied environmental economics, with the common basic aim of analyzing effects of Swedish environmental policy. Starting out from Swedish environmental goals, the thesis assesses a range of policy-related questions. The objective is to quantify policy outcomes by constructing and applying numerical models especially designed for environmental policy analysis. Static and dynamic multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium models are developed in order to analyze the following issues. The costs and benefits of a domestic carbon dioxide (CO2) tax reform. Special attention is given to how these costs and benefits depend on the structure of the tax system and, furthermore, how they depend on policy-induced changes in 'secondary' pollutants. The effects of allowing for emission permit trading through time when the domestic long-term domestic environmental goal is specified in CO2 stock terms. The effects on long-term projected economic growth and welfare that are due to damages from emission flow and accumulation of 'local' pollutants (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), as well as the outcome of environmental policy when costs and benefits are considered in an integrated environmental-economic framework

  6. The Process of Laying Concrete and Analysis of Operations Applying the Lean Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidmantas Gramauskas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers Lean philosophy ‘Just in Time’, a value stream map and total quality management principles applying them to the construction. In order to follow these principles, a case study was performed, thus observing and recording the process of laying concrete in three houses where a lower ground floor was casted employing fiber concrete. The collected data were required to fragment the process of laying concrete into smaller operations and examine each operation independently. The examination of operations was introduced in certain units of measurement – time, the number of workers, cubic meters of concrete used, space area, etc. This information helped with distinguishing useful operations from useless actions bringing no value to the product. The previously mentioned methods can be applied to useless operations to reduce their duration or even eliminate them. The main problem is the process of laying concrete splitting it into smaller operations, operation analysis and adaptation of Lean principles. The implementation of Lean system can reduce waste and increase the value of the final product.

  7. CONTROL AND STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE GMC ALGORITHM APPLIED TO pH SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzi J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control of the neutralization processes of the strong acid-strong base and the weak acid-strong base systems using the Generic Model Control (GMC algorithm. The control strategy is applied to a pilot plant where hydrochloric acid-sodium hydroxide and acetic acid-sodium hydroxide systems are neutralized. The GMC algorithm includes in the controller structure a nonlinear model of the process in the controller structure. The paper also focuses the provides a stability analysis of the controller for some of the uncertainties involved in the system. The rResults indicate that the controller stabilizes the system for a large range of uncertainties, but the performance may deteriorate when the system is submitted to large disturbances.

  8. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Fourth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study reported here has involved three separate tasks. The first task deals with the development of expected utility analysis techniques for economic evaluation of fusion research. A decision analytic model is developed for the incorporation of market uncertainties, as well as technological uncertainties in an economic evaluation of long-range energy research. The model is applied to the case of fusion research. The second task deals with the potential effects of long-range energy RD and D on fossil fuel prices. ECON's previous fossil fuel price model is extended to incorporate a dynamic demand function. The dynamic demand function supports price fluctuations such as those observed in the marketplace. The third task examines alternative uses of fusion technologies, specifically superconducting technologies and first wall materials to determine the potential for alternative, nonfusion use of these technologies. In both cases, numerous alternative uses are found

  9. Analysis Applied Multivariate to the Studies of Stability in the Reactors BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently work is presented the application of the analysis multivariate in the studies of stability of reactors BWR. For the confirmation of the applicability of the method of Hilbert Huang is used a group of series acquired neutronic during an outburst in the power station nuclear of Cofrentes. The peculiarity of the analyzed data is that they are not stationary and contaminated by the performance of other systems of the plant, for that that when applying the methods traditional autoregressive to these data, is values non realists of the DR In the work the DR is compared obtained by the methodology presented with the true DR and with the one obtained starting from the application of methods autoregressive to the original sign. The conclusion is evident, the value of the DR obtained by the methodology explained in this work is next to the one True DR that the resulting DR of the application of the method AR to the original sign

  10. Analysis of Robustness for Convex Optimization Applied to Array Antenna Pattern Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Torrealba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the convex optimization applied to the synthesis of the radiation pattern for linear antenna arrays. This study emphasizes the application of the convex optimization for the array pattern synthesis considering the simultaneous elimination of several zones interferences, reduction of the level of power in two space zones densely populated by interferences, as well as the variation of these zones in terms of proximity-distance of the source of interest, variation of the size of the interferences zones and the number of zones within the radiation pattern. Simulation results are provided. These results define certain levels where the linear array could be exploited to achieve a maximum performance.

  11. Wavelets, Curvelets and Multiresolution Analysis Techniques Applied to Implosion Symmetry Characterization of ICF Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Afeyan, Bedros; Starck, Jean Luc; Cuneo, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We introduce wavelets, curvelets and multiresolution analysis techniques to assess the symmetry of X ray driven imploding shells in ICF targets. After denoising X ray backlighting produced images, we determine the Shell Thickness Averaged Radius (STAR) of maximum density, r*(N, {\\theta}), where N is the percentage of the shell thickness over which to average. The non-uniformities of r*(N, {\\theta}) are quantified by a Legendre polynomial decomposition in angle, {\\theta}. Undecimated wavelet decompositions outperform decimated ones in denoising and both are surpassed by the curvelet transform. In each case, hard thresholding based on noise modeling is used. We have also applied combined wavelet and curvelet filter techniques with variational minimization as a way to select the significant coefficients. Gains are minimal over curvelets alone in the images we have analyzed.

  12. Applying high resolution SyXRD analysis on sulfate attacked concrete field samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, J. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlegel, M.-C. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Irassar, E.F. [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Buenos Aires Center State, Avenida Del Valle 5737, B7400JWI Olavarría (Argentina); Meng, B. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Emmerling, F., E-mail: franziska.emmerling@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SyXRD) was applied for a microstructural profile analysis of concrete deterioration after sulfate attack. The cement matrices consist of ordinary Portland cement and different amounts of supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash, natural pozzolana and granulated blast furnace slag. The changes of the phase composition were determined along the direction of sulfate ingress. This approach allows the identification of reaction fronts and zones of different phase compositions and conclusions about the mechanisms of sulfate attack. Two reaction fronts were localized in the initial 4 mm from the sample surface. The mechanism of deterioration caused by the exposition in the sulfate-bearing soil is discussed. SyXRD is shown to be a reliable method for investigation of cementitious materials with aggregates embedded in natural environments.

  13. Color changes in wood during heating: kinetic analysis by applying a time-temperature superposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Miyuki; Yokoyama, Misao; Umemura, Kenji; Gril, Joseph; Yano, Ken'ichiro; Kawai, Shuichi

    2010-04-01

    This paper deals with the kinetics of the color properties of hinoki ( Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood. Specimens cut from the wood were heated at 90-180°C as accelerated aging treatment. The specimens completely dried and heated in the presence of oxygen allowed us to evaluate the effects of thermal oxidation on wood color change. Color properties measured by a spectrophotometer showed similar behavior irrespective of the treatment temperature with each time scale. Kinetic analysis using the time-temperature superposition principle, which uses the whole data set, was successfully applied to the color changes. The calculated values of the apparent activation energy in terms of L *, a *, b *, and Δ E^{*}_{ab} were 117, 95, 114, and 113 kJ/mol, respectively, which are similar to the values of the literature obtained for other properties such as the physical and mechanical properties of wood.

  14. Econometrics analysis of consumer behaviour: a linear expenditure system applied to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In economics literature the expenditure system specification is a well known subject. The problem is to define a coherent representation of consumer behaviour through functional forms easy to calculate. In this work it is used the Stone-Geary Linear Expenditure System and its multi-level decision process version. The Linear Expenditure system is characterized by an easy calculating estimation procedure, and its multi-level specification allows substitution and complementary relations between goods. Moreover, the utility function separability condition on which the Utility Tree Approach is based, justifies to use an estimation procedure in two or more steps. This allows to use an high degree of expenditure categories disaggregation, impossible to reach the Linear Expediture System. The analysis is applied to energy sectors

  15. Challenges in the implementation of a quality management system applied to radiometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danila C.S.; Bonifacio, Rodrigo L.; Nascimento, Marcos R.L.; Silva, Nivaldo C. da; Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: danilacdias@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2015-07-01

    The concept of quality in laboratories has been well established as an essential factor in the search for reliable results. Since its first version published (1999), the ISO/IEC 17025 has been applied in the industrial and research fields, in a wide range of laboratorial analyses. However, the implementation of a Quality Management System still poses great challenges to institutions and companies. The purpose of this work is to expose the constraints related to the implementation of ISO/IEC 17025 applied to analytical assays of radionuclides, accomplished by studying the case of the Pocos de Caldas Laboratory of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy. In this lab, a project of accreditation of techniques involving determination of radionuclides in water, soil, sediment and food samples has been conducted since 2011. The challenges presented by this project arise from the administrative view, where the governmental nature of the institution translates into unlevelled availability resources and the organizational view, whereas QMS requires inevitable changes in the organizational culture. It is important to point out that when it comes to accreditation of analysis involving radioactive elements, many aspects must be treated carefully due to the their very particular nature. Among these concerns are the determination of analysis uncertainties, accessibility to international proficiency studies, international radioactive samples and CRM transportation, the study of parameters on the validation of analytical methods and the lack of documentation and specialized personnel regarding quality at radiometric measurements. Through an effective management system, the institution is overcoming these challenges, moving toward the ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. (author)

  16. Optical Image Analysis Applied to Pore Network Quantification of Sandstones Under Experimental CO2 Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrezueta, E.; González, L.; Ordóñez, B.; Luquot, L.; Quintana, L.; Gallastegui, G.; Martínez, R.; Olaya, P.; Breitner, D.

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to propose a protocol for pore network quantification in sandstones applying the Optical Image Analysis (OIA) procedure, which guarantees the measurement reproducibility and its reliability. Two geological formations of sandstone, located in Spain and potentially suitable for CO2 sequestration, were selected for this study: a) the Cretaceous Utrillas unit, at the base of the Cenozoic Duero Basin and b) a Triassic unit at the base of the Cenozoic Guadalquivir Basin. Sandstone samples were studied before and after the CO2 experimental injection using Optical and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), while the quantification of petrographic changes was done with OIA. The first phase of the rersearch consisted on a detailed mineralogical and petrographic study of the sandstones (before and after CO2-injection), for which we observed thin sections. Later, the methodological and experimental processes of the investigation were focused on i) adjustment and calibration of OIA tools; ii) data acquisition protocol based on image capture with different polarization conditions (synchronized movement of polarizers), using 7 images of the same mineral scene (6 in crossed polarizer and 1 in parallel polarizer); and iii) automated identification and segmentation of pore in 2D mineral images, generating applications by executable macros. Finally, once the procedure protocols had been, the compiled data was interpreted through an automated approach and the qualitative petrography was carried out. The quantification of changes in the pore network through OIA (porosity increase ≈ 2.5%) has allowed corroborate the descriptions obtained by SEM and microscopic techniques, which consisted in an increase in the porosity when CO2 treatment occurs. Automated-image identification and quantification of minerals, pores and textures together with petrographic analysis can be applied to improve pore system characterization in sedimentary rocks. This research offers numerical

  17. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ziemann

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors.We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events.We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness.We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  18. Applying Multiscale Entropy to the Complexity Analysis of Rainfall-Runoff Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel framework for the complexity analysis of rainfall, runoff, and runoff coefficient (RC time series using multiscale entropy (MSE. The MSE analysis of RC time series was used to investigate changes in the complexity of rainfall-runoff processes due to human activities. Firstly, a coarse graining process was applied to a time series. The sample entropy was then computed for each coarse-grained time series, and plotted as a function of the scale factor. The proposed method was tested in a case study of daily rainfall and runoff data for the upstream Wu–Tu watershed. Results show that the entropy measures of rainfall time series are higher than those of runoff time series at all scale factors. The entropy measures of the RC time series are between the entropy measures of the rainfall and runoff time series at various scale factors. Results also show that the entropy values of rainfall, runoff, and RC time series increase as scale factors increase. The changes in the complexity of RC time series indicate the changes of rainfall-runoff relations due to human activities and provide a reference for the selection of rainfall-runoff models that are capable of dealing with great complexity and take into account of obvious self-similarity can be suggested to the modeling of rainfall-runoff processes. Moreover, the robustness of the MSE results were tested to confirm that MSE analysis is consistent and the same results when removing 25% data, making this approach suitable for the complexity analysis of rainfall, runoff, and RC time series.

  19. Applying Chemical Imaging Analysis to Improve Our Understanding of Cold Cloud Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, A.; Knopf, D. A.; Wang, B.; Alpert, P. A.; Roedel, T.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.; Tivanski, A.

    2012-12-01

    The impact that atmospheric ice nucleation has on the global radiation budget is one of the least understood problems in atmospheric sciences. This is in part due to the incomplete understanding of various ice nucleation pathways that lead to ice crystal formation from pre-existing aerosol particles. Studies investigating the ice nucleation propensity of laboratory generated particles indicate that individual particle types are highly selective in their ice nucleating efficiency. This description of heterogeneous ice nucleation would present a challenge when applying to the atmosphere which contains a complex mixture of particles. Here, we employ a combination of micro-spectroscopic and optical single particle analytical methods to relate particle physical and chemical properties with observed water uptake and ice nucleation. Field-collected particles from urban environments impacted by anthropogenic and marine emissions and aging processes are investigated. Single particle characterization is provided by computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). A particle-on-substrate approach coupled to a vapor controlled cooling-stage and a microscope system is applied to determine the onsets of water uptake and ice nucleation including immersion freezing and deposition ice nucleation as a function of temperature (T) as low as 200 K and relative humidity (RH) up to water saturation. We observe for urban aerosol particles that for T > 230 K the oxidation level affects initial water uptake and that subsequent immersion freezing depends on particle mixing state, e.g. by the presence of insoluble particles. For T cloud formation. Initial results applying single particle IN analysis using CCSEM/EDX and STXM/NEXAFS reveal that a significant amount of IN are coated by organics and, thus, are similar to the

  20. Invasive plants have different effects on trophic structure of green and brown food webs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCary, Matthew A; Mores, Robin; Farfan, Monica A; Wise, David H

    2016-03-01

    Although invasive plants are a major source of terrestrial ecosystem degradation worldwide, it remains unclear which trophic levels above the base of the food web are most vulnerable to plant invasions. We performed a meta-analysis of 38 independent studies from 32 papers to examine how invasive plants alter major groupings of primary and secondary consumers in three globally distributed ecosystems: wetlands, woodlands and grasslands. Within each ecosystem we examined if green (grazing) food webs are more sensitive to plant invasions compared to brown (detrital) food webs. Invasive plants have strong negative effects on primary consumers (detritivores, bacterivores, fungivores, and/or herbivores) in woodlands and wetlands, which become less abundant in both green and brown food webs in woodlands and green webs in wetlands. Plant invasions increased abundances of secondary consumers (predators and/or parasitoids) only in woodland brown food webs and green webs in wetlands. Effects of invasive plants on grazing and detrital food webs clearly differed between ecosystems. Overall, invasive plants had the most pronounced effects on the trophic structure of wetlands and woodlands, but caused no detectable changes to grassland trophic structure.

  1. Balancing feedstock economics and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine the economic balance between production of cellulosic biofuel feedstocks and ecosystem services at the farm level. A literature review of the economics of ecosystem services, ecosystem service impacts of biofuel production, and economic factors influencing ...

  2. Applying Geostatistical Analysis to Crime Data: Car-Related Thefts in the Baltic States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Haining, Robert P; Ceccato, Vania

    2010-01-01

    Geostatistical methods have rarely been applied to area-level offense data. This article demonstrates their potential for improving the interpretation and understanding of crime patterns using previously analyzed data about car-related thefts for Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 2000. The variogram is used to inform about the scales of variation in offense, social, and economic data. Area-to-area and area-to-point Poisson kriging are used to filter the noise caused by the small number problem. The latter is also used to produce continuous maps of the estimated crime risk (expected number of crimes per 10,000 habitants), thereby reducing the visual bias of large spatial units. In seeking to detect the most likely crime clusters, the uncertainty attached to crime risk estimates is handled through a local cluster analysis using stochastic simulation. Factorial kriging analysis is used to estimate the local- and regional-scale spatial components of the crime risk and explanatory variables. Then regression modeling is used to determine which factors are associated with the risk of car-related theft at different scales. PMID:22190762

  3. ANALYSIS OF A WEB INFORMATION SYSTEM APPLIED MANAGEMENT SCHOOL OF COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGER CRISTHIAN GOMES

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the tasks of an entrepreneur is choose a computerized information system for the management of your business, regardless of their size and field of expertise. Having to determine if the information system will be modeling for local use, also known as standalone, or developed for the web, is becoming increasingly common, as the Internet, with its characteristics, greatly facilitates the work of the manager. However, can not simply deduct or take into account only the technological trends and market to resolve an issue that will require in the form of operation, administration and management. To choose between one or another type of system is necessary to examine the advantages and disadvantages of each model in relation to the business in question. This study aimed to list the main features intrinsic to web and stand-alone applications. The study of these two types of applications was based on analysis of an information system applied to a company to provide services in computer training. For the analysis of the information system were carried out a survey of the main requirements and modeling of a prototype. It was proposed to develop the system in a web environment, using the JAVA platform with the database manager MySQL, because the tools are complete, well documented, free, and with features that help to ensure the functionality and quality of the information system web.

  4. Bayesian flux balance analysis applied to a skeletal muscle metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, Jenni; Tunyan, Knarik; Calvetti, Daniela; Somersalo, Erkki

    2007-09-01

    In this article, the steady state condition for the multi-compartment models for cellular metabolism is considered. The problem is to estimate the reaction and transport fluxes, as well as the concentrations in venous blood when the stoichiometry and bound constraints for the fluxes and the concentrations are given. The problem has been addressed previously by a number of authors, and optimization-based approaches as well as extreme pathway analysis have been proposed. These approaches are briefly discussed here. The main emphasis of this work is a Bayesian statistical approach to the flux balance analysis (FBA). We show how the bound constraints and optimality conditions such as maximizing the oxidative phosphorylation flux can be incorporated into the model in the Bayesian framework by proper construction of the prior densities. We propose an effective Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme to explore the posterior densities, and compare the results with those obtained via the previously studied linear programming (LP) approach. The proposed methodology, which is applied here to a two-compartment model for skeletal muscle metabolism, can be extended to more complex models.

  5. Applying a resources framework to analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2008-12-01

    We suggest one redefinition of common clusters of questions used to analyze student responses on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation. Our goal is to propose a methodology that moves beyond an analysis of student learning defined by correct responses, either on the overall test or on clusters of questions defined solely by content. We use the resources framework theory of learning to define clusters within this experimental test that was designed without the resources framework in mind. We take special note of the contextual and representational dependence of questions with seemingly similar physics content. We analyze clusters in ways that allow the most common incorrect answers to give as much, or more, information as the correctness of responses in that cluster. We show that false positives can be found, especially on questions dealing with Newton’s third law. We apply our clustering to a small set of data to illustrate the value of comparing students’ incorrect responses which are otherwise identical on a correct or incorrect analysis. Our work provides a connection between theory and experiment in the area of survey design and the resources framework.

  6. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV & V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA IV&V was established in 1993 to improve safety and cost-effectiveness of mission critical software. Since its inception the tools and strategies employed by IV&V have evolved. This paper examines how lessons learned from the Phoenix project were developed and applied to the GRAIL project. Shortly after selection, the GRAIL project initiated a review of the issues documented by IV&V for Phoenix. The motivation was twofold: the learn as much as possible about the types of issues that arose from the flight software product line slated for use on GRAIL, and to identify opportunities for improving the effectiveness of IV&V on GRAIL. The IV&V Facility provided a database dump containing 893 issues. These were categorized into 16 bins, and then analyzed according to whether the project responded by changing the affected artifacts or using as-is. The results of this analysis were compared to a similar assessment of post-launch anomalies documented by the project. Results of the analysis were discussed with the IV&V team assigned to GRAIL. These discussions led to changes in the way both the project and IV&V approached the IV&V task, and improved the efficiency of the activity.

  7. Analysis of VIA and EbA in a River Bank Erosion Prone Area of Bangladesh Applying DPSIR Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to set up a comprehensive approach to the Vulnerability and Impact Assessment (VIA of river erosion and to suggest Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA practices. Based on the analysis of vulnerability using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR framework, this paper discusses some of the significant climatic (rainfall pattern, temperature, seasonal drift, cold wave and heat wave and non-climatic (river erosion, repetitive death of field crops and agrochemicals forces in the Kazipur Upazila (Sirajganj District—a river erosion-prone area of Bangladesh. Both primary (Key Informants Interview, Household Survey, and Focus Group Discussion and secondary (climatic, literature review data have been used in revealing the scenario of climatic stress. The analysis revealed a slightly increasing trend of mean annual temperature, and a decreasing trend of total annual rainfall from 1981 to 2015, which have been supported by people’s perception. This study found that river erosion, the increase of temperature and the late arrival of monsoon rain, excessive monsoon rainfall, high use of agrochemicals, and flow alterations are major drivers in the riverine ecosystem. These drivers are creating pressures on agricultural land, soil fertility, water availability and livelihood patterns of affected communities. Hence, floating bed cultivation, integrated pest management, use of cover crops, reforestation, the introduction of an agro-weather forecasting system, and a new variety of flood tolerant species have been suggested as potential EbA to cope with river bank erosion and to increase the capacity of the affected ecosystem.

  8. Non-Linear Non Stationary Analysis of Two-Dimensional Time-Series Applied to GRACE Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovative two-dimensional (2D) empirical mode decomposition (EMD) analysis was applied to NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)...

  9. Habitats as surrogates of taxonomic and functional fish assemblages in coral reef ecosystems: a critical analysis of factors driving effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Van Wynsberge

    Full Text Available Species check-lists are helpful to establish Marine Protected Areas (MPAs and protect local richness, endemicity, rarity, and biodiversity in general. However, such exhaustive taxonomic lists (i.e., true surrogate of biodiversity require extensive and expensive censuses, and the use of estimator surrogates (e.g., habitats is an appealing alternative. In truth, surrogate effectiveness appears from the literature highly variable both in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, making it difficult to provide practical recommendations for managers. Here, we evaluate how the biodiversity reference data set and its inherent bias can influence effectiveness. Specifically, we defined habitats by geomorphology, rugosity, and benthic cover and architecture criteria, and mapped them with satellite images for a New-Caledonian site. Fish taxonomic and functional lists were elaborated from Underwater Visual Censuses, stratified according to geomorphology and exposure. We then tested if MPA networks designed to maximize habitat richness, diversity and rarity could also effectively maximize fish richness, diversity, and rarity. Effectiveness appeared highly sensitive to the fish census design itself, in relation to the type of habitat map used and the scale of analysis. Spatial distribution of habitats (estimator surrogate's distribution, quantity and location of fish census stations (target surrogate's sampling, and random processes in the MPA design all affected effectiveness to the point that one small change in the data set could lead to opposite conclusions. We suggest that previous conclusions on surrogacy effectiveness, either positive or negative, marine or terrestrial, should be considered with caution, except in instances where very dense data sets were used without pseudo-replication. Although this does not rule out the validity of using surrogates of species lists for conservation planning, the critical joint examination of both target and estimator

  10. Temporal scales, ecosystem dynamics, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystems services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Lars; Koppen, van C.S.A.K.; Ierland, van Ekko C.; Leidekker, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Temporal dimensions are highly relevant to the analysis of ecosystem services and their economic value. In this paper, we provide a framework that can be used for analyzing temporal dimensions of ecosystem services, we present a case study including an analysis of the supply of three ecosystem se

  11. Quadratic Time-Frequency Analysis of Hydroacoustic Signals as Applied to Acoustic Emissions of Large Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, Ronan; Victor, Sucic; Damir, Malnar; Götz, Bokelmann

    2014-05-01

    In order to enrich the set of attributes in setting up a large database of whale signals, as envisioned in the Baleakanta project, we investigate methods of time-frequency analysis. The purpose of establishing the database is to increase and refine knowledge of the emitted signal and of its propagation characteristics, leading to a better understanding of the animal migrations in a non-invasive manner and to characterize acoustic propagation in oceanic media. The higher resolution for signal extraction and a better separation from other signals and noise will be used for various purposes, including improved signal detection and individual animal identification. The quadratic class of time-frequency distributions (TFDs) is the most popular set of time-frequency tools for analysis and processing of non-stationary signals. Two best known and most studied members of this class are the spectrogram and the Wigner-Ville distribution. However, to be used efficiently, i.e. to have highly concentrated signal components while significantly suppressing interference and noise simultaneously, TFDs need to be optimized first. The optimization method used in this paper is based on the Cross-Wigner-Ville distribution, and unlike similar approaches it does not require prior information on the analysed signal. The method is applied to whale signals, which, just like the majority of other real-life signals, can generally be classified as multicomponent non-stationary signals, and hence time-frequency techniques are a natural choice for their representation, analysis, and processing. We present processed data from a set containing hundreds of individual calls. The TFD optimization method results into a high resolution time-frequency representation of the signals. It allows for a simple extraction of signal components from the TFD's dominant ridges. The local peaks of those ridges can then be used for the signal components instantaneous frequency estimation, which in turn can be used as

  12. A variable age of onset segregation model for linkage analysis, with correction for ascertainment, applied to glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiangqing; Vengoechea, Jaime; Elston, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    We propose a 2-step model-based approach, with correction for ascertainment, to linkage analysis of a binary trait with variable age of onset and apply it to a set of multiplex pedigrees segregating for adult glioma.......We propose a 2-step model-based approach, with correction for ascertainment, to linkage analysis of a binary trait with variable age of onset and apply it to a set of multiplex pedigrees segregating for adult glioma....

  13. Applying independent component analysis to detect silent speech in magnetic resonance imaging signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Takikawa, Yoriko; Arai, Hajime; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) can be usefully applied to functional imaging studies to evaluate the spatial extent and temporal profile of task-related brain activity. It requires no a priori assumptions about the anatomical areas that are activated or the temporal profile of the activity. We applied spatial ICA to detect a voluntary but hidden response of silent speech. To validate the method against a standard model-based approach, we used the silent speech of a tongue twister as a 'Yes' response to single questions that were delivered at given times. In the first task, we attempted to estimate one number that was chosen by a participant from 10 possibilities. In the second task, we increased the possibilities to 1000. In both tasks, spatial ICA was as effective as the model-based method for determining the number in the subject's mind (80-90% correct per digit), but spatial ICA outperformed the model-based method in terms of time, especially in the 1000-possibility task. In the model-based method, calculation time increased by 30-fold, to 15 h, because of the necessity of testing 1000 possibilities. In contrast, the calculation time for spatial ICA remained as short as 30 min. In addition, spatial ICA detected an unexpected response that occurred by mistake. This advantage was validated in a third task, with 13 500 possibilities, in which participants had the freedom to choose when to make one of four responses. We conclude that spatial ICA is effective for detecting the onset of silent speech, especially when it occurs unexpectedly.

  14. Neutron Activation Analysis and High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Applied to Areal Elemental Distribution Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuiling (1967) applied both 'metallogenetic province' and continental drift principles to a study of the world-wide distribution of tin. A plot of tin deposit occurrences on the continents reconstituted as 'Pangeae' yielded 'tin belts' joining intercontinentally between the Americas, Africa and Europe. Discussions with Sir John Cockcroft and Sir Edward Bullard, in April 1967, led to this study of the applicability of automated, instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis techniques to large-scale areal elemental distribution determinations related to continental drift and to metallogenesis. The Enchanted Rock batholith, Llano, Texas, was selected as an initial area in which to apply this method on the basis of the availability of independent geochemical information concerning the pluton from Hutchinson (1956), Billings (1963) and Ragland (1968). Rock samples, including points from areas outside the batholith, were obtained at each of 16 sampling sites. One-gram rock samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of ≈2 x 1012 n/cm2 s for 2 hours. Six trace elements (Hf, Ta, Co, Eu, Sc and La), and one minor element (Fe), were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry utilizing a 19 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and a 3200-channel analyser, and were areally mapped. The results indicate continuous trends in each trace element, through various rock types, over a distance of greater than 50 miles. The trace elements of pyrite, chalcopynte and sphalerite obtained from the Philippine Islands were measured in order to apply this procedure to minerals in a location where their areal extent has not previously been extensively studied. The methodology described above was repeated. A set of average element abundances in chalcopynte, pyrite and sphalerite is suggested on which to base the presence or absence of an element province or combined elements provinces. Preliminary results indicate the presence of a gold province in the northwestern part of Luzon Island. This technique

  15. The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Biermann, Antje; Borer, Elizabeth T; Cebrián-Piqueras, Miguel A; Declerck, Steven A J; De Meester, Luc; Van Donk, Ellen; Gamfeldt, Lars; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Harpole, W Stanley; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Kleyer, Michael; Knops, Johannes M H; Lemmens, Pieter; Lind, Eric M; Litchman, Elena; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin; Martens, Koen; Meier, Sandra; Minden, Vanessa; Moore, Joslin L; Venterink, Harry Olde; Seabloom, Eric W; Sommer, Ulrich; Striebel, Maren; Trenkamp, Anastasia; Trinogga, Juliane; Urabe, Jotaro; Vyverman, Wim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Widdicombe, Claire E; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-05-19

    Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns of diversity-productivity relationships with respect to available resources. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the findings across ecosystem types ranging from aquatic ecosystems to grasslands and forests. As hypothesized, resource supply increased realized productivity and richness, but we found significant differences between ecosystems and study types. Increased richness was associated with increased productivity, although this effect was not seen in experiments. More even communities had lower productivity, indicating that biomass production is often maintained by a few dominant species, and reduced dominance generally reduced ecosystem productivity. This synthesis, which integrates observational and experimental studies in a variety of ecosystems and geographical regions, exposes common patterns and differences in biodiversity-functioning relationships, and increases the mechanistic understanding of changes in ecosystems productivity. PMID:27114584

  16. Ecosystem performance monitoring of rangelands by integrating modeling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen P.; Major, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring rangeland ecosystem dynamics, production, and performance is valuable for researchers and land managers. However, ecosystem monitoring studies can be difficult to interpret and apply appropriately if management decisions and disturbances are inseparable from the ecosystem's climate signal. This study separates seasonal weather influences from influences caused by disturbances and management decisions, making interannual time-series analysis more consistent and interpretable. We compared the actual ecosystem performance (AEP) of five rangeland vegetation types in the Owyhee Uplands for 9 yr to their expected ecosystem performance (EEP). Integrated growing season Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data for each of the nine growing seasons served as a proxy for annual AEP. Regression-tree models used long-term site potential, seasonal weather, and land cover data sets to generate annual EEP, an estimate of ecosystem performance incorporating annual weather variations. The difference between AEP and EEP provided a performance measure for each pixel in the study area. Ecosystem performance anomalies occurred when the ecosystem performed significantly better or worse than the model predicted. About 14% of the Owyhee Uplands showed a trend of significant underperformance or overperformance (P<0.10). Land managers can use results from weather-based rangeland ecosystem performance models to help support adaptive management strategies.

  17. Bias analysis applied to Agricultural Health Study publications to estimate non-random sources of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash Timothy L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations of pesticide exposure with disease outcomes are estimated without the benefit of a randomized design. For this reason and others, these studies are susceptible to systematic errors. I analyzed studies of the associations between alachlor and glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence, both derived from the Agricultural Health Study cohort, to quantify the bias and uncertainty potentially attributable to systematic error. Methods For each study, I identified the prominent result and important sources of systematic error that might affect it. I assigned probability distributions to the bias parameters that allow quantification of the bias, drew a value at random from each assigned distribution, and calculated the estimate of effect adjusted for the biases. By repeating the draw and adjustment process over multiple iterations, I generated a frequency distribution of adjusted results, from which I obtained a point estimate and simulation interval. These methods were applied without access to the primary record-level dataset. Results The conventional estimates of effect associating alachlor and glyphosate exposure with cancer incidence were likely biased away from the null and understated the uncertainty by quantifying only random error. For example, the conventional p-value for a test of trend in the alachlor study equaled 0.02, whereas fewer than 20% of the bias analysis iterations yielded a p-value of 0.02 or lower. Similarly, the conventional fully-adjusted result associating glyphosate exposure with multiple myleoma equaled 2.6 with 95% confidence interval of 0.7 to 9.4. The frequency distribution generated by the bias analysis yielded a median hazard ratio equal to 1.5 with 95% simulation interval of 0.4 to 8.9, which was 66% wider than the conventional interval. Conclusion Bias analysis provides a more complete picture of true uncertainty than conventional frequentist statistical analysis accompanied by a

  18. Solar energy conversion: an analysis of impacts on desert ecosystems. Final report, June 1, 1977-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, D.C.

    1978-05-01

    A research program is proposed to determine the response of desert ecosystems to the operation of various solar conversion systems. Existing solar powered irrigation pumping systems are described, as well as the 5 MW solar thermal test system at Albuquerque, the proposed 10 MW central receiver system at Barstow, and photovoltaic solar dispersed power systems. The theoretical ecological impacts of solar conversion system are described. Three major impact categories are discussed in detail: shading, wind deflection, and physical disturbance. Research needs necessary to evaluate biotic and abiotic changes in the desert ecosystem are delineated, and specific monitoring and manipulation programs for existing and proposed solar conversion sites are proposed.

  19. Stochastic stability and instability of model ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladde, G. S.; Siljak, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    In this work, we initiate a stability study of multispecies communities in stochastic environment by using Ito's differential equations as community models. By applying the direct method of Liapunov, we obtain sufficient conditions for stability and instability in the mean of the equilibrium populations. The conditions are expressed in terms of the dominant diagonal property of community matrices, which is a suitable mechanism for resolving the central problem of 'complexity vs stability' in model ecosystems. As a by-product of this analysis we exhibit important structural properties of the stochastic density-dependent models, and establish tolerance of community stability to a broad class of nonlinear time-varying perturbations.

  20. [Disinfection of water: on the need for analysis and solution of fundamental and applied problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokienko, A V

    2014-01-01

    In the paper there is presented an analysis of hygienic--medical and environmental aspects of water disinfection as exemplified of chlorine and chlorine dioxide (CD). The concept of persistent multivariate risk for aquatic pathogens, the own vision of the mechanism of formation of chlorine resistance of bacteria under the influence of biocides based on a two-step process of information and spatial interaction of the receptor and the substrate, the hypothesis of hormetic stimulating effect of residual active chlorine (in the complex with other factors) on the growth of aquatic pathogens have been proposed. The aggravation of the significance of halogen containing compounds (HCC) as byproducts of water chlorination in terms of their potential danger as toxicants and carcinogens has been substantiated. Analysis of hygienic and medical and environmental aspects of the use of chlorine dioxide as a means of disinfection of water allowed to justify chemism of its biocidal effect and mechanisms of bactericidal, virucidal, protozoocidal, sporicidal, algacidal actions, removal of biofilms, formation of disinfection byproducts. Chlorine dioxide was shown both to provide epidemic safety of drinking water due to its high virucidal, bactericidal and mycocidal action and to be toxicologically harmless in the context of the influence on the organism of laboratory animals as well as in relation to aquatic organisms under the discharge of disinfected wastewater. There has proved the necessity of the close relationship of fundamental and applied research in performing the first in terms of depth study of microbiological, molecular genetic and epidemiological problems of disinfection (chlorination) of water and the implementation of the latters by means of the introduction of alternative, including combined, technologies for water treatment and disinfection.

  1. Parameter estimation and determinability analysis applied to Drosophila gap gene circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Johannes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical modeling of real-life processes often requires the estimation of unknown parameters. Once the parameters are found by means of optimization, it is important to assess the quality of the parameter estimates, especially if parameter values are used to draw biological conclusions from the model. Results In this paper we describe how the quality of parameter estimates can be analyzed. We apply our methodology to assess parameter determinability for gene circuit models of the gap gene network in early Drosophila embryos. Conclusion Our analysis shows that none of the parameters of the considered model can be determined individually with reasonable accuracy due to correlations between parameters. Therefore, the model cannot be used as a tool to infer quantitative regulatory weights. On the other hand, our results show that it is still possible to draw reliable qualitative conclusions on the regulatory topology of the gene network. Moreover, it improves previous analyses of the same model by allowing us to identify those interactions for which qualitative conclusions are reliable, and those for which they are ambiguous.

  2. Discriminant Analysis Applied to the Time—Frequency Energy Vector in Noisy Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIANYe

    2003-01-01

    Robust speech detection in nolsy environment is an important front-end of speech processing such as speech recognition,speech enhancement and speech coding.Parameters frequently used for speech detection,such as the energy in time domain and the zero-crossing rate,exploit the properties of speech alone.Thus they show poor robustness to background noise.Speech detection in noisy environment should exploit the parameter with wihich speech and noise have maximum classification.In this paper,we propose a robust speech detection algorithm with heteroscedasitc discriminate analysis(HDA)applied to the time-frequency energy yector(TFEV).The TFEV consists of the log energy in time domain,the log energy in the fixed hand 250-3500 Hz.and the log Mel-scale frequency bands energy.Moreover,the bottom-up algorithm with automatic threshold adjustment is used for accurate word boundary detection.Compared to the algorithms based on the energy in time domain,the ATF parameter,the energy and the LDA-MFCC parameter,the proposed algorithm shows better performance under different types of noise.

  3. The evolution of the Journal of Applied Oral Science: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Valéria Cristina Trindade; Amadei, José Roberto Plácido; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make a brief diagnosis of the evolution of the Journal of Applied Oral Science (JAOS) between 2005 and 2007, by reviewing quantitative and qualitative aspects of the articles published in the JAOS within this period. All articles published in the JAOS in the time span established for this survey were analyzed retrospectively and a discussion was undertaken on the data referring to the main bibliometric indexes of production, authorship, bibliographic sources of the published articles, and the most frequently cited scientific journals in the main dental research fields. A total of 247 papers authored and co-authored by 1,139 contributors were reviewed, most of them being original research articles. The number of authors per article was 4.61 on the average. Regarding the geographic distribution, the authors represented almost all of the Brazilian States. Most published articles belonged to the following dental research fields: Endodontics, Restorative Dentistry, Dental Materials and Prosthodontics. The ranking of the most frequently cited scientific journals included the most reputable publications in these dental research fields. In conclusion, between 2005 and 2007, the JAOS either maintained or improved considerably its bibliometric indexes. The analysis of the data retrieved in this study allowed evaluating the journal's current management strategies, and identifying important issues that will help outlining the future directions for the internationalization of this journal. PMID:19082402

  4. Superposed epoch analysis applied to large-amplitude travelling convection vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    Full Text Available For the six months from 1 October 1993 to 1 April 1994 the recordings of the IMAGE magnetometer network have been surveyed in a search for large-amplitude travelling convection vortices (TCVs. The restriction to large amplitudes (>100 nT was chosen to ensure a proper detection of evens also during times of high activity. Readings of all stations of the northern half of the IMAGE network were employed to check the consistency of the ground signature with the notation of a dual-vortex structure moving in an azimuthal direction. Applying these stringent selection criteria we detected a total of 19 clear TCV events. The statistical properties of our selection resemble the expected characteristics of large-amplitude TCVs. New and unexpected results emerged from the superposed epoch analysis. TCVs tend to form during quiet intervals embedded in moderately active periods. The occurrence of events is not randomly distributed but rather shows a clustering around a few days. These clusters recur once or twice every 27 days. Within a storm cycle they show up five to seven days after the commencement. With regard to solar wind conditions, we see the events occurring in the middle of the IMF sector structure. Large-amplitude TCVs seem to require certain conditions to make solar wind transients 'geoeffective', which have the tendency to recur with the solar rotation period.

    Key words. Ionosphere (Aural ionosphere; Ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric Physics (current system

  5. Experimental and NMR theoretical methodology applied to geometric analysis of the bioactive clerodane trans-dehydrocrotonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Breno Almeida; Firme, Caio Lima, E-mail: firme.caio@gmail.com, E-mail: caiofirme@quimica.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros [Universidade Potiguar, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biotecnologia; Kaiser, Carlos R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Schilling, Eduardo; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-04-15

    trans-Dehydrocrotonin (t-DCTN) a bioactive 19-nor-diterpenoid clerodane type isolated from Croton cajucara Benth, is one of the most investigated clerodane in the current literature. In this work, a new approach joining X-ray diffraction data, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and theoretical calculations was applied to the thorough characterization of t-DCTN. For that, the geometry of t-DCTN was reevaluated by X-ray diffraction as well as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data, whose geometrical parameters where compared to those obtained from B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) level of theory. From the evaluation of both calculated and experimental values of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants, it was found very good correlations between theoretical and experimental magnetic properties of t-DCTN. Additionally, the delocalization indexes between hydrogen atoms correlated accurately with theoretical and experimental spin-spin coupling constants. An additional topological analysis from quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) showed intramolecular interactions for t-DCTN. (author)

  6. Enhancing DInSAR capabilities for landslide monitoring by applying GIS-based multicriteria filtering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, F.; Knospe, S.; Busch, W.

    2015-04-01

    Landslide detection and monitoring remain difficult with conventional differential radar interferometry (DInSAR) because most pixels of radar interferograms around landslides are affected by different error sources. These are mainly related to the nature of high radar viewing angles and related spatial distortions (such as overlays and shadows), temporal decorrelations owing to vegetation cover, and speed and direction of target sliding masses. On the other hand, GIS can be used to integrate spatial datasets obtained from many sources (including radar and non-radar sources). In this paper, a GRID data model is proposed to integrate deformation data derived from DInSAR processing with other radar origin data (coherence, layover and shadow, slope and aspect, local incidence angle) and external datasets collected from field study of landslide sites and other sources (geology, geomorphology, hydrology). After coordinate transformation and merging of data, candidate landslide representing pixels of high quality radar signals were filtered out by applying a GIS based multicriteria filtering analysis (GIS-MCFA), which excludes grid points in areas of shadow and overlay, low coherence, non-detectable and non-landslide deformations, and other possible sources of errors from the DInSAR data processing. At the end, the results obtained from GIS-MCFA have been verified by using the external datasets (existing landslide sites collected from fieldworks, geological and geomorphologic maps, rainfall data etc.).

  7. Molecular field analysis of trophic relationships in soil-dwelling invertebrates to identify mercury, lead and cadmium transmission through forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerić Jelaska, Lucija; Jurasović, Jasna; Brown, David S; Vaughan, Ian P; Symondson, William O C

    2014-08-01

    Contamination pathways in complex food chains in soil ecosystems can be difficult to elucidate. Molecular analysis of predator gut content can, however, rapidly reveal previously unidentified trophic interactions between invertebrates and thereby uncover pathways of pollutant spread. Here, we measured concentrations of the toxic metals lead, cadmium and mercury in carabid beetle predators and their prey. Invertebrates were sampled at one control and four heavy metal-polluted sites to reveal the impact of diet composition and seasonal variation in prey availability on metal burden in carabids and metal transfer pathways through forest ecosystems. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of carabid diet composition based on PCR analysis of gut contents at the forest community level, rather than in cultivated fields. Extensive screening using group- and species-specific primers revealed that carabids ate primarily earthworms and slugs, as well as smaller numbers of woodlice and springtails. Metal concentrations in carabids correlated with seasonal changes in diet. Mercury accumulated in beetle predators more than in their slug prey. As earthworms, slugs and carabid beetles are the major prey of many birds and mammals, prey-predator transfer and associated toxicity are major risks at mercury-contaminated sites. Carabids may be useful bioindicators for assessing the impact of pollutants on soil ecosystems, as long as species and seasonal factors are taken into account. PMID:24138157

  8. Anthropogenic impacts on the stability of the forest ecosystems in Belgrade - comparative analysis of Košutnjak forest and Zvezdarska forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašković Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be analyzed the environmental statusof the two recently protected forest areas in Belgrade -Košutnjak forest and Zvezdarska forest. Due to their specific position inside the urban structure, these park forests are exposed to the high level of pollution and degradation originating from anthropogenic sources. This paper will include all present forms of threats to the stability of these ecosystems, both in their immediate surroundings, as well as within their borders. For clear presentation of the devastating anthropogenic impact,on the protected forest ecosystems remote sensing - NDVI analysis of the appropriate satelite imagesegments will be preformed in order to detect the differences of the state of vegetation covers registrated in 1986 and 2010. According tothe need for efficient management system for the affected natural areas in the urban structure, in the end will be presented concrete protection measures, whose continous aplication can bring to the progradation of their state.

  9. Numerical analysis of the source-sink alternation of composite global warming potential of the paddy ecosystem in the Yangtze Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建栋; 周秀骥; 于强

    2003-01-01

    By coupling the biogeochemical model with plant ecological model, a model was established to reveal the principle of the composite global warming potential transformation in the paddy ecosystem. Validation of the model with the observed data indicated that the model can simulate both the crop growth processes and emissions of CH4 and N2O accurately. Some numerical analyses were made to identify the impacts of different fertilizer application on assimilation of CO2 and emissions of CH4 and N2O, and the transformation principle of the composite global warming potential. Based on the results of the numerical analysis, the source-sink alternation of composite global warming potential in the paddy ecosystem was discovered, and some new conceptions of fertilizer index such as maximum-sink fertilizer, zero-emission fertilizer are put forward in this paper. The fertilizer scheme for Yangtze Delta was proposed to provide the important scientific basis for a sustainable agriculture in this region.

  10. The "Discrete Trials" of Applied Behavior Analysis for Children with Autism: Outcome-Related Factors in the Case Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choutka, Claire Maher; Doloughty, Patricia T.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of case law concerning applied behavior analysis (ABA) for students with autism to determine outcome-related factors. The authors classified the 68 pertinent hearing/review officer and court decisions published in EHLR ("Education for Handicapped Law Report") and IDELR ("Individuals with Disabilities Education Law…

  11. Connecting Payments for Ecosystem Services and Agri-Environment Regulation: An Analysis of the Welsh Glastir Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne-Jones, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Policy debates in the European Union have increasingly emphasised "Payments for Ecosystem Services" (PES) as a model for delivering agri-environmental objectives. This paper examines the Glastir scheme, introduced in Wales in 2009, as a notable attempt to move between long standing models of European agri-environment regulation and emerging…

  12. 企业技术创新生态系统探析%Analysis of Enterprise Technological Innovation Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玉辉

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise's technological innovation is a dynamic ecosystem, which is similar to natural ecosystems. Technological innovation ecosystem is consisting of organizations for implementing and influencing innovation activities, systems and the surrounding environmental elements. Technological innovation ecosystem is a dissipative structure with the features of openness and target orientation. There is an orderly flow among system elements. The system has the characteristics of stability and balance. From the perspective of ecological systems, the paper studies technology innovation system, which will provide a new perspective for innovation management.%企业的技术创新活动形成一个动态的生态系统,该系统与自然生态系统有某些相似性.企业技术创新生态系统由实施和影响技术创新活动的机构、制度及周边环境要素的总和构成.企业技术创新生态系统是一种耗散结构,具有开放性和目的性,系统要素之间存在着有序的流动,系统具有稳定性和平衡性的特征.从生态系统的角度研究企业技术创新系统,将会给创新管理提供一种新的视角.

  13. Socio-ecological valuation of coastal ecosystems in Kenya: a GIS-based analysis linking goods and services from terrestrial forests, mangrove forests, seagrass beds and coral reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Mannaerts, G.; Said, M.O.; N. Koedam; Dahdouh-Guebas, F

    2009-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems often offer an abundant source of goods and services for local populations. However, it is difficult to find a balanced use of it without a deep analysis. Management policies lack of information to determine a proper use of these zones, the latter of which often suffer from human activity. In this context, the goal of the present study is to develop an evaluation method of the value of goods and services in the case study of Kenyan coasts through a cartographic analysis. Tr...

  14. Using Multi-Criteria Analysis for the Study of Human Impact on Agro-Forestry Ecosystem in the Region of Khenchela (algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzekri, A.; Benmessaoud, H.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to study and analyze the human impact on agro-forestry-pastoral ecosystem of Khenchela region through the application of multi-criteria analysis methods to integrate geographic information systems, our methodology is based on a weighted linear combination of information on four criteria chosen in our analysis representative in the vicinity of variables in relation to roads, urban areas, water resources and agricultural space, the results shows the effect of urbanization and socio-economic activity on the degradation of the physical environment and found that 32% of the total area are very sensitive to human impact.

  15. Developing bioproxies of past ocean ecosystem change through compound-specific stable isotope analysis of proteinaceous deep-sea corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, K.; Williams, B.; Mccarthy, M. D.; Etnoyer, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of current and future ocean conditions is framed by our ability to reconstruct past changes in ecosystem structure and function recorded in paleoarchives. One such archive, proteinaceous deep-sea corals, act as "living sediment traps" with the potential to greatly improve our ability to reconstruct long-term, high-resolution biogeochemical records of export production. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of individual amino acids (AAs) in deep-sea corals has provided highly detailed new tools to reconstruct changes in both plankton community composition and sources of nitrogen. However, to realize the full potential of CSIA in deep-sea corals, it is critical to better understand the link between the biogeochemical signatures of deep-sea coral polyp tissue and diagenetically resistant proteinaceous skeletal material. We conducted the first detailed comparison of δ13C and δ15N values for individual AAs between tissue and skeleton for three deep-sea coral genera (Primnoa, Isidella, and Kulamanamana). For δ13C values, we found minimal offsets in both essential and non-essential AAs across genera, strongly supporting coral skeleton AA fingerprinting as a new tool to reconstruct plankton community structure. Similarly, there was no significant offset in source AA δ15N values between tissue and skeleton, supporting the use of Phe δ15N as a proxy for baseline nitrogen sources. However, and rather unexpectedly, we found that the d15N values of the trophic AA group were consistently 3-4‰ lighter in skeleton than polyp tissue for all three genera. We hypothesize that this may reflect a partitioning of either N flux or pathways associated with AA transamination between polyp and skeleton tissues. This offset leads to an underestimate of trophic position using current CSIA-based calculations. Overall, our work strongly supports the applicability of CSIA in proteinaceous deep-sea corals to reconstruct past changes in biogeochemical cycling

  16. Identification and analysis of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic carbon in subglacial basal ice ecosystems by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emily C.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Lis, Grzegorz P.; Tranter, Martyn; Pickard, Amy E.; Stibal, Marek; Dewsbury, Paul; Fitzsimons, Sean

    2016-07-01

    Determining the concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in glacial ecosystems is important for assessments of in situ microbial activity and contributions to wider biogeochemical cycles. Nonetheless, there is limited knowledge of the abundance and character of DOC in basal ice and the subglacial environment and a lack of quantitative data on low-molecular-weight (LMW) DOC components, which are believed to be highly bioavailable to microorganisms. We investigated the abundance and composition of DOC in basal ice via a molecular-level DOC analysis. Spectrofluorometry and a novel ion chromatographic method, which has been little utilized in glacial science for LMW-DOC determinations, were employed to identify and quantify the major LMW fractions (free amino acids, carbohydrates, and carboxylic acids) in basal ice from four glaciers, each with a different type of overridden material (i.e. the pre-entrainment sedimentary type such as lacustrine material or palaeosols). Basal ice from Joyce Glacier (Antarctica) was unique in that 98 % of the LMW-DOC was derived from the extremely diverse free amino acid (FAA) pool, comprising 14 FAAs. LMW-DOC concentrations in basal ice were dependent on the bioavailability of the overridden organic carbon (OC), which in turn was influenced by the type of overridden material. Mean LMW-DOC concentrations in basal ice from Russell Glacier (Greenland), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard), and Engabreen (Norway) were low (0-417 nM C), attributed to the relatively refractory nature of the OC in the overridden palaeosols and bedrock. In contrast, mean LMW-DOC concentrations were an order of magnitude higher (4430 nM C) in basal ice from Joyce Glacier, a reflection of the high bioavailability of the overridden lacustrine material (> 17 % of the sediment OC comprised extractable carbohydrates, a proxy for bioavailable OC). We find that the overridden material may act as a direct (via abiotic leaching) and indirect (via

  17. Analysis of the Possibility of Required Resources Estimation for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Applying BIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Estimation of decommissioning cost, decommissioning strategy, and decommissioning quantity at the time when entering into any decommissioning plans are some elements whose inputs are mandatory for nuclear power plant decommissioning. Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. This study aims at analyzing whether required resources for decommissioning nuclear power plants can be estimated, applying BIM. To achieve this goal, this study analyzed the status quo of BIM such as definition, characteristics, and areas applied, and made use of them when drawing out study results by examining types and features of the tools realizing BIM. In order to review how BIM could be used for decommissioning nuclear power plants, the definition, characteristics and applied areas of BIM were discussed. BIM designs objects of the structures (walls, slabs, pillars, stairs, windows and doors, etc.) by 3D technology and endows attribute (function, structure and usage) information for each object, thereby providing visualized information of structures for participants in construction projects. Major characteristics of BIM attribute information are as follows: - Geometry: The information of objects is represented by measurable geometric information - Extensible object attributes: Objects include pre-defined attributes, and allow extension of other attributes. Any model that includes these attributes forms relationships with other various attributes in order to perform analysis and simulation. - All information including the attributes are integrated to ensure continuity, accuracy and accessibility, and all information used during the life cycle of structures are supported. This means that when information of required resources is added as another attributes other than geometric

  18. Mapping tsunami impacts on land cover and related ecosystem service supply in Phang Nga, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, G.; Burkhard, B.; Römer, H.; Sangkaew, S.; Graterol, R.; Haitook, T.; Sterr, H.; Sakuna-Schwartz, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused damages to coastal ecosystems and thus affected the livelihoods of the coastal communities who depend on services provided by these ecosystems. The paper presents a case study on evaluating and mapping the spatial and temporal impacts of the tsunami on land use and land cover (LULC) and related ecosystem service supply in the Phang Nga province, Thailand. The method includes local stakeholder interviews, field investigations, remote-sensing techniques, and GIS. Results provide an ecosystem services matrix with capacity scores for 18 LULC classes and 17 ecosystem functions and services as well as pre-/post-tsunami and recovery maps indicating changes in the ecosystem service supply capacities in the study area. Local stakeholder interviews revealed that mangroves, casuarina forest, mixed beach forest, coral reefs, tidal inlets, as well as wetlands (peat swamp forest) have the highest capacity to supply ecosystem services, while e.g. plantations have a lower capacity. The remote-sensing based damage and recovery analysis showed a loss of the ecosystem service supply capacities in almost all LULC classes for most of the services due to the tsunami. A fast recovery of LULC and related ecosystem service supply capacities within one year could be observed for e.g. beaches, while mangroves or casuarina forest needed several years to recover. Applying multi-temporal mapping the spatial variations of recovery could be visualised. While some patches of coastal forest were fully recovered after 3 yr, other patches were still affected and thus had a reduced capacity to supply ecosystem services. The ecosystem services maps can be used to quantify ecological values and their spatial distribution in the framework of a tsunami risk assessment. Beyond that they are considered to be a useful tool for spatial analysis in coastal risk management in Phang Nga.

  19. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  20. Microbial Ecosystems, Protection of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Conservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes; Preservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes Definition The use, management, and conservation of ecosystems in order to preserve microbial diversity and functioning. Introdu