WorldWideScience

Sample records for applied ecosystem analysis

  1. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - - a Primer : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual.

  2. Applied ecosystem analysis - a primer; the ecosystem diagnosis and treatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual

  3. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980`s the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born.

  4. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background EDT - The Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980's the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born

  5. Hot spot analysis applied to identify ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva

    2016-04-01

    Hot spot analysis are very useful to identify areas with similar characteristics. This is important for a sustainable use of the territory, since we can identify areas that need to be protected, or restored. This is a great advantage in terms of land use planning and management, since we can allocate resources, reduce the economical costs and do a better intervention in the landscape. Ecosystem services (ES) are different according land use. Since landscape is very heterogeneous, it is of major importance understand their spatial pattern and where are located the areas that provide better ES and the others that provide less services. The objective of this work is to use hot-spot analysis to identify areas with the most valuable ES in Lithuania. CORINE land-cover (CLC) of 2006 was used as the main spatial information. This classification uses a grid of 100 m resolution and extracted a total of 31 land use types. ES ranking was carried out based on expert knowledge. They were asked to evaluate the ES potential of each different CLC from 0 (no potential) to 5 (very high potential). Hot spot analysis were evaluated using the Getis-ord test, which identifies cluster analysis available in ArcGIS toolbox. This tool identifies areas with significantly high low values and significant high values at a p level of 0.05. In this work we used hot spot analysis to assess the distribution of providing, regulating cultural and total (sum of the previous 3) ES. The Z value calculated from Getis-ord was used to statistical analysis to access the clusters of providing, regulating cultural and total ES. ES with high Z value show that they have a high number of cluster areas with high potential of ES. The results showed that the Z-score was significantly different among services (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA =834. 607, pcultural (0.080±1.979) and regulating (0.076±1.961). These results suggested that providing services are more clustered than the remaining. Ecosystem Services Z score were

  6. Biology of Applied Digital Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, G.; Sadedin, S.; Paperin, G.

    2007-01-01

    A primary motivation for our research in Digital Ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. However, the biological processes that contribute to these properties have not been made explicit in Digital Ecosystems research. Here, we discuss how biological properties contribute to the self-organising features of biological ecosystem...

  7. Computing of Applied Digital Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G

    2009-01-01

    A primary motivation for our research in digital ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. However, the computing technologies that contribute to these properties have not been made explicit in digital ecosystems research. Here, we discuss how different computing technologies can contribute to providing the necessary self-organising features, including Multi-Agent Systems, Service-Oriented Architectures, and distributed evolutionary computing. The potential for exploiting these properties in digital ecosystems is considered, suggesting how several key features of biological ecosystems can be exploited in Digital Ecosystems, and discussing how mimicking these features may assist in developing robust, scalable self-organising architectures. An example architecture, the Digital Ecosystem, is considered in detail. The Digital Ecosystem is then measu...

  8. Hot spot analysis applied to identify ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva

    2016-04-01

    Hot spot analysis are very useful to identify areas with similar characteristics. This is important for a sustainable use of the territory, since we can identify areas that need to be protected, or restored. This is a great advantage in terms of land use planning and management, since we can allocate resources, reduce the economical costs and do a better intervention in the landscape. Ecosystem services (ES) are different according land use. Since landscape is very heterogeneous, it is of major importance understand their spatial pattern and where are located the areas that provide better ES and the others that provide less services. The objective of this work is to use hot-spot analysis to identify areas with the most valuable ES in Lithuania. CORINE land-cover (CLC) of 2006 was used as the main spatial information. This classification uses a grid of 100 m resolution and extracted a total of 31 land use types. ES ranking was carried out based on expert knowledge. They were asked to evaluate the ES potential of each different CLC from 0 (no potential) to 5 (very high potential). Hot spot analysis were evaluated using the Getis-ord test, which identifies cluster analysis available in ArcGIS toolbox. This tool identifies areas with significantly high low values and significant high values at a p level of 0.05. In this work we used hot spot analysis to assess the distribution of providing, regulating cultural and total (sum of the previous 3) ES. The Z value calculated from Getis-ord was used to statistical analysis to access the clusters of providing, regulating cultural and total ES. ES with high Z value show that they have a high number of cluster areas with high potential of ES. The results showed that the Z-score was significantly different among services (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA =834. 607, p<0.001). The Z score of providing services (0.096±2.239) were significantly higher than the total (0.093±2.045), cultural (0.080±1.979) and regulating (0.076±1.961). These

  9. Biology of Applied Digital Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G; Paperin, G

    2007-01-01

    A primary motivation for research in digital ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of natural ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. However, the biological processes that contribute to these properties have not been made explicit in digital ecosystem research. Here, we discuss how biological properties contribute to the self-organising features of natural ecosystems. These properties include populations of evolving agents, a complex dynamic environment, and spatial distributions which generate local interactions. The potential for exploiting these properties in artificial systems is then considered. An example architecture, the Digital Business Ecosystem (DBE), is considered in detail. Simulation results imply that the DBE performs better at large scales than a comparable service-oriented architecture. These results suggest that incorporating ideas from theoretical ecology can contribute to u...

  10. Network analysis as a tool for assessing environmental sustainability: applying the ecosystem perspective to a Danish water management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Scotti, Marco; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    highly efficient at processing the water resource, but the rigid and almost linear structure makes it vulnerable in situations of stress such as heavy rain events. The analysis of future scenarios showed a trend towards increased sustainability, but differences between past and expected future...... patterns of growth and development. We applied Network Analysis (NA) for assessing the sustainability of a Danish municipal Water Management System (WMS). We identified water users within the WMS and represented their interactions as a network of water flows. We computed intensive and extensive indices of...

  11. Applied analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lanczos, Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    Basic text for graduate and advanced undergraduate deals with search for roots of algebraic equations encountered in vibration and flutter problems and in those of static and dynamic stability. Other topics devoted to matrices and eigenvalue problems, large-scale linear systems, harmonic analysis and data analysis, more.

  12. Valuing ecosystems : a methodological applying approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the ecosystem’s valuation framework is described and discussed at a conceptual and formal level. Following utilitarianism and the capital asset analogy, one defines the concept of ecosystem value and how to quantify it by using individual preference based techniques rooted in welfare economics, namely stated individual preference techniques like Contingent Valuation. Several controversial questions arise when one tries to compute ecosystem’s value by using utilitarianism and the...

  13. Handbook of Applied Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.

  14. Applying the Ecosystem Services Concept to Public Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine the challenges opportunities involved in applying ecosystem services to public lands management, with an emphasis on the work of the USDA Forest Service. We review the history of economics approaches to landscape management, outline a conceptual framework defining the ...

  15. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijerman, Mariska; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Brainard, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis) to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings) and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated ‘full regulation’ scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario. PMID:27023183

  16. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijerman, Mariska; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Brainard, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis) to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings) and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated 'full regulation' scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario. PMID:27023183

  17. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  18. Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  19. Applied multivariate statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners.  It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added.  All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior.  All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...

  20. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  1. Biosurveillance Ecosystem (BSVE) Workflow Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dasey, Timothy; Reynolds, Hayley Davison; Nurthen, Nancy; Kiley, Christopher; Silva, John

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Defense Threat Reduction Agency Chemical and Biological Technologies Directorate (DTRA CB) has initiated the Biosurveillance Ecosystem (BSVE) research and development program. Operational biosurveillance capability gaps were analyzed and the required characteristics of new technology were outlined, the results of which will be described in this contribution. Methods Work process flow diagrams, with associated explanations and historical examples, were developed based on in-pe...

  2. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oden, J Tinsley

    2010-01-01

    The textbook is designed to drive a crash course for beginning graduate students majoring in something besides mathematics, introducing mathematical foundations that lead to classical results in functional analysis. More specifically, Oden and Demkowicz want to prepare students to learn the variational theory of partial differential equations, distributions, and Sobolev spaces and numerical analysis with an emphasis on finite element methods. The 1996 first edition has been used in a rather intensive two-semester course. -Book News, June 2010

  3. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Griffel, DH

    2002-01-01

    A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the

  4. Women in applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Donahoe, Patricia; Swindell, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    The status of women in applied behavior analysis was examined by comparing the participation of women in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) to their participation in three similar journals. For all journals, the percentage of articles with at least one female author, the percentage of authors who are female, and the percentage of articles with a female first author increased from 1978 to 1997. Participation by women in JABA was equal to or greater than participation by women in t...

  5. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...

  6. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  7. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  8. Analysis and design of software ecosystem architectures – towards the 4S telemedicine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kyng, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    application stove-pipes that inhibit the adoption of telemedical solutions. To which extent can a software ecosystem approach to telemedicine alleviate this? Objective In this article, we define the concept of software ecosystem architecture as the structure(s) of a software ecosystem comprising elements......, relations among them, and properties of both. Our objective is to show how this concept can be used i) in the analysis of existing software ecosystems and ii) in the design of new software ecosystems. Method We performed a mixed-method study that consisted of a case study and an experiment. For i), we...... performed a descriptive, revelatory case study of the Danish telemedicine ecosystem and for ii), we experimentally designed, implemented, and evaluated the architecture of 4S. Results We contribute in three areas. First, we define the software ecosystem architecture concept that captures organization...

  9. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. A review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors

  10. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects: a review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B.; Synnot, H. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors.

  11. [Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria of extreme ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Parfenova, V V; Bel'kova, N L; Sukhanova, E V; Gladka, G V; Tashireva, A A

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria of the two extreme regions (Dead Sea and West Antarctic) was performed on the basis of the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene. Thermotolerant and halotolerant spore-forming bacteria 7t1 and 7t3 of terrestrial ecosystems Dead Sea identified as Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, respectively. Taking into account remote location of thermotolerant strain 6t1 from closely related strains in the cluster Staphylococcus, 6t1 strain can be regarded as Staphylococcus sp. In terrestrial ecosystems, Galindez Island (Antarctic) detected taxonomically diverse psychrotolerant bacteria. From ornithogenic soil were isolated Micrococcus luteus O-1 and Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum O-3. Strains 4r5, 5r5 and 40r5, isolated from grass and lichens, can be referred to the genus Frondihabitans. These strains are taxonomically and ecologically isolated and on the tree diagram form the joint cluster with three isolates Frondihabitans sp., isolated from the lichen Austrian Alps, and psychrotolerant associated with plants F. cladoniiphilus CafT13(T). Isolates from black lichen in the different stationary observation points on the south side of a vertical cliff identified as: Rhodococcus fascians 181n3, Sporosarcina aquimarina O-7, Staphylococcus sp. 0-10. From orange biofilm of fouling on top of the vertical cliff isolated Arthrobacter sp. 28r5g1, from the moss-- Serratia sp. 6r1g. According to the results, Frondihabitans strains most frequently encountered among chemoorganotrophic aerobic bacteria in the Antarctic phytocenoses. PMID:25007437

  12. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of Regional Marine Ecosystem Services Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Honghua; ZHENG Wei; WANG Zongling; DING Dewen

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystem services are the benefits which people obtain from the marine ecosystem, including provisioning ser-vices, regulating services, cultural services and supporting services. The human species, while buffered against environmental changes by culture and technology, is fundamentally dependent on the flow of ecosystem services. Marine ecosystem services be-come increasingly valuable as the terrestrial resources become scarce. The value of marine ecosystem services is the monetary flow of ecosystem services on specific temporal and spatial scales, which often changes due to the variation of the goods prices, yields and the status of marine exploitation. Sensitivity analysis is to study the relationship between the value of marine ecosystem services and the main factors which affect it. Uncertainty analysis based on varying prices, yields and status of marine exploitation was carried out. Through uncertainty analysis, a more credible value range instead of a fixed value of marine ecosystem services was obtained in this study. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the marine ecosystem services value revealed the relative importance of different factors.

  13. Review of compartmental analysis in ecosystem science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    The compartment model has a large number of applications in ecosystem science. An attempt is made to outline the problem areas and objectives for which this type of model has particular advantages. The areas identified are an adequate model of tracer movement through an undisturbed but non-equilibrium ecosystem; an adequate model of the movement of material in greater than tracer quantity through an ecosystem near steady state; a minimal model based on limited data; a tool for extrapolating past trends; a framework for the summarization of large data sets; and a theoretical tool for exploring and comparing limited aspects of ecosystem dynamics. The review is set in an historical perspective which helps explain why these models were adopted in ecology. References are also provided to literature which documents available mathematical techniques in an ecological context.

  14. Functional Valuation of Ecosystem Services on Bonaire: an ecological analysis of ecosystem functions provided by coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This research is a semi-quantitative analysis of the functional value of coral reef habitats on Bonaire to support ecosystem services. It is part of an economic valuation study of marine and terrestrial ecosystem services on Bonaire.

  15. Eco-Systemic Analysis of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppy, Margarette I.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested eco-systemic approach to understanding of anorexia nervosa. Compared 30 anorexics and parents to 34 matched control subjects and parents. Found that, compared to controls, families of anorexics were less supportive, helpful, and committed to each other. Family interactions perceived by anorexics were characterized by overprotective,…

  16. The technical drift of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Steven C.; Rincover, Arnold; Solnick, Jay V.

    1980-01-01

    Four dimensions (applied, analytic, general, conceptual) were selected from Baer, Wolf, and Risley's (1968) seminal article on the nature of applied behavior analysis and were monitored throughout the first 10 volumes of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Each of the experimental articles in Volumes 1 through 6 and the first half of Volumes 7 through 10 was rated on each of these dimensions. The trends showed that applied behavior analysis is becoming a more purely technical effort, wi...

  17. Essentials of applied dynamic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date knowledge of dynamic analysis in engineering world. To facilitate the understanding of the topics by readers with various backgrounds, general principles are linked to their applications from different angles. Special interesting topics such as statistics of motions and loading, damping modeling and measurement, nonlinear dynamics, fatigue assessment, vibration and buckling under axial loading, structural health monitoring, human body vibrations, and vehicle-structure interactions etc., are also presented. The target readers include industry professionals in civil, marine and mechanical engineering, as well as researchers and students in this area.

  18. Applied systems analysis. Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of future electricity demand in the Federal Republic of Germany, determining factors are derived for analysis with a multi-sectoral energy model. The development of the use of electric energy is calculated for two cases of economic growth for the industry, private households, commercial sector and transportation categories. The present situation in the planning and construction of new power plants makes a future shortage of electricity become conceivable. For several restrictions on the use of primary energy carriers for electricity generation, the possibilities of covering the requirements are analysed. Furthermore the effects that different strategies of extending power plant capacity may cause on economy and environment are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Applied systems analysis. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a detailed analysis of demands in the area Cologne/Frankfurt, the amount of the system products for this region were ascertained, which under consideration of technical conditions and entrepreneurial aspects seemed to be disposable at cost equality with competative energy supplies. Based on these data, the technical components of the system, location and piping were fixed and first- and operating costs were determined. For a judgement of the economics, the key numbers, cash value, internal rate of interest and cost recovery rate were determined from the difference of costs between the nuclear long distance energy system and alternative facilities. Furthermore specific production cost, associated prices and contribution margin were presented for each product. (orig.)

  20. Final ecosystem services for stream ecosystems and the metrics, methods and challenges to apply them in a national monitoring context

    Science.gov (United States)

    The challenge of translating notions of ecosystem services from the theoretical arena to practical application at large scales (e.g. national) requires an interdisciplinary approach. To meet this challenge, we convened a workshop involving a broad suite of natural and social scie...

  1. SIGMA: A Knowledge-Based Simulation Tool Applied to Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, Jennifer L.; Keller, Richard; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The need for better technology to facilitate building, sharing and reusing models is generally recognized within the ecosystem modeling community. The Scientists' Intelligent Graphical Modelling Assistant (SIGMA) creates an environment for model building, sharing and reuse which provides an alternative to more conventional approaches which too often yield poorly documented, awkwardly structured model code. The SIGMA interface presents the user a list of model quantities which can be selected for computation. Equations to calculate the model quantities may be chosen from an existing library of ecosystem modeling equations, or built using a specialized equation editor. Inputs for dim equations may be supplied by data or by calculation from other equations. Each variable and equation is expressed using ecological terminology and scientific units, and is documented with explanatory descriptions and optional literature citations. Automatic scientific unit conversion is supported and only physically-consistent equations are accepted by the system. The system uses knowledge-based semantic conditions to decide which equations in its library make sense to apply in a given situation, and supplies these to the user for selection. "Me equations and variables are graphically represented as a flow diagram which provides a complete summary of the model. Forest-BGC, a stand-level model that simulates photosynthesis and evapo-transpiration for conifer canopies, was originally implemented in Fortran and subsequenty re-implemented using SIGMA. The SIGMA version reproduces daily results and also provides a knowledge base which greatly facilitates inspection, modification and extension of Forest-BGC.

  2. The basic importance of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1986-01-01

    We argue that applied behavior analysis is relevant to basic research. Modification studies, and a broad range of investigations that focus on the precipitating and maintaining conditions of socially significant human behavior, have basic importance. Applied behavior analysis may aid basic researchers in the design of externally valid experiments and thereby enhance the theoretical significance of basic research for understanding human behavior. Applied research with humans, directed at cultu...

  3. Applied behavior analysis and statistical process control?

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines Pfadt and Wheeler's (1995) suggestions that the methods of statistical process control (SPC) be incorporated into applied behavior analysis. The research strategies of SPC are examined and compared to those of applied behavior analysis. I argue that the statistical methods that are a part of SPC would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with the problems with which they deal and would, therefore, likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Ex...

  4. Persistence and fate of soil applied 14C-lindane in a maize ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-lindane applied to soil surface in a maize ecosystem (one month after planting) was taken up by the plant. Within the first 25 days of treatment, 14C-lindane or its metabolites were found within the entire plant with the greatest concentration in lower leaves (from the ground level); and a sharp build up of lindane concentration towards the tip of each leaf. Radioactivity and hence pesticide concentration was uniformly distributed in the plant with time; to the extent that measurable levels of 14C-compounds were detected in the tussel cob and the grain. This indicated that soil applied lindane was available to the maize plant. The persistence of 14C-lindane in soils of variable organic matter content was also studied. Evidence is presented to show that 14C-lindane dissipated faster in soils of lower organic matter content. Levels of surface applied pesticides that became bound in the soil increased with time after application and also with increasing organic matter content. 14C-activity was mainly associated with the top soil layer (0-30 mm). (author). 7 refs, 7 figs

  5. Applied analysis mathematical methods in natural science

    CERN Document Server

    Senba, Takasi

    2004-01-01

    This book provides a general introduction to applied analysis; vectoranalysis with physical motivation, calculus of variation, Fourieranalysis, eigenfunction expansion, distribution, and so forth,including a catalogue of mathematical theories, such as basicanalysis, topological spaces, complex function theory, real analysis,and abstract analysis. This book also gives fundamental ideas ofapplied mathematics to discuss recent developments in nonlinearscience, such as mathematical modeling of reinforced random motion ofparticles, semi-conductor device equation in applied physics, andchemotaxis in

  6. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  7. Analysis of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River from an Ecosystem Perspective. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichatowich, James A.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1995-01-01

    Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology was applied to the analysis of chinook salmon in the mid-Columbia subbasins which flow through the steppe and steppe-shrub vegetation zones. The EDT examines historical changes in life history diversity related to changes in habitat. The emphasis on life history, habitat and historical context is consistent with and ecosystem perspective. This study is based on the working hypothesis that the decline in chinook salmon was at least in part due to a loss of biodiversity defined as the intrapopulation life history diversity. The mid Columbia subbasins included in the study are the Deschutes, John Day, Umatilla, Tucannon and Yakima.

  8. Applying data fusion techniques for benthic habitat mapping and monitoring in a coral reef ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caiyun

    2015-06-01

    Accurate mapping and effective monitoring of benthic habitat in the Florida Keys are critical in developing management strategies for this valuable coral reef ecosystem. For this study, a framework was designed for automated benthic habitat mapping by combining multiple data sources (hyperspectral, aerial photography, and bathymetry data) and four contemporary imagery processing techniques (data fusion, Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA), machine learning, and ensemble analysis). In the framework, 1-m digital aerial photograph was first merged with 17-m hyperspectral imagery and 10-m bathymetry data using a pixel/feature-level fusion strategy. The fused dataset was then preclassified by three machine learning algorithms (Random Forest, Support Vector Machines, and k-Nearest Neighbor). Final object-based habitat maps were produced through ensemble analysis of outcomes from three classifiers. The framework was tested for classifying a group-level (3-class) and code-level (9-class) habitats in a portion of the Florida Keys. Informative and accurate habitat maps were achieved with an overall accuracy of 88.5% and 83.5% for the group-level and code-level classifications, respectively.

  9. Applied regression analysis a research tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pantula, Sastry; Dickey, David

    1998-01-01

    Least squares estimation, when used appropriately, is a powerful research tool. A deeper understanding of the regression concepts is essential for achieving optimal benefits from a least squares analysis. This book builds on the fundamentals of statistical methods and provides appropriate concepts that will allow a scientist to use least squares as an effective research tool. Applied Regression Analysis is aimed at the scientist who wishes to gain a working knowledge of regression analysis. The basic purpose of this book is to develop an understanding of least squares and related statistical methods without becoming excessively mathematical. It is the outgrowth of more than 30 years of consulting experience with scientists and many years of teaching an applied regression course to graduate students. Applied Regression Analysis serves as an excellent text for a service course on regression for non-statisticians and as a reference for researchers. It also provides a bridge between a two-semester introduction to...

  10. Applying economic analysis to technical assistance projects

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Gary

    1997-01-01

    The author recommends using more quantitative economic analysis in appraising technical assistance loans and loan components. After giving a brief history of tecnhical assistance and the problems commonly associated with it, he describes classifications of technical assistance, proposes a new typology to be used for project appraisal, suggests methods for screening projects, and discusses different levels of economic analysis. He shows how the typology and economic analysis could be applied t...

  11. Applied Systems Analysis: A Genetic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Majone, G.

    1980-01-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis is preparing a "Handbook of Systems Analysis," which will appear in three volumes: Volume 1, "Overview," is aimed at a widely varied audience of producers and users of systems analysis; Volume 2, "Methods," is aimed at systems analysts who need basic knowledge of methods in which they are not expert; the volume contains introductory overviews of such methods; Volume 3, "Cases," contains descriptions of actual systems analyses that illus...

  12. Applying the ecosystem service concept to air quality management in the UK: a case study for ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Hicks, Kevin; Morrissey, Tim; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Sutton, Mark; Ashmore, Mike

    2011-01-01

    To date evaluation of the benefits of policies to control emissions of air pollutants in the UK has focused on human health effects, which are quantified economically, whereas ecosystem protection has only been assessed using critical levels and critical loads. This paper considers the current...... feasibility of using an ecosystem services approach to appraise alternative scenarios for controlling agricultural ammonia emissions in the UK. The effect of ammonia emission reductions on ecosystems service delivery was assessed using an impact pathway approach. A ‘weakest link’ analysis identified that...... magnitude to those for human health impacts. The ecosystem service approach thus offers the potential to provide a holistic appraisal of the effects of emission reductions, and could therefore make a valuable contribution to future air quality management. However, improvements in data collection and...

  13. Establishment and Applied Research on a Wetland Ecosystem Evaluation Model in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Shen Chen

    2015-01-01

    There is rich biodiversity and biomass in wetlands and these areas are important in ecosystems. Assessment of the environment of wetlands is critical in the management of pivotal ecosystems. The energy ecological footprint (EEF) is an improved form of the ecological footprint method based on the theory of energy value. EEF can be a useful tool for comparing and monitoring environmental impacts. EEF was used to investigate a national coastal wetland in Taiwan; i.e., Gaomei Wetlands. We created...

  14. Applied mathematics analysis of the multibody systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, H.; Kar, A. K.; Tacgin, E.

    2012-08-01

    A methodology is developed for the analysis of the multibody systems that is applied on the vehicle as a case study. The previous study emphasizes the derivation of the multibody dynamics equations of motion for bogie [2]. In this work, we have developed a guide-way for the analysis of the dynamical behavior of the multibody systems for mainly validation, verification of the realistic mathematical model and partly for the design of the alternative optimum vehicle parameters.

  15. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  16. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  17. Analysis of Chromobacterium sp. natural isolates from different Brazilian ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Andréa MA; Santos Fabrício R; Astolfi-Filho Spartaco; Chartone-Souza Edmar; Lima-Bittencourt Cláudia I

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Chromobacterium violaceum is a free-living bacterium able to survive under diverse environmental conditions. In this study we evaluate the genetic and physiological diversity of Chromobacterium sp. isolates from three Brazilian ecosystems: Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), Atlantic Rain Forest and Amazon Rain Forest. We have analyzed the diversity with molecular approaches (16S rRNA gene sequences and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis) and phenotypic surveys of anti...

  18. Caldwell University's Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A

    2016-05-01

    Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth. These strategies, along with a consideration of potential challenges, might prove useful in guiding academicians who are interested in starting their own programs in behavior analysis. PMID:27606194

  19. Functional Data Analysis Applied in Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Martha

    nutritional status and metabolic phenotype. We want to understand how metabolomic spectra can be analysed using functional data analysis to detect the in uence of dierent factors on specic metabolites. These factors can include, for example, gender, diet culture or dietary intervention. In Paper I we apply...... novelty of heart plots for spectral data. The important aspect of registration, also called warping or alignment, emerges from both the chemometric and statistical perspectives. In Paper III we apply functional registration in the context of biomechanics, specically to data from a juggling experiment. The...

  20. Evaluating the function of applied behavior analysis a bibliometric analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Critchfield, Thomas S

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of scholarly citations involving behavioral journals reveals that, consistent with its mission, applied behavior analysis research frequently references the basic behavioral literature but, as some have suspected, exerts narrow scholarly influence.

  1. Marine ecosystem analysis for wolsung nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveys to provide base-line data for assessing the potential impact of the operation of Wolseong NPP on marine ecosystems were performed at 3-month intervals in 1981. Physico-chemical properties of seawater and gross beta activities in seawater and marine organisms were examined. The result shows that the ecosystems are non-polluted, typical of near-shore waters. The results of ecological surveys are summarized as follows: A total of 84 taxa of phytoplankton diatom were identified. Of the species, about 70 % are described as neritic species, and the major bloom occurred in September. The analysis of diversity indices shows that the community is very stable. The dominant species of zooplankton were protozoan Noctiluca scintillans and copepods. A total of 83 species of marine algae were identified. The algal community was more diverse in September-December than in March-July, and the dominant species were Chondria crassicaulis and Corallina pilulifera. Total algal production per unit area (0.25 m2) was, on the average, 20 g-dry. The biomass of bacterial population was highest in December, and the result of multiple regression analysis indicates that the important environmental factors are nutrients, salinity and temperature. Primary productivities measured by Carbon-14 method were 1.11 mg C/m3/hr at 1 m depth, and 1.45 mg C/m3/hr at 6 m depth. As a whole the marine ecosystems adjacent Wolseong NPP site are thought to be stable. (author)

  2. The roles of a decision support system in applying forest ecosystem management in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Limin; ZHENG; Bofu; Guofan; Shao; ZHOU; Li

    2006-01-01

    Forest ecosystems provide a variety of services and forest ecosystem management (FEM) is an effective approach to maximize the services. Because of the complexity of forest ecosystems, the applications of FEM can be facilitated with decision support systems (DSS) that recognize and incorporate ecological and socio-economic variables. With the rapid development of computation and information technologies, DSS have been advanced in many ways. Traditional forest management within a forestry unit in China is planned on a yearly basis. The planning itself remains primarily a verbal concept as there are no quantitative decision-support tools available to translate the concept into forest management actions. For the purposes of FEM at the management level, a forest management DFF, FORESTAR(R), has been developed under a framework of geographic information system (GIS) and forest models. The paper explained the intelligent modeling mechanisms and demonstrated how the applications of FEM can be strengthened with the applications of FORESTAR(R).

  3. Distribution of Aerially Applied Malathion-S35 in a Forest Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of malathion (0,0-dimethyl dithiophosphate of diethyl mercaptosuccinate) in a forested area of east-central Ohio was studied during the summer of 1962. This broad-spectrum insecticide was selected for study on the basis of its increased use in the control of many important forest insect pests in deciduous and coniferous forests of the United States. The need for greater knowledge of the ecology of a forested area, coupled with the need for a more complete understanding of the effects of an insecticide on the fauna, provided the unique possibility of studying the problems simultaneously through the utilization of an isotope-labelled insecticide. S35 was selected because of its low beta energy (0.167 MeV) and the adequate half-life (87.1 d). Preliminary one-tenth-acre plot studies in the summer of 1961 provided us with potential application rates in terms of total radiation and also allowed the development of sample preparation technique. A faunal survey of two 20-acre watersheds was conducted during the summer of 1961. In May of 1962, one of the watersheds was treated with an application of 2 lb technical-grade malathion per acre in a formulation of xylene, triton X-155 emulsifier and water. Themalathion was synthesized with S35 by the Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, England. 1 c of activity was aerially applied to one of the 20-acre forested areas on 15 May and 25 May 1962. The specific activity of the synthesized malathion was 17. 5 m c/mM. The distribution of components of the aerial spray within the forest was measured. Electrically-operated air samplers provided estimates of drift off the area; helium-filled balloons bearing frosted-glass discs measured above-canopy application; glass discs suspended vertically as well as bark sampler, measured quantities settling out at different layers in the canopy; glass discs and spotting-enamel paper not only allowed a measure of horizontal distribution but a check of a standard spray

  4. Marine ecosystem analysis for Kori nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of both radioactive and thermal effluents discharged from the plant on aquatic ecosystem is one of the primary concerns in evaluating the environmental impact due to the operation of the nuclear power plant. Biological alteration of aquatic ecosystems may be resulted from radioactive effluents, thermal pollution and chemical releases. There is also another possible synergistic effect, that is, the combination of the above stresses, which may cause an impact severer than that of the sum of the individual impact. This report deals with species diversity and seasonal variations of those numbers of phytoplankton, marine algae and microorganisms, and distribution of radioactivity of marine organisms, as well as those data pertaining to sea water analysis. The present survey is designed to provide a partial baseline information for environmental impact assessment of Kori nuclear plant unit no. 1. (author)

  5. Activation Analysis In Studies Of An Aquatic Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purposes of radiological protection it is important to know the environmental concentrations of stable elements in order to be able to predict, for equilibrium conditions, the possible maximum concentrations of the radioelements under investigation. At the Joint Research Centre of EURATOM in Ispra we have begun a study of certain elements associated with reactor effluents and radioactive waste disposal (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cs, Co, Fe, and Sr) in different components of the Lago Maggiore and the Creek Novellino. Such information for an aquatic ecosystem entails the analyses of a large number of highly diversified samples: water, sediment, plants and animals. The project was made feasible by the use of automated neutron activation analysis procedures employing a semi-conductor detector and electronic computers. The results obtained are discussed in the light of contamination of the aquatic ecosystem by the radioactive isotopes of the above-mentioned elements, and their distribution among the different components investigated. (author)

  6. Bifurcation analysis of a forest-grassland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Lucia; Spiliotis, Konstantinos G.

    2016-06-01

    The nonlinear analysis of a forest-grassland ecosystem is performed as the main system parameters are changed. The model consists of a couple of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which include dynamically the human perceptions of forest/grassland value. The system displays multiple steady states corresponding to different forest densities as well as periodic regimes characterized by oscillations in time. We performed the bifurcation analysis of the system as the parameter relative to the human opinions influence is changed. We found that the main mechanisms which regulate the transitions occurring between different states or the appearance of new steady and dynamic regimes are transcritical, saddle/node and Hopf bifurcations.

  7. A New Conceptual Model for Business Ecosystem Visualization and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Hupsel Vaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has the objective of plotting the effects of network externalities and superstar software for the visualization and analysis of industry ecosystems. The output is made possible by gathering sales from a tracking website, associating each sale to a single consumer and by using a network visualization software. The result is a graph that shows strategic positioning of publishers and platforms, serving as a strategic tool for both academics and professionals. The approach is scalable to other industries and can be used to support analysis on mergers, acquisitions and alliances.

  8. Defining applied behavior analysis: An historical analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Deitz, Samuel M.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines two criteria for a definition of applied behavior analysis. The criteria are derived from a 19th century attempt to establish medicine as a scientific field. The first criterion, experimental determinism, specifies the methodological boundaries of an experimental science. The second criterion, philosophic doubt, clarifies the tentative nature of facts and theories derived from those facts. Practices which will advance the science of behavior are commented upon within eac...

  9. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, J M; Foxx, Richard M; Jacobson, John W.; Green, Gina; Mulick, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We also consider the features of PBS that have facilitated its broad dissemination and how ABA might benefit from emulating certain practices of the P...

  10. Current measurement in applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Bonnie; Brown, Tom; Duncan, Philip K.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of behavior began with a form of data, rate of responding, which allowed for efficient study and for the description of the basic principles of behavior. Especially important were the facts that rate of responding was a direct reflection of fundamental properties of behavior, and that rate of responding was measured continuously within an experimental session. As behavior analysts moved from purely experimental to applied settings, discontinuous, time-based methods of measurement...

  11. Fluid Dynamics Applied to Streams. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Christina E.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module deals specifically with concepts that are basic to fluid flow and…

  12. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  13. Application of ecosystem health cost-effect analysis in eco-planning in Guangzhou City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiurui; MAO Xianqiang; YANG Jurong; YANG Zhifeng

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem health has been a focal point and research frontier of applied ecology in recent years,increasingly used in urban ecological studies.To quantify the effect of ecological improvement from eco-planning,an ecosystem health assessment method is used in eco-planning evaluation and decision support in the urban eco-planning research of Guangzhou City of China.Based on features of an urban ecosystem,five factors such as vigor,organizational structure,resilience,ability to maintain ecosystem service,and influence on people's health were selected to develop the assessment indicator system.Then.to evaluate the validity of planning measures,a cost-effect analysis of the different sce-narios on eco-planning was made,taking investment of the planned projects as the cost and ecosystem health state after implementing the scenarios as the effect.To establish priority of all the proposed planning schemes or countermeasures,variation of the ecosystem health state was evaluated when the investment of eco-environmental construction projects changes by±10%,±20% and±50%,respectively.Thus,the order of importance of eco-environment construction projects to the urban ecosystem health state Can be worked out,providing a reference for prioritizing the implementation of such urban eco-environmental projects.The study proved the trial value of an ecosystem health evaluation method in urban eco-planning research.

  14. Activation analysis as applied to environmental substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The historical background of activation analysis as applied to environmental problems is first briefly described. Then, the present state of its utilization for environmental samples, mainly atmospheric floating particles and human hairs, is reviewed. The problem with irradiation reactors is also mentioned. In the activation analysis of environmental substances, the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with the thermal neutrons in reactors is the main; besides, there are the methods with bremsstrahlung, etc. The INAA is most effectively used for atmospheric airborne particles and the micro-elements in human hairs. In Japan, the INAA is currently employed by the Environmental Agency in its national air pollution surveillance network for metallic pollutants. The problem with reactors is the limited capacity for thermal neutron irradiation. (Mori, K.)

  15. Applied research in uncertainty modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ayyub, Bilal

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty has been a concern to engineers, managers, and scientists for many years. For a long time uncertainty has been considered synonymous with random, stochastic, statistic, or probabilistic. Since the early sixties views on uncertainty have become more heterogeneous. In the past forty years numerous tools that model uncertainty, above and beyond statistics, have been proposed by several engineers and scientists. The tool/method to model uncertainty in a specific context should really be chosen by considering the features of the phenomenon under consideration, not independent of what is known about the system and what causes uncertainty. In this fascinating overview of the field, the authors provide broad coverage of uncertainty analysis/modeling and its application. Applied Research in Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis presents the perspectives of various researchers and practitioners on uncertainty analysis and modeling outside their own fields and domain expertise. Rather than focusing explicitly on...

  16. Tropospheric Delay Raytracing Applied in VLBI Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, D. S.; Eriksson, D.; Gipson, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric delay modeling error continues to be one of the largest sources of error in VLBI analysis. For standard operational solutions, we use the VMF1 elevation-dependent mapping functions derived from ECMWF data. These mapping functions assume that tropospheric delay at a site is azimuthally symmetric. As this assumption does not reflect reality, we have determined the raytrace delay along the signal path through the troposphere for each VLBI quasar observation. We determined the troposphere refractivity fields from the pressure, temperature, specific humidity and geopotential height fields of the NASA GSFC GEOS-5 numerical weather model. We discuss results from analysis of the CONT11 R&D and the weekly operational R1+R4 experiment sessions. When applied in VLBI analysis, baseline length repeatabilities were better for 66-72% of baselines with raytraced delays than with VMF1 mapping functions. Vertical repeatabilities were better for 65% of sites.

  17. Social Network Analysis of the Irish Biotech Industry: Implications for Digital Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan

    This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attended by representatives of biotech actors and experts.

  18. Strategic decision analysis applied to borehole seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategic Decision Analysis (SDA) is the evolving body of knowledge on how to achieve high quality in the decision that shapes an organization's future. SDA comprises philosophy, process concepts, methodology, and tools for making good decisions. It specifically incorporates many concepts and tools from economic evaluation and risk analysis. Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (CPTC) has applied SDA to evaluate and prioritize a number of its most important and most uncertain R and D projects, including borehole seismology. Before SDA, there were significant issues and concerns about the value to CPTC of continuing to work on borehole seismology. The SDA process created a cross-functional team of experts to structure and evaluate this project. A credible economic model was developed, discrete risks and continuous uncertainties were assessed, and an extensive sensitivity analysis was performed. The results, even applied to a very restricted drilling program for a few years, were good enough to demonstrate the value of continuing the project. This paper explains the SDA philosophy concepts, and process and demonstrates the methodology and tools using the borehole seismology project example. SDA is useful in the upstream industry not just in the R and D/technology decisions, but also in major exploration and production decisions. Since a major challenge for upstream companies today is to create and realize value, the SDA approach should have a very broad applicability

  19. Establishment and Applied Research on a Wetland Ecosystem Evaluation Model in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is rich biodiversity and biomass in wetlands and these areas are important in ecosystems. Assessment of the environment of wetlands is critical in the management of pivotal ecosystems. The energy ecological footprint (EEF is an improved form of the ecological footprint method based on the theory of energy value. EEF can be a useful tool for comparing and monitoring environmental impacts. EEF was used to investigate a national coastal wetland in Taiwan; i.e., Gaomei Wetlands. We created a wetland ecosystem evaluation model to quantify the EEF, ecological safety of the GaomeiWetlands, and energy ecological carrying capacity to assess the current environmental situation of the area between 2007 and 2013. The research results provide a reference for environmental policy execution, strategy, and planning and suggestions for sustainable development of the Gaomei Wetlands. Our study showed that the per capita ecological carrying capacity of the Gaomei Wetlands experienced fluctuations during the time of the study. However, the per capita EF had substantial growth. The per capita ecological carrying capacity of the Gaomei Wetlands was influenced by the EFs of the fossil energy land, meadows, and croplands.

  20. Wavelet analysis applied to the IRAS cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William D.; Wilson, Robert W.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of infrared cirrus clouds is analyzed with Laplacian pyramid transforms, a form of non-orthogonal wavelets. Pyramid and wavelet transforms provide a means to decompose images into their spatial frequency components such that all spatial scales are treated in an equivalent manner. The multiscale transform analysis is applied to IRAS 100 micrometer maps of cirrus emission in the north Galactic pole region to extract features on different scales. In the maps we identify filaments, fragments and clumps by separating all connected regions. These structures are analyzed with respect to their Hausdorff dimension for evidence of the scaling relationships in the cirrus clouds.

  1. A Cyclostationarity Analysis Applied to Scaled Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saic, Stanislav; Mahdian, Babak

    Berlin : Springer, 2009 - (Leung, C.; Lee, M.; Chan, J.), s. 683-690 ISBN 978-3-642-10682-8. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 5864). [ICONIP 2009. International Conference on Neural Information Processing /16./. Bangkok (TH), 01.12.2009-05.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Interpolation * scaling * cyclostationary * authentication * image forensics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/ZOI/babak-a cyclostationarity analysis applied to scaled images.pdf

  2. What happened to analysis in applied behavior analysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, W. David; Epling, W. Frank

    1980-01-01

    This paper addresses the current help-oriented focus of researchers in applied behavior analysis. Evidence from a recent volume of JABA suggests that analytic behavior is at low levels in applied analysis while cure-help behavior is at high strength. This low proportion of scientific behavior is apparantly related to cure-help contingencies set by institutions and agencies of help and the editorial policies of JABA itself. These contingencies have favored the flight to real people and a conce...

  3. Ecosystem health pattern analysis of urban clusters based on emergy synthesis: Results and implication for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of ecosystem health in urban clusters will help establish effective management that promotes sustainable regional development. To standardize the application of emergy synthesis and set pair analysis (EM–SPA) in ecosystem health assessment, a procedure for using EM–SPA models was established in this paper by combining the ability of emergy synthesis to reflect health status from a biophysical perspective with the ability of set pair analysis to describe extensive relationships among different variables. Based on the EM–SPA model, the relative health levels of selected urban clusters and their related ecosystem health patterns were characterized. The health states of three typical Chinese urban clusters – Jing-Jin-Tang, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta – were investigated using the model. The results showed that the health status of the Pearl River Delta was relatively good; the health for the Yangtze River Delta was poor. As for the specific health characteristics, the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta urban clusters were relatively strong in Vigor, Resilience, and Urban ecosystem service function maintenance, while the Jing-Jin-Tang was relatively strong in organizational structure and environmental impact. Guidelines for managing these different urban clusters were put forward based on the analysis of the results of this study. - Highlights: • The use of integrated emergy synthesis and set pair analysis model was standardized. • The integrated model was applied on the scale of an urban cluster. • Health patterns of different urban clusters were compared. • Policy suggestions were provided based on the health pattern analysis

  4. Human Resource Ecosystem and its evolutionary rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Paper,based on the concept and the elements of human resource ecosystem(HR Ecosystem),studies the function and structure of HR Ecosystem,introduces the entropy theory to define the content of entropy of HR Ecosystem,constructs the corresponding distinctive model to distinguish the direction of the evolution of HR Ecosystem and the evolutionary entropy model, and applies the models to demonstrate the evolutionary rules of HR Ecosystem.The study shows that the entropy theory can be well applied to the analysis on HR Ecosystem and that it opens up a new field in the research of human resource management and provides a new effective technical method.

  5. A novel probabilistic risk analysis to determine the vulnerability of ecosystems to extreme climatic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple method of probabilistic risk analysis for ecosystems. The only requirements are time series—modelled or measured—of environment and ecosystem variables. Risk is defined as the product of hazard probability and ecosystem vulnerability. Vulnerability is the expected difference in ecosystem performance between years with and without hazardous conditions. We show an application to drought risk for net primary productivity of coniferous forests across Europe, for both recent and future climatic conditions. (letter)

  6. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  7. Artificial intelligence technologies applied to terrain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J.C. (Army Training and Doctrine Command, Fort Monroe, VA (USA)); Powell, D.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The US Army Training and Doctrine Command is currently developing, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory, a Corps level combat simulation to support military analytical studies. This model emphasizes high resolution modeling of the command and control processes, with particular attention to architectural considerations that enable extension of the model. A planned future extension is the inclusion of an computer based planning capability for command echelons that can be dynamical invoked during the execution of then model. Command and control is the process through which the activities of military forces are directed, coordinated, and controlled to achieve the stated mission. To perform command and control the commander must understand the mission, perform terrain analysis, understand his own situation and capabilities as well as the enemy situation and his probable actions. To support computer based planning, data structures must be available to support the computer's ability to understand'' the mission, terrain, own capabilities, and enemy situation. The availability of digitized terrain makes it feasible to apply artificial intelligence technologies to emulate the terrain analysis process, producing data structures for uses in planning. The work derived thus for to support the understanding of terrain is the topic of this paper. 13 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Epithermal neutron activation analysis in applied microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some results from applying epithermal neutron activation analysis at FLNP JINR, Dubna, Russia, in medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology are reviewed. In the biomedical experiments biomass from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such essential trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into S. platensis biocomplexes retaining its protein composition and natural beneficial properties was shown. The absorption of mercury on growth dynamics of S. platensis and other bacterial strains was observed. Detoxification of Cr and Hg by Arthrobacter globiformis 151B was demonstrated. Microbial synthesis of technologically important silver nanoparticles by the novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD and blue-green alga S. platensis were characterized by a combined use of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. It was established that the tested actinomycete S. glaucus 71 MD produces silver nanoparticles extracellularly when acted upon by the silver nitrate solution, which offers a great advantage over an intracellular process of synthesis from the point of view of applications. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by S. platensis proceeded differently under the short-term and long-term silver action. (author)

  9. Applying principles from economics to improve the transfer of ecological production estimates in fisheries ecosystem services research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services (ES) represent a way to represent and quantify multiple uses, values as well as connectivity between ecosystem processes and human well-being. Ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches may seek to quantify expected trade-offs in ecosystem services due to ...

  10. Social network analysis applied to team sports analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Explaining how graph theory and social network analysis can be applied to team sports analysis, This book presents useful approaches, models and methods that can be used to characterise the overall properties of team networks and identify the prominence of each team player. Exploring the different possible network metrics that can be utilised in sports analysis, their possible applications and variances from situation to situation, the respective chapters present an array of illustrative case studies. Identifying the general concepts of social network analysis and network centrality metrics, readers are shown how to generate a methodological protocol for data collection. As such, the book provides a valuable resource for students of the sport sciences, sports engineering, applied computation and the social sciences.

  11. Social Network Analysis of the Irish Biotech Industry: Implications for Digital Ecosystems (NIRSA) Working Paper Series No. 55.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attende...

  12. Portfolio Decision Analysis Framework for Value-Focused Ecosystem Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Convertino

    Full Text Available Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the

  13. Portfolio Decision Analysis Framework for Value-Focused Ecosystem Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Matteo; Valverde, L James

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA) framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA) that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the needs of

  14. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) APPLIED TO UNDERSTANDING ISSUES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project provides an Environmental Analysis and Information Center to serve the Mississippi Coastal Community, Mississippi State agencies such as the Mississippi Dept. of Marine Resources, and local communities in the lower Mississippi River Basin. The Center provides GIS an...

  15. Colilert® applied to food analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colilert® (IDEXX was originally developed for the simultaneous enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in water samples and has been used for the quality control routine of drinking, swimming pools, fresh, coastal and waste waters (Grossi et al., 2013. The Colilert® culture medium contains the indicator nutrient 4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (MUG. MUG acts as a substrate for the E. coli enzyme β-glucuronidase, from which a fluorescent compound is produced. A positive MUG result produces fluorescence when viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. If the test fluorescence is equal to or greater than that of the control, the presence of E. coli has been confirmed (Lopez-Roldan et al., 2013. The present work aimed to apply Colilert® to the enumeration of E. coli in different foods, through the comparison of results against the reference method (ISO 16649-2, 2001 for E. coli food analysis. The study was divided in two stages. During the first stage ten different types of foods were analyzed with Colilert®, these included pastry, raw meat, ready to eat meals, yogurt, raw seabream and salmon, and cooked shrimp. From these it were approved the following: pastry with custard; raw minced pork; soup "caldo-verde"; raw vegetable salad (lettuce and carrots and solid yogurt. The approved foods presented a better insertion in the tray, the colour of the wells was lighter and the UV reading was easier. In the second stage the foods were artificially contaminated with 2 log/g of E. coli (ATCC 25922 and analyzed. Colilert® proved to be an accurate method and the counts were similar to the ones obtained with the reference method. In the present study, the Colilert® method did not reveal neither false-positive or false-negative results, however sometimes the results were difficult to read due to the presence of green fluorescence in some wells. Generally Colilert® was an easy and rapid method, but less objective and more expensive than the reference method.

  16. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  17. An ecological model of the artificial ecosystem (northern Hangzhou Bay, China): analysis of ecosystem structure and fishing impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuozhi; Xu, Shannan; He, Peimin

    2011-06-01

    The artificial ecosystem is a large-scale enclosure in northern Hangzhou Bay, China. Using the Ecopath with Ecosim software, a trophic structure model is constructed for 2006-2007 to characterize the food web structure, functioning, and describing the ecosystem impacts of fishing. Input information for the model were gathered from published and unpublished reports and from our own estimates during the period 2006-2007. Pedigree work and simple sensitivity analysis were carried out to evaluate the quality and the uncertainty of the model. Results show that the food web in the enclosed sea area was dominated by a detritus pathway. The trophic levels of the groups varied from 1.00 for primary producers and detritus to 3.90 for piscivorous fish in the artificial system. Using network analysis, the system network was mapped into a linear food chain, and five discrete trophic levels were found with a mean transfer efficiency of 9.8% from detritus, 9.4% from primary producer within the ecosystem. The geometric mean of the trophic transfer efficiencies was 9.5%. Detritus contributed 57% of the total energy flux, and the other 43% came from primary producers. The ecosystem maturity indices-TPP/TR (total primary production/total respiration), FCI (Finn cycling index), A (ascendancy) and TB/TDET were 2.672, 25%, 31.5%, and 0.013, respectively, showing that the artificial system is at developmental stage according to Odum's theory of ecosystem development. The `Keystoneness' result indicates that herbivorous zooplankton was identified as keystone species in this system. Furthermore, a simple dynamical simulation was preformed for varying fishing mortality over 10 years. The biomass of most fish groups has a small increase when the fishing mortality at current level. Increasing fishing mortality by twofold resulted in a marked decrease in biomass of piscivorous fish accompanied by an increase in that of other fish groups, notable zooplanktivorous fish. Generally, this study

  18. Indications and counterindications for applying different versions of closed ecosystems for space and terrestrial problems of life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhevikin, V V; Okhonin, V A; Bartsev, S I; Gitelson, J I

    1994-11-01

    Different versions of manned closed ecosystems (CES) based on photosynthesis of unicellular and/or higher plants and chemosynthesis or bacteria are considered. Different versions of CES have been compared for applying them on Earth, Moon, Mars and Venus orbital stations, for Mars missions and planetary stations as well as to provide high-quality life in extreme conditions on the Earth. In microgravity [correction of mycrogravity] we recommend CES with unicellular organisms based on photosynthesis or chemosynthesis (depending of the availability of the light or electric energy). For the planetary stations with Moon gravity and higher CES with higher plants are recommended. Improvement of indoor air quality by CES biotechnology is considered. PMID:11540175

  19. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  20. Imaging spectroscopy for ecological analysis in forest and grassland ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    L. Homolova

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is an important component of the Earth’s biosphere and therefore playing an essential role in climate regulation, carbon sequestration, and it provides large variety of services to humans. For a sustainable management of terrestrial ecosystems it is essential to understand vegetation responses to various pressures, to monitor and to predict the spatial extent and the rate of ecosystem changes. Remote sensing (RS) therefore offers a unique opportunity for spatially...

  1. Subject selection in applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Homer, Andrew L.; Peterson, Lizette; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    1983-01-01

    Past researchers have commented on the role of specifying relevant subject characteristics in determining the generality of experimental findings. Knowledge of subject selection criteria is important in interpreting and replicating research results. Such knowledge, as compared with many other historical and demographic characteristics of the subject, is likely to be related to a procedure's effectiveness. Data indicated that the majority of articles published in the Journal of Applied Behavio...

  2. Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H.B.; Kristensen, O.J.D.

    2003-01-01

    In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Differentequipment for mounting the accelerometers are...... unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on ablade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Øyes blade_EV1...

  3. Towards a network ecology of software ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    of the ``network ecology'' approach to the analysis of natural ecosystems. In doing so, we mine the Maven central Java repository and analyze two OSGi ecosystems: Apache Felix and Eclipse Equinox. In particular, we define the concept of an ecosystem ``neighborhood'', apply network ecology metrics...

  4. Applied time series analysis and innovative computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong

    2010-01-01

    This text is a systematic, state-of-the-art introduction to the use of innovative computing paradigms as an investigative tool for applications in time series analysis. It includes frontier case studies based on recent research.

  5. Applied bioinformatics: Genome annotation and transcriptome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Vikas

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the field of genomics and its wide range of applications has resulted in the genome-wide analysis of hundreds of species and the development of thousands of computational tools. This thesis represents my work on NGS analysis of four species, Lotus...... japonicus (Lotus), Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry), Stegodyphus mimosarum (spider) and Trifolium occidentale (clover). From a bioinformatics data analysis perspective, my work can be divided into three parts; genome annotation, small RNA, and gene expression analysis. Lotus is a legume of significant...... agricultural and biological importance. Its capacity to form symbiotic relationships with rhizobia and microrrhizal fungi has fascinated researchers for years. Lotus has a small genome of approximately 470 Mb and a short life cycle of 2 to 3 months, which has made Lotus a model legume plant for many molecular...

  6. Forest ecosystem health assessment and analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOFengjin; OUYANGHua; ZHANGQiang; FUBojie; ZHANGZhicheng

    2004-01-01

    Based on more than 300 forest sample plots surveying data and forestry statistical data, remote sensing information from the NOAA AVHRR database and the daily meteorological data of 300 stations, we selected vigor, organization and resilience as the indicators to assess large-scale forest ecosystem health in China and analyzed the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health and influencing factors. The results of assessment indicated that the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health showed a decreasing trend along latitude gradients and longitude gradients. The healthy forests are mainly distributed in natural forests, tropical rainforests and seasonal rainforests; secondarily orderly in northeast national forest zone, subtropical forest zonation and southwest forest zonation; while the unhealthy forests were mainly located in warm temperate zone and Xinjiang-Mongolia forest zone. The coefficient of correction between Forest Ecosystem Health Index (FEHI) and annual average precipitation was 0.58 (p<0.01), while the coefficient of correlation between FEHI and annual mean temperatures was 0.49 (p<0.01), which identified that the precipitation and temperatures affect the pattern of FEHI, and the precipitation's effect was stronger than the temperature's. We also measured the correlation coefficient between FEHI and NPP, biodiversity and resistance, which were 0.64, 0.76 and 0.81 (p<0.01) respectively. The order of effect on forest ecosystem health was vigor, organization and resistance.

  7. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  8. Science, Skepticism, and Applied Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoscientific claims concerning medical and psychological treatments of all varieties are commonplace. As behavior analysts, a sound skeptical approach to our science and practice is essential. The present paper offers an overview of science and skepticism and discusses the relationship of skepticism to behavior analysis, with an emphasis on the types of issues concerning behavior analysts in practice.

  9. Reliability analysis applied to structural tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.

  10. Analysis of litter mesofauna of Poltava region forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of research of litter mesofauna of 48 forest biogeocenoses the regularities of invertebrate communities formation on the species and families levels are determined. The degree of similarity of test plots are analysed by taxonomic structure of the communities. The factors of the litter invertebrate communities formation in forest ecosystems of the Poltava region are revealed.

  11. Imaging spectroscopy for ecological analysis in forest and grassland ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is an important component of the Earth’s biosphere and therefore playing an essential role in climate regulation, carbon sequestration, and it provides large variety of services to humans. For a sustainable management of terrestrial ecosystems it is essential to understa

  12. Marine Ecosystems Analysis (MESA) Program, New York Bight Surficial Sediment Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Ecosystems Analysis (MESA) Program, New York Bight Study was funded by NOAA and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The Atlas was a historical...

  13. RFID Platform as a Service, Containerized Ecosystem, Feasibility and Security Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kypus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept as a special type of virtualization of particular event based communication components in RFID ecosystems. The new approach is containers based virtualization, and it is applied and tested on the container of Object name service. The results of the experiment allowed us to do the preliminary analysis of security consequences on the isolated containerized DNS-based RFID sub-service. We confirmed feasibility with this sandboxing technology represented by the special container. They bring the benefits in terms of efficient software component life-cycle management and integrity improvements. Experiments results of the containerization are discussed to show the possible isolation ways of other components like EPCis and middleware. There is present evaluation towards external threats and vulnerabilities. The result is a higher level of integrity, availability of whole ecosystem and resiliency against external threats. This gives a new opportunity to build robust RFID as Platform as a service, and it proves the ability to achieve a positive impact on the end to end service Quality of service.

  14. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsberg, D.

    1986-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge-based appraoch to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored. 8 refs.

  15. An ecosystem analysis of the activated sludge microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Trissevyene V

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken (i) to investigate the interactions of the activated sludge microbial community in a chemostat with the "environment", such as the substrate composition and variations, (ii) to investigate how these interactions affect the quality of the treated effluent and (iii) to determine the limits or applicability conditions to the indicators and to the prediction potential of the treated effluent quality. This work presents (a) the experimental results obtained from a reactor fed municipal wastewater (Data Set2-DS2) concerning the reactor's operating conditions and the microbial community of the sludge (b) comparisons between DS2 and an older Data Set (DS1) obtained when the reactor was fed synthetic substrate, all other experimental conditions being identical, and (c) simulation results and sensitivity analyses of two model runs (R1 and R2, corresponding to DS1 and DS2). The first trophic level (P(1)) of the DS2 microbial community consisted of bacteria, the second trophic level (P(2)) of bacteria-eating protozoa, rotifers and nematodes and the third trophic level (P(3)) of carnivorous protozoa and arthropods. Rotifers were an important constituent of the DS2 microbial community. The DS1 and DS1 communities differed in total size, trophic level sizes and species composition. Correlations between the major microbial groups of DS2 community and either loading rates or effluent quality attributes were generally low, but the correlation of bacteria with SVI and ammonia in the effluent was better. Also, the ratio of rotifers to protozoa in P(2) was correlated to BOD in the effluent. The results of this work indicate that predictions of the treated effluent quality based only on protozoa may not be safe. Sensitivity analysis of R2 run indicate that, when variation in Y and K(d) biokinetic coefficients of the sludge are combined with fluctuations in composition and quality of municipal wastewater entering the reactor, then sufficient significant

  16. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  17. Neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the various techniques, the main analytical methods used to characterize ceramics are undoubtedly XRF and INAA. The principles of NAA differ from those of XRF in that samples are irradiated by thermal neutrons from a nuclear reactor. During irradiation, a few neutrons are captured by the nuclei of atoms in the specimen. This process, called activation, causes some of the nuclei to become unstable. During and after neutron irradiation, these unstable nuclei emit γ rays with unique energies at rates defined by the characteristic half-lives of the radioactive nuclei. Identification of the radioactive nucleus is possible by measuring the γ ray energies. Determination of their intensities permits quantitative analysis of the elements in the sample. The use of NAA in ceramics by a combination of two or three irradiation, decay and measurement strategies allows the determination of the elements Ba, Ce, Cl, Co, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr, if necessary by changing the irradiation, decay and measurement schemes. In general, XRF is more available, more rapid and less expensive than NAA. However, NAA offers a far greater number of elements, more sensitivity, superior precision and greater accuracy than XRF. On the other hand, NAA can be performed on extremely small samples (5-10 mg), meaning that only minor damage to valuable artefacts may be required

  18. APPLYING EXPRESSION ANALYSIS IN METAPHORICAL VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Биљана Б. Радић-Бојанић

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Metaphorical vocabulary of the English language is often a problem for EFL students both in receptive and productive skills. One possible way of overcoming this difficulty is conscious development of learning strategies, which aid comprehension and production and lead to the autonomy of students in the domain of the use of metaphorical expressions in the English language. One of the strategies that can be used in metaphorical vocabulary comprehension is analyzing expressions, which implies the parsing of a multi-word chunk into words, the analysis of each individual element and checking if all the elements of the multi-word chunk have a literal or metaphorical meaning. The paper is based on a one-year research conducted at the Department of English at the Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad, during which English language students were interviewed in order to determine in how and to what extent they analyze metaphorical expressions as a strategy in understanding metaphorical EFL vocabulary.

  19. Point Estimate Transfers in Ecosystem Services Research: Applying Principles from Economics to Improve the Transfer of Ecological Production Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing demand to describe and account for the benefits that humans derive from ecosystem functions in decision-making. Comprehensive descriptions of these benefits, referred to as ecosystem services (ES), and their production can be limited because there is limited ...

  20. Multicriteria decision analysis for monitoring ecosystem service function of the Three-River Headwaters region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Shixin; Wang, Litao; Wang, Futao; Liu, Wenliang; Guo, Bing

    2015-06-01

    The Three-River Headwaters (TRH) region in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, is of key importance to the ecological security of China and Southeast Asia and contains some of the most sensitive and fragile ecosystems. Monitoring and evaluating the ecosystem service function and its changes in the TRH region could support decision-making for regional ecological protection and restoration programs. Referencing the concept of ecosystem service and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework, this study built a system of indicators for monitoring and evaluating the ecosystem service function. Thus, combining a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and weighted linear combination (WLC) with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), we applied the ecosystem service function index (ESFI) based on remote sensing data at 1-km spatial resolution to spatiotemporally monitor the changes during the period 2005-2010. The study results indicated that ESFI had a good performance for monitoring the ecosystem service function and showed an improving trend in the TRH region over the past 5 years. Ecosystem environment recovery not only reflected the changing trend of warm and wet climate but was also a response of the ecological protection project of the Key Ecological Function Zone in the TRH region. PMID:25971519

  1. Marine-ecosystem analysis for the Kori nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radioactive effluents and warm water discharged from the plant on aquatic ecosystem is one of the primary considerations in evaluating the impact due to the operation of the nuclear power plant. Biological alteration of aquatic ecosystems may be resulted from radioactive effluents, thermal pollution and chemical releases; there is also the possible synergistic effect, that is, the combination of the above stresses, which may cause an effect greater than that of the sum of the individual effects. This report deals with species diversity and seasonal vegetation of phytoplankton, marine algae and microorganisms, radioactive contamination of marine organisms, and lateral distribution of sea water temperature from discharge point. The present investigation is designed to provide a partial baseline information for environmental safety against Kori nuclear power plant. (author)

  2. Portfolio Decision Analysis Framework for Value-Focused Ecosystem Management

    OpenAIRE

    Convertino, Matteo; Valverde, L. James

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder prefer...

  3. Specification and analysis of requirements negotiation strategy in software ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Fricker, S

    2009-01-01

    The development of software products and systems generally requires collaboration of many individuals, groups, and organizations that form an ecosystem of interdependent stakeholders. The way the interests and expectations of such stakeholders are communicated is critical for whether they are heard, hence whether the stakeholders are successful in influencing future solutions to meet their needs. This paper proposes a model based on negotiation and network theory for analyzing and designing f...

  4. Analysis of the Norwegian NFC Mobile Payment Business Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Evensen, Erlend Glück; Kähler, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) has for a long time been assumed to become the technology that would finally bring mobile payment services to consumers on a large scale. However, a broad adoption of such services still remains to be seen. In Norway, the most prominent bank and mobile network operator created the joint venture TSM Nordic with the purpose of releasing the mobile payment wallet application, Valyou.This payment service solution requires the establishment of a new payment ecosystem...

  5. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  6. Hands on applied finite element analysis application with ANSYS

    CERN Document Server

    Arslan, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Hands on Applied Finite Element Analysis Application with Ansys is truly an extraordinary book that offers practical ways of tackling FEA problems in machine design and analysis. In this book, 35 good selection of example problems have been presented, offering students the opportunity to apply their knowledge to real engineering FEA problem solutions by guiding them with real life hands on experience.

  7. An ecosystem-based understanding and analysis for SENCE toward sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There is a need to find a comprehensive approach focusing on the conflicts between economical growth and environmental protection.Chinese scholars advocate a comprehensive ecosystem viewpoint named social-economic-natural complex ecosystem(SENCE). The kernel of the concept lies in the hierarchical structure of SENCE, through which methods from ecological network can be useful to the compound system. The author gives a schema depicting its structure, following a model analysis to help understand the reliance of economy on ecosystem. It is obvious that more actions should be done to strive for sustainable development.

  8. A Practical Approach for Demonstrating Environmental Sustainability and Stewardship through a Net Ecosystem Service Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Rockel; Joseph Nicolette; Stephanie Burr

    2013-01-01

    The increasing pressure on the earth’s resources due to population growth requires that development and resource use be managed to maintain a sustainable environment so as to preserve or enhance human well-being. A practical approach for demonstrating the environmental sustainability of an action (e.g., green business practice) through ecosystem service analysis is presented. The overarching premise of the approach is that human well-being is directly related to changes in ecosystems and as...

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Contingent Valuation Studies in Coastal and Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Liu; Stern, David I.

    2008-01-01

    The ecosystem services provided by coastal and nearshore marine systems contribute significantly to human welfare. However, studies that document values of these services are widely scattered in the peer-reviewed literature. We collected 39 contingent valuation papers with 120 observations to conduct the first meta-analysis of the ecosystem service values provided by the coastal and nearshore marine systems. Our results show that over ¾ of the variation in Willingness to Pay (WTP) for coastal...

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Contingent Valuation Studies in Coastal and Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuang; Stern, David I.

    2008-01-01

    The ecosystem services provided by coastal and nearshore marine systems contribute significantly to human welfare. However, studies that document values of these services are widely scattered in the peer-reviewed literature. We collected 39 contingent valuation papers with 120 observations to conduct the first meta-analysis of the ecosystem service values provided by the coastal and nearshore marine systems. Our results show that over ¾ of the variation in Willingness to Pay (WTP) for coas...

  11. Ecosystem Services Analysis in Response to Biodiversity Loss Caused by the Built Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zari, Maibritt Pedersen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish a broad overview of the impact urban areas have on biodiversity and to determine the predicted major impacts that biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation have and will have on the built environment. Common built environment responses to these impacts will also be examined. Regenerative design that uses the ecosystem services analysis method is proposed as a way of responding to biodiversity loss while simultaneously addressing climate change mitigatio...

  12. Analysis of population, economic activity and ecosystem services. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the importance of various industries established in and associated with the management plan area. It presents the main demographic and labour market statistics for the coastal municipalities and for the value creation and industrial structure in the counties bordering on the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report deals particularly with value creation, employment, spin-off effects and future scenarios for the petroleum industry, fisheries, aquaculture, shipping, and travel, tourism and recreation. The report also provides an overview of ecosystem services in the management plan area, with examples of their value to society.(Author)

  13. Analysis of population, economic activity and ecosystem services. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The report describes the importance of various industries established in and associated with the management plan area. It presents the main demographic and labour market statistics for the coastal municipalities and for the value creation and industrial structure in the counties bordering on the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report deals particularly with value creation, employment, spin-off effects and future scenarios for the petroleum industry, fisheries, aquaculture, shipping, and travel, tourism and recreation. The report also provides an overview of ecosystem services in the management plan area, with examples of their value to society.(Author)

  14. Ecosystem Services and Stakeholder Analysis in Bishajari Lake and Associated Wetland Areas, Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khanal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands as other ecosystems deliver goods and services of enormous value to the human society and are regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems. We assessed the ecosystem services delivered by Bishajari Lake and its associated wetland areas of Chitwan district during June to August, 2012. A household survey consisting 110 households, interviews with key informants, group discussions and stakeholder analysis were carried out for this purpose to document the overall status of ecosystem services, evaluate the provisional services generated by the lakes, understand potentials for payment to ecosystem services, and identify stakeholders involved and their roles and responsibilities. A total of 12 fish species, 17 wild and domestic fruits, 12 timber species, 15 fodder species, 20 wild vegetables species and 31 medicinal plant species were recorded. Moreover 65.5% of respondents were found receiving some sort of income from the wetland area. The majority of respondents felt that the ecosystem is being changed mostly on provisional services. So far with little support from government, the local people have practiced some adaptive responses like biogas plant, afforestation, electric fencing, contract fisheries, ecotourism and other climate-smart measures. It suggest that raising awareness and sharing information among the locals should be done more frequently and effectively to continuously cope with ecosystem change.

  15. Applied behavior analysis: New directions from the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1983-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis began when laboratory based principles were extended to humans inorder to change socially significant behavior. Recent laboratory findings may have applied relevance; however, the majority of basic researchers have not clearly communicated the practical implications of their work. The present paper samples some of the new findings and attempts to demonstrate their applied importance. Schedule-induced behavior which occurs as a by-product of contingencies of reinforce...

  16. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  17. Dimensional Analysis with space discrimination applied to Fickian difussion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimensional Analysis with space discrimination is applied to Fickian difussion phenomena in order to transform its partial differen-tial equations into ordinary ones, and also to obtain in a dimensionl-ess fom the Ficks second law. (Author)

  18. How does vineyard management intensity affect ecosystem services and disservices - insights from a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.; Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Paredes, Daniel; Gómez, José A.; Guzmán, Gema; Landa, Blanca; Nicolai, Annegret; Burel, Francoise; Cluzeau, Daniel; Popescu, Daniela; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Potthoff, Martin; Guernion, Muriel; Batáry, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Viticultural agro-ecosystems provide a range of different ecosystem services which are affected by management decisions of winegrowers. At the global scale, vineyards are often high intensity agricultural systems with bare soil or inter-row vegetation consisting of only a few plant species. These systems primarily aim at optimizing wine production by reducing competition for water and nutrients between grapevines and weeds and by preventing the outbreak of pests and diseases. At the same time, this kind of management is often associated with ecosystem disservices such as high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and decline of biodiversity. Recently, several initiatives across the world tried to overcome detrimental effects of that management style by creating biodiversity friendly vineyards. The consequences of establishing divers cover crop mixes or tolerating spontaneous vegetation in vineyards for ecosystem services (including yield) overstretching local case studies has not been investigated yet. This meta-analysis will provide an overview of all published studies comparing the effects of different vineyard management practices on a range of different ecosystem services like biodiversity, pest control, pollination, soil conservation and carbon sequestration. The aggregated effect size will point out which management measures can provide the best overall net sum of ecosystem services. This meta-analysis is part of the transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project VineDivers and will ultimately lead into management and policy recommendations for various stakeholder groups engaged in viticulture.

  19. Gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis: a critical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R S; McCaughey, R E

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing controversy surrounding gentle teaching. This paper explores the nature of this controversy with particular reference to the relationship between gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed, and it is suggested that gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis need not be regarded as mutually exclusive approaches to working with persons with mental retardation.

  20. Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

    OpenAIRE

    F. M. Gresham; Gansle, K A; Noell, G H

    1993-01-01

    Functional analysis of behavior depends upon accurate measurement of both independent and dependent variables. Quantifiable and controllable operations that demonstrate these functional relationships are necessary for a science of human behavior. Failure to implement independent variables with integrity threatens the internal and external validity of experiments. A review of all applied behavior analysis studies with children as subjects that have been published in the Journal of Applied Beha...

  1. City ecosystem resilience analysis in case of disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Asprone, D; Latora, V; Manfredi, G; Nicosia, V

    2013-01-01

    One of the tasks of urban and hazard planning is to mitigate the damages and minimize the costs of the recovery process after catastrophic events. The rapidity and the efficiency of the recovery process are referred to as resilience. A mathematical definition of the resilience of an urban community has not yet identified. In this paper we propose and test a methodology for the assessment of urban resilience a catastrophic event. The idea is to merge the concepts of the engineering resilience and the ecosystem resilience. As first step we suggest a way to model an urban community inside the framework of complex network theory. Hence, to model the city as a whole, we identify hybrid networks, composed by human elements, i.e. the citizens, and physical networks, i.e. urban lifelines and infrastructures. As second step, we define and evaluate a class of efficiency indexes on the hybrid networks. By modelling the disasters of the physical components and the subsequent recovery process, and by measuring the efficie...

  2. A new perspective of ecosystem health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-tao; GU Chen-jie; LIANG Tao; XU Jian-ye; JOHN Ranjeet

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem health has attracted considerable attention from different disciplines in recent years. However, it still remains a disputed issue whether to focus on its general concept or on operational practice.As a result, these disputations have caused confusion and limited further research in the field of ecosystem health. In this paper, we attempt to introduce a new perspective to the concept of ecosystem health. With the aid of modem statistical methodology, such as factor analysis and normal distribution theory, we provide a conceptual approach to the quantitative assessment of ecosystem health and our method could be applied to various categories of ecosystems.

  3. Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, T Agami

    2011-01-01

    ""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and

  4. Quantitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity of Applied Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Duan, Xiaojun; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of mathematical techniques in scientific research leads to the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. This viewpoint is validated quantitatively here by statistical and network analysis on the corpus PNAS 1999-2013. A network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in a panoramic view is built based on the corpus. Specific network indicators show the hub role of applied mathematics in interdisciplinary research. The statistical analysis on the corpus content finds that algorithms, a primary topic of applied mathematics, positively correlates, increasingly co-occurs, and has an equilibrium relationship in the long-run with certain typical research paradigms and methodologies. The finding can be understood as an intrinsic cause of the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. PMID:26352604

  5. Methodology, the matching law, and applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vyse, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    The practical value of the quantitative analysis of behavior is limited by two methodological characteristics of this area of research: the use of (a) steady-state strategies and (b) relative vs. absolute response rates. Applied behavior analysts are concerned with both transition-state and steady-state behavior, and applied interventions are typically evaluated by their effects on absolute response rates. Quantitative analyses of behavior will have greater practical value when methods are de...

  6. Applied Methods for Analysis of Economic Structure and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Anderstig, Christer

    1988-01-01

    The thesis comprises five papers and an introductory overview of applied models and methods. The papers concern interdependences and interrelations in models applied to empirical analyses of various problems related to production, consumption, location and trade. Among different definitions of 'structural analysis' one refers to the study of the properties of economic models on the assumption of invariant structural relations, this definition is close to what is aimed at in lire present case....

  7. ANIMAL RESEARCH IN THE JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say–do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by...

  8. Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: an emerging technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, B A

    1987-01-01

    Although the effects of negative reinforcement on human behavior have been studied for a number of years, a comprehensive body of applied research does not exist at this time. This article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. A consideration of research currently being done in these area...

  9. Emergy Analysis of Agro-ecosystem in Poyang Lake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using emergy analysis theory and methods, we conduct quantitative analysis on the input and output of emergy, and sustainable development of agro-ecological system in Poyang Lake Area. The results show that compared with the national average, the environmental loading ratio is relatively low in this area; the net emergy yield rate is high; the sustainable development ability is strong. Finally according to the results of emergy analysis, corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows: develop agriculture based on the existing rich natural resources; increase technological inputs; develop circular agriculture; promote sustainable agricultural development.

  10. Analysis of plutonium pathways in a terrestial ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A linear balance model for the plutonium pathways in the nature is developed, the kinetic model constants of which are taken from measurements of fallout plutonium. Such a consistent model for the fallout plutonium may be used, e.g., for the analysis of the pathways of industrially released plutonium. In this paper the methodology of the analysis of box models is further developed. The relation between box models and tracer analysis is discussed. The numerical calculations which refer to middle European latitudes are of illustrative nature. (orig.)

  11. Nitrogen leaching from N limited forest ecosystems: the MERLIN model applied to Gårdsjön, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Kjønaas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic deposition of inorganic nitrogen (N compounds from the atmosphere to forested ecosystems can alter the status of a forest ecosystem from N-limited towards N-rich, which may cause, among other things, increased leaching of inorganic N below the rooting zone. To assess the time aspects of excess N leaching, a process-oriented dynamic model, MERLIN (Model of Ecosystem Retention and Loss of Inorganic Nitrogen, was tested on an N-manipulated catchment at Gårdsjön, Sweden (NITREX project. Naturally generated mature Norway spruce dominates the catchment with Scots pine in drier areas. Since 1991, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 solution at a rate of about 35 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (250 mmol m-2 yr-1 has been sprinkled weekly, to simulate increased atmospheric N deposition. MERLIN describes C and N cycles, where rates of uptake and cycling between pools are governed by the C/N ratios of plant and soil pools. The model is calibrated through a hindcast period and then used to predict future trends. A major source of uncertainty in model calibration and prediction is the paucity of good historical information on the specific site and stand history over the hindcast period 1930 to 1990. The model is constrained poorly in an N-limited system. The final calibration, therefore, made use of the results from the 6-year N addition experiment. No independent data set was available to provide a test for the model calibration. The model suggests that most N deposition goes to the labile (LOM and refractory (ROM organic matter pools. Significant leaching is predicted to start as the C/N ratio in LOM is reduced from the 1990 value of 35 to <28. At ambient deposition levels, the system is capable of retaining virtually all incoming N over the next 50 years. Increased decomposition rates, however, could simulate nitrate leaching losses. The rate and capacity of N assimilation as well as the change in carbon dynamics are keys to ecosystem changes. Because the knowledge of

  12. Integrated analysis of ecosystem interactions with land use Change: The Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Jantz, Claire A.; Prince, Stephen D.; Smith, Andrew J.; Varlyguin, Dmitry; Wright, Robb K.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, encompassed by a watershed extending 168,000 km2 over portions of six states and Washington, D.C. Restoration of the Bay has been the focus of a two-decade regional partnership of local, state and federal agencies, including a network of scientists, politicians and activists interacting through various committees, working groups, and advisory panels. The effectiveness of the restoration effort has been mixed, with both notable successes and failures. The overall health of the Bay has not declined since the restoration was initiated in 1983, but many of the advances have been offset by the pressure of increasing population and exurban sprawl across the watershed. The needs of the Chesapeake Bay Program are many, but the greatest is accurate information on land cover and land use change, primarily to assess the implications for water quality, examine various restoration scenarios, and calibrate spatial models of the urbanization process. We report here on a number of new land cover and land use data products, and associated applications to assist vulnerability assessment, integrated ecosystem analysis, and ultimately Bay restoration. We provide brief overviews of applications to model new residential development, assess losses and vulnerability of resource lands, and identify the factors that disrupt the health of streams in small watersheds. These data products and approaches are being applied by a number of agencies involved with the restoration effort, including the Chesapeake Bay Program's activities focused on living resources, water quality, and sound land use.

  13. Institutional dimensions of Payments for Ecosystem Services. An analysis of Mexico's carbon forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes a multi-dimensional framework for understanding the development and effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes, framed around the notions of institutional design, performance and interplay. The framework is applied in the context of Mexico's Programme of Payments for Carbon, Biodiversity and Agro-forestry Services (PSA-CABSA), with an emphasis on its carbon component. The analysis shows that PSA-CABSA was promoted by civil society and its rules have been subject to continuous modifications over time. In the case of the carbon component, changes have been due to an original misunderstanding of how carbon projects should be designed, implemented, and carbon traded in actual markets. From a performance point of view, the paper shows that the programme has been well received by rural communities, and carbon payments have contributed to increase household income and to enhance forest management practices and organisational skills. The paper also highlights sources of institutional interplay with local institutions and international climate policy, and it reveals the importance of capacity and scale issues in securing an effective and fair implementation of PES. The conclusion provides some policy recommendations for the future development of PES initiatives in Mexico and elsewhere. (author)

  14. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Portman

    Full Text Available Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity.

  15. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Michelle E; Shabtay-Yanai, Ateret; Zanzuri, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA) has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical) attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity. PMID:27183224

  16. Analysis and classification of data sets for calibration and validation of agro-ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kersebaum, K C; Boote, K J; Jorgenson, J S;

    2015-01-01

    Experimental field data are used at different levels of complexity to calibrate, validate and improve agro-ecosystem models to enhance their reliability for regional impact assessment. A methodological framework and software are presented to evaluate and classify data sets into four classes regar...... decide on the most effective measurements to improve the usefulness of their data for modelling, statistical analysis and data assimilation....

  17. Ecosystem Impacts of Woody Encroachment In Texas: A Spatial Analysis Using AVIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roberta E.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2004-01-01

    applied for regional-scale studies of N oxide fluxes. Remote sensing is arguably the only approach available to develop a spatially-explicit understanding of ecosystem processes. More specifically, remotely detectable spatial patterns in the distal controls over soil N properties, such as vegetation cover, land use and soil type (Robertson et al. 1989), should be exploited for regional studies of N oxide emissions. The woody encroachment phenomenon provides an opportunity to test the strength of the relationship between N oxide emissions and those factors controlling the fluxes that can be remotely measured. If such linkages can be firmly established, and if the spatial pattern of distal controls is relevant, then the combination of field measurements and remote sensing offers to improve regional-scale N oxide estimates. The paper presents the utility of linking field based sampling of soil NOx emissions with very high resolution remote sensing estimates of woody vegetation cover from the NASA AVIRIS, Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (Green et al. 1998, Asner and Green 2001) and automated spectral mixture analysis (Asner and Lobell 2000, Asner and Heidebrecht 2002) that provide a means to spatially extrapolate soil NOx emissions to the regional scale.

  18. Spectral analysis and filter theory in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Buttkus, Burkhard

    2000-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fundamentals and methods of spectral analysis and filter theory and their appli­ cations in geophysics. The principles and theoretical basis of the various methods are described, their efficiency and effectiveness eval­ uated, and instructions provided for their practical application. Be­ sides the conventional methods, newer methods arediscussed, such as the spectral analysis ofrandom processes by fitting models to the ob­ served data, maximum-entropy spectral analysis and maximum-like­ lihood spectral analysis, the Wiener and Kalman filtering methods, homomorphic deconvolution, and adaptive methods for nonstation­ ary processes. Multidimensional spectral analysis and filtering, as well as multichannel filters, are given extensive treatment. The book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art of spectral analysis and fil­ ter theory. The importance and possibilities ofspectral analysis and filter theory in geophysics for data acquisition, processing an...

  19. Stable isotope analysis challenges wasp-waist food web assumptions in an upwelling pelagic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Daniel J; Carlisle, Aaron B; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Litvin, Steven Y; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    Eastern boundary currents are often described as 'wasp-waist' ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007-2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations. PMID:22977729

  20. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aromolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Trends in heavy metal concentration in atmospheric depositions on a coastal forest ecosystem (Castelporziano, Rome are analyzed in the present study based on a three-year monitoring field survey over three sites representative of different woodland characteristics in the area. Our results highlight both the influence of transportation processes in the short and medium distance based on the human pressure reflecting urban expansion and infrastructure development on the fringe of Castelporziano pristine forest. Further studies investigating the latent correlation with meteorological variables at various temporal scales are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of environmental conditions in a forest ecosystem subjected to increasing human pressure. Analysis of runoff water quality and the determination of other heavy metals, such as arsenic, may identify additional sources of pollution impacting soil and forest ecosystem.

  1. AGEFIS:Applied General Equilibrium for FIScal Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arief Anshory Yusuf; Djoni Hartono; Wawan Hermawan; Yayan

    2008-01-01

    AGEFIS (Applied General Equilibrium model for FIScal Policy Analysis) is a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model designed specifically, but not limited, to analyze various aspects of fiscal policies in Indonesia. It is yet, the first Indonesian fully-SAM-based CGE model solved by Gempack. This paper describes the structure of the model and illustrates its application.

  2. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  3. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  4. B. F. Skinner's Contributions to Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew…

  5. Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…

  6. The spread of behavior analysis to the applied fields 1

    OpenAIRE

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of applied behavioral science as it exists in the various behavioral fields and considers the role of the Association for Behavior Analysis in serving those fields. The confounding effects of the traditions of psychology are discussed. Relevant issues are exemplified in the fields of law, communications, psychology, and education, but broader generalization is implied.

  7. Applying Frequency Map Analysis to the Australian Synchrotron Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Yaw-Ren E; Le Blanc, Gregory Scott

    2005-01-01

    The technique of frequency map analysis has been applied to study the transverse dynamic aperture of the Australian Synchrotron Storage Ring. The results have been used to set the strengths of sextupoles to optimise the dynamic aperture. The effects of the allowed harmonics in the quadrupoles and dipole edge effects are discussed.

  8. Neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New experimental data have been obtained on heavy metal and rare-earth element concentrations in environmental objects, namely pine needles and soils, caused by atmospheric pollution in different regions of the Kola Peninsula. The investigation was performed with the use of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor. The analysis of nearly 40 element distributions in pine needles and soils from the studied geographical points testifies of a strong contamination source - the nickel smelting complex in Monchegorsk. The contamination levels for Ni, Co, Cr, Se, and others are also high and may be hazardous for this region population because some of these elements are carcinogenic. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Aromolo; Valerio Moretti; Luca Salvati

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Tre...

  10. Structural reliability analysis applied to pipeline risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, M. [GL Industrial Services, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F.; Donato, Guilherme V.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of pipelines requires two main components to be provided. These are models of the consequences that follow from some loss of containment incident, and models for the likelihood of such incidents occurring. This paper describes how PETROBRAS have used Structural Reliability Analysis for the second of these, to provide pipeline- and location-specific predictions of failure frequency for a number of pipeline assets. This paper presents an approach to estimating failure rates for liquid and gas pipelines, using Structural Reliability Analysis (SRA) to analyze the credible basic mechanisms of failure such as corrosion and mechanical damage. SRA is a probabilistic limit state method: for a given failure mechanism it quantifies the uncertainty in parameters to mathematical models of the load-resistance state of a structure and then evaluates the probability of load exceeding resistance. SRA can be used to benefit the pipeline risk management process by optimizing in-line inspection schedules, and as part of the design process for new construction in pipeline rights of way that already contain multiple lines. A case study is presented to show how the SRA approach has recently been used on PETROBRAS pipelines and the benefits obtained from it. (author)

  11. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  12. The Split-Apply-Combine Strategy for Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley Wickham

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many data analysis problems involve the application of a split-apply-combine strategy, where you break up a big problem into manageable pieces, operate on each piece independently and then put all the pieces back together. This insight gives rise to a new R package that allows you to smoothly apply this strategy, without having to worry about the type of structure in which your data is stored.The paper includes two case studies showing how these insights make it easier to work with batting records for veteran baseball players and a large 3d array of spatio-temporal ozone measurements.

  13. System analysis of links interactions and development of ecosystems of different types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechurkin, N.

    Results of anthropogenic impact on the earth's ecosystems are leading to dramatic changes in ecosystem functioning and even to destruction of them. System analysis and the use of heuristic modeling can be an effective means to determine the main biological interactions and key factors that are of high importance for understanding the development of biosystems of superorganismic level. Simplified mathematical models of the functioning of the biotic cycles can join two principal directions of studies, which have not traditionally been properly connected: population-community dynamics (from one side) and ecosystem theory (from another side). Taking into consideration the cycling of the limiting nutrient (limiting substances are few even in complicated natural ecosystems -nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen) we can combine these two approaches. Cycling of the limiting substance, induced by the external free energy flux, and links interaction is the basis of the mathematical modeling studies to be presented to the session. Mathematical models describe the dynamics of simplified ecosystems having different characteristics:1.Different degrees of biotic turnover closure (from open to completely closed).2.Different numbers of trophic links (including both "top-down", "bottom-up" regulation types).3.Different intensities of input - output flows of the limiting nutrient and its total amount in the system. Adaptive values of the changes of lower hierarchical levels (populational, trophic chain level) are to be estimated by integrity indices for total system functioning (NPP, total photosynthesis). The developed approach is of use for evaluating the contributions of lower hierarchical levels to the functioning the higher hierarchical levels of the system. For applications this approach is of high value for possible biomanipulation actions and their assessment. The role of evaluation of the rate of limiting nutrient cycling as an integrity index of any ecosystem functioning (natural or

  14. Ecosystem functioning approach applied to a large contaminated coastal site: the study case of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibic, Tamara; Bongiorni, Lucia; Borfecchia, Flavio; Di Leo, Antonella; Franzo, Annalisa; Giandomenico, Santina; Karuza, Ana; Micheli, Carla; Rogelja, Manja; Spada, Lucia; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge on ecosystem functioning can largely contribute to promote ecosystem-based management and its application. The Mar Piccolo of Taranto is a densely populated area at a high risk of environmental crisis. Here, planktonic primary production (PP) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (HPP) were measured as proxies of functioning in three sampling sites located in two inlets at different levels of industrial contamination, during three sampling surveys (June 2013, February and April 2014). To have a better overall view and provide some insights into the benthic-pelagic coupling, we integrated PP and HPP in the water column with those in the sediments and then discussed this with the origin of the organic matter pools based on analysis of stable isotopes. Heavy metals and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were also analysed in the surface (1 cm) sediment layer and related to the overall ecosystem functioning. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, based on the main data, clearly separated the second inlet from the first one, more severely impacted by anthropogenic activities. The stable isotope mixing model suggested the prevalent terrestrial/riverine origin of the particulate organic matter pools (mean 45.5 %) in all sampling periods, whereas phytoplankton contributed up to 29 % in February. Planktonic PP and HPP rates followed the same pattern over the entire study period and seemed to respond to phytoplankton dynamics confirming this community as the main driver for the C cycling in the water column. On the contrary, benthic PP rates were almost negligible while HPP rates were lower or comparable to those in the water column indicating that although the Mar Piccolo is very shallow, the water column is much more productive than the surface sediments. The sediment resuspension is likely responsible for a pulsed input of contaminants into the water column. However, their interference with the proper functioning of the pelagic ecosystem seems to be limited to

  15. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  16. Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Violet; Liu, Ang; Groeber, Elizabeth; Moghaddam, Mehran; Schiller, James; Tweed, Joseph A; Walker, Gregory S

    2016-02-01

    Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development. The APA conference was organized in three workshops encompassing the disciplines of regulated bioanalysis, discovery bioanalysis (encompassing new and emerging technologies) and biotransformation. The conference included a short course titled 'Bioanalytical considerations for the clinical development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs)', an engaging poster session, several panel and round table discussions and over 50 diverse talks from leading industry and academic scientists. PMID:26853375

  17. Numerical continuation applied to landing gear mechanism analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, J.; Krauskopf, B; Lowenberg, MH

    2010-01-01

    A method of investigating quasi-static mechanisms is presented and applied to an overcentre mechanism and to a nose landing gear mechanism. The method uses static equilibrium equations along with equations describing the geometric constraints in the mechanism. In the spirit of bifurcation analysis, solutions to these steady-state equations are then continued numerically in parameters of interest. Results obtained from the bifurcation method agree with the equivalent results obtained from two ...

  18. Emerging Opportunities in Higher Education : Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ala í- Rosales, Shahla; Roll-Pettersson, Lise; Pinkelman, Sarah

    2010-01-01

      The growing number of children diagnosed with autism and the recognized importance of evidence-based interventions has substantially increased the need for well-trained applied behavior analysts. Relative to public/consumer demand, there are very few higher education programs that are equipped to train behavior analysts specializing in autism. Worldwide, there are only a few programs accredited by Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI), that have course sequences approved by...

  19. B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G; Altus, Deborah E

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew from his science for application, his descriptions of possible applications, and his own applications to nonhuman and human behavior. Second, we foun...

  20. Developing an interdisciplinary master's program in applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lowenkron, Barry; Mitchell, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    At many universities, faculty interested in behavior analysis are spread across disciplines. This makes difficult the development of behavior-analytically oriented programs, and impedes regular contact among colleagues who share common interests. However, this separation by disciplines can be a source of strength if it is used to develop interdisciplinary programs. In this article we describe how a bottom-up strategy was used to develop two complementary interdisciplinary MS programs in appli...

  1. Wavelet Analysis Applied to the Research on Heroin Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavelet analysis is applied to process energy spectrum signal of drug detection by energy scattering X-Ray. In the paper, we put forward a new adaptive correlation denoising algorithm, which could achieve good filter effect. Also, a simple and effective method of peaks seeking is designed, which might anchor both strong peaks and weak peaks. Eventually, comparing experiment result with data by XRD and PDF, it makes out low relative error. (authors)

  2. An applied ethics analysis of best practice tourism entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Susann

    2015-01-01

    Ethical entrepreneurship and by extension wider best practice are noble goals for the future of tourism. However, questions arise which concepts, such as values motivations, actions and challenges underpin these goals. This thesis seeks to answers these questions and in so doing develop an applied ethics analysis for best practice entrepreneurs in tourism. The research is situated in sustainable tourism, which is ethically very complex and has thus far been dominated by the economic, social a...

  3. Recent reinforcement-schedule research and applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.; Neef, Nancy A.

    1996-01-01

    Reinforcement schedules are considered in relation to applied behavior analysis by examining several recent laboratory experiments with humans and other animals. The experiments are drawn from three areas of contemporary schedule research: behavioral history effects on schedule performance, the role of instructions in schedule performance of humans, and dynamic schedules of reinforcement. All of the experiments are discussed in relation to the role of behavioral history in current schedule pe...

  4. Applied behavior analysis at West Virginia University: A brief history

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Robert P.; Chase, Philip N.; Scotti, Joseph R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an emphasis on applied behavior analysis in the Department of Psychology at West Virginia University is traced. The emphasis began primarily in the early 1970s, under the leadership of Roger Maley and Jon Krapfl, and has continued to expand and evolve with the participation of numerous behavior analysts and behavior therapists, both inside and outside the department. The development has been facilitated by several factors: establishment of a strong behavioral emphasis in th...

  5. Apply Functional Modelling to Consequence Analysis in Supervision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Gola, Giulio; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    This paper will first present the purpose and goals of applying functional modelling approach to consequence analysis by adopting Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM). MFM Models describe a complex system in multiple abstraction levels in both means-end dimension and whole-part dimension. It contains causal relations between functions and goals. A rule base system can be developed to trace the causal relations and perform consequence propagations. This paper will illustrate how to use MFM for cons...

  6. Applying DEA sensitivity analysis to efficiency measurement of Vietnamese universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Huyen Nguyen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of 30 doctorate-granting universities, the universities or the higher education institutes with PhD training programs, in Vietnam, applying the sensitivity analysis of data envelopment analysis (DEA. The study uses eight sets of input-output specifications using the replacement as well as aggregation/disaggregation of variables. The measurement results allow us to examine the sensitivity of the efficiency of these universities with the sets of variables. The findings also show the impact of variables on their efficiency and its “sustainability”.

  7. Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Applied to Food Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel S. Ibarra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic solid phase extraction has been used as pretreatment technique for the analysis of several compounds because of its advantages when it is compared with classic methods. This methodology is based on the use of magnetic solids as adsorbents for preconcentration of different analytes from complex matrices. Magnetic solid phase extraction minimizes the use of additional steps such as precipitation, centrifugation, and filtration which decreases the manipulation of the sample. In this review, we describe the main procedures used for synthesis, characterization, and application of this pretreatment technique which were applied in food analysis.

  8. Harmonic and applied analysis from groups to signals

    CERN Document Server

    Mari, Filippo; Grohs, Philipp; Labate, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume explores the connection between the theoretical aspects of harmonic analysis and the construction of advanced multiscale representations that have emerged in signal and image processing. It highlights some of the most promising mathematical developments in harmonic analysis in the last decade brought about by the interplay among different areas of abstract and applied mathematics. This intertwining of ideas is considered starting from the theory of unitary group representations and leading to the construction of very efficient schemes for the analysis of multidimensional data. After an introductory chapter surveying the scientific significance of classical and more advanced multiscale methods, chapters cover such topics as An overview of Lie theory focused on common applications in signal analysis, including the wavelet representation of the affine group, the Schrödinger representation of the Heisenberg group, and the metaplectic representation of the symplectic group An introduction ...

  9. Applied behavior analysis at West Virginia University: A brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, R P; Chase, P N; Scotti, J R

    1993-01-01

    The development of an emphasis on applied behavior analysis in the Department of Psychology at West Virginia University is traced. The emphasis began primarily in the early 1970s, under the leadership of Roger Maley and Jon Krapfl, and has continued to expand and evolve with the participation of numerous behavior analysts and behavior therapists, both inside and outside the department. The development has been facilitated by several factors: establishment of a strong behavioral emphasis in the three Clinical graduate programs; change of the graduate program in Experimental Psychology to a program in basic Behavior Analysis; development of nonclinical applied behavior analysis within the Behavior Analysis program; establishment of a joint graduate program with Educational Psychology; establishment of a Community/Systems graduate program; and organization of numerous conferences. Several factors are described that seem to assure a stable role for behavior analysis in the department: a stable and supportive "culture" within the department; American Psychological Association accreditation of the clinical training; a good reputation both within the university and in psychology; and a broader community of behavior analysts and behavior therapists. PMID:16795816

  10. Dynamic Processes of an Airport’s System. Applying Value Network Analysis (VNA to the Air Traveller Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Vaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue that networks are fundamental instruments for the development of the business system of airports’ landside area. We propose value network analysis (VNA to gain a better understanding of how processes and people create value in airports’ network ecosystem. This methodology makes it possible to understand and visualise the internal and external value networks, mapping the players and their interrelationships and thus capturing the dynamics of the airports’ entire system. Applying value network analysis (VNA to the air traveller experience, we conclude that this approach provides a network ecosystem perspective on how processes and people create value within the air traveller experience network. For the validation of this scenario, several interviews were conducted with experts.

  11. Applying Hillslope Hydrology to Bridge between Ecosystem and Grid-Scale Processes within an Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subin, Z. M.; Sulman, B. N.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial control on surface energy fluxes, vegetation properties, and soil carbon cycling. Its interactions with ecosystem processes are highly nonlinear across a large range, as both drought stress and anoxia can impede vegetation and microbial growth. Earth System Models (ESMs) generally only represent an average soil-moisture state in grid cells at scales of 50-200 km, and as a result are not able to adequately represent the effects of subgrid heterogeneity in soil moisture, especially in regions with large wetland areas. We addressed this deficiency by developing the first ESM-coupled subgrid hillslope-hydrological model, TiHy (Tiled-hillslope Hydrology), embedded within the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model. In each grid cell, one or more representative hillslope geometries are discretized into land model tiles along an upland-to-lowland gradient. These geometries represent ~1 km hillslope-scale hydrological features and allow for flexible representation of hillslope profile and plan shapes, in addition to variation of subsurface properties among or within hillslopes. Each tile (which may represent ~100 m along the hillslope) has its own surface fluxes, vegetation state, and vertically-resolved state variables for soil physics and biogeochemistry. Resolution of water state in deep layers (~200 m) down to bedrock allows for physical integration of groundwater transport with unsaturated overlying dynamics. Multiple tiles can also co-exist at the same vertical position along the hillslope, allowing the simulation of ecosystem heterogeneity due to disturbance. The hydrological model is coupled to the vertically-resolved Carbon, Organisms, Respiration, and Protection in the Soil Environment (CORPSE) model, which captures non-linearity resulting from interactions between vertically-heterogeneous soil carbon and water profiles. We present comparisons of simulated water table depth to observations. We examine sensitivities to

  12. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  13. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-01-01

    International audience Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evo...

  14. Probabilistic Analysis Techniques Applied to Complex Spacecraft Power System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power system performance predictions are critical to spacecraft, such as the International Space Station (ISS), to ensure that sufficient power is available to support all the spacecraft s power needs. In the case of the ISS power system, analyses to date have been deterministic, meaning that each analysis produces a single-valued result for power capability because of the complexity and large size of the model. As a result, the deterministic ISS analyses did not account for the sensitivity of the power capability to uncertainties in model input variables. Over the last 10 years, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed advanced, computationally fast, probabilistic analysis techniques and successfully applied them to large (thousands of nodes) complex structural analysis models. These same techniques were recently applied to large, complex ISS power system models. This new application enables probabilistic power analyses that account for input uncertainties and produce results that include variations caused by these uncertainties. Specifically, N&R Engineering, under contract to NASA, integrated these advanced probabilistic techniques with Glenn s internationally recognized ISS power system model, System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE).

  15. Supporting the Evolution of Research in Software Ecosystems: Reviewing the Empirical Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    ecosystems. To do so, we investigate the literature of empirical, non open source ecosystem studies and intent to identify the various aspects and perspectives studied. In total, we review 56 empirical studies that investigate 55 software ecosystems. Our analysis confirms the assumption that proprietary...... the technical aspects, but also as means of applying orchestration. Finally, comparing the main areas with the overall ecosystem literature, we identify that empirical studies lack representation of health, motivation, actor activity, reusability, integration, and quality of ecosystems....

  16. Cladistic analysis applied to the classification of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, D. W. E.; Mahony, S. H.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Martin, K. T.

    2007-11-01

    Cladistics is a systematic method of classification that groups entities on the basis of sharing similar characteristics in the most parsimonious manner. Here cladistics is applied to the classification of volcanoes using a dataset of 59 Quaternary volcanoes and 129 volcanic edifices of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Volcano and edifice characteristics recorded in the database include attributes of volcano size, chemical composition, dominant eruptive products, volcano morphology, dominant landforms, volcano age and eruptive history. Without characteristics related to time the volcanic edifices divide into two groups, with characters related to volcano size, dominant composition and edifice morphology being the most diagnostic. Analysis including time based characteristics yields four groups with a good correlation between these groups and the two groups from the analysis without time for 108 out of 129 volcanic edifices. Thus when characters are slightly changed the volcanoes still form similar groupings. Analysis of the volcanoes both with and without time yields three groups based on compositional, eruptive products and morphological characters. Spatial clusters of volcanic centres have been recognised in the Tohoku region by Tamura et al. ( Earth Planet Sci Lett 197:105 106, 2002). The groups identified by cladistic analysis are distributed unevenly between the clusters, indicating a tendency for individual clusters to form similar kinds of volcanoes with distinctive but coherent styles of volcanism. Uneven distribution of volcano types between clusters can be explained by variations in dominant magma compositions through time, which are reflected in eruption products and volcanic landforms. Cladistic analysis can be a useful tool for elucidating dynamic igneous processes that could be applied to other regions and globally. Our exploratory study indicates that cladistics has promise as a method for classifying volcanoes and potentially elucidating dynamic

  17. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition. PMID:26813078

  18. Analysis of ecosystem controls on soil carbon source-sink relationships in the northwest Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Liu, S.; Johnston, C.A.; Liu, J.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our ability to forecast the role of ecosystem processes in mitigating global greenhouse effects relies on understanding the driving forces on terrestrial C dynamics. This study evaluated the controls on soil organic C (SOC) changes from 1973 to 2000 in the northwest Great Plains. SOC source-sink relationships were quantified using the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) based on 40 randomly located 10 ?? 10 km2 sample blocks. These sample blocks were aggregated into cropland, grassland, and forestland groups based on land cover composition within each sample block. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that SOC source-sink relationship from 1973 to 2000 was significantly related to the land cover type while the change rates mainly depended on the baseline SOC level and annual precipitation. Of all selected driving factors, the baseline SOC and nitrogen levels controlled the SOC change rates for the forestland and cropland groups, while annual precipitation determined the C source-sink relationship for the grassland group in which noticeable SOC sink strength was attributed to the conversion from cropped area to grass cover. Canonical correlation analysis also showed that grassland ecosystems are more complicated than others in the ecoregion, which may be difficult to identify on a field scale. Current model simulations need finther adjustments to the model input variables for the grass cover-dominated ecosystems in the ecoregion. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. PMID:25218331

  20. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition.

  1. Ion-exchange resin separation applied to activation analysis (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation techniques based on ion-exchange resins have been used, in this study, for carrying out activation analyses on about thirty impurities. A separation process has been developed so as to standardise these analyses and to render them execution a matter of routine. The reparation yields obtained are excellent and make it possible to carry out analyses on samples having a large activation cross-section ween working inside a reinforced fume-cupboard. This technique has been applied to the analysis of impurities in tantalum, iron, gallium, germanium, terphenyl, and tungsten. The extension of this process to other impurities and to other matrices is now being studied. (authors)

  2. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Kim, Young Gi; Jung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun; Lim, Jong Myoung

    2003-05-01

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology.

  3. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology

  4. Applied climate-change analysis: the climate wizard tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan H Girvetz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the message of "global climate change" is catalyzing international action, it is local and regional changes that directly affect people and ecosystems and are of immediate concern to scientists, managers, and policy makers. A major barrier preventing informed climate-change adaptation planning is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting climate-change information. To address this problem, we developed a powerful, yet easy to use, web-based tool called Climate Wizard (http://ClimateWizard.org that provides non-climate specialists with simple analyses and innovative graphical depictions for conveying how climate has and is projected to change within specific geographic areas throughout the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To demonstrate the Climate Wizard, we explored historic trends and future departures (anomalies in temperature and precipitation globally, and within specific latitudinal zones and countries. We found the greatest temperature increases during 1951-2002 occurred in northern hemisphere countries (especially during January-April, but the latitude of greatest temperature change varied throughout the year, sinusoidally ranging from approximately 50 degrees N during February-March to 10 degrees N during August-September. Precipitation decreases occurred most commonly in countries between 0-20 degrees N, and increases mostly occurred outside of this latitudinal region. Similarly, a quantile ensemble analysis based on projections from 16 General Circulation Models (GCMs for 2070-2099 identified the median projected change within countries, which showed both latitudinal and regional patterns in projected temperature and precipitation change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of these analyses are consistent with those reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, but at the same time, they provide examples of how Climate Wizard can be used to explore regionally- and temporally

  5. SOIL SEALING AND LAND USE CHANGE DETECTION APPLYING GEOGRAPHIC OBJECT BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS (GEOBIA) TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Hammad, Ahmed Mohamed Harb

    2013-01-01

    Land use and land cover change analysis is now a mature area of study but it is still important to monitor these changes and their subsequent impacts on ecosystem functions. The rate of Land use and land cover change is much larger than ever recorded previously, with quick changes to ecosystems taking place at local to global scales. The functions of an ecosystem can be significantly impacted by changes in land use and land cover, which in turn critically affect the provision, regulation and ...

  6. Empirical modal decomposition applied to cardiac signals analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beya, O.; Jalil, B.; Fauvet, E.; Laligant, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present the method of empirical modal decomposition (EMD) applied to the electrocardiograms and phonocardiograms signals analysis and denoising. The objective of this work is to detect automatically cardiac anomalies of a patient. As these anomalies are localized in time, therefore the localization of all the events should be preserved precisely. The methods based on the Fourier Transform (TFD) lose the localization property [13] and in the case of Wavelet Transform (WT) which makes possible to overcome the problem of localization, but the interpretation remains still difficult to characterize the signal precisely. In this work we propose to apply the EMD (Empirical Modal Decomposition) which have very significant properties on pseudo periodic signals. The second section describes the algorithm of EMD. In the third part we present the result obtained on Phonocardiograms (PCG) and on Electrocardiograms (ECG) test signals. The analysis and the interpretation of these signals are given in this same section. Finally, we introduce an adaptation of the EMD algorithm which seems to be very efficient for denoising.

  7. Analysis of selection procedures to determine priority areas for payment for water ecosystem services programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Feital Gjorup

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The approach of ecosystem services has shown promise for the evaluation of interactions between ecosystems and society, integrating environmental and socioeconomic concepts which require interdisciplinary knowledge. However, its usefulness in decision making is limited due to information gaps. This study was therefore developed in order to contribute to the application of principles of ecosystem services in the decision-making for water resources management. It aims to identify procedures and methodologies used for decision-making in order to select priority areas to be included in projects or compensation programs for environmental services. To do so, we searched technical and scientific literature describing methods and experiences used to select priority areas. Key steps in the process of selecting priority areas were identified; then a survey was conducted of the procedures adopted for each key step considering the literature selected; and, finally, the information collected was analyzed and classified. Considering the study’s sample, we noted that the selection of priority areas was based on the direct use of predetermined criteria. The use of indicators and spatial analyses are practices still scarcely employed. We must highlight, however, that most of the analyzed documents did not aim to describe the process of selecting priority areas in detail, which may have resulted in some omissions. Although these conditions may limit the analysis in this study, the results presented here allow us to identify the main objectives, actions and criteria used to select priority areas for programs or compensation projects for environmental services.

  8. Application of Object Based Classification and High Resolution Satellite Imagery for Savanna Ecosystem Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Southworth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems are an important component of dryland regions and yet are exceedingly difficult to study using satellite imagery. Savannas are composed are varying amounts of trees, shrubs and grasses and typically traditional classification schemes or vegetation indices cannot differentiate across class type. This research utilizes object based classification (OBC for a region in Namibia, using IKONOS imagery, to help differentiate tree canopies and therefore woodland savanna, from shrub or grasslands. The methodology involved the identification and isolation of tree canopies within the imagery and the creation of tree polygon layers had an overall accuracy of 84%. In addition, the results were scaled up to a corresponding Landsat image of the same region, and the OBC results compared to corresponding pixel values of NDVI. The results were not compelling, indicating once more the problems of these traditional image analysis techniques for savanna ecosystems. Overall, the use of the OBC holds great promise for this ecosystem and could be utilized more frequently in studies of vegetation structure.

  9. Applying cluster analysis to physics education research data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springuel, R. Padraic

    One major thrust of Physics Education Research (PER) is the identification of student ideas about specific physics concepts, both correct ideas and those that differ from the expert consensus. Typically the research process of eliciting the spectrum of student ideas involves the administration of specially designed questions to students. One major analysis task in PER is the sorting of these student responses into thematically coherent groups. This process is one which has previously been done by eye in PER. This thesis explores the possibility of using cluster analysis to perform the task in a more rigorous and less time-intensive fashion while making fewer assumptions about what the students are doing. Since this technique has not previously been used in PER, a summary of the various kinds of cluster analysis is included as well as a discussion of which might be appropriate for the task of sorting student responses into groups. Two example data sets (one based on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (DICE) the other looking at acceleration in two-dimensions (A2D) are examined in depth to demonstrate how cluster analysis can be applied to PER data and the various considerations which must be taken into account when doing so. In both cases, the techniques described in this thesis found 5 groups which contained about 90% of the students in the data set. The results of this application are compared to previous research on the topics covered by the two examples to demonstrate that cluster analysis can effectively uncover the same patterns in student responses that have already been identified.

  10. Image analysis technique applied to lock-exchange gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Helena I. S.; Adduce, Claudia; Alves, Elsa; Franca, Mário J.

    2013-04-01

    An image analysis technique is used to estimate the two-dimensional instantaneous density field of unsteady gravity currents produced by full-depth lock-release of saline water. An experiment reproducing a gravity current was performed in a 3.0 m long, 0.20 m wide and 0.30 m deep Perspex flume with horizontal smooth bed and recorded with a 25 Hz CCD video camera under controlled light conditions. Using dye concentration as a tracer, a calibration procedure was established for each pixel in the image relating the amount of dye uniformly distributed in the tank and the greyscale values in the corresponding images. The results are evaluated and corrected by applying the mass conservation principle within the experimental tank. The procedure is a simple way to assess the time-varying density distribution within the gravity current, allowing the investigation of gravity current dynamics and mixing processes.

  11. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is written for results of research and development as follows : improvement of neutron irradiation facilities, counting system and development of automation system and capsules for NAA in HANARO ; improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of analytical quality control and assurance system; applied research and development of environment, industry and human health and its standardization. For identification and standardization of analytical method, environmental biological samples and polymer are analyzed and uncertainity of measurement are estimated. Also data intercomparison and proficency test were performed. Using airborne particulate matter chosen as a environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site are determined and then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. International cooperation research project was carried out for utilization of nuclear techniques

  12. Downside Risk analysis applied to Hedge Funds universe

    CERN Document Server

    Perello, J

    2006-01-01

    Hedge Funds are considered as one of the portfolio management sectors which shows a fastest growing for the past decade. An optimal Hedge Fund management requires a high precision risk evaluation and an appropriate risk metrics. The classic CAPM theory and its Ratio Sharpe fail to capture some crucial aspects due to the strong non-Gaussian character of Hedge Funds statistics. A possible way out to this problem while keeping CAPM simplicity is the so-called Downside Risk analysis. One important benefit lies in distinguishing between good and bad returns, that is: returns greater (or lower) than investor's goal. We study several risk indicators using the Gaussian case as a benchmark and apply them to the Credit Suisse/Tremont Investable Hedge Fund Index Data.

  13. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Bak, Sung Ryel; Park, Yong Chul; Kim, Young Ki; Chung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun

    2000-05-01

    This report is written for results of research and development as follows : improvement of neutron irradiation facilities, counting system and development of automation system and capsules for NAA in HANARO ; improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of analytical quality control and assurance system; applied research and development of environment, industry and human health and its standardization. For identification and standardization of analytical method, environmental biological samples and polymer are analyzed and uncertainity of measurement are estimated. Also data intercomparison and proficency test were performed. Using airborne particulate matter chosen as a environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site are determined and then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. International cooperation research project was carried out for utilization of nuclear techniques.

  14. Stable isotope analysis of energy dynamics in aquatic ecosystems suggests trophic shifts following severe wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, A. M.; Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Williams, C.; Wagner, M. J.; Luchkow, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire alters landscapes and can have significant impacts on stream ecosystems. The 2003 Lost Creek wildfire was one of the most severe on Alberta's eastern rocky mountain slopes, resulting in elevated sediment production and nutrient (phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) export in impacted streams. These resulted in increased algal productivity and macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity, and as a result, fish in watersheds draining wildfire affected catchments were larger than those in the same age class from reference (unburned) watersheds. In the present investigation, stable isotope analysis of C and N was utilized to evaluate ecosystem energy dynamics and describe trophic relationships in those watersheds. Aquatic invertebrates from burned catchments showed enrichment in δ13C and δ15N relative to algae suggesting a reliance on algae (autochthony) as a primary source of energy. Invertebrates from unburned systems were depleted in δ13C relative to algae indicating reliance on allochthonous or terrestrial primary energy sources. Preliminary analysis of δ15N in macroinvertebrates showed slight enrichment in burned catchments suggesting a trophic shift. More comprehensive macroinvertebrate sampling and identification has been conducted; isotopic analysis will provide greater resolution of how specific families within feeding guilds have been affected by wildfire. This will provide more robust insights into how wildfires may impact stream ecology in mountain environments.

  15. Analysis on the dynamic changes in a regional ecosystem and evaluation of its service values based on Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.-D.; Zhang, H.-B.; Wang, X.-C.

    2015-06-01

    The ecosystem service value is an important concept and an index that reflects the quality of the regional ecological environment status and the measurement of the total ecological benefits. In this study, based on the characteristics of land use and the types of ecosystem in the studied area, the ecological indicators including the net primary productivity of the vegetation and the vegetation cover were selected. Landsat TM remote sensing image, ground-based observation, meteorological data and statistical data etc. were applied to establish the remote sensing-based assessment criteria and assessment model for quantitative estimation of the ecosystem service value. The established assessment criteria and model were applied to conduct the quantitative calculation on the value of the single ecosystem service and the ecosystem service value per unit area. The results indicated that during the decade of 2000-2010, with the inter-conversion of different types of land use, the total value of the ecological service in the studied area displayed a gradually decreasing trend. Among which, the values of ecological service of the cultivation land, wetland and the total ecological service were reduced by 11.92, 11.75 and 5.74%, respectively. While the values of ecological services of forest land, waters and intertidal zone were increased to certain extend. However, these increased values did not change the continuously decreasing trend of the total value of ecosystem service in the studied area. Based on these assessments, the spatially- and temporally-changing patterns of the values of ecosystem service in the studied area were analysed to reveal their intrinsic relationship between the land use and the changes in values of ecosystem service.

  16. Evaluating natural flood management measures using an ecosystem based adaptation framework: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is projected to alter river flows and the magnitude/frequency characteristics of floods and droughts. As a result flood risk is expected to increase with environmental, social and economic impacts. Traditionally flood risk management has been heavily relying on engineering measures, however with climate change their capacity to provide protection is expected to decrease. Ecosystem-based adaptation highlights the interdependence of human and natural systems, and the potential to buffer the impacts of climate change by maintaining functioning ecosystems that continue to provide multiple societal benefits. Natural flood management measures have the potential to provide a greater adaptive capacity to negate the impacts of climate change and provide ancillary benefits. To understand the impacts of different NFM measures on ecosystem services a meta-analysis was undertaken. Twenty five studies from across the world were pulled together to assess their effectiveness on reducing the flood risk but also on other ecosystems services as defined by the UK National Ecosystem Assessment, which distinguishes between provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. Four categories of NFM measures were considered: (i) afforestation measures, (ii) drainage and blocking the drains, (iii) wetland restoration and (iv) combined measures. Woodland expansion measures provide significant benefits for flood protection more pronounced for low magnitude events, but also for other services such as carbon sequestration and water quality. These measures however will come at a cost for livestock and crop provisioning services as a result of land use changes. Drainage operations and blocking the drains have mixed impacts on carbon sequestration and water quality depending on soil type, landscape settings and local characteristics. Wetland and floodplain restoration measures have generally a few disbenefits and provide improvements for regulating and supporting services

  17. Variability of Ecosystem State in Rivers Containing Natural Dams: A Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding, and the resulting economic damage to roads and property, is associated with natural dams such as beaver dams or log jams. For this reason, humans often remove natural dams; however, river reaches with natural dams provide very different ecosystem services in comparison with free-flowing river reaches. Therefore, the goal of this project is to assess the differences in ecosystem state between these different river reach types in the northeastern United States. We focused on differences in basic chemistry (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and organic carbon) to assess the impact of natural dams on river ecosystem state. Study sites include rivers in the White Mountains and southeastern New Hampshire at locations with beaver dams, beaver ponds, beaver meadows, log jams, and free-flowing reaches. Dissolved oxygen, ORP, pH, temperature, and conductivity were measured in the field with a YSI Professional Plus meter. Water samples were collected for subsequent laboratory analysis of total organic carbon with a Shimadzu TOC-L. Preliminary results show that the chemistry of river water varies with feature type. Most significantly, dissolved oxygen concentrations are highest in free-flowing reaches and lowest in beaver ponds. Although beaver ponds are often associated with lower pH, due the increased concentration of organic acids, some beaver ponds can increase pH when compared to free-flowing reaches on the same river. Early results also show that water chemistry returns quickly to the chemistry typical of the free-flowing river reaches after being altered by a natural dam. Overall, natural dams create a river system that has more heterogeneity, and therefore has opportunities to provide more ecosystem functions, than a purely free-flowing river; this can increase the number of supported instream and riparian species. By increasing the understanding of how natural dams affect the chemistry of river water, river engineers can improve their decisions on how

  18. Applying Conjoint Analysis to Study Attitudes of Thai Government Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natee Suriyanon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the application of choice-based conjointanalysis to analyse the attitude of Thai government organisationstowards the restriction of the contractor’s right to claimcompensation for unfavourable effects from undesirable events.The analysis reveals that the organisations want to restrict only 6out of 14 types of the claiming rights that were studied. The rightthat they want to restrict most is the right to claim for additionaldirect costs due to force majeure. They are willing to pay between0.087% - 0.210% of the total project direct cost for restricting eachtype of contractor right. The total additional cost for restrictingall six types of rights that the organisations are willing to pay is0.882%. The last section of this article applies the knowledgegained from a choice based conjoint analysis experiment to theanalysis of the standard contract of the Thai government. Theanalysis reveals three types of rights where Thai governmentorganisations are willing to forego restrictions, but the presentstandard contract does not grant such rights.

  19. Multivariate Statistical Analysis Applied in Wine Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieling Zou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applies multivariate statistical approaches to wine quality evaluation. With 27 red wine samples, four factors were identified out of 12 parameters by principal component analysis, explaining 89.06% of the total variance of data. As iterative weights calculated by the BP neural network revealed little difference from weights determined by information entropy method, the latter was chosen to measure the importance of indicators. Weighted cluster analysis performs well in classifying the sample group further into two sub-clusters. The second cluster of red wine samples, compared with its first, was lighter in color, tasted thinner and had fainter bouquet. Weighted TOPSIS method was used to evaluate the quality of wine in each sub-cluster. With scores obtained, each sub-cluster was divided into three grades. On the whole, the quality of lighter red wine was slightly better than the darker category. This study shows the necessity and usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques in both wine quality evaluation and parameter selection.

  20. Harnessing Ecosystem Models and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for the Support of Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfslehner, Bernhard; Seidl, Rupert

    2010-12-01

    The decision-making environment in forest management (FM) has changed drastically during the last decades. Forest management planning is facing increasing complexity due to a widening portfolio of forest goods and services, a societal demand for a rational, transparent decision process and rising uncertainties concerning future environmental conditions (e.g., climate change). Methodological responses to these challenges include an intensified use of ecosystem models to provide an enriched, quantitative information base for FM planning. Furthermore, multi-criteria methods are increasingly used to amalgamate information, preferences, expert judgments and value expressions, in support of the participatory and communicative dimensions of modern forestry. Although the potential of combining these two approaches has been demonstrated in a number of studies, methodological aspects in interfacing forest ecosystem models (FEM) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) are scarcely addressed explicitly. In this contribution we review the state of the art in FEM and MCDA in the context of FM planning and highlight some of the crucial issues when combining ecosystem and preference modeling. We discuss issues and requirements in selecting approaches suitable for supporting FM planning problems from the growing body of FEM and MCDA concepts. We furthermore identify two major challenges in a harmonized application of FEM-MCDA: (i) the design and implementation of an indicator-based analysis framework capturing ecological and social aspects and their interactions relevant for the decision process, and (ii) holistic information management that supports consistent use of different information sources, provides meta-information as well as information on uncertainties throughout the planning process.

  1. Analysis of NDVI variance across landscapes and seasons allows assessment of degradation and resilience to shocks in Mediterranean dry ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    liniger, hanspeter; jucker riva, matteo; schwilch, gudrun

    2016-04-01

    Mapping and assessment of desertification is a primary basis for effective management of dryland ecosystems. Vegetation cover and biomass density are key elements for the ecological functioning of dry ecosystem, and at the same time an effective indicator of desertification, land degradation and sustainable land management. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely used to estimate the vegetation density and cover. However, the reflectance of vegetation and thus the NDVI values are influenced by several factors such as type of canopy, type of land use and seasonality. For example low NDVI values could be associated to a degraded forest, to a healthy forest under dry climatic condition, to an area used as pasture, or to an area managed to reduce the fuel load. We propose a simple method to analyse the variance of NDVI signal considering the main factors that shape the vegetation. This variance analysis enables us to detect and categorize degradation in a much more precise way than simple NDVI analysis. The methodology comprises identifying homogeneous landscape areas in terms of aspect, slope, land use and disturbance regime (if relevant). Secondly, the NDVI is calculated from Landsat multispectral images and the vegetation potential for each landscape is determined based on the percentile (highest 10% value). Thirdly, the difference between the NDVI value of each pixel and the potential is used to establish degradation categories . Through this methodology, we are able to identify realistic objectives for restoration, allowing a targeted choice of management options for degraded areas. For example, afforestation would only be done in areas that show potential for forest growth. Moreover, we can measure the effectiveness of management practices in terms of vegetation growth across different landscapes and conditions. Additionally, the same methodology can be applied to a time series of multispectral images, allowing detection and quantification of

  2. To Apply or Not to Apply: A Survey Analysis of Grant Writing Costs and Benefits

    CERN Document Server

    von Hippel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants a...

  3. Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modelling and flux balance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eTaffi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains.In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746 with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links.The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs.

  4. Data management challenges in analysis and synthesis in the ecosystem sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Guru, S; Houghton, L; Keniger, L; Driver, P; Ritchie, E G; Lai, K; Treloar, A

    2015-11-15

    Open-data has created an unprecedented opportunity with new challenges for ecosystem scientists. Skills in data management are essential to acquire, manage, publish, access and re-use data. These skills span many disciplines and require trans-disciplinary collaboration. Science synthesis centres support analysis and synthesis through collaborative 'Working Groups' where domain specialists work together to synthesise existing information to provide insight into critical problems. The Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS) served a wide range of stakeholders, from scientists to policy-makers to managers. This paper investigates the level of sophistication in data management in the ecosystem science community through the lens of the ACEAS experience, and identifies the important factors required to enable us to benefit from this new data-world and produce innovative science. ACEAS promoted the analysis and synthesis of data to solve transdisciplinary questions, and promoted the publication of the synthesised data. To do so, it provided support in many of the key skillsets required. Analysis and synthesis in multi-disciplinary and multi-organisational teams, and publishing data were new for most. Data were difficult to discover and access, and to make ready for analysis, largely due to lack of metadata. Data use and publication were hampered by concerns about data ownership and a desire for data citation. A web portal was created to visualise geospatial datasets to maximise data interpretation. By the end of the experience there was a significant increase in appreciation of the importance of a Data Management Plan. It is extremely doubtful that the work would have occurred or data delivered without the support of the Synthesis centre, as few of the participants had the necessary networks or skills. It is argued that participation in the Centre provided an important learning opportunity, and has resulted in improved knowledge and understanding

  5. Correlation network analysis applied to complex biofilm communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana E Duran-Pinedo

    Full Text Available The complexity of the human microbiome makes it difficult to reveal organizational principles of the community and even more challenging to generate testable hypotheses. It has been suggested that in the gut microbiome species such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are keystone in maintaining the stability and functional adaptability of the microbial community. In this study, we investigate the interspecies associations in a complex microbial biofilm applying systems biology principles. Using correlation network analysis we identified bacterial modules that represent important microbial associations within the oral community. We used dental plaque as a model community because of its high diversity and the well known species-species interactions that are common in the oral biofilm. We analyzed samples from healthy individuals as well as from patients with periodontitis, a polymicrobial disease. Using results obtained by checkerboard hybridization on cultivable bacteria we identified modules that correlated well with microbial complexes previously described. Furthermore, we extended our analysis using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM, which includes a large number of bacterial species, among them uncultivated organisms present in the mouth. Two distinct microbial communities appeared in healthy individuals while there was one major type in disease. Bacterial modules in all communities did not overlap, indicating that bacteria were able to effectively re-associate with new partners depending on the environmental conditions. We then identified hubs that could act as keystone species in the bacterial modules. Based on those results we then cultured a not-yet-cultivated microorganism, Tannerella sp. OT286 (clone BU063. After two rounds of enrichment by a selected helper (Prevotella oris OT311 we obtained colonies of Tannerella sp. OT286 growing on blood agar plates. This system-level approach would open the possibility of

  6. Consequences of Uncertainty in Global-Scale Land Cover Maps for Mapping Ecosystem Functions: An Analysis of Pollination Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Alkemade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping ecosystem services (ESs is an important tool for providing the quantitative information necessary for the optimal use and protection of ecosystems and biodiversity. A common mapping approach is to apply established empirical relationships to ecosystem property maps. Often, ecosystem properties that provide services to humanity are strongly related to the land use and land cover, where the spatial allocation of the land cover in the landscape is especially important. Land use and land cover maps are, therefore, essential for ES mapping. However, insight into the uncertainties in land cover maps and how these propagate into ES maps is lacking. To analyze the effects of these uncertainties, we mapped pollination efficiency as an example of an ecosystem function, using two continental-scale land cover maps and two global-scale land cover maps. We compared the outputs with maps based on a detailed national-scale map. The ecosystem properties and functions could be mapped using the GLOBCOVER map with a reasonable to good accuracy. In homogeneous landscapes, an even coarser resolution map would suffice. For mapping ESs that depend on the spatial allocation of land cover in the landscape, a classification of satellite images using fractional land cover or mosaic classes is an asset.

  7. Applying DNA computation to intractable problems in social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rick C S; Yang, Stephen J H

    2010-09-01

    From ancient times to the present day, social networks have played an important role in the formation of various organizations for a range of social behaviors. As such, social networks inherently describe the complicated relationships between elements around the world. Based on mathematical graph theory, social network analysis (SNA) has been developed in and applied to various fields such as Web 2.0 for Web applications and product developments in industries, etc. However, some definitions of SNA, such as finding a clique, N-clique, N-clan, N-club and K-plex, are NP-complete problems, which are not easily solved via traditional computer architecture. These challenges have restricted the uses of SNA. This paper provides DNA-computing-based approaches with inherently high information density and massive parallelism. Using these approaches, we aim to solve the three primary problems of social networks: N-clique, N-clan, and N-club. Their accuracy and feasible time complexities discussed in the paper will demonstrate that DNA computing can be used to facilitate the development of SNA. PMID:20566337

  8. SUCCESS CONCEPT ANALYSIS APPLIED TO THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio C. Montenegro Duarte

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the concept of success in project management that is applicable to the IT universe, from the classical theory associated with the techniques of project management. Therefore, it applies the theoretical analysis associated to the context of information technology in enterprises as well as the classic literature of traditional project management, focusing on its application in business information technology. From the literature developed in the first part of the study, four propositions were prepared for study which formed the basis for the development of the field research with three large companies that develop projects of Information Technology. The methodology used in the study predicted the development of the multiple case study. Empirical evidence suggests that the concept of success found in the classical literature in project management adjusts to the environment management of IT projects. Showed that it is possible to create the model of standard IT projects in order to replicate it in future derivatives projects, which depends on the learning acquired at the end of a long and continuous process and sponsorship of senior management, which ultimately results in its merger into the company culture.

  9. Applied genre analysis: a multi-perspective model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K Bhatia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Genre analysis can be viewed from two different perspectives: it may be seen as a reflection of the complex realities of the world of institutionalised communication, or it may be seen as a pedagogically effective and convenient tool for the design of language teaching programmes, often situated within simulated contexts of classroom activities. This paper makes an attempt to understand and resolve the tension between these two seemingly contentious perspectives to answer the question: "Is generic description a reflection of reality, or a convenient fiction invented by applied linguists?". The paper also discusses issues related to the nature and use of linguistic description in a genre-based educational enterprise, claiming that instead of using generic descriptions as models for linguistic reproduction of conventional forms to respond to recurring social contexts, as is often the case in many communication based curriculum contexts, they can be used as analytical resource to understand and manipulate complex inter-generic and multicultural realisations of professional discourse, which will enable learners to use generic knowledge to respond to novel social contexts and also to create new forms of discourse to achieve pragmatic success as well as other powerful human agendas.

  10. Analysis of Cattle Location Data in Complex Agro-Ecosystem of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V.; Kiker, G. A.; Williams, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    Cow-calf operations are a major landuse activity in south Florida, especially in Okeechobee County. These grazing lands have become a matter of concern as Phosphorus (P) loadings in this basin have greatly exceeded the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for the receiving water body, Lake Okeechobee. Our hypothesis is that cattle's position within these complex agro-ecosystems can be potentially degrading the water quality exiting these systems. GPS position data was collected from collars placed on grazing cattle at the research site: MacArthur Agro- ecology Research Center, Lake Placid, Florida. The data was collected across seasons (fall, winter, spring and summer) and in many fields from 2001 to 2003. The data has been analyzed using spatial analysis techniques. Information and spatial relationships from this analysis will be used to develop animal movement sub-models within a spatially-explicit water quality/hydrologic modeling system (ACRU2000).

  11. To apply or not to apply: a survey analysis of grant writing costs and benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted von Hippel

    Full Text Available We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads.

  12. Wavelet Analysis - A Building Block for NEON's Ecosystem Exchange Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, D.; Metzger, S.; Zulueta, R. C.; Durden, N. P.; Xu, K.; Kljun, N.; Taylor, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The use of wavelet analysis has been increasing in geophysical sciences over the past 20 years. Its ability to decompose a time series into its frequency components while maintaining their localization in time provides valuable information on the mechanistic properties influencing turbulent exchange. Compared to Fourier transforms, Wavelet analysis is well suited to analyze non-stationary signals and provides high temporal resolution without dismissing longer wavelength contributions. One goal of NEON is to provide high quality ecosystem exchange observations to the science community, and wavelet analysis is one tool that enables multiple data processing pathways, such as; (i) high- and low-frequency spectral corrections, (ii) comparison to spectral references, (iii) evaluation of flow characteristics in complex terrain, (iv) high-frequency EC flux processing and source area calculations (≈60 h-1), and (v) inferring the flux field around tower measurements. Here, we provide an overview of how Wavelet analyses are integrated into NEON's ecosystem exchange data processing framework. Preliminary results include: (i) Changes in soil CO2 concentration are dominated on timescales >0.5 h, which informs the frequency response correction of a very slow but robust, diffusion-based soil CO2 sensor; (ii) Source area calculations explain significant spatial variation when resolved at the integral timescale of atmospheric turbulence; and (iii) our companion presentations "Towards the spatial rectification of tower-based eddy-covariance flux observations" and "Assessing and correcting spatial representativeness of tower eddy-covariance flux measurements" demonstrate how Wavelet analysis facilitates inferring the flux field around tower measurements.

  13. Setting events in applied behavior analysis: Toward a conceptual and methodological expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Wahler, Robert G.; Fox, James J.

    1981-01-01

    The contributions of applied behavior analysis as a natural science approach to the study of human behavior are acknowledged. However, it is also argued that applied behavior analysis has provided limited access to the full range of environmental events that influence socially significant behavior. Recent changes in applied behavior analysis to include analysis of side effects and social validation represent ways in which the traditional applied behavior analysis conceptual and methodological...

  14. A gap analysis and comprehensive conservation strategy for riverine ecosystems of Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Scott P.; Annis, Gust; Morey, Michael E.; Diamond, David D.

    2007-01-01

    North America harbors an astounding proportion of the world's freshwater species, but it is facing a freshwater biodiversity crisis. A first step to slowing the loss of biodiversity involves identifying gaps in existing efforts to conserve biodiversity and prioritizing opportunities to fill these gaps. In this monograph we detail two separate, but complementary, conservation planning efforts - a Gap Analysis (GAP) and a State Wildlife Action Plan (WAP) - for Missouri that address this first step. The goal of the Missouri Aquatic GAP Project was to identify riverine ecosystems, habitats, and species not adequately represented (i.e., gaps) within existing conservation lands. The goal of the freshwater component of the Missouri Wildlife Action Plan was to identify and map a set of conservation-opportunity areas (COAs) that holistically represent all riverine ecosystems, habitats, and species in Missouri. Since conservation planning is a geographical exercise, both efforts utilized geographic information systems (GIS). Four principal GIS data sets were used in each planning effort: (1) a hierarchical riverine ecosystem classification, (2) predicted species distributions, (3) public ownership/stewardship, and (4) a human-threat index. Results of the gap analyses are not encouraging. Forty five, mostly rare, threatened, or endangered, species are not represented in lands set aside for conserving biodiversity. Results also illustrate the fragmented nature of conservation lands, which are mainly situated in the uplands and fail to provide connectivity among riverine habitats. Furthermore, many conservation lands are severely threatened by an array of human disturbances. In contrast, results of the WAP provide hope that relatively intact riverine ecosystems still exist. A total of 158 COAs, representing ∼6% of the total kilometers of stream in Missouri, were selected for the WAP. This illustrates that a wide spectrum of biodiversity can be represented within a small

  15. Comment: critical examination of stable isotope analysis as a means for tracing carbon pathways in stream ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is studied as a technique for deciphering food webs and identifying impacts of alterations in land use. The 13C values for allochthonous litter, attached algae and consumers in stream ecosystems were discussed as using stable isotope analysis. 17 refs

  16. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Reference Site Study: 2011 Restoration Analysis - FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Sagar, Jina; Buenau, Kate E.; Corbett, C.

    2012-05-31

    The Reference Site (RS) study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District [USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinions (BiOp). While the RS study was initiated in 2007, data have been collected at relatively undisturbed reference wetland sites in the LCRE by PNNL and collaborators since 2005. These data on habitat structural metrics were previously summarized to provide baseline characterization of 51 wetlands throughout the estuarine and tidal freshwater portions of the 235-km LCRE; however, further analysis of these data has been limited. Therefore, in 2011, we conducted additional analyses of existing field data previously collected for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) - including data collected by PNNL and others - to help inform the multi-agency restoration planning and ecosystem management work underway in the LCRE.

  17. New trends in applied harmonic analysis sparse representations, compressed sensing, and multifractal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrelli, Carlos; Jaffard, Stephane; Molter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a selection of written notes corresponding to courses taught at the CIMPA School: "New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis: Sparse Representations, Compressed Sensing and Multifractal Analysis". New interactions between harmonic analysis and signal and image processing have seen striking development in the last 10 years, and several technological deadlocks have been solved through the resolution of deep theoretical problems in harmonic analysis. New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis focuses on two particularly active areas that are representative of such advances: multifractal analysis, and sparse representation and compressed sensing. The contributions are written by leaders in these areas, and covers both theoretical aspects and applications. This work should prove useful not only to PhD students and postdocs in mathematics and signal and image processing, but also to researchers working in related topics.

  18. Factor Analysis Applied the VFY-218 RCS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Alex; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Present statistical factor analysis of computer simulations and measurement data for the VFY-218 configuration. Factor analysis try to quantify the statistical grouping of measurements and simulations.

  19. Can Artificial Neural Networks be Applied in Seismic Predicition? Preliminary Analysis Applying Radial Topology. Case: Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Mota-Hernandez, Cinthya; Alvarado-Corona, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic earthquakes of high magnitude can cause considerable losses in terms of human lives, economic and infrastructure, among others. According to an evaluation published by the U.S. Geological Survey, 30 is the number of earthquakes which have greatly impacted Mexico from the end of the XIX century to this one. Based upon data from the National Seismological Service, on the period between January 1, 2006 and May 1, 2013 there have occurred 5,826 earthquakes which magnitude has been greater than 4.0 degrees on the Richter magnitude scale (25.54% of the total of earthquakes registered on the national territory), being the Pacific Plate and the Cocos Plate the most important ones. This document describes the development of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on the radial topology which seeks to generate a prediction with an error margin lower than 20% which can inform about the probability of a future earthquake one of the main questions is: can artificial neural networks be applied in seismic forecast...

  20. Comparative analysis of European wide marine ecosystem shifts: a large-scale approach for developing the basis for ecosystem-based management

    OpenAIRE

    Möllmann, Christian; Conversi, Alessandra; Edwards, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Abrupt and rapid ecosystem shifts (where major reorganizations of food-web and community structures occur), commonly termed regime shifts, are changes between contrasting and persisting states of ecosystem structure and function. These shifts have been increasingly reported for exploited marine ecosystems around the world from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic. Understanding the drivers and mechanisms leading to marine ecosystem shifts is crucial in developing adaptive management strate...

  1. Lost ecosystem services as a measure of oil spill damages: a conceptual analysis of the importance of baselines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chris J; Cheong, So-Min

    2013-10-15

    The assessment and quantification of damages resulting from marine oil spills is typically coordinated by NOAA, and has historically utilized Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) to estimate damages. Resource economists and others have called for the damage assessment process to instead estimate injuries through the valuation of lost ecosystem services. Our conceptual analysis explores ecosystem service valuation from the perspective of "baselines," which are a fundamental component of both primary and compensatory restoration activities. In practice, baselines have been defined in ecological terms, with minimal consideration of the socioeconomic side of ecosystem service provision. We argue that, for the purposes of scaling compensatory restoration, it is more appropriate to characterize baselines in value terms, thereby integrating non-market valuation approaches from the onset of the damage assessment process. Benefits and challenges of this approach are discussed, along with guidelines for practitioners to identify circumstances in which socioeconomic variables are likely to be important for baseline characterization. PMID:23712057

  2. (When and where) Do extreme climate events trigger extreme ecosystem responses? - Development and initial results of a holistic analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Eva K.; Donner, Reik V.

    2015-04-01

    a seasonal cycle for each quantile of the distribution, which can be used for a fully data-adaptive definition of extremes as exceedances above this time-dependent quantile function. (2) Having thus identified the extreme events, their distribution is analyzed in both space and time. Following a procedure recently proposed by Lloyd-Hughes (2012) and further exploited by Zscheischler et al. (2013), extremes observed at neighboring points in space and time are considered to form connected sets. Investigating the size distribution of these sets provides novel insights into the development and dynamical characteristics of spatio-temporally extended climate and ecosystem extremes. (3) Finally, the timing of such spatio-temporally extended extremes in different climatic as well as ecological variables is tested pairwise to rule out that co-occurrences of extremes have emerged solely due to chance. For this purpose, the recently developed framework of coincidence analysis (Donges et al., 2011; Rammig et al. 2014) is applied. The corresponding analysis allows identifying potential causal linkages between climatic extremes and extreme ecosystem responses and, thus, to study their mechanisms and spatial as well as seasonal distribution in great detail. In this work, the described method is exemplified by using different climate data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis as well as remote sensing-based land surface temperature data. References: Donges et al., PNAS, 108, 20422, 2011 Lloyd-Hughes, Int. J. Climatol., 32, 406, 2012 Rammig et al., Biogeosc. Disc., 11, 2537, 2014 Zscheischler et al., Ecol. Inform., 15, 66, 2013

  3. Video analysis applied to volleyball didactics to improve sport skills

    OpenAIRE

    Raiola, Gaetano; Parisi, Fabio; Giugno, Ylenia; Di Tore, Pio Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The feedback method is increasingly used in learning new skills and improving performance. "Recent research, however, showed that the most objective and quantitative feedback is, theº greater its effect on performance". The video analysis, which is the analysis of sports performance by watching the video, is used primarily for use in the quantitative performance of athletes through the notational analysis. It may be useful to combine the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the single ges...

  4. A New Digital Imaging and Analysis System for Plant and Ecosystem Phenological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, G.; Ramirez, G. A.; Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Luna, N. R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, environmental scientists have increasingly used low-cost sensors and custom software to gather and analyze environmental data. Included in this trend has been the use of imagery from field-mounted static digital cameras. Published literature has highlighted the challenge scientists have encountered with poor and problematic camera performance and power consumption, limited data download and wireless communication options, general ruggedness of off the shelf camera solutions, and time consuming and hard-to-reproduce digital image analysis options. Data loggers and sensors are typically limited to data storage in situ (requiring manual downloading) and/or expensive data streaming options. Here we highlight the features and functionality of a newly invented camera/data logger system and coupled image analysis software suited to plant and ecosystem phenological studies (patent pending). The camera has resulted from several years of development and prototype testing supported by several grants funded by the US NSF. These inventions have several unique features and functionality and have been field tested in desert, arctic, and tropical rainforest ecosystems. The system can be used to acquire imagery/data from static and mobile platforms. Data is collected, preprocessed, and streamed to the cloud without the need of an external computer and can run for extended time periods. The camera module is capable of acquiring RGB, IR, and thermal (LWIR) data and storing it in a variety of formats including RAW. The system is full customizable with a wide variety of passive and smart sensors. The camera can be triggered by state conditions detected by sensors and/or select time intervals. The device includes USB, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, serial, GSM, Ethernet, and Iridium connections and can be connected to commercial cloud servers such as Dropbox. The complementary image analysis software is compatible with all popular operating systems. Imagery can be viewed and

  5. Funding and stimulation mechanisms of the wetlands` ecosystem services conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Degtyar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to study the problems of funding conservation of wetlands ecosystem services and search of organizational and economic management tools of ecosystem services, which can be implemented in Ukraine. The results of the analysis. Summary of world practice implementation of organizational and economic management tools, based on payments for wetlands ecosystem services, determine the following basic principles of their formation: 1 enter into an agreement with stakeholders payment for ecosystem services on a voluntary basis; 2 payment perform beneficiaries of ecosystem services; 3 payments are made directly to providers of ecosystem services; 4 ecosystem value should prevail over the market interests of the ecosystem services provider; 5 payment is usually carried out by a wetland ecosystem services, although, in some cases, for receiving payments may be to force a certain way of land use, etc. The author generalized and systematized modern tools that are used to manage wetlands ecosystem services. Therefore, the author proposed to allocate financial and organizational tools of ecosystem services management into separate groups. Moreover, financial instruments can be divided into public and private (or voluntary. The government funding instruments primarily include national (local target program and budget, reduced taxes, duties and tariffs, government guarantees of financial transactions of wetland ecosystem services and securitization, joint financing, credit and deposit activities on wetland ecosystem services, etc. Conclusions and directions of further researches. In Ukraine the formation of organizational and economic tools of wetlands ecosystem services managing which is based primarily on a system of payments for ecosystem services needs to take into account the following measures: conducting thorough strategic research and applied ecological, economic and other sectorial studies, conducting

  6. Empirical modeling and data analysis for engineers and applied scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    This textbook teaches advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students in Engineering and Applied Sciences to gather and analyze empirical observations (data) in order to aid in making design decisions. While science is about discovery, the primary paradigm of engineering and "applied science" is design. Scientists are in the discovery business and want, in general, to understand the natural world rather than to alter it. In contrast, engineers and applied scientists design products, processes, and solutions to problems. That said, statistics, as a discipline, is mostly oriented toward the discovery paradigm. Young engineers come out of their degree programs having taken courses such as "Statistics for Engineers and Scientists" without any clear idea as to how they can use statistical methods to help them design products or processes. Many seem to think that statistics is only useful for demonstrating that a device or process actually does what it was designed to do. Statistics courses emphasize creati...

  7. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Jennifer C.; Newton, Adrian C.; Aquino, Claudia Alvarez; Cantarello, Elena; Echeverría, Cristian; Kitzberger, Thomas; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Garavito, Natalia Tejedor

    2010-01-01

    Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of ...

  8. Least Weighted Squares Applied to Robust Image Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    Olomouc: Palacký University, 2011 - (Fišerová, E.; Talašová, J.). s. 31-31 ISBN 978-80-244-2684-6. [ODAM 2011. Olomoucian Days of Applied Mathematics International Conference. 26.01.2011-28.01.2011, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : least weightee squares * robust estimation * multivariate statistics * high dimension Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  9. An Analysis of the Economy Principle Applied in Cyber Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖钰敏

    2015-01-01

    With the development of network technology,cyber language,a new social dialect,is widely used in our life.The author analyzes how the economy principle is applied in cyber language from three aspects—word-formation,syntax and non-linguistic symbol.And the author collects,summarizes and analyzes the relevant language materials to prove the economy principle’s real existence in chat room and the reason why the economy principle is applied widely in cyber space.

  10. Valuation of Ecosystem Services:Research Progress and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ling

    2012-01-01

    The ecosystem services are material base and natural capital for sustainable development of human being. Valuation of ecosystem services is favorable for people realizing the importance of natural ecosystem to human being, and considering its long-term influence on sustainable development of human society when making decisions. Besides, it is an attempt of ecology, geography and other natural sciences to influence social decision process by economic methods. The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, written by Robert Costanza et al., in 1997, is generally regarded as a masterpiece for the research of valuing ecosystem services. However, the classifying standard of ecosystem services, the method of various services summation and the purpose for static global value, had confronted many criticisms. Still to now, accurately valuing ecosystem services is not easy, because of the complexity of natural ecosystem, the weak capability of economic system to pricing ecosystem services and the lack of more study in this field. Based on the criticisms summarizing and comprehensive analysis, further study suggestions of ecosystem services valuation is presented: multi-scale integrated and community participation applied in evaluation, dynamic changes of material value and intangible value of ecosystem services, investigation and simulation studies of the marginal value when ecosystem services changed, associated with related areas like ecological compensation research, and research on the market-oriented evaluation of ecosystem’s intangible values.

  11. Signed directed social network analysis applied to group conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Quan; Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    are both positive and negative), can be combined. This combination is particularly appropriate for intelligence, terrorism, and law enforcement applications. We illustrate by applying the novel embedding technique to datasets describing conflict in North-West Africa, and show how unusual interactions...

  12. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of interest.The model is fairly

  13. System Analysis Applying to Talent Resource Development Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng-tao; ZHENG Gang

    2001-01-01

    In the development research of talent resource, the most important of talent resource forecast and optimization is the structure of talent resource, requirement number and talent quality. The article establish factor reconstruction analysis forecast and talent quality model on the method: system reconstruction analysis and ensure most effective factor level in system, which is presented by G. J. Klirti, B.Jonesque. And performing dynamic analysis of example ration.

  14. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  15. Modal analysis applied to circular, rectangular, and coaxial waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in the analysis of various waveguide components and feedhorns using Modal Analysis (Mode Matching Method) are summarized. A brief description of the theory is presented, and the important features of the method are pointed out. Specific examples in circular, rectangular, and coaxial waveguides are included, with comparisons between the theory and experimental measurements. Extensions to the methods are described.

  16. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Peerlings, J.H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of interest.The model is fairly general and could be used to analyse a great variety of agricultural policy changes. However, generality requires that the model should be adapted and extended for special research questions. This...

  17. A behavioral prescription for promoting applied behavior analysis within pediatrics.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, K D; Barone, V J; Kuhn, B R

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades, pediatric medicine has undergone a shift in focus from infectious diseases to the effects of behavior on the health and development of children. At the same time, behavior analysts have increasingly evaluated the direct application of their technology to the development and maintenance of child health behavior. Unfortunately, applied behavior analysts have developed their technology parallel to, rather than collaboratively with, pediatricians and, as a result, are not recog...

  18. Multisectorial models applied to the environment: an analysis for catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pié Dols, Laia

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this doctoral thesis is to apply different multisectorial models available to analyse the impact that would had on the Catalan economy as a result of the introduction of policies designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse effect gases and save energy, and also at the same time to improve the environmental competitiveness of both individual companies and the economy as a whole. For the purposes of this thesis I have analysed the six greenhouse gases that are regulated by the K...

  19. Analysis of OFDM Applied to Powerline High Speed Digital Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jian; YANG Gong-xu

    2003-01-01

    The low voltage powerline is becoming a powerful solution to home network, building automation, and internet access as a result of its wide distribution, easy access and little maintenance. The character of powerline channel is very complicated because it is an open net. This article analysed the character of the powerline channel,introduced the basics of OFDM(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), and studied the OFDM applied into powerline high speed digital communication.

  20. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  1. Whence and Whither? Potential and Power of Modern Isotopic Analysis for Tracing in Ecosystem Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous advancements and improvements of modern analytical instruments allow for the determination of the isotopic composition of stable isotopes of a steadily increasing number of elements. These developments also lead to improved measurement precision and make the determination of small isotope variations possible. This results in the possibility of using isotopic and elemental fingerprints as intrinsic markers to study, trace and model environmental processes and transport pathways. Today, isotopic analysis is widely recognized as highly potential key tool in diverse research disciplines, such as ecochemistry, geochemistry, hydrology or biology. The different isotopic systems allow e.g. for the investigation of elemental cycles in nature, the determination of migration in terrestrial and aquatic systems, the tracing of anthropogenic contaminants or the assessment of mass fluxes in ecosystems. In this talk, an overview about the possibilities and the potential of modern isotopic analysis in environmental sciences is given, with a particular focus on strontium as key tool to study transport processes in biological systems. (author)

  2. Applying measurement-based probabilistic timing analysis to buffer resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmidis L.; Vardanega T.; Abella J.; Quinones E.; Cazorla F.J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of complex hardware makes it difficult for current timing analysis techniques to compute trustworthy and tight worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds. Those techniques require detailed knowledge of the internal operation and state of the platform, at both the software and hardware level. Obtaining that information for modern hardware platforms is increasingly difficult. Measurement-Based Probabilistic Timing Analysis (MBPTA) reduces the cost of acquiring the knowledge needed for comp...

  3. Toward farm-based policy analysis: concepts applied in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Juan Carlos; Sain, Gustavo; Yates, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Many policies - on the delivery of inputs or on marketing systems, credit, or extension - influence the potential utilization of new technologies. Through 'farm-based policy analysis' it is possible to use data generated in on-farm research (OFR) to identify policy constraints to the use of new technologies, and to effectively communicate that information to policy makers. This paper describes a tentative framework for farm-based policy analysis and suggests a sequence of five steps for the a...

  4. Applying Galois compliance for data analysis in information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the data analysis in information systems. The author discloses the possibility of using Galois compliance to identify the characteristics of the information system structure. The author reveals the specificity of the application of Galois compliance for the analysis of information system content with the use of invariants of graph theory. Aspects of introduction of mathematical apparatus of Galois compliance for research of interrelations between elements of the adaptive training information system of individual testing are analyzed.

  5. Modeling Paradigms Applied to the Analysis of European Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Makowski, M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of various modeling paradigms applicable to the analysis of complex decision-making that can be represented by large non-linear models. Such paradigms are illustrated by their application to the analysis of a model that helps to identify and analyze various cost-effective policy options aimed at improving European air quality. Also presented is the application of this model to support intergovernmental negotiations.

  6. Applied network security monitoring collection, detection, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Applied Network Security Monitoring is the essential guide to becoming an NSM analyst from the ground up. This book takes a fundamental approach to NSM, complete with dozens of real-world examples that teach you the key concepts of NSM. Network security monitoring is based on the principle that prevention eventually fails. In the current threat landscape, no matter how much you try, motivated attackers will eventually find their way into your network. At that point, it is your ability to detect and respond to that intrusion that can be the difference between a small incident and a major di

  7. Inexpensive rf modeling and analysis techniques as applied to cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and expansion of the circuit analogy method of modeling and analysing multiconductor TEM mode rf resonators is described. This method was used to predict the performance of the NSCL K500 and K1200 cyclotron resonators and the results compared well to the measured performance. The method is currently being applied as the initial stage of the design process to optimize the performance of the rf resonators for a proposed K250 cyclotron for medical applications. Although this technique requires an experienced rf modeller, the input files tend to be simple and small, the software is very inexpensive or free, and the computer runtimes are nearly instantaneous

  8. Applied risk analysis to the future Brazilian electricity generation matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair; Fernandez, Eloi; Correa, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    This study compares energy conversion systems for the generation of electrical power, with an emphasis on the Brazilian energy matrix. The financial model applied in this comparison is based on the Portfolio Theory, developed by Harry Markowitz. The risk-return ratio related to the electrical generation mix predicted in the National Energy Plan - 2030, published in 2006 by the Brazilian Energy Research Office, is evaluated. The increase of non-traditional renewable energy in this expected electrical generating mix, specifically, residues of sugar cane plantations and wind energy, reduce not only the risk but also the average cost of the kilowatt-hour generated.

  9. An improved state-parameter analysis of ecosystem models using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Liu, S.; Tieszen, L.L.; Hollinger, D.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the effort spent in developing data assimilation methods for carbon dynamics analysis has focused on estimating optimal values for either model parameters or state variables. The main weakness of estimating parameter values alone (i.e., without considering state variables) is that all errors from input, output, and model structure are attributed to model parameter uncertainties. On the other hand, the accuracy of estimating state variables may be lowered if the temporal evolution of parameter values is not incorporated. This research develops a smoothed ensemble Kalman filter (SEnKF) by combining ensemble Kalman filter with kernel smoothing technique. SEnKF has following characteristics: (1) to estimate simultaneously the model states and parameters through concatenating unknown parameters and state variables into a joint state vector; (2) to mitigate dramatic, sudden changes of parameter values in parameter sampling and parameter evolution process, and control narrowing of parameter variance which results in filter divergence through adjusting smoothing factor in kernel smoothing algorithm; (3) to assimilate recursively data into the model and thus detect possible time variation of parameters; and (4) to address properly various sources of uncertainties stemming from input, output and parameter uncertainties. The SEnKF is tested by assimilating observed fluxes of carbon dioxide and environmental driving factor data from an AmeriFlux forest station located near Howland, Maine, USA, into a partition eddy flux model. Our analysis demonstrates that model parameters, such as light use efficiency, respiration coefficients, minimum and optimum temperatures for photosynthetic activity, and others, are highly constrained by eddy flux data at daily-to-seasonal time scales. The SEnKF stabilizes parameter values quickly regardless of the initial values of the parameters. Potential ecosystem light use efficiency demonstrates a strong seasonality. Results show that the

  10. The colour analysis method applied to homogeneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Amadé; Halmai, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    Computer-aided colour analysis can facilitate cyclostratigraphic studies. Here we report on a case study involving the development of a digital colour analysis method for examination of the Boda Claystone Formation which is the most suitable in Hungary for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Rock type colours are reddish brown or brownish red, or any shade between brown and red. The method presented here could be used to differentiate similar colours and to identify gradual transitions between these; the latter are of great importance in a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the succession. Geophysical well-logging has demonstrated the existence of characteristic cyclic units, as detected by colour and natural gamma. Based on our research, colour, natural gamma and lithology correlate well. For core Ib-4, these features reveal the presence of orderly cycles with thicknesses of roughly 0.64 to 13 metres. Once the core has been scanned, this is a time- and cost-effective method.

  11. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lo, Shang-Lien, E-mail: sllo@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tyrone T. [Department of International Business, National Dong Hwa University, 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Road, Shou-Feng, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-15

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO{sub 2} emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: > Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. > Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. > Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. > Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  12. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  13. Gap analysis of marine ecosystem data for the Department of Interior, National Park Service Inventory & Monitoring Program

    OpenAIRE

    Dorfman, Dan; Battista, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The Gap Analysis of Marine Ecosystem Data project is a review of available geospatial data which can assist in marine natural resource management for eight park units. The project includes the collection of geospatial information and its incorporation in a single consistent geodatabase format. The project also includes a mapping portal which can be seen at: http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/explorer/gapanalysis/gap_analysis.html In addition to the collection of geospatial information and mapping po...

  14. Apply Functional Modelling to Consequence Analysis in Supervision Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Gola, Giulio; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    causal relations between functions and goals. A rule base system can be developed to trace the causal relations and perform consequence propagations. This paper will illustrate how to use MFM for consequence reasoning by using rule base technology and describe the challenges for integrating functional...... consequence analysis to practical or online applications in supervision systems. It will also suggest a multiagent solution as the integration architecture for developing tools to facilitate the utilization results of functional consequence analysis. Finally a prototype of the multiagent reasoning system will...

  15. Reliability analysis of reactor systems by applying probability method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probability method was chosen for analysing the reactor system reliability is considered realistic since it is based on verified experimental data. In fact this is a statistical method. The probability method developed takes into account the probability distribution of permitted levels of relevant parameters and their particular influence on the reliability of the system as a whole. The proposed method is rather general, and was used for problem of thermal safety analysis of reactor system. This analysis enables to analyze basic properties of the system under different operation conditions, expressed in form of probability they show the reliability of the system on the whole as well as reliability of each component

  16. Biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools in terrestrial ecosystems: results from a novel analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barao, Lucia; Vandevenne, Floor; Clymans, Wim; Meire, Patrick; Frings, Patrick; Conley, Daniel; Struyf, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is a chemical element frequently associated with highly abundant silicate minerals in the Earth crust. Over millions of years, the interaction of such minerals with the atmosphere and hydrosphere produces a myriad of processed compounds, and the mineral weathering consumes CO2 during the process. The weathering of minerals also triggers the export of dissolved Si (DSi) to coastal waters and the ocean. Here, DSi is deposited in diatom frustules, in an amorphous biogenic form (BSi). Diatoms account for 50% of the primary production and are crucial for the export of carbon into the deep sea. In recent years, it was acknowledged that terrestrial systems filter the Si transition from the terrestrial mineral to the marine and coastal biological pool, by the incorporation of DSi into plants. In this process, DSi is taken up by roots together with other nutrients and precipitates in plant cells in amorphous structures named phytoliths. After dead, plant tissues become mixed in the top soil, where BSi is available for dissolution and will control the DSi availability in short time scales. Additionally, Si originated from soil forming processes can also significantly interfere with the global cycle. The Si cycle in terrestrial ecosystems is a key factor to coastal ecology, plant ecology, biogeochemistry and agro-sciences, but the high variability of different biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools remains as an obstacle to obtain accurate measurements. The traditional methods, developed to isolate diatoms in ocean sediments, only account for simple mineral corrections. In this dissertation we have adapted a novel continuous analysis method (during alkaline extraction) that uses Si-Al ratios and reactivity to differ biogenic from non-biogenic fractions. The method was originally used in marine sediments, but we have developed it to be applicable in a wide range of terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We first focused on soils under strong human impact in

  17. Applied Bibliometrics: Using Citation Analysis in the Journal Submission Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of citation analysis as an effective tool for scholars to determine what journals would be appropriate for publication of their work. Calculating citation distance is explained, and a study with economics journals is described that computed citation distance between previously published articles and journals in the field. (12…

  18. System analysis applied for controlling the quality of metallurgical rollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the system analysis in the foundry where the quality management system has been implemented was described. The generalized model of the foundry’s production system was presented taking the company’s surrounding and process attitude into account.

  19. Analysis of modulated optical reflectance applied to magnetoelectric nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural and defectoscopic photothermal analysis of high spatial resolution is performed to sample ferromagnetic LSMO films. The modulated optical reflectance of the surface of the film in the laser focus is indicative of its magnetoelectric properties and is found to be proportional to the thermal variations of free carrier density. (authors)

  20. USB apply to field X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article analyzes the feasibility of application USB and GPS to field X-ray fluorescence analysis, and focuses on the hardware and firmware design of USB and multi-channel analyzer (MCA), then simply discusses the device driver design and the PC application software design. (authors)

  1. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  2. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  3. CARVEDILOL POPULATION PHARMACOKINETIC ANALYSISAPPLIED VALIDATION PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Catić-Đorđević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carvedilol is a nonselective beta blocker/alpha-1 blocker, which is used for treatment of essential hypertension, chronic stable angina, unstable angina and ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to describe carvedilol population pharmacokinetic (PK analysis as well as the validation of analytical procedure, which is an important step regarding this approach. In contemporary clinical practice, population PK analysis is often more important than standard PK approach in setting a mathematical model that describes the PK parameters. Also, it includes the variables that have particular importance in the drugs pharmacokinetics such as sex, body mass, dosage, pharmaceutical form, pathophysiological state, disease associated with the organism or the presence of a specific polymorphism in the isoenzyme important for biotransformation of the drug. One of the most frequently used approach in population PK analysis is the Nonlinear Modeling of Mixed Effects - NONMEM modeling. Analytical methods used in the data collection period is of great importance for the implementation of a population PK analysis of carvedilol in order to obtain reliable data that can be useful in clinical practice. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of carvedilol is used to confirm the identity of a drug and provide quantitative results and also to monitor the efficacy of the therapy. Analytical procedures used in other studies could not be fully implemented in our research as it was necessary to perform certain modification and validation of the method with the aim of using the obtained results for the purpose of a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Validation process is a logical terminal phase of analytical procedure development that provides applicability of the procedure itself. The goal of validation is to ensure consistency of the method and accuracy of results or to confirm the selection of analytical method for a given sample

  4. Applying linear programming to estimate fluxes in ecosystems or food webs: An example from the herpetological assemblage of the freshwater Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Richards, Paul M.; Dalrymple, George H.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We present the application of Linear Programming for estimating biomass fluxes in ecosystem and food web models. We use the herpetological assemblage of the Everglades as an example. We developed food web structures for three common Everglades freshwater habitat types: marsh, prairie, and upland. We obtained a first estimate of the fluxes using field data, literature estimates, and professional judgment. Linear programming was used to obtain a consistent and better estimate of the set of fluxes, while maintaining mass balance and minimizing deviations from point estimates. The results support the view that the Everglades is a spatially heterogeneous system, with changing patterns of energy flux, species composition, and biomasses across the habitat types. We show that a food web/ecosystem perspective, combined with Linear Programming, is a robust method for describing food webs and ecosystems that requires minimal data, produces useful post-solution analyses, and generates hypotheses regarding the structure of energy flow in the system.

  5. Computational modeling applied to stress gradient analysis for metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays composite materials including materials reinforced by particles are the center of the researcher's attention. There are problems with the stress measurements in these materials, connected with the superficial stress gradient caused by the difference of the stress state of particles on the surface and in the matrix of the composite material. Computer simulation of diffraction profile formed by superficial layers of material allows simulate the diffraction experiment and gives the possibility to resolve the problem of stress measurements when the stress state is characterized by strong gradient. The aim of this paper is the application of computer simulation technique, initially developed for homogeneous materials, for diffraction line simulation of composite materials and alloys. Specifically we applied this technique for siluminum fabricated by powder metallurgy. (author)

  6. Partition of some key regulating services in terrestrial ecosystems: Meta-analysis and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglizzo, E F; Jobbágy, E G; Ricard, M F; Paruelo, J M

    2016-08-15

    Our knowledge about the functional foundations of ecosystem service (ES) provision is still limited and more research is needed to elucidate key functional mechanisms. Using a simplified eco-hydrological scheme, in this work we analyzed how land-use decisions modify the partition of some essential regulatory ES by altering basic relationships between biomass stocks and water flows. A comprehensive meta-analysis and review was conducted based on global, regional and local data from peer-reviewed publications. We analyzed five datasets comprising 1348 studies and 3948 records on precipitation (PPT), aboveground biomass (AGB), AGB change, evapotranspiration (ET), water yield (WY), WY change, runoff (R) and infiltration (I). The conceptual framework was focused on ES that are associated with the ecological functions (e.g., intermediate ES) of ET, WY, R and I. ES included soil protection, carbon sequestration, local climate regulation, water-flow regulation and water recharge. To address the problem of data normality, the analysis included both parametric and non-parametric regression analysis. Results demonstrate that PPT is a first-order biophysical factor that controls ES release at the broader scales. At decreasing scales, ES are partitioned as result of PPT interactions with other biophysical and anthropogenic factors. At intermediate scales, land-use change interacts with PPT modifying ES partition as it the case of afforestation in dry regions, where ET and climate regulation may be enhanced at the expense of R and water-flow regulation. At smaller scales, site-specific conditions such as topography interact with PPT and AGB displaying different ES partition formats. The probable implications of future land-use and climate change on some key ES production and partition are discussed. PMID:27096628

  7. Diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to material analysis and process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) was studied as a method of laboratory analysis of sub-micron particles, and developed as a prospective in-line, industrial, process control sensor, capable of near real-time feedback. No sample pre-treatment was required and measurement was via a non-invasive, flexible, dip in probe. DWS relies on the concept of the diffusive migration of light, as opposed to the ballistic scatter model used in conventional dynamic light scattering. The specific requirements of the optoelectronic hardware, data analysis methods and light scattering model were studied experimentally and, where practical, theoretically resulting in a novel technique of analysis of particle suspensions and emulsions of volume fractions between 0.01 and 0.4. Operation at high concentrations made the technique oblivious to dust and contamination. A pure homodyne (autodyne) experimental arrangement described was resilient to environmental disturbances, unlike many other systems which utilise optical fibres or heterodyne operation. Pilot and subsequent prototype development led to a highly accurate method of size ranking, suitable for analysis of a wide range of suspensions and emulsions. The technique was shown to operate on real industrial samples with statistical variance as low as 0.3% with minimal software processing. Whilst the application studied was the analysis of TiO2 suspensions, a diverse range of materials including polystyrene beads, cell pastes and industrial cutting fluid emulsions were tested. Results suggest that, whilst all sizing should be comparative to suitable standards, concentration effects may be minimised and even completely modelled-out in many applications. Adhesion to the optical probe was initially a significant problem but was minimised after the evaluation and use of suitable non stick coating materials. Unexpected behaviour in the correlation in the region of short decay times led to consideration of the effects of rotational diffusion

  8. A participatory approach to ecosystem conservation: fuzzy cognitive maps and stakeholder group analysis in Uluabat Lake, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozesmi, Uygar; Ozesmi, Stacy

    2003-04-01

    Fuzzy cognitive mapping was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management plan for Uluabat Lake, Turkey. Interviews were conducted with stakeholders belonging to six different groups. Lake pollution was the most central and most mentioned variable for stakeholders. Stakeholder groups agree that lake pollution is negatively affecting ecosystem health and thereby local economies. Thus, reducing lake pollution was chosen as the overall goal for the management plan. Possible ways to reduce lake pollution and increase ecosystem health were seen differently by the different groups. Hunters, factory managers, NGO personnel, and local people thought industry was the main cause of lake pollution, while officials from the government and local municipalities thought roads and urban development contributed the most to lake pollution. Generally the stakeholder groups did not perceive their own actions as affecting the lake as strongly as other groups thought. For example, factory managers viewed factory pollution as negatively affecting the lake but less strongly than the other groups did. According to policy option simulations, reducing lake pollution had positive effects on all variables, especially fish, birds, animal husbandry, irrigation, agriculture, and the ecological balance of the lake. Results of this analysis were used to facilitate meetings among stakeholder groups and to develop a participatory ecosystem management plan. The analysis was useful for pointing out the similarities as well as the differences among the groups. It also helped the facilitators understand the focus of each stakeholder group and enabled them to suggest activities in which each group would want to participate. PMID:12677297

  9. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Caridi, F.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, A.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; Caltabiano, M.; Castrizio, E. D.; Paniz, E.; Salici, A.

    2010-05-01

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  10. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  11. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: lorenzo.torrisi@unime.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Caridi, F.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Mondio, G.; Serafino, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia ed Ingegneria Elettronica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Caltabiano, M.; Castrizio, E.D. [Dipartimento di Lettere e Filosofia dell' Universita di Messina, Polo Universitario dell' Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Paniz, E.; Salici, A. [Carabinieri, Reparto Investigazioni Scientifiche, S.S. 114, Km. 6, 400 Tremestieri, Messina (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  12. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  13. Nested sampling applied in Bayesian room-acoustics decay analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasa, Tomislav; Xiang, Ning

    2012-11-01

    Room-acoustic energy decays often exhibit single-rate or multiple-rate characteristics in a wide variety of rooms/halls. Both the energy decay order and decay parameter estimation are of practical significance in architectural acoustics applications, representing two different levels of Bayesian probabilistic inference. This paper discusses a model-based sound energy decay analysis within a Bayesian framework utilizing the nested sampling algorithm. The nested sampling algorithm is specifically developed to evaluate the Bayesian evidence required for determining the energy decay order with decay parameter estimates as a secondary result. Taking the energy decay analysis in architectural acoustics as an example, this paper demonstrates that two different levels of inference, decay model-selection and decay parameter estimation, can be cohesively accomplished by the nested sampling algorithm. PMID:23145609

  14. Thermodynamic analysis applied to a food-processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, J.C.; Chandratilleke, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    Two production lines of a multi-product, food-processing plant are selected for energy auditing and analysis. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the first-law and second-law efficiencies are 81.5% and 26.1% for the instant-noodles line and 23.6% and 7.9% for the malt-beverage line. These efficiency values are dictated primarily by the major energy-consuming sub-processes of each production line. Improvements in both first-law and second-law efficiencies are possible for the plants if the use of steam for heating is replaced by gaseous or liquid fuels, the steam ejectors for creating vacuum are replaced by a mechanical pump, and employing the cooler surroundings to assist in the cooling process.

  15. Environmental analysis applied to schools. Methodologies for data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment analysis is the basis of environmental management for organizations and it is considered as the first step in EMAS. It allows to identify, deal with the issues and have a clear knowledge on environmental performances of organizations. Schools can be included in the organizations. Nevertheless, the complexity of environmental issues and applicable regulations makes very difficult for a school, that wants to implement an environmental management system (EMAS, ISO 14001, etc.), to face this first step. So, it has been defined an instrument, that is easy but complete and coherent with reference standard, to let schools choose their process for elaborating the initial environmental revue. This instrument consists, essentially, in cards that, if completed, facilitate the drafting of the environmental analysis report

  16. Consumers' Demand for Pork Quality: Applying Semantic Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Carola Grebitus; Maike Bruhn

    2006-01-01

    Consideration of consumers' demand for food quality entails several aspects. Quality itself is a complex and dynamic concept, and constantly evolving technical progress may cause changes in consumers' judgment of quality. To improve our understanding of the factors influencing the demand for quality, food quality must be defined and measured from the consumer's perspective (Cardello, 1995). The present analysis addresses the issue of food quality, focusing on pork—the food that respondents ...

  17. Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Freeman, Kurt A.

    2000-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) is an approach to providing services to individuals who exhibit challenging behavior. Since its inception in the early 1990s, PBS has received increasing attention from the behavior-analytic community. Some behavior analysts have embraced this approach, but others have voiced questions and concerns. In this paper we describe the framework of PBS and show that it is consistent with the tenets of behavior analysis. Also, we illustrate how the framework of PBS mig...

  18. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 μm particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs

  19. Applying ABC analysis to the Navy's inventory management system

    OpenAIRE

    May, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited ABC Analysis is an inventory categorization technique used to classify and prioritize inventory items in an effort to better allocate business resources. A items are defined as the inventory items considered extremely important to the business, requiring strict oversight and control. B items are important to the business, but don’t require the tight controls and oversight required of the A items. C items are marginally important to the...

  20. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis strategies applied to mouse weight

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Tova F; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Aten, Jason E.; Drake, Thomas A; Lusis, Aldons J.; Horvath, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Systems-oriented genetic approaches that incorporate gene expression and genotype data are valuable in the quest for genetic regulatory loci underlying complex traits. Gene coexpression network analysis lends itself to identification of entire groups of differentially regulated genes—a highly relevant endeavor in finding the underpinnings of complex traits that are, by definition, polygenic in nature. Here we describe one such approach based on liver gene expression and genotype data from an ...

  1. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  2. Applying importance-performance analysis to evaluate banking service quality

    OpenAIRE

    André Luís Policani Freitas; Alline Sardinha Cordeiro Morais

    2012-01-01

    In an increasingly competitive market, the identification of the most important aspects and the measurement of service quality as perceived by the customers are important actions taken by organizations which seek the competitive advantage. In particular, this scenario is typical of Brazilian banking sector. In this context, this article presents an exploratory case study in which the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) was used to identify the strong and the weak points related to services ...

  3. Improving Credit Scorecard Modeling Through Applying Text Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ghailan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the credit card scoring and loans management, the prediction of the applicant’s future behavior is an important decision support tool and a key factor in reducing the risk of Loan Default. A lot of data mining and classification approaches have been developed for the credit scoring purpose. For the best of our knowledge, building a credit scorecard by analyzing the textual data in the application form has not been explored so far. This paper proposes a comprehensive credit scorecard model technique that improves credit scorecard modeling though employing textual data analysis. This study uses a sample of loan application forms of a financial institution providing loan services in Yemen, which represents a real-world situation of the credit scoring and loan management. The sample contains a set of Arabic textual data attributes defining the applicants. The credit scoring model based on the text mining pre-processing and logistic regression techniques is proposed and evaluated through a comparison with a group of credit scorecard modeling techniques that use only the numeric attributes in the application form. The results show that adding the textual attributes analysis achieves higher classification effectiveness and outperforms the other traditional numerical data analysis techniques.

  4. Bi-directional exchange of ammonia in a pine forest ecosystem - a model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, Alexander; Hrdina, Amy; Murphy, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key component in the global nitrogen cycle and of great importance for atmospheric chemistry, neutralizing atmospheric acids and leading to the formation of aerosol particles. For understanding the role of NH3 in both natural and anthropogenically influenced environments, the knowledge of processes regulating its exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere is essential. A two-layer canopy compensation point model is used to evaluate the NH3 exchange in a pine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The net flux comprises the NH3 exchange of leaf stomata, its deposition to leaf cuticles and exchange with the forest ground. As key parameters the model uses in-canopy NH3 mixing ratios as well as leaf and soil emission potentials measured at the site in summer 2015. A sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate the major exchange pathways as well as the model's constraints. In addition, the NH3 exchange is examined for an extended range of environmental conditions, such as droughts or varying concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, in order to investigate their influence on the overall net exchange.

  5. Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M. Daw

    2016-06-01

    losers. We discuss conceptual and practical challenges of applying such a framework and conclude on its utility as a heuristic for structuring interdisciplinary analysis of ecosystem services and human well-being.

  6. Neighbourhood-scale urban forest ecosystem classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Duinker, Peter N; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Urban forests are now recognized as essential components of sustainable cities, but there remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. Ecosystem classification is an approach that entails quantifying the social and ecological processes that shape ecosystem conditions into logical and relatively homogeneous management units, making the potential for ecosystem-based decision support available to urban planners. The purpose of this study is to develop and propose a framework for urban forest ecosystem classification (UFEC). The multifactor framework integrates 12 ecosystem components that characterize the biophysical landscape, built environment, and human population. This framework is then applied at the neighbourhood scale in Toronto, Canada, using hierarchical cluster analysis. The analysis used 27 spatially-explicit variables to quantify the ecosystem components in Toronto. Twelve ecosystem classes were identified in this UFEC application. Across the ecosystem classes, tree canopy cover was positively related to economic wealth, especially income. However, education levels and homeownership were occasionally inconsistent with the expected positive relationship with canopy cover. Open green space and stocking had variable relationships with economic wealth and were more closely related to population density, building intensity, and land use. The UFEC can provide ecosystem-based information for greening initiatives, tree planting, and the maintenance of the existing canopy. Moreover, its use has the potential to inform the prioritization of limited municipal resources according to ecological conditions and to concerns of social equity in the access to nature and distribution of ecosystem service supply. PMID:26311086

  7. Framework for applying probabilistic safety analysis in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional regulatory framework has served well to assure the protection of public health and safety. It has been recognized, however, that in a few circumstances, this deterministic framework has lead to an extensive expenditure on matters hat have little to do with the safe and reliable operation of the plant. Developments of plant-specific PSA have offered a new and powerful analytical tool in the evaluation of the safety of the plant. Using PSA insights as an aid to decision making in the regulatory process is now known as 'risk-based' or 'risk-informed' regulation. Numerous activities in the U.S. nuclear industry are focusing on applying this new approach to modify regulatory requirements. In addition, other approaches to regulations are in the developmental phase and are being evaluated. One is based on the performance monitoring and results and it is known as performance-based regulation. The other, called the blended approach, combines traditional deterministic principles with PSA insights and performance results. (author)

  8. Image analysis technique applied to lock-exchange gravity currents

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Helena; Adduce, Claudia; Alves, Elsa; Franca, Rodrigues Pereira Da; Jorge, Mario

    2013-01-01

    An image analysis technique is used to estimate the two-dimensional instantaneous density field of unsteady gravity currents produced by full-depth lock-release of saline water. An experiment reproducing a gravity current was performed in a 3.0 m long, 0.20 m wide and 0.30 m deep Perspex flume with horizontal smooth bed and recorded with a 25 Hz CCD video camera under controlled light conditions. Using dye concentration as a tracer, a calibration procedure was established for each pixel in th...

  9. Statistical analysis applied to safety culture self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interviews and opinion surveys are instruments used to assess the safety culture in an organization as part of the Safety Culture Enhancement Programme. Specific statistical tools are used to analyse the survey results. This paper presents an example of an opinion survey with the corresponding application of the statistical analysis and the conclusions obtained. Survey validation, Frequency statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov non-parametric test, Student (T-test) and ANOVA means comparison tests and LSD post-hoc multiple comparison test, are discussed. (author)

  10. Risk Analysis of the applied RFID system : Project Stolpen

    OpenAIRE

    Grunzke, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will be a risk analysis of a RFID-system for a logistical application. The system works as follows: Around Karlstad in Sweden there are three new weighing machines for lorries. The load weight will be measured for the police to control overweight and for logistical reasons such as issuing invoices and optimising the supply chain. The lorries do not have to stop to be weighed. They have to drive slowly over the weighing machine, so the loss of time is minimal. The lorries will be i...

  11. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this and previous efforts ECON has provided economic assessment of a fusion research program. This phase of study focused on two tasks, the first concerned with the economics of fusion in an economy that relies heavily upon synthetic fuels, and the second concerned with the overall economic effects of pursuing soft energy technologies instead of hard technologies. This report is organized in two parts, the first entitled An Economic Analysis of Coproduction of Fusion-Electric Energy and Other Products, and the second entitled Arguments Associated with the Choice of Potential Energy Futures

  12. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) applied to plutonium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) system has been developed specifically for the quantitative analysis of gallium in plutonium dioxide in support of the MOX fuel development program. The advantage of this system is no sample preparation and the capability to analyze extremely small samples. Success in this application has prompted an expansion of the technique to other areas, including determination of plutonium isotopic ratios. This paper will present recent results for gallium content in PuO2 after processing via thermally induced gallium removal (TIGR). Data will also be presented for the determination of the plutonium 239/240 isotopic ratio

  13. Applying temporal network analysis to the venture capital market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Feng, Ling; Zhu, Rongqian; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Using complex network theory to study the investment relationships of venture capital firms has produced a number of significant results. However, previous studies have often neglected the temporal properties of those relationships, which in real-world scenarios play a pivotal role. Here we examine the time-evolving dynamics of venture capital investment in China by constructing temporal networks to represent (i) investment relationships between venture capital firms and portfolio companies and (ii) the syndication ties between venture capital investors. The evolution of the networks exhibits rich variations in centrality, connectivity and local topology. We demonstrate that a temporal network approach provides a dynamic and comprehensive analysis of real-world networks.

  14. Policy Analysis: Valuation of Ecosystem Services in the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, H Spencer; Burtraw, Dallas; Criscimagna, Susie Chung; Cosby, Bernard J; Evans, David A; Krupnick, Alan J; Siikamäki, Juha V

    2016-03-15

    This study estimates the economic value of an increase in ecosystem services attributable to the reduced acidification expected from more stringent air pollution policy. By integrating a detailed biogeochemical model that projects future ecological recovery with economic methods that measure preferences for specific ecological improvements, we estimate the economic value of ecological benefits from new air pollution policies in the Southern Appalachian ecosystem. Our results indicate that these policies generate aggregate benefits of about $3.7 billion, or about $16 per year per household in the region. The study provides currently missing information about the ecological benefits from air pollution policies that is needed to evaluate such policies comprehensively. More broadly, the study also illustrates how integrated biogeochemical and economic assessments of multidimensional ecosystems can evaluate the relative benefits of different policy options that vary by scale and across ecosystem attributes. PMID:26871484

  15. Field Monitoring and Analysis of Climate Change Across a Wide Range of Ecosystems in Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this ongoing project is to ensure continued operation and maintenance of the HaleNet climate and ecosystem monitoring network, including field...

  16. Comparative analysis of marine ecosystems: workshop on predator-prey interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Kevin M.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Hunsicker, Mary;

    2010-01-01

    Climate and human influences on marine ecosystems are largely manifested by changes in predator–prey interactions. It follows that ecosystem-based management of the world's oceans requires a better understanding of food web relationships. An international workshop on predator–prey interactions...... in marine ecosystems was held at the Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA on 16–18 March 2010. The meeting brought together scientists from diverse fields of expertise including theoretical ecology, animal behaviour, fish and seabird ecology, statistics, fisheries science and ecosystem modelling....... The goals of the workshop were to critically examine the methods of scaling-up predator–prey interactions from local observations to systems, the role of shifting ecological processes with scale changes, and the complexity and organizational structure in trophic interactions....

  17. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Gyéresi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  18. Dynamical Systems Analysis Applied to Working Memory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FidanGasimova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we investigate weekly fluctuations in the working memory capacity (WMC assessed over a period of two years. We use dynamical system analysis, specifically a second order linear differential equation, to model weekly variability in WMC in a sample of 112 9th graders. In our longitudinal data we use a B-spline imputation method to deal with missing data. The results show a significant negative frequency parameter in the data, indicating a cyclical pattern in weekly memory updating performance across time. We use a multilevel modeling approach to capture individual differences in model parameters and find that a higher initial performance level and a slower improvement at the MU task is associated with a slower frequency of oscillation. Additionally, we conduct a simulation study examining the analysis procedure’s performance using different numbers of B-spline knots and values of time delay embedding dimensions. Results show that the number of knots in the B-spline imputation influence accuracy more than the number of embedding dimensions.

  19. High precision methods of neutron activation analysis applied to geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is a technique for measuring abundances of chemical elements, which differs from other methods in that it is based upon nuclear reactions instead of chemistry. This characteristic has special relevance for geochemistry because of its inherent sensitivity for trace elements which cannot be reached by other methods. 99% of the earth's crust is made up of just 8 elements, whereas the remaining 1% must accommodate 70-odd rock building trace elements of which about half can be measured by neutron activation analysis. In recent years, there has been much interest in these trace elements because they encompass diverse chemical properties. The present discussion of the technique is based upon more than 15 years of experience at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. This is not meant to intimate that the practices in other laboratories do not merit attention. Perhaps our approach differs from other published work in the emphasis given to sources of error and learning how to control them

  20. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Seppelt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  1. A multi-model analysis of risk of ecosystem shifts under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawski, Lila; Friend, Andrew; Ostberg, Sebastian; Frieler, Katja; Lucht, Wolfgang; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Beerling, David; Cadule, Patricia; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Douglas B.; Kahana, Ron; Ito, Akihiko; Keribin, Rozenn; Kleidon, Axel; Lomas, Mark; Nishina, Kazuya; Pavlick, Ryan; Tito Rademacher, Tim; Buechner, Matthias; Piontek, Franziska; Schewe, Jacob; Serdeczny, Olivia; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Climate change may pose a high risk of change to Earth’s ecosystems: shifting climatic boundaries may induce changes in the biogeochemical functioning and structures of ecosystems that render it difficult for endemic plant and animal species to survive in their current habitats. Here we aggregate changes in the biogeochemical ecosystem state as a proxy for the risk of these shifts at different levels of global warming. Estimates are based on simulations from seven global vegetation models (GVMs) driven by future climate scenarios, allowing for a quantification of the related uncertainties. 5-19% of the naturally vegetated land surface is projected to be at risk of severe ecosystem change at 2 ° C of global warming (ΔGMT) above 1980-2010 levels. However, there is limited agreement across the models about which geographical regions face the highest risk of change. The extent of regions at risk of severe ecosystem change is projected to rise with ΔGMT, approximately doubling between ΔGMT = 2 and 3 ° C, and reaching a median value of 35% of the naturally vegetated land surface for ΔGMT = 4 °C. The regions projected to face the highest risk of severe ecosystem changes above ΔGMT = 4 °C or earlier include the tundra and shrublands of the Tibetan Plateau, grasslands of eastern India, the boreal forests of northern Canada and Russia, the savanna region in the Horn of Africa, and the Amazon rainforest.

  2. A multi-model analysis of risk of ecosystem shifts under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change may pose a high risk of change to Earth’s ecosystems: shifting climatic boundaries may induce changes in the biogeochemical functioning and structures of ecosystems that render it difficult for endemic plant and animal species to survive in their current habitats. Here we aggregate changes in the biogeochemical ecosystem state as a proxy for the risk of these shifts at different levels of global warming. Estimates are based on simulations from seven global vegetation models (GVMs) driven by future climate scenarios, allowing for a quantification of the related uncertainties. 5–19% of the naturally vegetated land surface is projected to be at risk of severe ecosystem change at 2 ° C of global warming (ΔGMT) above 1980–2010 levels. However, there is limited agreement across the models about which geographical regions face the highest risk of change. The extent of regions at risk of severe ecosystem change is projected to rise with ΔGMT, approximately doubling between ΔGMT = 2 and 3 ° C, and reaching a median value of 35% of the naturally vegetated land surface for ΔGMT = 4 °C. The regions projected to face the highest risk of severe ecosystem changes above ΔGMT = 4 °C or earlier include the tundra and shrublands of the Tibetan Plateau, grasslands of eastern India, the boreal forests of northern Canada and Russia, the savanna region in the Horn of Africa, and the Amazon rainforest. (letter)

  3. Energy analysis for a sustainable future multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    Giampietro, Mario; Sorman, Alevgül H

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of the countries of the world are now facing an imminent energy crisis, particularly the USA, China, India, Japan and EU countries, but also developing countries having to boost their economic growth precisely when more powerful economies will prevent them from using the limited supply of fossil energy. Despite this crisis, current protocols of energy accounting have been developed for dealing with fossil energy exclusively and are therefore not useful for the analysis of alternative energy sources. The first part of the book illustrates the weakness of existing analyses of energy problems: the science of energy was born and developed neglecting the issue of scale. The authors argue that it is necessary to adopt more complex protocols of accounting and analysis in order to generate robust energy scenarios and effective assessments of the quality of alternative energy sources. The second part of the book introduces the concept of energetic metabolism of modern societies and uses empirical res...

  4. Applying Hybrid-Quantity Analysis in the Asia Semiconductor Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yuan Fan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor market has gradually transitioned from advanced countries to the Asian-Pacific region. Since the 1980s, Taiwan has been developing its own semiconductor industry, and after 20 years of effort, has become one of the world's major exporters of semiconductor products. Therefore, to position Taiwan in relation to other countries for competitive advantage, as defined by technology and industrial development, requires a better understanding of the developmental trends of the semiconductor technology of major competing countries in the Asian-Pacific region. This can further provide the Taiwanese government with additional strategic development proposals. We used a combination of patents, data-mining methods [multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis, and K-means clustering] to explore competing technological and strategic-group relationships within the semiconductor industry in the Asian-Pacific region. We assessed the relative technological advantages of various organizations and proposed additional technology development strategy recommendations to the Taiwanese semiconductor industry.

  5. Applying importance-performance analysis to evaluate banking service quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Policani Freitas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive market, the identification of the most important aspects and the measurement of service quality as perceived by the customers are important actions taken by organizations which seek the competitive advantage. In particular, this scenario is typical of Brazilian banking sector. In this context, this article presents an exploratory case study in which the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA was used to identify the strong and the weak points related to services provided by a bank. In order to check the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha and correlation analyses were used. The results are presented and some actions have been defined in order to improve the quality of services.

  6. Neutron activation analysis applied to nutritional and foodstuff studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA, has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. NAA has become an important and useful research tool due to the methodology's advantages. These include high accuracy, small quantities of samples and no chemical treatment. This technique allows the determination of important elements directly related to human health. NAA also provides data concerning essential and toxic concentrations in foodstuffs and specific diets. In this paper some studies in the area of nutrition which have been carried out at the Neutron Activation Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP will be presented: a Brazilian total diet study: nutritional element dietary intakes of Sao Paulo state population; a study of trace element in maternal milk and the determination of essential trace elements in some edible mushrooms. (author)

  7. Sensitivity Analysis Applied in Design of Low Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Building performance can be expressed by different indicators as primary energy use, environmental load and/or the indoor environmental quality and a building performance simulation can provide the decision maker with a quantitative measure of the extent to which an integrated design solution...... satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible to...... identify the most important parameters in relation to building performance and to focus design and optimization of sustainable buildings on these fewer, but most important parameters. The sensitivity analyses will typically be performed at a reasonably early stage of the building design process, where it...

  8. Downside Risk analysis applied to the Hedge Funds universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Josep

    2007-09-01

    Hedge Funds are considered as one of the portfolio management sectors which shows a fastest growing for the past decade. An optimal Hedge Fund management requires an appropriate risk metrics. The classic CAPM theory and its Ratio Sharpe fail to capture some crucial aspects due to the strong non-Gaussian character of Hedge Funds statistics. A possible way out to this problem while keeping the CAPM simplicity is the so-called Downside Risk analysis. One important benefit lies in distinguishing between good and bad returns, that is: returns greater or lower than investor's goal. We revisit most popular Downside Risk indicators and provide new analytical results on them. We compute these measures by taking the Credit Suisse/Tremont Investable Hedge Fund Index Data and with the Gaussian case as a benchmark. In this way, an unusual transversal lecture of the existing Downside Risk measures is provided.

  9. Ecosystem based approaches to climate adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jensen, Anne; Termansen, Mette;

    This report analyses the prospects and barriers of applying ecosystem based approaches systematically to climate adaptation in urban areas, taking the case of green roofs in Copenhagen Municipality. It looks at planning aspects of green roofs in Copenhagen as well as citizen views and preferences...... regarding green roofs using policy document analysis, interviews with city planners and deliberative valuation methods....

  10. Q uantitative methods applied in the analysis of teenagers problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the article is the study of teenagers problems based on quantitative methods, the scientific approach is divided into two parts: the part of knowledge and the practical approach. During the first part we describe the problems of adolescents based on national and international literature, and during the second part we use some quantitative methods (diagnosis, regression and investigation we aim to achieve an in-depth analysis of the addressed topic. Through the diagnosis we highlight changes in numerical terms of the number of adolescents, and also their problems: poverty and delinquency. Regression functions are used to show the nature, direction and intensity of the relationship between a number of causal variables and the outcome variable. The investigation aims to identify the extent to which cultural values of the country leave their mark on the perception of the importance of family and friends for teens. The main conclusions of the research points out the fact that the decrease in the number of Romanian teenagers their problems still persist.

  11. Quantitative phase imaging applied to laser damage detection and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douti, Dam-Bé L; Chrayteh, Mhamad; Aknoun, Sherazade; Doualle, Thomas; Hecquet, Christophe; Monneret, Serge; Gallais, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    We investigate phase imaging as a measurement method for laser damage detection and analysis of laser-induced modification of optical materials. Experiments have been conducted with a wavefront sensor based on lateral shearing interferometry associated with a high-magnification optical microscope. The system has been used for the in-line observation of optical thin films and bulk samples, laser irradiated in two different conditions: 500 fs pulses at 343 and 1030 nm, and millisecond to second irradiation with a CO2 laser at 10.6 μm. We investigate the measurement of the laser-induced damage threshold of optical material by detection and phase changes and show that the technique realizes high sensitivity with different optical path measurements lower than 1 nm. Additionally, the quantitative information on the refractive index or surface modification of the samples under test that is provided by the system has been compared to classical metrology instruments used for laser damage or laser ablation characterization (an atomic force microscope, a differential interference contrast microscope, and an optical surface profiler). An accurate in-line measurement of the morphology of laser-ablated sites, from few nanometers to hundred microns in depth, is shown. PMID:26479612

  12. Perturbation Method of Analysis Applied to Substitution Measurements of Buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations with two-group perturbation theory on substitution experiments with homogenized regions show that a condensation of the results into a one-group formula is possible, provided that a transition region is introduced in a proper way. In heterogeneous cores the transition region comes in as a consequence of a new cell concept. By making use of progressive substitutions the properties of the transition region can be regarded as fitting parameters in the evaluation procedure. The thickness of the region is approximately equal to the sum of 1/(1/τ + 1/L2)1/2 for the test and reference regions. Consequently a region where L2 >> τ, e.g. D2O, contributes with √τ to the thickness. In cores where τ >> L2 , e.g. H2O assemblies, the thickness of the transition region is determined by L. Experiments on rod lattices in D2O and on test regions of D2O alone (where B2 = - 1/L2 ) are analysed. The lattice measurements, where the pitches differed by a factor of √2, gave excellent results, whereas the determination of the diffusion length in D2O by this method was not quite successful. Even regions containing only one test element can be used in a meaningful way in the analysis

  13. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the research activity on Ion Beam Analysis methods performed at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR, Rez, Czech Republic. Recently, many groups are paying attention to implantation by laser generated plasma. This process allows to insert a controllable amount of energetic ions into the surface layers of different materials modifying the physical and chemical properties of the surface material. Different substrates are implanted by accelerated ions from plasma through terawatt iodine laser, at nominal intensity of 1015 W/cm2, at the PALS Research Infrastructure AS CR, in the Czech Republic. This regime of the laser matter interaction generates, multi-MeV proton beams, and multi-charged ions that are tightly confined in time (hundreds ps) and space (source radius of a few microns). These ion beams have a much lower transverse temperature, a much shorter duration and a much higher current than those obtainable from conventional accelerators. The implementation of protons and ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high intensity lasers is exhibited by adopting suitable irradiation conditions as well as tailored targets. An overview of implanted targets and their morphological and structural characterizations is presented and discussed

  14. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, M.; Macková, A.; Havranek, V.; Malinsky, P.; Torrisi, L.; Kormunda, M.; Barchuk, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the research activity on Ion Beam Analysis methods performed at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR, Rez, Czech Republic. Recently, many groups are paying attention to implantation by laser generated plasma. This process allows to insert a controllable amount of energetic ions into the surface layers of different materials modifying the physical and chemical properties of the surface material. Different substrates are implanted by accelerated ions from plasma through terawatt iodine laser, at nominal intensity of 1015 W/cm2, at the PALS Research Infrastructure AS CR, in the Czech Republic. This regime of the laser matter interaction generates, multi-MeV proton beams, and multi-charged ions that are tightly confined in time (hundreds ps) and space (source radius of a few microns). These ion beams have a much lower transverse temperature, a much shorter duration and a much higher current than those obtainable from conventional accelerators. The implementation of protons and ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high intensity lasers is exhibited by adopting suitable irradiation conditions as well as tailored targets. An overview of implanted targets and their morphological and structural characterizations is presented and discussed.

  15. Applied and computational harmonic analysis on graphs and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Jeff; Saito, Naoki

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the advent of new sensor technologies and social network infrastructure has provided huge opportunities and challenges for analyzing data recorded on such networks. In the case of data on regular lattices, computational harmonic analysis tools such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms have well-developed theories and proven track records of success. It is therefore quite important to extend such tools from the classical setting of regular lattices to the more general setting of graphs and networks. In this article, we first review basics of graph Laplacian matrices, whose eigenpairs are often interpreted as the frequencies and the Fourier basis vectors on a given graph. We point out, however, that such an interpretation is misleading unless the underlying graph is either an unweighted path or cycle. We then discuss our recent effort of constructing multiscale basis dictionaries on a graph, including the Hierarchical Graph Laplacian Eigenbasis Dictionary and the Generalized Haar-Walsh Wavelet Packet Dictionary, which are viewed as generalizations of the classical hierarchical block DCTs and the Haar-Walsh wavelet packets, respectively, to the graph setting. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our dictionaries by using them to simultaneously segment and denoise 1-D noisy signals sampled on regular lattices, a problem where classical tools have difficulty.

  16. Ecosystem-management-based Management Models of Fast-growing and High-yield Plantation and Its Eco-economic Benefits Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper expounded the basic concept and principles of ecosystem management,and analyzed the state and trend of industrial plantation ecosystem management in other countries.Based on the analysis of typical case studies,the eco-economic benefits were evaluated for the management models of fast-growing and high-yield plantations.

  17. Statistical analysis and Kalman filtering applied to nuclear materials accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much theoretical research has been carried out on the development of statistical methods for nuclear material accountancy. In practice, physical, financial and time constraints mean that the techniques must be adapted to give an optimal performance in plant conditions. This thesis aims to bridge the gap between theory and practice, to show the benefits to be gained from a knowledge of the facility operation. Four different aspects are considered; firstly, the use of redundant measurements to reduce the error on the estimate of the mass of heavy metal in an 'accountancy tank' is investigated. Secondly, an analysis of the calibration data for the same tank is presented, establishing bounds for the error and suggesting a means of reducing them. Thirdly, a plant-specific method of producing an optimal statistic from the input, output and inventory data, to help decide between 'material loss' and 'no loss' hypotheses, is developed and compared with existing general techniques. Finally, an application of the Kalman Filter to materials accountancy is developed, to demonstrate the advantages of state-estimation techniques. The results of the analyses and comparisons illustrate the importance of taking into account a complete and accurate knowledge of the plant operation, measurement system, and calibration methods, to derive meaningful results from statistical tests on materials accountancy data, and to give a better understanding of critical random and systematic error sources. The analyses were carried out on the head-end of the Fast Reactor Reprocessing Plant, where fuel from the prototype fast reactor is cut up and dissolved. However, the techniques described are general in their application. (author)

  18. Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2009-09-01

    Flash floods are one of the natural hazards that cause major damages worldwide. Especially in Mediterranean areas they provoke high economic losses every year. In mountain areas with high stream gradients, floods events are characterized by extremely high flow and debris transport rates. Flash flood analysis in mountain areas presents specific scientific challenges. On one hand, there is a lack of information on precipitation and discharge due to a lack of spatially well distributed gauge stations with long records. On the other hand, gauge stations may not record correctly during extreme events when they are damaged or the discharge exceeds the recordable level. In this case, no systematic data allows improvement of the understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of the process. Since historic documentation is normally scarce or even completely missing in mountain areas, tree-ring analysis can provide an alternative approach. Flash floods may influence trees in different ways: (1) tilting of the stem through the unilateral pressure of the flowing mass or individual boulders; (2) root exposure through erosion of the banks; (3) injuries and scars caused by boulders and wood transported in the flow; (4) decapitation of the stem and resulting candelabra growth through the severe impact of boulders; (5) stem burial through deposition of material. The trees react to these disturbances with specific growth changes such as abrupt change of the yearly increment and anatomical changes like reaction wood or callus tissue. In this study, we sampled 90 cross sections and 265 increment cores of trees heavily affected by past flash floods in order to date past events and to reconstruct recurrence intervals in two torrent channels located in the Spanish Central System. The first study site is located along the Pelayo River, a torrent in natural conditions. Based on the external disturbances of trees and their geomorphological position, 114 Pinus pinaster (Ait

  19. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  20. The schism between experimental and applied behavior analysis: Is it real and who cares? 1

    OpenAIRE

    Poling, Alan; Picker, Mitchell; Grossett, Deborah; Hall-Johnson, Earl; Holbrook, Maurice

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis. Citation data indicate that across time the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and other experimental sources, have been referenced increasingly infrequently in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Therapy, and Behavior Research and Therapy. Such sources are now rarely cited in these journals, and never have been regularly referenced in Behavior Modif...

  1. Mathematical analysis of a marine ecosystem model with nonlinear coupling terms and non-local boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Roschat, Christina; Slawig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the weak solvability of initial boundary value problems associated with an ecosystem model of the marine phosphorus cycle. The analysis covers the model equations themselves as well as their linearization which is important in the model calibration via parameter identification. We treat both cases simultaneously by investigating a system of advection-diffusion-reaction equations coupled by general reaction terms and boundary conditions. We derive a weak formulation of the gener...

  2. Partial valuation of the goods and services that it provides the mangrove ecosystem: An integrated ecological-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents a methodology to value the economic benefits of the use of some goods and services that provides the mangrove ecosystem, located in the municipality of Tumaco. An ecological analysis is developed integrated to an economic evaluation that allows expressing in monetary terms some values of use of the mangrove; this value are compared with the profitability that reports the Camaroniculture, productive activity that is constituted at the moment, in the most profitable alternative use

  3. Ecosystem Service Value Assessment and Contribution Factor Analysis of Land Use Change in Miyun County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unreasonable land use planning can reduce ecosystem service value and result in unsustainable land use. In this paper, the changes of ecosystem service value were investigated by using the GIS and dynamic simulation model of land use in Miyun of Beijing, China, based on the land use at four time points including 1991, 2006, 2021 and one improved scenario, respectively. The results showed the total ecosystem service value of Miyun was about 2968.34 million Yuan in 1991, 3304.72 million Yuan in 2006, 3106.48 million Yuan in 2021, and 3759.77 million Yuan in the improved scenario. In terms of ecosystem service function, the functions of water supply and soil formation and retention accounted for the largest proportion, which were 19.99% and 14.58% respectively; whereas the functions of food supply and recreation and culture were only 1.83% and 5.99%, respectively. Coefficients of sensitivity for forest cover, water bodies and arable land were relatively large, which were 0.73, 0.28 and 0.14, respectively. The contribution factors of total ecosystem service value with the land use change during different periods were mainly the unused land to forest cover and arable land, which respectively accounted for more than 63% and 21% of the contribution rate. These results suggested that sustainable land use planning should be undertaken with emphasis on vegetation restoration and protection of water bodies.

  4. Beyond Time out and Table Time: Today's Applied Behavior Analysis for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Hume, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Recent mandates related to the implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require that autism professionals both understand and are able to implement practices based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The use of the term "applied behavior analysis" and its related concepts…

  5. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  6. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  7. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    CERN Document Server

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  8. What can stable isotope analysis of top predator tissues contribute to monitoring of tundra ecosystems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrich, D.; Ims, R.A.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Lecomte, N.; Killengreen, S.T.; Fuglei, E.; Rodnikova, A.Y.; Ebbinge, B.S.; Menyushina, I.E.; Nolet, Bart; Prokovsky, I.G.; Popov, I.Y.; Schmidt, N.M.; Sokolov, A.; Sokolova, N.A.; Sokolov, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how climate change and increasing human impacts may exert pressure on ecosystems and threaten biodiversity requires efficient monitoring programs. Indicator species have been proposed as useful tools, and predators and their diet may be particularly suitable. The vast and remote arctic

  9. Seeking Energy System Pathways to Reduce Ozone Damage to Ecosystems through Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, S. L.; Pinder, R. W.; Loughlin, D. H.; Bash, J. O.; Turner, M. D.; Henze, D. K.; Percell, P.; Zhao, S.; Russell, M. G.; Hakami, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) affects the productivity of ecosystems in addition to degrading human health. Concentrations of this pollutant are significantly influenced by precursor gas emissions, many of which emanate from energy production and use processes. Energy system optimization models could inform policy decisions that are intended to reduce these harmful effects if the contribution of precursor gas emissions to human health and ecosystem degradation could be elucidated. Nevertheless, determining the degree to which precursor gas emissions harm ecosystems and human health is challenging because of the photochemical production of ozone and the distinct mechanisms by which ozone causes harm to different crops, tree species, and humans. Here, the adjoint of a regional chemical transport model is employed to efficiently calculate the relative influences of ozone precursor gas emissions on ecosystem and human health degradation, which informs an energy system optimization. Specifically, for the summer of 2007 the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model adjoint is used to calculate the location- and sector-specific influences of precursor gas emissions on potential productivity losses for the major crops and sensitive tree species as well as human mortality attributable to chronic ozone exposure in the continental U.S. The atmospheric concentrations are evaluated with 12-km horizontal resolution with crop production and timber biomass data gridded similarly. These location-specific factors inform the energy production and use technologies selected in the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model.

  10. Analysis of ecosystem services provision in the Colombian Amazon using participatory research and mapping techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez-Gomez, Sara O I; Torres-Vitolas, Carlos A.; Schreckenberg, Kate; Honzák, Miroslav; Cruz-Garcia, Gisella S.; Willcock, Simon; Palacios, Erwin; Pérez-Miñana, Elena; Verweij, Pita A.; Poppy, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades indigenous peoples in the lower Caquetá River basin in Colombia have experienced detrimental changes in the provision of important ecosystem services in ways that have significant implications for the maintenance of their traditional livelihoods. To assess these changes we

  11. A meta-analysis of zooplankton functional traits influencing ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Marie-Pier; Beisner, Beatrix E; Maranger, Roxane

    2016-04-01

    The use of functional traits to characterize community composition has been proposed as a more effective way to link community structure to ecosystem functioning. Organismal morphology, body stoichiometry, and physiology can be readily linked to large-scale ecosystem processes through functional traits that inform on interspecific and species-environment interactions; yet such effect traits are still poorly included in trait-based approaches. Given their key trophic position in aquatic ecosystems, individual zooplankton affect energy fluxes and elemental processing. We compiled a large database of zooplankton traits contributing to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling and examined the effect of classification and habitat (marine vs. freshwater) on trait relationships. Respiration and nutrient excretion rates followed mass-dependent scaling in both habitats, with exponents ranging from 0.70 to 0.90. Our analyses revealed surprising differences in allometry and respiration between habitats, with freshwater species having lower length-specific mass and three times higher mass-specific respiration rates. These differences in traits point to implications for ecological strategies as well as overall carbon storage and fluxes based on habitat type. Our synthesis quantifies multiple trait relationships and links organisms to ecosystem processes they influence, enabling a more complete integration of aquatic community ecology and biogeochemistry through the promising use of effect traits. PMID:27220222

  12. ECOSMO, a coupled ecosystem model of the North Sea and Baltic Sea: Part II. Spatial-seasonal characteristics in the North Sea as revealed by EOF analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrum, Corinna; St. John, Michael; Alekseeva, I.

    2006-01-01

    on empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF) are introduced to biological oceanography and ecosystem research as valuable tool to investigate spatial temporal variability. These methods are used to describe the spatial temporal characteristics of the seasonal signal of phytoplankton and...

  13. Inclusive Elementary Classroom Teacher Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Use of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine inclusive elementary teacher knowledge and attitude toward Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and applied behavior analysis (ABA) and their use of ABA. Furthermore, this study examined if knowledge and attitude predicted use of ABA. A survey was developed and administered through a web-based program. Of the…

  14. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  15. Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2013-04-01

    Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is

  16. Quantitative analysis and simulation of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems: the Gulf of Naples, a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, T. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    A workshop on the modelling of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems was held in the Ischia Benthic Ecological Laboratory of the Naples Zoological Station from 28 March to 10 April, 1981. The primary activity was the engagement of all participants in the various steps of model construction for the case study, the Gulf of Naples. This included an examination of the data base, design of a conceptual model, decomposition into submodels, formulation of relevant processes, definition of initial and boundary conditions, and programming and simulation. Secondary activities included a series of introductory lectures to establish a common modelling language among the participants, the presentation of other Mediterranean ecosystems, general discussions involving the practical application of modelling to particular situations, and a workshop critique. 414 references, 92 figures.

  17. ET743: Chemical analysis of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Thomas; Rhodes, Emily; Loftis, Richard; Phillips, Dennis; Demaria, Don; Newman, David; Rudloe, Jack

    2006-05-10

    The sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata produces the powerful drug ET743. In this study Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are systematically used to measure elemental and molecular species in a Florida Keys mangrove ecosystem that contains the sea squirt. ICP-AES is used to measure the concentration of 27 elements down to the parts per billion level in 16 organisms and 3 sediment samples that reside in the mangrove ecosystem including turtle grass, blue crabs, fire sponge, and lettuce slugs. MALDI-MS is used to search for ET743 in these same organisms and sediment samples. A mass spectral feature corresponding to ET743 is identified in the extract of the sea squirt, red mangrove root (Rhizophera mangle), the schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and a sediment sample taken from the ecosystem. We use MALDI-MS to study the impact that various environmental conditions, such as UV light, I(2), cation binding (Fe(+3), Zn(+2), Pb(+2), Cu(+2)), metal oxide nanoparticles (FeO, CuO, TiO(2), ZnO, Al(2)O(3)), a common mineral (CaCO(3)), and extremes in acidity (0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH) have on the ET743 structure. The data provide potential structures (degradation products, metal-ligand complexes, etc.) that might be present in organism or sedimentary extracts that are similar to ET743. We are studying the marine geochemistry of this ecosystem so a broth can be developed and tested for producing this marine natural product. PMID:16644544

  18. Application of Remote Sensing and Ecology Analysis Method for Geographic Information System of Coastal Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Bangun Muljo Sukojo

    2003-01-01

    With the development that have been done on all Indonesian coastal area, the damaged can be suffered from day to day. The decrease of environmental or ecosystem quality occurred and effected the economic, social and cultural life directly or indirectly. Based on that condition, data or information is needed to look accurately the decrement level and the way to handle it. One method that can be used is a computer based technology which commonly called Geographic Information System (GIS). The t...

  19. Audible Ecosystems and emergent sound structures in Di Scipio's music. Music philosophy enhances musical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meric, Renaud; Solomos, Makis

    2008-01-01

    International audience While composing with an ecosystemic approach, Di Scipio creates an audio system that interacts with the environment, i.e. space. This space, in which and from which music emerges, is also the listener's space. The notion of emergence is complex: what emerges is the result of a confrontation between the listener's cognitive system and the audio system used in the musical work. This emergent result can be termed musical "structure" or sound "structure", but it is diffi...

  20. The application of methods of ecosystem analysis to the evaluation of water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Kozhova, O.M.

    1980-01-01

    Guided by experience and the theoretical development of hydrobiology, it can be considered that the main aim of water quality control should be the establishment of the rates of the self-purification process of water bodies which are capable of maintaining communities in a state of dynamic balance without changing the integrity of the ecosystem. Hence, general approaches in the elaboration of methods for hydrobiological control are based on the following principles: a. the balance of matter a...

  1. Model Proposition for the Fiscal Policies Analysis Applied in Economic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Preda

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about fiscal policy applied in economic development. Correlations between macroeconomics and fiscal indicators signify the first steep in our analysis. Next step is a new model proposal for the fiscal and budgetary choices. This model is applied on the date of the Romanian case.

  2. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.

  3. Risk analysis for confined space entries: Critical analysis of four tools applied to three risk scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet-Vienney, Damien; Chinniah, Yuvin; Bahloul, Ali; Roberge, Brigitte

    2016-06-01

    Investigation reports of fatal confined space accidents nearly always point to a problem of identifying or underestimating risks. This paper compares 4 different risk analysis tools developed for confined spaces by applying them to 3 hazardous scenarios. The tools were namely 1. a checklist without risk estimation (Tool A), 2. a checklist with a risk scale (Tool B), 3. a risk calculation without a formal hazard identification stage (Tool C), and 4. a questionnaire followed by a risk matrix (Tool D). Each tool's structure and practical application were studied. Tools A and B gave crude results comparable to those of more analytic tools in less time. Their main limitations were lack of contextual information for the identified hazards and greater dependency on the user's expertise and ability to tackle hazards of different nature. Tools C and D utilized more systematic approaches than tools A and B by supporting risk reduction based on the description of the risk factors. Tool D is distinctive because of 1. its comprehensive structure with respect to the steps suggested in risk management, 2. its dynamic approach to hazard identification, and 3. its use of data resulting from the risk analysis. PMID:26864350

  4. Performance analysis of high quality parallel preconditioners applied to 3D finite element structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotilina, L.; Nikishin, A.; Yeremin, A. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The solution of large systems of linear equations is a crucial bottleneck when performing 3D finite element analysis of structures. Also, in many cases the reliability and robustness of iterative solution strategies, and their efficiency when exploiting hardware resources, fully determine the scope of industrial applications which can be solved on a particular computer platform. This is especially true for modern vector/parallel supercomputers with large vector length and for modern massively parallel supercomputers. Preconditioned iterative methods have been successfully applied to industrial class finite element analysis of structures. The construction and application of high quality preconditioners constitutes a high percentage of the total solution time. Parallel implementation of high quality preconditioners on such architectures is a formidable challenge. Two common types of existing preconditioners are the implicit preconditioners and the explicit preconditioners. The implicit preconditioners (e.g. incomplete factorizations of several types) are generally high quality but require solution of lower and upper triangular systems of equations per iteration which are difficult to parallelize without deteriorating the convergence rate. The explicit type of preconditionings (e.g. polynomial preconditioners or Jacobi-like preconditioners) require sparse matrix-vector multiplications and can be parallelized but their preconditioning qualities are less than desirable. The authors present results of numerical experiments with Factorized Sparse Approximate Inverses (FSAI) for symmetric positive definite linear systems. These are high quality preconditioners that possess a large resource of parallelism by construction without increasing the serial complexity.

  5. Stable isotope-guided analysis of biomagnification profiles of arsenic species in a tropical mangrove ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed stable carbon and nitrogen-guided analyses of biomagnification profiles of arsenic (As) species, including total As, lipid-soluble As, eight water-soluble As compounds (arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (TETRA), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), arsenate (As[V]), and arsenite (As[III])), and non-extracted As in a tropical mangrove ecosystem in the Ba Ria Vung Tau, South Vietnam. Arsenobetaine was the predominant As species (65-96% of water-soluble As). Simple linear regression slopes of log-transformed concentrations of total As, As fractions or individual As compounds on stable nitrogen isotopic ratio (δ15N) values are regarded as indices of biomagnification. In this ecosystem, lipid-soluble As (slope, 0.130) and AB (slope, 0.108) were significantly biomagnified through the food web; total As and other water-soluble As compounds were not. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on biomagnification profiles of As compounds from a tropical mangrove ecosystem.

  6. Applying static code analysis to firewall policies for the purpose of anomaly detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zaliva, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    Treating modern firewall policy languages as imperative, special purpose programming languages, in this article we will try to apply static code analysis techniques for the purpose of anomaly detection. We will first abstract a policy in common firewall policy language into an intermediate language, and then we will try to apply anomaly detection algorithms to it. The contributions made by this work are: 1. An analysis of various control flow instructions in popular firewall policy languages ...

  7. Digital Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    We view Digital Ecosystems to be the digital counterparts of biological ecosystems, which are considered to be robust, self-organising and scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. So, this work is concerned with the creation, investigation, and optimisation of Digital Ecosystems, exploiting the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. First, we created the Digital Ecosystem, a novel optimisation technique inspired by biological ecosystems, where the optimisation works at two levels: a first optimisation, migration of agents which are distributed in a decentralised peer-to-peer network, operating continuously in time; this process feeds a second optimisation based on evolutionary computing that operates locally on single peers and is aimed at finding solutions to satisfy locally relevant constraints. We then investigated its self-organising aspects, starting with an extension to the definition of Physical Complexity to include evolving agent populations. Next, ...

  8. Faunistic analysis of Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in degraded ecosystems of Chapecó town, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia; Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to investigate the ant fauna in degraded environments and to comprehend how this group behaves in such ecosystems, faunistic analysis was initially conducted with the ants collected in an area in Chapecó town that had been subjected to flooding in function of the construction of the mouth of a dam on the Chapecó River (a branch of the larger Uruguay River). The collections were carried out between October 2001 and September 2002. We used pit-fall traps, sweeping nets, entomologic umbr...

  9. A review of the technology and process on integrated circuits failure analysis applied in communications products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Zhimao; Ling, Xiaodong; Bai, Xiaoshu; Zong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The failure analysis of integrated circuits plays a very important role in the improvement of the reliability in communications products. This paper intends to mainly introduce the failure analysis technology and process of integrated circuits applied in the communication products. There are many technologies for failure analysis, include optical microscopic analysis, infrared microscopic analysis, acoustic microscopy analysis, liquid crystal hot spot detection technology, optical microscopic analysis technology, micro analysis technology, electrical measurement, microprobe technology, chemical etching technology and ion etching technology. The integrated circuit failure analysis depends on the accurate confirmation and analysis of chip failure mode, the search of the root failure cause, the summary of failure mechanism and the implement of the improvement measures. Through the failure analysis, the reliability of integrated circuit and rate of good products can improve.

  10. Variability in net ecosystem exchange from hourly to inter-annual time scales at adjacent pine and hardwood forests: a wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Paul C; Katul, Gabriel G; Siqueira, Mario B S; Juang, Jehn-Yih; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Oishi, A Christopher; Oren, Ram

    2005-07-01

    Orthonormal wavelet transformation (OWT) is a computationally efficient technique for quantifying underlying frequencies in nonstationary and gap-infested time series, such as eddy-covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE). We employed OWT to analyze the frequency characteristics of synchronously measured and modeled NEE at adjacent pine (PP) and hardwood (HW) ecosystems. Wavelet cospectral analysis showed that NEE at PP was more correlated to light and vapor pressure deficit at the daily time scale, and NEE at HW was more correlated to leaf area index (LAI) and temperature, especially soil temperature, at seasonal time scales. Models were required to disentangle the impacts of environmental drivers on the components of NEE, ecosystem carbon assimilation (Ac) and ecosystem respiration (RE). Sensitivity analyses revealed that using air temperature rather than soil temperature in RE models improved the modeled wavelet spectral frequency response on time scales longer than 1 day at both ecosystems. Including LAI improved RE model fit on seasonal time scales at HW, and incorporating parameter variability improved the RE model response at annual time scales at both ecosystems. Resolving variability in canopy conductance, rather than leaf-internal CO2, was more important for modeling Ac at both ecosystems. The PP ecosystem was more sensitive to hydrologic variables that regulate canopy conductance: vapor pressure deficit on weekly time scales and soil moisture on seasonal to interannual time scales. The HW ecosystem was sensitive to water limitation on weekly time scales. A combination of intrinsic drought sensitivity and non-conservative water use at PP was the basis for this response. At both ecosystems, incorporating variability in LAI was required for an accurate spectral representation of modeled NEE. However, nonlinearities imposed by canopy light attenuation were of little importance to spectral fit. The OWT revealed similarities and differences in

  11. A spatial analysis of cultural ecosystem service valuation by regional stakeholders in Florida: a coastal application of the social values for ecosystem services (SolVES) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Alisa W.; Swett, Robert A.; Cole, Zachary D.

    2012-01-01

    Livelihoods and lifestyles of people throughout the world depend on essential goods and services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. However, as societal demand increases and available ocean and coastal space diminish, better methods are needed to spatially and temporally allocate ocean and coastal activities such as shipping, energy production, tourism, and fishing. While economic valuation is an important mechanism for doing so, cultural ecosystem services often do not lend themselves to this method. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey are working collaboratively with the Florida Sea Grant College Program to map nonmonetary values of cultural ecosystem services for a pilot area (Sarasota Bay) in the Gulf of Mexico. The research seeks to close knowledge gaps about the attitudes and perceptions, or nonmonetary values, held by coastal residents toward cultural ecosystem services, and to adapt related, terrestrial-based research methods to a coastal setting. A critical goal is to integrate research results with coastal and marine spatial planning applications, thus making them relevant to coastal planners and managers in their daily efforts to sustainably manage coastal resources. Using information about the attitudes and preferences of people toward places and uses in the landscape, collected from value and preference surveys, the USGS SolVES 2.0 tool will provide quantitative models to relate social values, or perceived nonmonetary values, assigned to locations by survey respondents with the underlying environmental characteristics of those same locations. Project results will increase scientific and geographic knowledge of how Sarasota Bay residents value their area’s cultural ecosystem services.

  12. Global sensitivity analysis of an end-to-end marine ecosystem model of the North Sea: Factors affecting the biomass of fish and benthos

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, David J.; Speir, Douglas C.; Cameron, Angus I; Heath, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of parameter and driver sensitivity is key to establishing the credibility of models representing complex systems. This is especially so for models of natural systems where experimental manipulation of the real-world to provide controlled validation data is not possible. End-to-end ecosystem models (nutrients to birds and mammals) of marine ecosystems fall into this category with applications for evaluating the effects of climate change and fishing on nutrient fluxes an...

  13. Effect of the ICT Ecosystem Structure on the Sustainable Growth of ICT Firms: A Metafrontier Analysis on China, South Korea, the United States, and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoungsun Lee; Yuri Park; Daeho Lee

    2016-01-01

    We study how the information and communications technology (ICT) ecosystem affects the sustainable growth of ICT firms. For our study, we analyze the efficiencies of ICT firms in China, South Korea, the United States, and Japan, which are the current leaders in the global ICT industry, each with different ICT ecosystem structures. We use metafrontier analysis (MFA) to compare the efficiencies among countries with different structures, and then use Tobit regression to identify the causes of th...

  14. Analysis of chemical factors affecting marine ecosystem around nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Chun, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jin Kyu; Jung, Kyeong Chai; Lee, Yeong Keun; Park, Hyo Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    The ecological data of the coastal area of Youngkwang nuclear power plant from 1987 to 1993 were comprehensively analyzed, and various physical and chemical properties of sea water and sediments were measured. Major factors affecting phytoplankton standing crops were suspended substances, nitrate, and silicate. The contents of iron, chromium, copper, and sulfur in sediments sampled from the discharge channel were slightly higher than those in the other areas. In order to qantify the chemical impacts on marine ecosystem, it is desirable that a systematic survey be made through the whole year cycle to assure the consistency and confidence of the related data. (Author).

  15. Analysis of chemical factors affecting marine ecosystem around nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological data of the coastal area of Youngkwang nuclear power plant from 1987 to 1993 were comprehensively analyzed, and various physical and chemical properties of sea water and sediments were measured. Major factors affecting phytoplankton standing crops were suspended substances, nitrate, and silicate. The contents of iron, chromium, copper, and sulfur in sediments sampled from the discharge channel were slightly higher than those in the other areas. In order to qantify the chemical impacts on marine ecosystem, it is desirable that a systematic survey be made through the whole year cycle to assure the consistency and confidence of the related data. (Author)

  16. Critical Analysis of a Website: A Critique based on Critical Applied Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Agustina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available E-learning was easily found through browsing internet, which was mostly free of charge and provided various learning materials. Spellingcity.com was one of e-learning websites for teaching and learning English to learn spelling, vocabulary and writing, which offered various games and activities for young learners, 6 until 8 year old learners in particular. Having considered those constraints, this paper aimed to analyse the website from two different views: (1 critical applied linguistics  (CAL aspects and (2 critical  discourse analysis (CDA. After analysing the website using CAL and CDA, it was found that the website was adequate for beginner, in which it provided fun learning through games as well as challenged learners’ to test their vocabulary. Despite of these strengths, there were several issues required further thinking in terms of learners’ broad knowledge, such as, some of learning materials focused on states in America. It was quite difficult for EFL learners if they did not have adequate general knowledge. Thus, the findings implied that the website could be used as a supporting learning material, which accompanied textbooks and vocabulary exercise books.

  17. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  18. An Objective Comparison of Applied Behavior Analysis and Organizational Behavior Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; McGee, Heather M.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an objective review, analysis, and comparison of empirical studies targeting the behavior of adults published in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) between 1997 and 2001. The purpose of the comparisons was to identify similarities and differences with respect to…

  19. Sociosexuality Education for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; Condo, Bethany; Hardaway, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has emerged as one of the most effective empirically based strategies for instructing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four ABA-based strategies that have been found effective are video modeling, visual strategies, social script fading, and task analysis. Individuals with ASD often struggle with…

  20. Applied Behavior Analysis: Its Impact on the Treatment of Mentally Retarded Emotionally Disturbed People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Coe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews applications of the applied behavior analysis ideas of B. F. Skinner and others to persons with both mental retardation and emotional disturbance. The review examines implications of behavior analysis for operant conditioning and radical behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement, and emotion and mental illness. (DB)

  1. Continuous Wavelet and Hilbert-Huang Transforms Applied for Analysis of Active and Reactive Power Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Avdakovic Samir; Bosovic Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of power consumption presents a very important issue for power distribution system operators. Some power system processes such as planning, demand forecasting, development, etc.., require a complete understanding of behaviour of power consumption for observed area, which requires appropriate techniques for analysis of available data. In this paper, two different time-frequency techniques are applied for analysis of hourly values of active and reactive power consumption from one real ...

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF POLYELEMENT CONTAMINATION SOIL OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T. F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In modern conditions, anthropogenic impact to the soil urban ecosystems is fairly stable over time and space, is manifested in various forms, as the transformation of the soil profile, the change in direction of the soil-forming processes, contamination of the various pollutants, and, above all, heavy metals (HM – elements of the first class of the danger. Their sources of the income to the urban environment are industrial enterprises, transport, housing and communal services. Determination of the anthropogenic pressure to the urban soil is carried out by the environmental assessment of the HM polyelement contamination, which allows to establish not only the fact of pollution, but also limits of the possible load with considering regional background or sanitary standards – MPC. However, until now discussions arise regarding the index which will be carried out the valuation – the cornerstone of any methodological approach to the environmental assessment of the soil polyelement contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems, which allows to establish not only the fact of contamination, but also limits the possible load, taking into account the regional background or sanitary norm – MPC. Purpose. Lies in the grounded selection of the environmental assessment indexes of the soil contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems through a comparative analysis of the existing approaches, such as the determination of the summary contamination index (SCI, the index of the soil contamination (ISC, factor imbalance (Sd, taking into account environmental safety standards and binding to the specific conditions territory. Conclusion. In summary it should be noted that it is necessary to use a set of integrated indexes, including the SCI to determine the violation of the metals content with respect to the geochemical background of zonal soil, ISC – link the contamination level with health indexes of the environmental safety

  3. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ‘Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  4. Evaluation of the sulphur budget of forest ecosystems (Black Forest) by means of stable sulphur isotope analysis. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In small watersheds, located in the Black Forest, SW Germany, the sulphur budget of a Norway spruce ecosystem has been evaluated by means of stable S-isotope analysis. The watersheds are adjacent to each other and highly comparable with respect to their water budget and biogeochemical balance. One of them has been fertilized with (NH4)2SO4 while the other serves as an untreated control. The fertilizer S was enriched in the 34S isotope compared to the sulphur present in the ecosystem in order to trace the fertilizer sulphur. Comparison of the S-isotopic composition of plant and soil samples from both the fertilized and the control plot provides new information on S-turnover in the ecosystem. The spatial variability of the S-isotopic composition in soil and plant material has to be known before effects of the fertilization could be judged from the δ34S values. Soil samples showed differences in the spatial variability of both the S-isotopic composition of total and inorganic sulphur depending on soil depth. In the fertilized plots, the variability increased markedly. Together with a change in variability changes in S-isotopic composition of the soil sulphur became evident. This effect was more profound in the inorganic sulphur fraction than in total sulphur of the soil. The spatial variability of the needles from different trees was about +/- 0,5 permille in the control watershed and increased to +/-0,7 permille in the fertilized plot. This increase in variability was paralleled with an increase in the total δ34S-value of the needles after fertilizer application. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of energetic exchange processes within the two different forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilisation of energy within the floodplain forest ecosystem near Lednice - south Moravia, and spruce monoculture ecosystem near Rájec Jestřebí - central Moravia during the years 1988 and 1989 was measured. Net radiation balance, global solar radiation, wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures and soil heat flux directly by instruments and sensors; latent, sensible heat flux and heat flux to the vegetation was calculated. It is possible to say, considering hitherto results, that well watered (groundwater) floodplain forest ecosystem shows greater evapotranspiration and therefore latent heat flux than spruce monoculture. Greater flux of energy was recorded in a daily course of sensible heat flux (65% proportion to net radiation), in contrast with the spruce monoculture. The floodplain forest latent heat flux proportion to net radiation was found to be variable within the growing season; in the middle of the vegetation period (from June to August) it reached the value of about 70%, at the end (in October) of about 20%. The estimation of the floodplain forest actual evapotranspiration was possible almost all over the season, the actual evapotranspiration reached its maximum of about 0.72 mm/square m per h one hour after the maximum of radiation balance. The time lag of about 4 hours was observed when compared the diurnal course of air humidity gradient to the air temperature gradient above the forest canopy. This phenomenon caused the left side asymmetry of the diurnal course of the Bowen ratio. It was not possible to measure the spruce monoculture latent heat flux all over the season, probably due to smaller gradient of the air humidity although it was measured across at greater distance than in the floodplain forest (12 m in comparison with 9 m). The values of the second half of May and the first half of June ones were at our disposal only. The spruce monoculture latent heat flux proportion to radiation balance was found about 25%, the actual evapotranspiration

  6. Trends in applied econometrics software development 1985-2008, an analysis of Journal of Applied Econometrics research articles, software reviews, data and code

    OpenAIRE

    Ooms, M.

    2008-01-01

    Trends in software development for applied econometrics emerge from an analysis of the research articles and software reviews of the Journal of Applied Econometrics, appearing since 1986. The data and code archive of the journal provides more specific information on software use for applied econometrics since 1995. GAUSS, Stata, MATLAB and Ox have been the most important softwares after 2001. I compare these higher level programming languages and R in somewhat more detail. An increasing numbe...

  7. August Dvorak (1894-1975): Early expressions of applied behavior analysis and precision teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Bonnie; Moxley, Roy A.

    1988-01-01

    August Dvorak is best known for his development of the Dvorak keyboard. However, Dvorak also adapted and applied many behavioral and scientific management techniques to the field of education. Taken collectively, these techniques are representative of many of the procedures currently used in applied behavior analysis, in general, and especially in precision teaching. The failure to consider Dvorak's instructional methods may explain some of the discrepant findings in studies which compare the...

  8. Comparison of factor analysis and phase analysis methods applied to cardiac scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1982 factor analysis has been proposed as an alternative to phase analysis for the processing of heart scintigraphy at equilibrium. Three factor analysis algorithms have been described and the clinical evaluation of these methods has been carried out in 128 patients with coronary artery disease and compared with phase analysis. The study indicates that factor analysis methods are not more accurate than phase analysis for the detection of abnormalities of ventricular contraction

  9. Vulnerability and resilience of European ecosystems towards extreme climatic events: The ecosystem perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonicke, Kirsten; Rolinski, Susanne; Walz, Ariane; von Bloh, Werner; van Oijen, Marcel; Davin, Edouard; Vieli, Barla; Kato, Tomomichi; Beer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Extremes of meteorological events may but do not have to cause damages in ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have a strong impact on the resilience and stability of ecosystems worldwide. So far, the impacts of trends and extremes of physical drivers on ecosystems have generally been studied regardless of the extremeness of the ecosystem response. We base our analysis on a Probabilistic Risk Assessment concept of Van Oijen et al. (2013) quantifying the vulnerability of vegetation dynamics in relation to the extremeness of meteorological drivers such as temperature, precipitation or drought indices. Here, the definition of extreme, hazardous weather conditions is based on the ecosystem response. Instead of searching for extreme meteorological events, we define extreme ecosystem responses in terms of threshold levels of carbon uptake, and search for the meteorological conditions which are responsible. Having defined hazardous events in this way, we quantify the vulnerability or resilience of ecosystems to such hazards. We apply this approach on results of different vegetation models (such as LPJmL, Orchidee, JSBACH or CLM4) and the forest model BASFOR using climatic input for Europe from the WATCH-ERAI-REMO climate dataset with the SRES A1B emission scenario. Our results show that under current climatic conditions, the southern part of Europe already suffers severe heat and drought stress which is reflected in our approach by vulnerability values being high for precipitation, relatively high for the SPEI index, moderately high for temperature and quite high for the consecutive dry days. Thus, hazard occurrence is frequent enough to determine ecosystem vulnerability but this depends on the definition of the threshold of hazardous ecosystem responses. Vulnerability values in the Mediterranean increase towards the end of the 21st century for all models indicating that a tipping point towards drought damages has been reached for the chosen climate scenario.

  10. Lessons Learned from Applying Social Network Analysis on an Industrial Free/Libre/Open Source Software Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Jose; Robles, Gregorio; González-Barahona, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Many software projects are no longer done in-house by a single organization. Instead, we are in a new age where software is developed by a networked community of individuals and organizations, which base their relations to each other on mutual interest. Paradoxically, recent research suggests that software development can actually be jointly-developed by rival firms. For instance, it is known that the mobile-device makers Apple and Samsung kept collaborating in open source projects while runn...

  11. The Electric Vehicles Ecosystem Model: Construct, Analysis and Identification of Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds a conceptual model of electric vehicles’ (EV ecosystem and value chain build-up. Based on the literature, the research distinguishes the most critical challenges that are on the way of mobility systems’ electrification. Consumers still have some questions that call for answers before they are ready to adopt evs.With regard to technical aspects, some challenges are coming from vehicles, charging infrastructure, battery technology, and standardization. The use of battery in EVs will bring in additional environmental challenges, coming from the battery life cycle for used battery, the manufacturing, and from some materials used and treated in the manufacturing process. The policy aspects include mostly taxation strategies. For most part, established market conditions are still lacking and there are a number of unresolved challenges on both supply and demand side of the EV market.

  12. Institutional analysis of incentive schemes for ecosystem service provision - a comparative study across four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokofieva, Irina; Górriz, Elena; Boon, Tove Enggrob;

    2014-01-01

    constraint their design and limit their applicability and implementation potential. Lack of integration with other sectoral policies creates tensions and weakens the performance of some schemes. The environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency and additionality of many schemes are highly questionable......Incentive schemes and payments for ecosystem services attract increasing attention as a means for aligning the interests of landowners and society by remunerating forest owners for the goods and services their forests produce. As incentive schemes expand around the world, questions related to their...... interactions and outcomes that are likely to result from schemes implementation to draw conclusions regarding the factors that influence the success and the durability of these schemes. Our results show that the nature of the actors initiating the schemes has a paramount effect on their design and performance...

  13. Social network analysis on mangrove ecosystem management of Welu Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thak Thongphubate

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of social network for support mangrove ecosystem management in terms of proposed policy was studied. The results show that most samples, live in Baan Si Lamtian and Baan Paaknam Welu. Majorities of samples are women in the age range of 51-60 years old and they are fishery and have own business, respectively. The social network characteristics are the center person of the network who is the mainstay of Baan Nagoong and close-by the person on a network cultivating farmers group of Baan Si Lamtian. Two main proposed policies are hastening to the control of encroach on forests, fishing gears uses and illegal germinate aquatic animals. In addition, information including coincide planning with fishermen who set the fish traps and specify Tambon Bangchan to be the special area for aquatics management were proposed by setting the measurement with community for farm control and cultivate plot which caused shallow in the basin.

  14. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  15. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  16. Forest Monitoring - Assessment, Analysis and Warning System for Forest Ecosystem Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu BADEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide essential benefits and services as an important component of terrestrial ecosystems. Their functionality and health result from multiple and cumulative interactions of biotic and abiotic stress factors such as air pollution, climate change, changes in land use, and poor management practices. A forest monitoring system was established to identify, analyse and assess the degradation of European forests. Two levels of forest monitoring were developed: I large-scale forest condition surveys, based on an European grid system starting in 1986 and II an intensive non-systematic survey network placed in representative forest ecosystems starting in 1994. Romania implemented both level I (1990-1991 and level II (1991-1992 forest monitoring surveys with the results showing the effects of increased air temperatures and a drastic decrease of precipitation since the decade of 1971-1980. Thus, the highest values of damaged trees (crown defoliation >25% percent were recorded in 1993, 1994, 2000 and 2003 both in the national and European networks. Also, in southern and South-Eastern Romania the forests are more frequently damaged as a response to worsening of climatic factors in this region in recent decades, with temperatures rising 0.7-0.8°C. In general, in Romania, ozone concentrations remained below the critical threshold (40-50 ppb for affecting growth or health of trees. The levels of S-SO4 and N-NO3 declined in the atmosphere but the accumulation continued to increase in the soil, leading to soil acidification, mainly at depths of 10-40 cm. In general, during the last decade, Romanian forests were affected at low to medium intensities with damage rate up to 11% of the trees and the status of general forest health improved slightly.

  17. Analysis of reproductive patterns of fishes from three Large Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac eTrindade-Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish reproductive biology plays an important role for fishery management, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to compile all available information and analyze reproduction patterns of marine fishes in three Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs: North, East, and South Brazil Shelves. We tested the hypothesis that the onset and duration of spawning season differ among these three LMEs; compared the ratio between length at first maturity and asymptotic length with the global trend observed; analyzed sex ratios; and tested whether females allocate more energy into reproduction than males. The following data were compiled from published sources and ‘grey’ literature: sex ratio, spawning season, gonadosomatic indices (GSI, and length at first maturity (Lm. The reproductive load was estimated as Lm/L∞. The median extension of the spawning season in the North, East, and South Brazil Shelves were 6.5, 6.0 and 5.0 months, respectively, with higher frequency during austral summer in South Brazil. Marine fishes from these three LMEs can be grouped in summer and non-summer spawners. About ninety six percent of the cases the reproductive load was between 0.3 and 0.8, which is slightly shifted toward smaller values, compared with the global range of 0.4-0.9. Gonadosomatic indices for females were higher. Contrary to some expectations, there is seasonality in the reproduction of tropical fishes. However, seasonality is stronger in southern populations. Size at first maturity is not efficiently used as a tool for fisheries management in the ecosystems analyzed.

  18. Eigenvalues Analysis Applied to the Stability Study of a Variable Speed Pump Turbine Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Michel; Kawkabani, Basile; Simond, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an eigenvalues analysis method for an induction machine model based on phase variables a, b, c. This approach is validated by comparison with ad, q approach and applied to a variable speed pump-turbine unit using a simplified model of the converters. The proposed approach permits the study and analysis of the interaction between mechanical, electric and regulation parts of the system. Index Terms—control systems, numerical simulation, induction motors, AC-DC power converte...

  19. On the relation between applied behavior analysis and positive behavioral support

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, James E.; Sidener, Tina M

    2002-01-01

    Anderson and Freeman (2000) recently defined positive behavioral support (PBS) as a systematic approach to the delivery of clinical and educational services that is rooted in behavior analysis. However, the recent literature contains varied definitions of PBS as well as discrepant notions regarding the relation between applied behavior analysis and PBS. After summarizing common definitional characteristics of PBS from the literature, we conclude that PBS is comprised almost exclusively of tec...

  20. Dimensional analysis and extended hydrodynamic theory applied to long-rod penetration of ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Principles of dimensional analysis are applied in a new interpretation of penetration of ceramic targets subjected to hypervelocity impact. The analysis results in a power series representation – in terms of inverse velocity – of normalized depth of penetration that reduces to the hydrodynamic solution at high impact velocities. Specifically considered are test data from four literature sources involving penetration of confined thick ceramic targets by tungsten long rod projectiles. The ceram...

  1. Applying Multiscale Entropy to the Complexity Analysis of Rainfall-Runoff Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ming Chou

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for the complexity analysis of rainfall, runoff, and runoff coefficient (RC) time series using multiscale entropy (MSE). The MSE analysis of RC time series was used to investigate changes in the complexity of rainfall-runoff processes due to human activities. Firstly, a coarse graining process was applied to a time series. The sample entropy was then computed for each coarse-grained time series, and plotted as a function of the scale factor. The proposed ...

  2. Does size matter? Separations on guard columns for fast sample analysis applied to bioenergy research

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Stefan; Ibanez, Ana B

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing sample throughput is needed when large numbers of samples have to be processed. In chromatography, one strategy is to reduce column length for decreased analysis time. Therefore, the feasibility of analyzing samples simply on a guard column was explored using refractive index and ultraviolet detection. Results from the guard columns were compared to the analyses using the standard 300 mm Aminex HPX-87H column which is widely applied to the analysis of samples from many b...

  3. Structural Integrity Analysis of the RBMK Reactor Critical Structures Applying Probabilistic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dundulis, Gintautas; Kulak, Ronald; Alzbutas, Robertas; Uspuras, Eugenijus

    2010-01-01

    The probability-based approach that integrates deterministic and probabilistic methods was developed to analyse failures of NPP buildings and components. This methodology was applied to safety analysis of the Ignalina NPP. The application of this methodology to two postulated accidents―pipe whip impact and aircraft crash―is presented in this chapter. The NEPTUNE software system was used for the deterministic transient analysis of the pipe whip impact and aircraft crash accidents. Many det...

  4. A Numerical Procedure for Model Identifiability Analysis Applied to Enzyme Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daele, Timothy, Van; Van Hoey, Stijn; Gernaey, Krist;

    2015-01-01

    structure evaluation by assessing the local identifiability characteristics of the parameters. Moreover, such a procedure should be generic to make sure it can be applied independent from the structure of the model. We hereby apply a numerical identifiability approach which is based on the work of Walter...... and Pronzato (1997) and which can be easily set up for any type of model. In this paper the proposed approach is applied to the forward reaction rate of the enzyme kinetics proposed by Shin and Kim(1998). Structural identifiability analysis showed that no local structural model problems were occurring....... In contrast, the practical identifiability analysis revealed that high values of the forward rate parameter Vf led to identifiability problems. These problems were even more pronounced athigher substrate concentrations, which illustrates the importance of a proper experimental designto avoid...

  5. Using Applied Behaviour Analysis as Standard Practice in a UK Special Needs School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Denise; Hoerger, Marguerite; Philpott, Hannah; Jones, Elin Walker; Hughes, J. Carl; Morgan, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how applied behaviour analysis can be implemented effectively and affordably in a maintained special needs school in the UK. Behaviour analysts collaborate with classroom teachers to provide early intensive behaviour education for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and function based behavioural…

  6. Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis" is a type of behavioral therapy that initially focuses on discrete trials: brief periods of one-on-one instruction, during which a teacher cues a behavior, prompts the appropriate response, and provides reinforcement to the child. Children in the program receive an average of 35 to 40 hours of…

  7. A National UK Census of Applied Behavior Analysis School Provision for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G. M.; Fletcher, R.; Hastings, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Over more than a decade, specialist Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) schools or classes for children with autism have developed in the UK and Ireland. However, very little is known internationally about how ABA is defined in practice in school settings, the characteristics of children supported in ABA school settings, and the staffing structures…

  8. Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Autism: Sibling Psychosocial Adjustment during and Following Intervention Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, Katie R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither…

  9. Evolution of Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Individuals With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolery, Mark; Barton, Erin E.; Hine, Jeffrey F.

    2005-01-01

    Two issues of each volume of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis were reviewed to identify research reports focusing on individuals with autism. The identified articles were analyzed to describe the ages of individuals with autism, the settings in which the research occurred, the nature of the behaviors targeted for intervention, and the…

  10. Applied Behavior Analysis in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Recent Developments, Strengths, and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Turygin, Nicole C.; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert; Tureck, Kimberly; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism has become one of the most heavily researched topics in the field of mental health and education. While genetics has been the most studied of all topics, applied behavior analysis (ABA) has also received a great deal of attention, and has arguably yielded the most promising results of any research area to date. The current paper provides a…

  11. A Self-Administered Parent Training Program Based upon the Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents often respond to challenging behavior exhibited by their children in such a way that unintentionally strengthens it. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a research-based science that has been proven effective in remediating challenging behavior in children. Although many parents could benefit from using strategies from the field of ABA with…

  12. Analysis of laser altimeter waveforms for forested ecosystems of Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishampel, John F.; Harding, David J.; Boutet, Jeffry C., Jr.; Drake, Jason B.

    1997-07-01

    An experimental profiling airborne laser altimeter system developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center was used to acquire vertical canopy data from several ecosystem types from The Nature Conservancy's Disney Wilderness Preserve, near Kissimmee, Florida. This laser altimeter, besides providing submeter accuracy of tree height, captures a profile of data which relates to the magnitude of reflectivity of the laser pulse as it penetrates different elevations of the forest canopy. This complete time varying amplitude of the return signal of the laser pulse, between the first (i.e., the canopy top) and last (i.e., the ground) returns, yields a waveform which is related to canopy architecture, specifically the nadir-projected vertical distribution of the surface of canopy components (i.e., foliage, twigs, and branches). Selected profile returns from representative covertypes (e.g., pine flatwoods, bayhead, and cypress wetland) were compared with ground truthed forest composition (i.e., species and size class distribution) and structural (i.e., canopy height, canopy closure, crown depth) measures to help understand how these properties contribute to variation in the altimeter waveform.

  13. Analysis of Lagoonal Ecosystems in the Po River Delta Associated with Intensive Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Sorokin, P. Yu.; Ravagnan, G.

    1999-03-01

    Observations on structure and functioning of coastal lagoon ecosystems experiencing a high level of eutrophication impact were accomplished in three lagoons of Ca'Pisani integrated within an experimental aquaculture enterprise variously fertilized by waste effluents discharged from and intensive fish culture plant. During August and early September an extremely dense bloom of dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarensewas recorded in these lagoons with the density of phytoplankton up to 190 g m -3of wet biomass, and primary production 2 to 6 mg Cl -1 day -1. The diel dissolved oxygen fluctuations in water column during the bloom reached 15-20 mg O 2 l -1. The wet biomass of bacterioplankton in the lagoons attained 5-9 g m -3. The microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates with biomass 1 to 19 g m -3. The daytime mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid copepods with a biomass 0·05-0·25 g m -3, while the biomass of the demersal zooplankton at night attained 2 to 14 g m -3. In the lagoon of Ocaro, the phototrophic plankton was dominated by the symbiotic ciliate Mesodinium.The labile sulphides content in the upper layer of the bottom attained over 1 g S dm -3of wet silt. The rate of microbial sulphate reduction was 5-10 mg S dm -3day -1. The data are generalized within the energy balance in these specific anthropogenically transformed pelagic communities.

  14. Analysis of change of red tide species in Yodo River estuary by the numerical ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Mitsuru; Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Occurrence number of red tides in Osaka Bay in Japan is more than 20 cases every year. Diatom red tide was dominant in Osaka Bay, but the non-diatom red tide was dominant in early 1990s. Therefore, the material cycling in Yodo River estuary in Osaka Bay during August from 1991 to 2000 was analyzed by using the numerical ecosystem model and field observation data to clarify the reasons of change in red tide species. Year-to-year variation in calculated concentration ratio of diatom to non-diatom corresponds to the variation in observed ratio of red tide days of diatom to non-diatom. Limiting nutrient of primary production is phosphate over the period. Diatom dominated from 1991 to 1993, but it was difficult for non-diatom to grow due to the limitation by physical condition. Non-diatom was able to grow because of good physical and nutrient conditions from 1994 to 1996. And diatom dominated again under the good physical condition, and phosphorus supply was not enough for non-diatom to grow from 1998 to 2000. Phosphate concentration in the lower layer of Yodo River estuary was important to the variation in red tide species in the upper layer of Yodo River estuary. PMID:18513758

  15. Faunistic analysis of Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita in degraded ecosystems of Chapecó town, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to investigate the ant fauna in degraded environments and to comprehend how this group behaves in such ecosystems, faunistic analysis was initially conducted with the ants collected in an area in Chapecó town that had been subjected to flooding in function of the construction of the mouth of a dam on the Chapecó River (a branch of the larger Uruguay River. The collections were carried out between October 2001 and September 2002. We used pit-fall traps, sweeping nets, entomologic umbrellas and leaf litter collections for fragments covered by bushes and grass. The fauna was characterized through the constancy and dominancy indexes. A number of 34.642 specimens of ants, belonging to 32 species, 19 genera and six subfamilies, were collected. The species Labidus sp., Atta sp. and Ectatomma edentatum stood out as being either accessory or both constant and dominant.

  16. Analysis of Molecular Geochemistry of Soil Organic Matter from 17-year Reciprocal Transplant Experiment in Arid Ecosystem: Simulated Climate Pertubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, N. J.; Tfaily, M.; Bailey, V. L.; McCue, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Successful development of chemical profiles that link soil carbon vulnerability and resilience to climate change would greatly facilitate assessment of soil ecosystems response to global climate change. Additionally these signatures could be used to support the design of sustainable agricultural and food/energy crop security practices. We test this possibility using soils obtained from a 17-year reciprocal soil transplant experiment between two elevations in the arid environment of eastern Washington [1]. 30-cm diameter soil cores were reciprocally transplanted between the upper and lower sites. Cores were also transplanted in place to control for disturbance. Extracted subcores were incubated in environmental chambers and measured microbial respiration revealed statically a significant decrease in respiratory response as a function of temperature in cores transferred from low elevation to high elevation. We use ultra high resolution mass spectrometry to identify thousands of organic molecules and changes in geochemistry that would indicate the vulnerability of the soil ecosystem to climate perturbation. In our experiments we used methanol extraction followed by direct injection to 12 T ESI FT-ICR MS to identify about 4000 of individual compounds in about 200 mg soils at sub ppm mass accuracy. Chemical formulae were assigned to approximately 65% of the measured peaks using a modified Kujawinski pipeline and second order Kendrick transformations [2] resulted in approximately 75% assigned peaks. Our preliminary analysis finds that while the bulk C content of soils from the cooler, wetter conditions at the upper elevation is approximately twice that of the warmer, drier conditions at lower elevation, the molecular soil geochemistry is remarkably similar. Detailed analysis reveals subtle differences in the lipid, carbohydrate, and condensed hydrocarbon compositional makeup of the soil. Additionally, of the more than 17,000 individual compounds identified approximately

  17. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  18. The Northeast U.S. continental shelf Energy Modeling and Analysis exercise (EMAX): Ecological network model development and basic ecosystem metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jason; Overholtz, William; O'Reilly, John; Green, Jack; Dow, David; Palka, Debra; Legault, Chris; Vitaliano, Joseph; Guida, Vincent; Fogarty, Michael; Brodziak, Jon; Methratta, Lisa; Stockhausen, William; Griswold, Laurel and Carolyn, Col

    2008-11-01

    During the past half-century notable changes have occurred in the Northeast U.S. (NEUS) Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). To understand how the system functions as a whole, to evaluate the potential responses of this ecosystem to numerous human-induced perturbations, and to elucidate the relative magnitude of key biota and processes, the Northeast Fisheries Science Center instituted the Energy Modeling and Analysis eXercise (EMAX). The primary goal of EMAX was to establish an ecological network model (i.e., a more nuanced energy budget) of the entire Northeast U.S. food web. The EMAX work focused on the interdisciplinary development of a network model which reflected contemporary conditions (1996-2000) in four major regions of the ecosystem:, Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank, Southern New England and Middle Atlantic Bight. The model had 36 network "nodes" or biomass state variables across a broad range of the biological hierarchy within each trophic level and incorporated a wide range of key rate processes. Because this ecosystem has been relatively well studied many of the biomass estimates were based on field measurements and biomass estimates from the scientific literature were required only for a relatively small number of nodes. The emphasis of EMAX was to explore the particular role of small pelagic fishes in the ecosystem. Our results show that small pelagic fishes are indeed keystone species in the ecosystem. We examined a suite of novel ecosystem metrics as we compared the four regions and provided a general, system-level description of the NEUS ecosystem. The general patterns of the network properties in the four regions were similar; however the network indices and metrics did reveal some noteworthy differences among regions reflecting their different oceanographic and faunal characteristics. The process of compiling and evaluating available data required by an ecosystem network model identified important gaps in our understanding which should

  19. Sustainability analysis of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou City based on information entropy between 2004 and 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhenming; XIA Bin

    2013-01-01

    The urban ecosystem possesses dissipating structures that can absorb substances and energy from the external environment and export products and wastes to maintain order within the system.Given these circumstances,this paper analyzed the ability of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou City to sustain development from the perspective of entropy.The research was carried out in three steps.First,an evaluation index system that considers the ability of the urban ecosystem for sustainable development was formed based on the structures and functions of the urban ecosystem and the change in the entropy of the urban socioeconomic ecosystem.Second,the sustainable development ability assessment model for the urban ecosystem was built using information entropy.Last,by combining the time series variation of the evaluation indicators with the entropy weights,this paper analyzed the influence of the combined factors on the sustainable development ability of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou and suggested some measures to promote the sustainable development of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou.The conclusions of this study can be summarized as follows:(1) The urban ecosystem has developed in an orderly and healthy direction,with effective control over the urban environmental pollution problems in Guangzhou between 2004 and 2010.(2) The sustainable development ability of the urban ecosystem had been on an upward trend in Guangzhou during the study period.The ability of the natural urban ecosystem to support the urban socioeconomic ecosystem increased continuously,and the improved ecoenvironment enhanced the harmony and vitality of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou.

  20. INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS (ICA) APPLIED TO LONG BUNCH BEAMS IN THE LOS ALAMOS PROTON STORAGE RING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolski, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macek, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCrady, Rodney C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pang, Xiaoying [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-14

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful blind source separation (BSS) method. Compared to the typical BSS method, principal component analysis (PCA), which is the BSS foundation of the well known model independent analysis (MIA), ICA is more robust to noise, coupling, and nonlinearity. ICA of turn-by-turn beam position data has been used to measure the transverse betatron phase and amplitude functions, dispersion function, linear coupling, sextupole strength, and nonlinear beam dynamics. We apply ICA in a new way to slices along the bunch and discuss the source signals identified as betatron motion and longitudinal beam structure.

  1. Preliminary Hazard Analysis applied to Uranium Hexafluoride - UF6 production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the Preliminary hazard Analysis applied to the UF6 Production Process, which is part of the UF6 Conversion Plant. The Conversion Plant has designed to produce a high purified UF6 in accordance with the nuclear grade standards. This Preliminary Hazard Analysis is the first step in the Risk Management Studies, which are under current development. The analysis evaluated the impact originated from the production process in the plant operators, members of public, equipment, systems and installations as well as the environment. (author)

  2. Applying Fuzzy and Probabilistic Uncertainty Concepts to the Material Flow Analysis of Palladium in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) is a widely applied tool to investigate resource and recycling systems of metals and minerals. Owing to data limitations and restricted system understanding, MFA results are inherently uncertain. To demonstrate the systematic implementation of uncertainty analysis...... in MFA, two mathematical concepts for the quantification of uncertainties were applied to Austrian palladium (Pd) resource flows and evaluated: (1) uncertainty ranges expressed by fuzzy sets and (2) uncertainty ranges defined by normal distributions given as mean values and standard deviations. Whereas...... the Austrian resource system, whereas approximately 70% of the Pd in the EOL consumer products is recovered in waste management. In conclusion, systematic uncertainty analysis is an integral part of MFA required to provide robust decision support in resource management....

  3. Bioenergetics in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for a fish can be defined as a quantitative description of the fish’s energy budget. Bioenergetics modeling can be applied to a fish population in a lake, river, or ocean to estimate the annual consumption of food by the fish population; such applications have proved to be useful in managing fisheries. In addition, bioenergetics models have been used to better understand fish growth and consumption in ecosystems, to determine the importance of the role of fish in cycling nutrients within ecosystems, and to identify the important factors regulating contaminant accumulation in fish from lakes, rivers, and oceans.

  4. Technological Ecosystems in Health Sector

    OpenAIRE

    García-Holgado, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    [EN]Presentation about the technological ecosystems applied to the health sector related to dementia and other mental disorders. This presentation was made in the INTERDEM meeting in Budapest, April 21, 2016.

  5. Relationship between ecosystem respiration and aeration constant in open channel dissolved oxygen analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S. J.; Butler, A. P.; Heppell, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Using the open channel diel method of Odum (1956) and the night-time regression method (Hornberger and Kelly, 1985), we analysed a time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) in two slow flowing streams for a two month period in summer 2014 and obtained values for ecosystem respiration and the aeration constant for each day in the period. We then used the standard dissolved oxygen lumped model to generate a DO time series behaviour for one of those rivers selecting respiration and aeration parameters by randomly sampling from the values obtained from the data. Two synthetic time series were created, one where respiration and aeration were independent of temperature and a second where respiration and aeration were affected by temperature according to the modified Arrhenius relationship. With these two synthetic time series, we again recovered the respiration and aeration input parameters using the night- time regression method and compared those recovered parameters with the input parameters. Because the simulations were conducted with parameters that were known, the values recovered using the night-time regression method (i.e post-simulation) could be compared with parameters driving the simulation (i.e. pre-simulation input values). For values based on data, we found a strong correlation between the aeration constant and respiration for both rivers. For the synthetic time series, no such correlation was found, either with the temperature independent or temperature dependent time series. The night-time regression method also recovered perfectly the input parameters, so the correlation was not brought about as a result of implementing the method itself. We are currently investigating the cause of the correlation.

  6. Uncertainty analysis of gross primary production partitioned from net ecosystem exchange measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP, separated from flux tower measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE of CO2, is used increasingly to validate process-based simulators and remote sensing-derived estimates of simulated GPP at various time steps. Proper validation should include the uncertainty associated with this separation at different time steps. This can be achieved by using a Bayesian framework. In this study, we estimated the uncertainty in GPP at half hourly time steps. We used a non-rectangular hyperbola (NRH model to separate GPP from flux tower measurements of NEE at the Speulderbos forest site, The Netherlands. The NRH model included the variables that influence GPP, in particular radiation, and temperature. In addition, the NRH model provided a robust empirical relationship between radiation and GPP by including the degree of curvature of the light response curve. Parameters of the NRH model were fitted to the measured NEE data for every 10-day period during the growing season (April to October in 2009. Adopting a Bayesian approach, we defined the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation was used to update the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. This allowed us to estimate the uncertainty in the separated GPP at half-hourly time steps. This yielded the posterior distribution of GPP at each half hour and allowed the quantification of uncertainty. The time series of posterior distributions thus obtained allowed us to estimate the uncertainty at daily time steps. We compared the informative with non-informative prior distributions of the NRH parameters. The results showed that both choices of prior produced similar posterior distributions GPP. This will provide relevant and important information for the validation of process-based simulators in the future. Furthermore, the obtained posterior distributions of NEE and the NRH parameters are of interest for a range of applications.

  7. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protected areas in conserving both habitat and ecosystem services. Selected areas for conserving habitat had an overlap of carbon and soil ecosystem services. Yet, selected areas for water yield did not have this overlap. Furthermore, selected areas with relatively high overlap of ecosystem services tended to be inside protected areas; however, other important areas for ecosystem services (i.e., central highlands do not have legal protection, revealing the importance of enforcing existing environmental regulations in these areas.

  8. National youth sedentary behavior and physical activity daily patterns using latent class analysis applied to accelerometry

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Wen, Fang; Hales, Derek; Herring, Amy H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Applying latent class analysis (LCA) to accelerometry can help elucidated underlying patterns. This study described the patterns of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity among youth by applying LCA to a nationally representative United States (US) sample. Methods Using 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 3998 youths 6–17 years wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for one week, providing > =3 days of wear for > =8 h/day from 6...

  9. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.

  10. Structure analysis of interstellar clouds: II. Applying the Delta-variance method to interstellar turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ossenkopf, V; Stutzki, J

    2008-01-01

    The Delta-variance analysis is an efficient tool for measuring the structural scaling behaviour of interstellar turbulence in astronomical maps. In paper I we proposed essential improvements to the Delta-variance analysis. In this paper we apply the improved Delta-variance analysis to i) a hydrodynamic turbulence simulation with prominent density and velocity structures, ii) an observed intensity map of rho Oph with irregular boundaries and variable uncertainties of the different data points, and iii) a map of the turbulent velocity structure in the Polaris Flare affected by the intensity dependence on the centroid velocity determination. The tests confirm the extended capabilities of the improved Delta-variance analysis. Prominent spatial scales were accurately identified and artifacts from a variable reliability of the data were removed. The analysis of the hydrodynamic simulations showed that the injection of a turbulent velocity structure creates the most prominent density structures are produced on a sca...

  11. Critical Analysis of a Website: A Critique based on Critical Applied Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Agustina

    2013-01-01

    E-learning was easily found through browsing internet, which was mostly free of charge and provided various learning materials. Spellingcity.com was one of e-learning websites for teaching and learning English to learn spelling, vocabulary and writing, which offered various games and activities for young learners, 6 until 8 year old learners in particular. Having considered those constraints, this paper aimed to analyse the website from two different views: (1) critical applied linguistics  (...

  12. Analysis on the economic valuation of ecosystem services : a case study on LuGu Lake basin

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is an empirical investigation and application of conomic valuation of ecosystem in Lugu Lake, southern China. Ecosystem Services (ES) and their quantitative assessment have become one of ecological economics research focuses since 1997, especially the Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services (EVES). An essential reason of the controversies is they are reviewed from different study angles. Different disciplinary paradigms lead to the debate that whether EVES study is necessary...

  13. A Review of Temporal Aspects of Hand Gesture Analysis Applied to Discourse Analysis and Natural Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. B. Madeo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lately, there has been an increasinginterest in hand gesture analysis systems. Recent works have employedpattern recognition techniques and have focused on the development of systems with more natural userinterfaces. These systems may use gestures to control interfaces or recognize sign language gestures, whichcan provide systems with multimodal interaction; or consist in multimodal tools to help psycholinguists tounderstand new aspects of discourse analysis and to automate laborious tasks.Gestures are characterizedby several aspects, mainly by movementsand sequence of postures. Since data referring to movementsorsequencescarry temporal information, this paper presents aliteraturereviewabouttemporal aspects ofhand gesture analysis, focusing on applications related to natural conversation and psycholinguisticanalysis, using Systematic Literature Review methodology. In our results, we organized works according totype of analysis, methods, highlighting the use of Machine Learning techniques, and applications.

  14. Phytosociological analysis of a traditionally managed sacred grove in transitional ecosystem of eastern lateritic part of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Manna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally managed sacred groves in the lateritic parts of eastern India are a common phenomenon. Groves located in the transitional ecosystem are characteristically rich in biodiversity and are found to be showcasing local refuges. Besides the cultural and aesthetic needs of mankind, these ancient forest remnants are the center of attraction to the researchers for their immense veritable gene pool thriving on sacred belief. Present study highlights the phytosociological characteristics along with the way of traditional management of a sacred grove. Materials and Methods: Traditional management practices were observed from the local community. Plants were identified following standard literature. Nature of relationship between different climbers and lianas with the major tree species of the grove was studied through cluster analysis, based on percentage cover data of each of the major climbers and lianas on the host trees. Results: Syzygium cumini, Shorea robusta and Terminalia arjuna contributed most to the architecture built up of the grove. Out of 12 major species of climbers and lianas, Derris scandens showed its maximum abundance in terms of canopy coverage throughout the grove followed by Tinospora cordifolia and Gouania tiliaefolia. Certain degree of positive correlation was observed between different climbers and lianas with the mean height and mean diameter at breast height of the major tree species. Conclusion: High species richness, confinement of the species and less undergrowth are the key characteristics of a sacred grove in transitional ecosystem. Opportunistic and aggressive nature of spreading have rendered Derris scandens, Tinospora cordifolia and Gouania tiliaefolia fittest in these highly overlapping niches of the grove. Adaptive management involving the local folk may help the Government in formulating the conservation strategies especially in non forest areas.

  15. Ecosystem function and particle flux dynamics across the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean): an integrative analysis of spatial variability and biophysical forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, A.; Babin, M.; Stemmann, L.; Picheral, M.; Sampei, M.; Fortier, L.; Gratton, Y.; Bélanger, S.; Devred, E.; Sahlin, J.; Doxaran, D.; Joux, F.; Ortega-Retuerta, E.; Martín, J.; Jeffrey, W. H.; Gasser, B.; Miquel, J. Carlos

    2013-05-01

    A better understanding of how environmental changes affect organic matter fluxes in Arctic marine ecosystems is sorely needed. Here we combine mooring times series, ship-based measurements and remote sensing to assess the variability and forcing factors of vertical fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) across the Mackenzie Shelf in 2009. We developed a geospatial model of these fluxes to proceed to an integrative analysis of their determinants in summer. Flux data were obtained with sediment traps moored around 125 m and via a regional empirical algorithm applied to particle size distributions (17 classes from 0.08-4.2 mm) measured by an Underwater Vision Profiler 5. The low fractal dimension (i.e., porous, fluffy particles) derived from the algorithm (1.26 ± 0.34) and the dominance (~ 77%) of rapidly sinking small aggregates ( 1 mm ESD), but these two factors were weakly related with each other. Copepod biomass was overall negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with vertical POC fluxes, implying that metazoans acted as regulators of export fluxes, even if their role was minor given that our study spanned the onset of diapause. Our results demonstrate that on interior Arctic shelves where productivity is low in mid-summer, localized upwelling zones (nutrient enrichment) may result in the formation of large filamentous phytoaggregates that are not substantially retained by copepod and bacterial communities.

  16. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : The film sector

    OpenAIRE

    De Vinck , Sophie; Lindmark, Sven

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments of the film industry. The object of analysis is feature films, encompassing their production as well as distribution through and exhibition across different channels. It reviews the economic characteristics of the film industry, some of which it shares with other media and content industries. The report includes a database of 10 EU and 10 non-EU companies plus two company case studies (Netflix and Universciné). The rep...

  17. [Clustering analysis applied to near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of Chinese traditional medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mu-qing; Zhou, De-cheng; Xu, Xin-yuan; Sun, Yao-jie; Zhou, Xiao-li; Han, Lei

    2007-10-01

    The present article discusses the clustering analysis used in the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy analysis of Chinese traditional medicines, which provides a new method for the classification of Chinese traditional medicines. Samples selected purposely in the authors' research to measure their absorption spectra in seconds by a multi-channel NIR spectrometer developed in the authors' lab were safrole, eucalypt oil, laurel oil, turpentine, clove oil and three samples of costmary oil from different suppliers. The spectra in the range of 0.70-1.7 microm were measured with air as background and the results indicated that they are quite distinct. Qualitative mathematical model was set up and cluster analysis based on the spectra was carried out through different clustering methods for optimization, and came out the cluster correlation coefficient of 0.9742 in the authors' research. This indicated that cluster analysis of the group of samples is practicable. Also it is reasonable to get the result that the calculated classification of 8 samples was quite accorded with their characteristics, especially the three samples of costmary oil were in the closest classification of the clustering analysis. PMID:18306778

  18. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439

  19. Common cause evaluations in applied risk analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches were developed for the evaluation of common cause failures (CCFs) in nuclear power plants and were applied to the analysis of the auxiliary feedwater systems of several pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Key CCF variables were identified through a survey of experts in the field and a review of failure experience in operating PWRs. These variables were classified into categories of high, medium, and low defense against a CCF. Based on the results, a checklist was developed for analyzing CCFs of systems. Several known techniques for quantifying CCFs were also reviewed. The information provided valuable insights in the development of a new model for estimating CCF probabilities, which is an extension of and improvement over the Beta Factor method. As applied to the analysis of the PWR auxiliary feedwater systems, the method yielded much more realistic values than the original Beta Factor method for a one-out-of-three system

  20. Stability analysis of multi-infeed HVDC system applying VSC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    /EMTDC to verify the theoretical analysis. Simulation results indicate that this dual infeed HVDC system can realize higher stability than single infeed HVDC system. And different control strategies on a VSC-HVDC link may result in different influence on AC voltage and active power oscillation during......This paper presents a general model of dual infeed HVDC system applying VSC-HVDC, which can be used as an element in large multi infeed HVDC system. The model may have different structure under different grid faults because of the action of breakers. Hence power flow of the system based on this...... model is analyzed under steady state and different kinds of grid fault transient situations. Two main control methods applied on VSC-HVDC link in this dual infeed HVDC system are investigated, and comparative analysis of them under transient situation is presented. A simulation model is built in PSCAD...

  1. TAPPS Release 1: Plugin-Extensible Platform for Technical Analysis and Applied Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Sam Chew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first release of TAPPS (Technical Analysis and Applied Statistics System; a Python implementation of a thin software platform aimed towards technical analyses and applied statistics. The core of TAPPS is a container for 2-dimensional data frame objects and a TAPPS command language. TAPPS language is not meant to be a programming language for script and plugin development but for the operational purposes. In this aspect, TAPPS language takes on the flavor of SQL rather than R, resulting in a shallower learning curve. All analytical functions are implemented as plugins. This results in a defined plugin system, which enables rapid development and incorporation of analysis functions. TAPPS Release 1 is released under GNU General Public License 3 for academic and non-commercial use. TAPPS code repository can be found at http://github.com/mauriceling/tapps.

  2. What are the contemporary trends in more widely comprehended fields of thermodynamics and applied thermal analysis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jaroslav

    Warszawa : Institute of Physical Chemistry of PAS, 2005 - (Gierycz, P.; Zieborak-Tomaszkiewicz, I.), s. 239-259 ISBN 83-920719-4-8. [Third Summer School of Thermodynamics. Zakopane (PL), 11.09.2005-17.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/04/0384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : applied thermal analysis Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics

  3. The ZEW combined microsimulation-CGE model : innovative tool for applied policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clauss, Markus; Schubert, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    This contribution describes the linkage of microsimulation models and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models using two already established models called "STSM" and "PACE-L" used by the Centre for European Economic Research. This state of the art research method for applied policy analysis combines the advantages of both model types: On the one hand, microsimulation models allow for detailed labor supply and distributional effects due to policy measures, as individual household data is us...

  4. Hypergraph Modelling and Graph Clustering Process Applied to Co-word Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Polanco, Xavier; San Juan, Eric

    2007-01-01

    We argue that any document set can be modelled as a hypergraph, and we apply a graph clustering process as a way of analysis. A variant of the single link clustering is presented, and we assert that it is better suited to extract interesting clusters formed along easily interpretable paths of associated items than algorithms based on detecting high density regions. We propose a methodology that involves the extraction of similarity graphs from the indexed-dataset represented as a hypergraph. ...

  5. Applied behavior analysis as intervention for autism: definition, features and philosophical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.

  6. A comparative analysis of three metaheuristic methods applied to fuzzy cognitive maps learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno A. Angélico; Márcio Mendonça; Taufik Abrão; Arruda, Lúcia Valéria R. de

    2013-01-01

    This work analyses the performance of three different population-based metaheuristic approaches applied to Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) learning in qualitative control of processes. Fuzzy cognitive maps permit to include the previous specialist knowledge in the control rule. Particularly, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) are considered for obtaining appropriate weight matrices for learning the FCM. A statistical convergence analysis ...

  7. English Language Assessment in the Colleges of Applied Sciences in Oman: Thematic Document Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Al Hajri

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency in English language and how it is measured have become central issues in higher education research as the English language is increasingly used as a medium of instruction and a criterion for admission to education. This study evaluated the English language assessment in the foundation Programme at the Colleges of Applied sciences in Oman. It used thematic analysis in studying 118 documents on language assessment. Three main findings were reported: compatibility between what was ta...

  8. An Analysis of Research Production in Corpus Linguistics Applied to Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Candel-Mora, Miguel Ángel; Vargas Sierra, Chelo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze with data the consolidation of corpus methods in translation and to specify which issues are under research and the features that characterize these studies. To that end, different contributions to corpus linguistics research, teaching and practice of translation were compiled to build a sufficiently representative sample: 389 bibliographic records on corpus linguistics applied to translation. This study deals with the identification and analysis of differen...

  9. Sensitivity analysis applied to the disposal of low and medium-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second French centre for disposal of radioactive waste will become operational in the early 1990s. In order to model the site, a sensitivity analysis and calculations of the radiological consequences are applied to the disposal of the waste. These techniques point out the main radionuclides to be taken into account, identify the sensitive parameters of the different barriers and evaluate the safety margins achieved through structural design and the application of general safety requirements. (author)

  10. Reliability analysis of protection systems in NPP applying fault-tree analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the applicability and limits of dependability analysis in nuclear power plants (NPPS) based on the reactor protection refurbishment project (RRP) in NPP Paks. This paper illustrates case studies from the reliability analysis for NPP Paks. It also investigates the solutions for the connection between the data acquisition and subsystem control units (TSs) and the voter units (VTs), it analyzes the influence of the voting in the VT computer level, it studies the effects of the testing procedures to the dependability parameters. (author)

  11. The x-rays fluorescence applied to the analysis of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is based on the utilization of the Fluorescence of X Rays. This technique of non destructive trial, has the purpose to establish a routine method, for the control of the conformation of industrial samples used. It makes an analysis with a combination of the algorithms of Rasberry-Heinrich and Claisse-Thinh. Besides, the numerical implementation of non usual techniques in this type of analysis. Such as the Linear Programming applied to the solution of super determined systems, of equations and the utilization of methods of relaxation to facilitate the convergence to the solutions. (author)

  12. Classical linear-control analysis applied to business-cycle dynamics and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Linear control analysis is applied as an aid in understanding the fluctuations of business cycles in the past, and to examine monetary policies that might improve stabilization. The analysis shows how different policies change the frequency and damping of the economic system dynamics, and how they modify the amplitude of the fluctuations that are caused by random disturbances. Examples are used to show how policy feedbacks and policy lags can be incorporated, and how different monetary strategies for stabilization can be analytically compared. Representative numerical results are used to illustrate the main points.

  13. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis applied to a repository in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with UNCSAM, as applied to a repository in rock salt for the EVEREST project. UNCSAM is a dedicated software package for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, which was already used within the preceding PROSA project. The use of UNCSAM provides a flexible interface to EMOSECN by substituting the sampled values in the various input files to be used by EMOSECN; the model calculations for this repository were performed with the EMOSECN code. Preceding the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, a number of preparations has been carried out to facilitate EMOSECN with the probabilistic input data. For post-processing the EMOSECN results, the characteristic output signals were processed. For the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with UNCSAM the stochastic input, i.e. sampled values, and the output for the various EMOSECN runs have been analyzed. (orig.)

  14. Sequential analysis applied to clinical trials in dentistry: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogowicz, P; Flores-Mir, C; Major, P W; Heo, G

    2008-01-01

    Clinical trials employ sequential analysis for the ethical and economic benefits it brings. In dentistry, as in other fields, resources are scarce and efforts are made to ensure that patients are treated ethically. The objective of this systematic review was to characterise the use of sequential analysis for clinical trials in dentistry. We searched various databases from 1900 through to January 2008. Articles were selected for review if they were clinical trials in the field of dentistry that had applied some form of sequential analysis. Selection was carried out independently by two of the authors. We included 18 trials from various specialties, which involved many different interventions. We conclude that sequential analysis seems to be underused in this field but that there are sufficient methodological resources in place for future applications.Evidence-Based Dentistry (2008) 9, 55-62. doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400587. PMID:18584009

  15. Ecosystem Services : In Nordic Freshwater Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Kristin; Hasler, Berit; Zandersen, Marianne

    framework in freshwater management, particularly water management according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD). There are several examples of how ecosystem services have been used in WFD related studies in all the Nordic countries. Most of them involve listing, describing and categorizing freshwater...... ecosystem services, while there are few comprehensive Cost Benefit Analyses and analyses of disproportionate costs that apply this framework. More knowledge about ecosystem services and the value of ecosystem services for freshwater systems is needed.......Human wellbeing is dependent upon and benefit from ecosystem services which are delivered by well-functioning ecosystems. Ecosystem services can be mapped and assessed consistently within an ecosystem service framework. This project aims to explore the use and usefulness of the ecosystem service...

  16. Applying observations of work activity in designing prototype data analysis tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springmeyer, R.R.

    1993-07-06

    Designers, implementers, and marketers of data analysis tools typically have different perspectives than users. Consequently, data analysis often find themselves using tools focused on graphics and programming concepts rather than concepts which reflect their own domain and the context of their work. Some user studies focus on usability tests late in development; others observe work activity, but fail to show how to apply that knowledge in design. This paper describes a methodology for applying observations of data analysis work activity in prototype tool design. The approach can be used both in designing improved data analysis tools, and customizing visualization environments to specific applications. We present an example of user-centered design for a prototype tool to cull large data sets. We revisit the typical graphical approach of animating a large data set from the point of view of an analysis who is culling data. Field evaluations using the prototype tool not only revealed valuable usability information, but initiated in-depth discussions about user`s work, tools, technology, and requirements.

  17. Comparative analysis of the mobility of uranium and artificial radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolsunovsky, Alexander; Medvedeva, Marina [Institute of Biophysics SB Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Yenisei River is one of the largest rivers in the world, which had been subjected to radioactive contamination for over 50 years, due to operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC) of Rosatom at Zheleznogorsk, which had been producing weapons-grade plutonium. Bottom sediments and flood plain of the Yenisei River are contaminated by artificial radionuclides, including transuranium ones, both close to the MCC and at a considerable distance downstream. The MCC is also a source of uranium isotopes in the Yenisei. Thus, the Yenisei River basin is a unique environment for studying the mobility of both uranium isotopes and artificial radionuclides in all components of the aquatic ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to compare the mobility of uranium and artificial radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River. Samples of water, sediments, and aquatic organisms were used as study material. Aquatic organisms were represented by submerged plants, benthic-feeding fish, and zoo-benthos. The submerged plants (macrophytes) analyzed were of five species: Fontinalis antipyretica, Potamogeton lucens, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Elodea canadensis. Grayling (Timalus arcticus) represented benthic-feeding fish, and zoo-benthos species were represented by Philolimnogammarus viridis, which forms the major part of the grayling's diet. Samples were collected at positions in the vicinity of the MCC discharge point, at a distance of 110 km downstream of Krasnoyarsk, and upstream of the MCC, during sampling campaigns in 2008-2012. Radionuclide measurements were performed using a wide range of instrumental methods: gamma-spectrometry with a 'Canberra' spectrometer (U.S.), mass spectrometry with an 'Agilent' spectrometer (U.S.), neutron activation analysis, and beta-alpha radiometry. The results obtained in this study suggest that the part of the Yenisei River ecosystem contaminated due to MCC radioactive discharges contains

  18. Comparative analysis of the mobility of uranium and artificial radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yenisei River is one of the largest rivers in the world, which had been subjected to radioactive contamination for over 50 years, due to operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC) of Rosatom at Zheleznogorsk, which had been producing weapons-grade plutonium. Bottom sediments and flood plain of the Yenisei River are contaminated by artificial radionuclides, including transuranium ones, both close to the MCC and at a considerable distance downstream. The MCC is also a source of uranium isotopes in the Yenisei. Thus, the Yenisei River basin is a unique environment for studying the mobility of both uranium isotopes and artificial radionuclides in all components of the aquatic ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to compare the mobility of uranium and artificial radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River. Samples of water, sediments, and aquatic organisms were used as study material. Aquatic organisms were represented by submerged plants, benthic-feeding fish, and zoo-benthos. The submerged plants (macrophytes) analyzed were of five species: Fontinalis antipyretica, Potamogeton lucens, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Elodea canadensis. Grayling (Timalus arcticus) represented benthic-feeding fish, and zoo-benthos species were represented by Philolimnogammarus viridis, which forms the major part of the grayling's diet. Samples were collected at positions in the vicinity of the MCC discharge point, at a distance of 110 km downstream of Krasnoyarsk, and upstream of the MCC, during sampling campaigns in 2008-2012. Radionuclide measurements were performed using a wide range of instrumental methods: gamma-spectrometry with a 'Canberra' spectrometer (U.S.), mass spectrometry with an 'Agilent' spectrometer (U.S.), neutron activation analysis, and beta-alpha radiometry. The results obtained in this study suggest that the part of the Yenisei River ecosystem contaminated due to MCC radioactive discharges contains both artificial

  19. Continuous Wavelet and Hilbert-Huang Transforms Applied for Analysis of Active and Reactive Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdakovic Samir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of power consumption presents a very important issue for power distribution system operators. Some power system processes such as planning, demand forecasting, development, etc.., require a complete understanding of behaviour of power consumption for observed area, which requires appropriate techniques for analysis of available data. In this paper, two different time-frequency techniques are applied for analysis of hourly values of active and reactive power consumption from one real power distribution transformer substation in urban part of Sarajevo city. Using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT with wavelet power spectrum and global wavelet spectrum some properties of analysed time series are determined. Then, empirical mode decomposition (EMD and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT are applied for the analyses of the same time series and the results showed that both applied approaches can provide very useful information about the behaviour of power consumption for observed time interval and different period (frequency bands. Also it can be noticed that the results obtained by global wavelet spectrum and marginal Hilbert spectrum are very similar, thus confirming that both approaches could be used for identification of main properties of active and reactive power consumption time series.

  20. Designer ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Singh, Kripal; O'Grady, Audrey; Courtney, Ronan; Kalra, Alok; Singh, Rana Pratap; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Steinberger, Yosef; Patra, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in human population is accelerating the rate of land use change, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, triggering a serious threat to life supporting ecosystem services. Existing strategies for biological conservation remain insufficient to achieve a sustainable human-nature relatio

  1. Effect of the ICT Ecosystem Structure on the Sustainable Growth of ICT Firms: A Metafrontier Analysis on China, South Korea, the United States, and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungsun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study how the information and communications technology (ICT ecosystem affects the sustainable growth of ICT firms. For our study, we analyze the efficiencies of ICT firms in China, South Korea, the United States, and Japan, which are the current leaders in the global ICT industry, each with different ICT ecosystem structures. We use metafrontier analysis (MFA to compare the efficiencies among countries with different structures, and then use Tobit regression to identify the causes of the efficiency gaps. Our results reveal that the US has the highest efficiency, followed by Japan, South Korea, and China, in that order, and the countries with more balanced ICT ecosystems across sub-industries—manufacturing, software and IT services, content, and telecommunications—have more efficient ICT industries. This suggests that a more balanced industrial development is important to enhancing the overall competitiveness of the ICT industry.

  2. PROOF as a service on the cloud: a virtual analysis facility based on the CernVM ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PROOF, the Parallel ROOT Facility, is a ROOT-based framework which enables interactive parallelism for event-based tasks on a cluster of computing nodes. Although PROOF can be used simply from within a ROOT session with no additional requirements, deploying and configuring a PROOF cluster used to be not as straightforward. Recently great efforts have been spent to make the provisioning of generic PROOF analysis facilities with zero configuration, with the added advantages of positively affecting both stability and scalability, making the deployment operations feasible even for the end user. Since a growing amount of large-scale computing resources are nowadays made available by Cloud providers in a virtualized form, we have developed the Virtual PROOF-based Analysis Facility: a cluster appliance combining the solid CernVM ecosystem and PoD (PROOF on Demand), ready to be deployed on the Cloud and leveraging some peculiar Cloud features such as elasticity. We will show how this approach is effective both for sysadmins, who will have little or no configuration to do to run it on their Clouds, and for the end users, who are ultimately in full control of their PROOF cluster and can even easily restart it by themselves in the unfortunate event of a major failure. We will also show how elasticity leads to a more optimal and uniform usage of Cloud resources.

  3. PROOF as a Service on the Cloud: a Virtual Analysis Facility based on the CernVM ecosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Berzano, Dario; Buncic, Predrag; Charalampidis, Ioannis; Ganis, Gerardo; Lestaris, Georgios; Meusel, René

    2014-01-01

    PROOF, the Parallel ROOT Facility, is a ROOT-based framework which enables interactive parallelism for event-based tasks on a cluster of computing nodes. Although PROOF can be used simply from within a ROOT session with no additional requirements, deploying and configuring a PROOF cluster used to be not as straightforward. Recently great efforts have been spent to make the provisioning of generic PROOF analysis facilities with zero configuration, with the added advantages of positively affecting both stability and scalability, making the deployment operations feasible even for the end user. Since a growing amount of large-scale computing resources are nowadays made available by Cloud providers in a virtualized form, we have developed the Virtual PROOF-based Analysis Facility: a cluster appliance combining the solid CernVM ecosystem and PoD (PROOF on Demand), ready to be deployed on the Cloud and leveraging some peculiar Cloud features such as elasticity. We will show how this approach is effective both for sy...

  4. Climaite - a three factor climate change ecosystem manipulation study: set up and approaches for data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Beier, Claus; Schmidt, Inger Kappel;

    (based on vegetation analysis) containing each of the 8 treatments. Prior to initiation of the treatments 3rd October 2005, pre treatment measurements and studies were conducted for establishing the initial status of key variables e.g. soil and air temperature, soil moisture, species composition...

  5. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : The Music Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Nieuwenhuis, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers

  6. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : A quantitative overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Munck, S.G.E. de; Broek, T.A. van den; Plas, A.P. van der; Manshanden, W.J.J.; Rietveld, E.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers

  7. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : The Newspaper Publishing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Slot, M.; Nieuwenhuis, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers

  8. Understanding the mobile money ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobbin, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the structure of the new mobile money ecosystem and the roles of its key players. Mobile money is an evolving sector both in volume and in economic impact especially in the developing world. The paper is an exploratory study that investigates the structure of the ecosystem......, providing a foundation for future strategic analysis of the system. We adopt a theoretical insight from Moore's business ecosystem theory to explain the key roles of the actors in the mobile money ecosystem. And also draw extensively from the work of Iansiti and Levien to explain the best strategies for the...

  9. Neutron activation analysis as applied to instrumental analysis of trace elements from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter collected from the coastal area delimited by the mouth of the river Volturno and the Sabaudia lake has been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for its content of twenty-two trace elements. The results for surface water and bottom water are reported separately, thus evidencing the effect of sampling depth on the concentration of many elements. The necessity of accurately 'cleaning' the filters before use is stressed

  10. Criticality analysis of thermal reactors for two energy groups applying Monte Carlo and neutron Albedo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Albedo method applied to criticality calculations to nuclear reactors is characterized by following the neutron currents, allowing to make detailed analyses of the physics phenomena about interactions of the neutrons with the core-reflector set, by the determination of the probabilities of reflection, absorption, and transmission. Then, allowing to make detailed appreciations of the variation of the effective neutron multiplication factor, keff. In the present work, motivated for excellent results presented in dissertations applied to thermal reactors and shieldings, was described the methodology to Albedo method for the analysis criticality of thermal reactors by using two energy groups admitting variable core coefficients to each re-entrant current. By using the Monte Carlo KENO IV code was analyzed relation between the total fraction of neutrons absorbed in the core reactor and the fraction of neutrons that never have stayed into the reflector but were absorbed into the core. As parameters of comparison and analysis of the results obtained by the Albedo method were used one dimensional deterministic code ANISN (ANIsotropic SN transport code) and Diffusion method. The keff results determined by the Albedo method, to the type of analyzed reactor, showed excellent agreement. Thus were obtained relative errors of keff values smaller than 0,78% between the Albedo method and code ANISN. In relation to the Diffusion method were obtained errors smaller than 0,35%, showing the effectiveness of the Albedo method applied to criticality analysis. The easiness of application, simplicity and clarity of the Albedo method constitute a valuable instrument to neutronic calculations applied to nonmultiplying and multiplying media. (author)

  11. An evaluation of an operating BWR piping system damping during earthquake by applying auto regressive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observation of the equipment and piping system installed in an operating nuclear power plant in earthquakes is very umportant for evaluating and confirming the adequacy and the safety margin expected in the design stage. By analyzing observed earthquake records, it can be expected to get the valuable data concerning the behavior of those in earthquakes, and extract the information about the aseismatic design parameters for those systems. From these viewpoints, an earthquake observation system was installed in a reactor building in an operating plant. Up to now, the records of three earthquakes were obtained with this system. In this paper, an example of the analysis of earthquake records is shown, and the main purpose of the analysis was the evaluation of the vibration mode, natural frequency and damping factor of this piping system. Prior to the earthquake record analysis, the eigenvalue analysis for this piping system was performed. Auto-regressive analysis was applied to the observed acceleration time history which was obtained with a piping system installed in an operating BWR. The results of earthquake record analysis agreed well with the results of eigenvalue analysis. (Kako, I.)

  12. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : A quantitative overview

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Munck, S.G.E. de; Broek, T.A. van den; Plas, A.P. van der; W.J.J. Manshanden; Rietveld, E.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers. It also looks at the organisation of live performances and the exploitation of music copyright, though data on how these activities contribute to revenues in the sector are less systematically av...

  13. Statistical, Ecosystems and Competitiveness Analysis of the Media and Content Industries: The Newspaper Publishing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Leurdijk, Andra; SLOT Mijke; NIEUWENHUIS Ottilie

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers. It also looks at the organisation of live performances and the exploitation of music copyright, though data on how these activities contribute to revenues in the sector are less systematically av...

  14. Statistical, Ecosystems and Competitiveness Analysis of the Media and Content Industries: The Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Leurdijk, Andra; NIEUWENHUIS Ottilie

    2012-01-01

    music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers. It also looks at the organisation of live performances and the exploitation of music copyright, though data on how these activities contribute to revenues in the sector are less systematically available. The analysis integrates data from this project’s statistical report and includes a database of the ma...

  15. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : The Newspaper Publishing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Slot, M.; Nieuwenhuis, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers. It also looks at the organisation of live performances and the exploitation of music copyright, though data on how these activities contribute to revenues in the sector are less systematically av...

  16. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : The Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, J.P.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Nieuwenhuis, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report offers an in-depth analysis of the major economic developments in the music industry. It looks at music companies, and covers the production and distribution of recorded music, including online distribution, and the competition which these companies face from other online music providers. It also looks at the organisation of live performances and the exploitation of music copyright, though data on how these activities contribute to revenues in the sector are less systematically av...

  17. Dimensional analysis and extended hydrodynamic theory applied to long-rod penetration of ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Clayton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Principles of dimensional analysis are applied in a new interpretation of penetration of ceramic targets subjected to hypervelocity impact. The analysis results in a power series representation – in terms of inverse velocity – of normalized depth of penetration that reduces to the hydrodynamic solution at high impact velocities. Specifically considered are test data from four literature sources involving penetration of confined thick ceramic targets by tungsten long rod projectiles. The ceramics are AD-995 alumina, aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, and boron carbide. Test data can be accurately represented by the linear form of the power series, whereby the same value of a single fitting parameter applies remarkably well for all four ceramics. Comparison of the present model with others in the literature (e.g., Tate's theory demonstrates a target resistance stress that depends on impact velocity, linearly in the limiting case. Comparison of the present analysis with recent research involving penetration of thin ceramic tiles at lower typical impact velocities confirms the importance of target properties related to fracture and shear strength at the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL only in the latter. In contrast, in the former (i.e., hypervelocity and thick target experiments, the current analysis demonstrates dominant dependence of penetration depth only by target mass density. Such comparisons suggest transitions from microstructure-controlled to density-controlled penetration resistance with increasing impact velocity and ceramic target thickness.

  18. Human attitudes in environmental management: Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and policy option simulations analysis for a coal-mine ecosystem in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Song, Jie; Su, Chao; He, Mengying

    2013-01-30

    Ecosystem management is a complex process, and every stakeholder's cognition plays a crucial role in it. In order to manage the ecosystem better, it is significant for the coal-mining environmental managers to choose appropriate measures, in accord with the stakeholders' interests. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards coal-mine ecosystems among stakeholders and then simulate policy options in a typical coal-mine region in China. The Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) method was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management model in research area. Combining the initial state of variables and the adjacency matrix getting from FCM, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to conduct simulations. The results found that among stakeholder groups' FCM model, 'air pollution' and 'water pollution' are the most frequently mentioned variables, while 'health effects' and 'expansion of related industries' are the core variables. However, different stakeholders expressed diverse perceptions on coal-mine ecosystem management. Mine workers paid more attention to occupational safety and their health impacts inducted by air and water pollution during coal-mine process. Local residents were concerned with local economic development and welfare facilities improvement; they also concerned their health impacts raised by coal-mine related problems such as air and water pollution, traffic and noises. Managers emphasized economic interests and environmental projects with immediate environmental effects other than long-term ecosystem improvement. Engineers mentioned more variables than other groups; they believed that air pollution, water pollution, soil erosion and biodiversity loss were important. Scenario analysis for policy simulation based on ANN suggested that the local governments and enterprises should place an emphasis on protecting farmland, increasing vegetation coverage, reducing solid contamination and improving energy efficiency to

  19. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  20. Spatial Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Functions and Services using Human Relating Factors for SDG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.; Kim, T.; Lim, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Application of ecosystem service concept in environmental related decision making could be numerical and objective standard for policy maker between preserving and developing perspective of environment. However, pursuing maximum benefit from natural capital through ecosystem services caused failure by losing ecosystem functions through its trade-offs. Therefore, difference between ecosystem functions and services were demonstrated and would apply human relating perspectives. Assessment results of ecosystem functions and services can be divided 3 parts. Tree growth per year set as the ecosystem function factor and indicated through so called pure function map. After that, relating functions can be driven such as water conservation, air pollutant purification, climate change regulation, and timber production. Overall process and amount are numerically quantified. These functional results can be transferred to ecosystem services by multiplying economic unit value, so function reflecting service maps can be generated. On the other hand, above services, to implement more reliable human demand, human reflecting service maps are also be developed. As the validation, quantified ecosystem functions are compared with former results through pixel based analysis. Three maps are compared, and through comparing difference between ecosystem function and services and inversed trends in function based and human based service are analysed. In this study, we could find differences in PF, FRS, and HRS in relation to based ecosystem conditions. This study suggests that the differences in PF, FRS, and HRS should be understood in the decision making process for sustainable management of ecosystem services. Although the analysis is based on in sort existing process separation, it is important to consider the possibility of different usage of ecosystem function assessment results and ecosystem service assessment results in SDG policy making. Furthermore, process based functional approach

  1. Contribution of Radon Exposure to the Risk of Lung Cancer Assessed by Applying a Multifactor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is well known that many different carcinogenic risk factors contribute to the development of lung cancer. Smoking, occupational exposure to carcinogens, chronic lung diseases and industrial air pollution are the most significant of them. Indoor radon exposure is considered a weak carcinogenic risk factor in the Urals, Russia. A drawback of traditionally applied monofactor methods of epidemiologic analysis is that different carcinogenic risk factors are analysed separately and their complex effect on public health is not taken into account. With such an approach it is impossible to adequately assess each factor's contribution in the total carcinogenic risk. For this reason it is expedient to apply methods of multifactor analysis in epidemiologic studies. We applied mathematical methods of pattern recognition when analysing the effect of indoor radon exposure on the development of lung cancer in the population of two Ural cities. We assessed the association between radon/thoron exposures and lung cancer using both BEIR VI model and the above-mentioned methods. The results were significantly different. According to BEIR VI model the contribution of radon/thoron in the risk of lung cancer varied from 7.2% to 33%, whereas this contribution assessed in the multifactor analysis was only 0.5%. We think that the contribution assessed in BEIR VI model is overestimated. Our considerable experience in conducting epidemiologic studies using mathematical methods of pattern recognition, gives us grounds to state that the assessment of radon/thoron exposure on lung cancer risk obtained in the multifactor analysis is more adequate and precise. (author)

  2. Integrated software for imaging data analysis applied to edge plasma physic and operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V.; Moncada, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dunand, G. [Sophia Conseil Company, F-06560 Sophia Antipolis (France); Corre, Y.; Delchambre, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Travere, J.M., E-mail: jean-marcel.travere@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-06-15

    Fusion tokamaks are complex devices requiring many diagnostics for real time control of the plasma and off-line physical analysis. In current tokamaks, imaging diagnostics have become increasingly used for these two purposes. Such systems produce a lot of data encouraging physicists to use shared tools and codes for data access and analysis. If general purpose software programs for data display and analysis are widely spread, a need exists in developing similar applications for quantitative imaging data analysis applied to plasma physic. In this paper, we introduce a new integrated software program, named WOLFF, dedicated to this task. The main contribution of this software is to gather under the same framework different functionalities for (1) data access and display, (2) signal, image, and video processing, and (3) quantitative analysis based on physical models. After an overview of existing solutions for data processing in the field of plasma data, we present the WOLFF architecture and its currently implemented features. The capabilities of the software are then demonstrated through three applications in the field of physical analysis (heat and particle flux calculations) and tokamak operational safety.

  3. Integrated software for imaging data analysis applied to edge plasma physic and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion tokamaks are complex devices requiring many diagnostics for real time control of the plasma and off-line physical analysis. In current tokamaks, imaging diagnostics have become increasingly used for these two purposes. Such systems produce a lot of data encouraging physicists to use shared tools and codes for data access and analysis. If general purpose software programs for data display and analysis are widely spread, a need exists in developing similar applications for quantitative imaging data analysis applied to plasma physic. In this paper, we introduce a new integrated software program, named WOLFF, dedicated to this task. The main contribution of this software is to gather under the same framework different functionalities for (1) data access and display, (2) signal, image, and video processing, and (3) quantitative analysis based on physical models. After an overview of existing solutions for data processing in the field of plasma data, we present the WOLFF architecture and its currently implemented features. The capabilities of the software are then demonstrated through three applications in the field of physical analysis (heat and particle flux calculations) and tokamak operational safety.

  4. Analysis of the Nevada-Applied-Ecology-Group model of transuranic radionuclide transport and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyze the model for estimating the dose from 239Pu developed for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) by using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the inhalation pathway is the critical pathway for the organs receiving the highest dose. Soil concentration and the factors controlling air concentration are the most important parameters. The only organ whose dose is sensitive to parameters in the ingestion pathway is the GI tract. The inhalation pathway accounts for 100% of the dose to lung, upper respiratory tract and thoracic lymph nodes; and 95% of the dose to liver, bone, kidney and total body. The GI tract receives 99% of its dose via ingestion. Leafy vegetable ingestion accounts for 70% of the dose from the ingestion pathway regardless of organ, peeled vegetables 20%; accidental soil ingestion 5% ingestion of beef liver 4%; beef muscle 1%. Uncertainty analysis indicates that choosing a uniform distribution for the input parameters produces a lognormal distribution of the dose. The ratio of the square root of the variance to the mean is three times greater for the doses than it is for the individual parameters. As found by the sensitivity analysis, the uncertainty analysis suggests that only a few parameters control the dose for each organ. All organs have similar distributions and variance to mean ratios except for the lymph nodes. (author)

  5. Environmental constraints on the structure and productivity of pine forest ecosystems. A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several major reasons for the current research interest in measuring and predicting forest carbon gain. The need to understand the global carbon budget in one; while forests occupy 25 to 30% of the earth's land surface, and account for 80 to 90% of all plant carbon and 30 to 40% of soil carbon, their contribution to the global carbon budget is uncertain. The uncertainty applies particularly to estimated rates of regrowth after clear cutting of tropical forests and growth responses to recent increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The existence of the well-researched Pinus genus in a wide array of global environments presents an unprecedented opportunity for the synthesis and integration of information on forest structure and productivity. This opportunity was recognized at an international workshop convened to analyze the relative effects of species and environment on the structure and carbon dynamics of the world's pine-dominated forests; this volume is an outgrowth of that meeting. Workshop participants represented seven main pine species (native and exotic) growing at eleven sites in boreal, temperate and sub-tropical environments; others attended to provide more specific expertise in remote sensing and modeling. The workshop aimed to identify differences and similarities among species and sites in terms of controls on carbon cycling processes, including canopy structure, carbon fixation, respiration and allocation to roots. Although models were variously used in this exercise, the focus was not on the models themselves. Of the original 22 workshop participants, 18 have contributed to this volume, with a further 17 authors recruited externally. Contributed papers include both reviews of the literature and comparative analyses of contrasting pine forests. (EG)

  6. The Renormalization-Group Method Applied to Asymptotic Analysis of Vector Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kunihiro, T

    1996-01-01

    The renormalization group method of Goldenfeld, Oono and their collaborators is applied to asymptotic analysis of vector fields. The method is formulated on the basis of the theory of envelopes, as was done for scalar fields. This formulation actually completes the discussion of the previous work for scalar equations. It is shown in a generic way that the method applied to equations with a bifurcation leads to the Landau-Stuart and the (time-dependent) Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is confirmed that this method is actually a powerful theory for the reduction of the dynamics as the reductive perturbation method is. Some examples for ordinary diferential equations, such as the forced Duffing, the Lotka-Volterra and the Lorenz equations, are worked out in this method: The time evolution of the solution of the Lotka-Volterra equation is explicitly given, while the center manifolds of the Lorenz equation are constructed in a simple way in the RG method.

  7. Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism, and Occupational Therapy: A Search for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically. PMID:27295000

  8. Narrative ecosystems through the network analysis lens. Step one: The production of U.S. TV series, between capital and labor strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruffino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a first step in the investigation of the environment hosting narrative ecosystems through the tools offered by Social Network Analysis (SNA. The narrative ecosystem paradigm is a cross-disciplinary approach that considers vast narratives as the result of an ecosystemic design, where a general model is developed in advance as an evolutionary system. Consistently with this systemic view, our idea is to bring the relations among the components of the ecosystems and the environment that host them (i.e. the entertainment industry to the fore through the implementation of SNA. In order to do so, we focused on the relational patterns characterizing a sample of 164 U.S. TV series aired between 1984 and 2013. For each one of them, we collected data on executive producers, broadcasters, production studios, actors and writers. Through the analysis of the networks we obtained by computing the data, we drew some conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the ecological and evolutionary paradigm, the non-rigid and opportunistic patterns of alliances and coalitions among competitive firms, the relevance of the strategies of capital implemented by the firms and the strategies of labor implemented by the people.

  9. Ecosystems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Guhl Nannetti

    2015-01-01

    The article begins by referring to the evolution of engineering with the advancement of natural and physical sciences and the resulting specialization, which has blurred the boundaries of its integrating and holistic nature. This process is illustrated through the expansion of the programs and denominations in Colombia. Further on, it attempts to establish a relationship between engineering and sustainability, and it presents the strong impact of development on the planet's ecosystems, which ...

  10. The inter-annual variability of Africa's ecosystem productivity: a multi-model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Weber

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We are comparing spatially explicit process-model based estimates of the terrestrial carbon balance and its components over Africa and confront them with remote sensing based proxies of vegetation productivity and atmospheric inversions of land-atmosphere net carbon exchange. Particular emphasis is on characterizing the patterns of interannual variability of carbon fluxes and analyzing the factors and processes responsible for it. For this purpose simulations with the terrestrial biosphere models ORCHIDEE, LPJ-DGVM, LPJ-Guess and JULES have been performed using a standardized modeling protocol and a uniform set of corrected climate forcing data. While the models differ concerning the absolute magnitude of carbon fluxes, we find several robust patterns of interannual variability among the models. Models exhibit largest interannual variability in southern and eastern Africa, regions which are primarily covered by herbaceous vegetation. Interannual variability of the net carbon balance appears to be more strongly influenced by gross primary production than by ecosystem respiration. A principal component analysis indicates that moisture is the main driving factor of interannual gross primary production variability for those regions. On the contrary in a large part of the inner tropics radiation appears to be limiting in two models. These patterns are corroborated by remotely sensed vegetation properties from the SeaWiFS satellite sensor. Inverse atmospheric modeling estimates of surface carbon fluxes are less conclusive at this point, implying the need for a denser network of observation stations over Africa.

  11. Analysis of possibility of applying the PVDF foil in industrial vibration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.

    2015-11-01

    There are many machines using the piezoelectric effects. Systems with smart materials are often used because they have high potential applications for example transducers can be applied to receive required characteristic of projected system. Every engineer and designer know how important it is properly mathematical model and method of the analysis. Also it is important to consider all parameters of analyzed system for example glue layer between elements. Geometrical and material parameters has a significant impact on the characteristics of the all system's components because the omission of the influence of one of them results in inaccuracy in the analysis of the system. In article the modeling and testing of vibrating systems with piezoelectric ceramic materials transducers used as actuators and vibration dampers. The method of analysis of the vibrating sensor systems will be presented, mathematical model, and characteristics, to determine the influence of the system's properties on these characteristics. Main scientific point of the project is to analyze and demonstrate possibility of applying new construction with the PVDF foil or any other belonging to a group of smart materials in industrial sensors. Currently, the vibration level sensors are used by practically all manufacturers of piezoelectric ceramic plates to generate and detect the vibration of the fork.

  12. Application of a terrestrial ecosystem model to assess ecosystem services in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoyama, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Ito, A.; Kohyama, T.

    2011-12-01

    Net primary production (NPP) is a measure of the production rate of organic matter and the gross rate of carbon fixation. NPP is considered as appropriate concept for analyzing variations of the ecosystems induced by land use. Human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) is a major indicator of human pressures on ecosystems. Land use induced changes in the productivity affect the processes and functions of ecosystems and they are associated with the provision of ecosystem services, such as the provision of biomass through agriculture and forestry, and the regulation services such as the absorption capacity for GHG emissions. A number of studies have been assessed the amount of human induced changes of NPP in the global level and calculated in spatially explicit way. However, the analysis of socio-economic drivers of the changes is still remaining as the main topic in the field. The interrelations between HANPP and social structures and processes are priority of global change research. The methodologies for credible HANPP assessment have been established in the previous studies. The proposed three parameters are (1)NPPptn: NPP of the vegetation that would be assumed to prevail in the absence of human use (potential vegetation), (2)NPPact: NPP of the currently prevailing vegetation (actual vegetation), (3)NPPh: human harvest of NPP (e.g., through agriculture and forestry). We estimated these parameters in Asia using a process-based ecosystem model that describes carbon and nitrogen dynamics of plants and soils for terrestrial ecosystems of the globe. The socio-economic data on crop and timber harvest was applied to estimate the amount of human harvest of NPP. The parameters were calculated for each political unit to discuss social structures responding to various ecosystems. Based on the estimated parameters, we suggest the effective methodology combining spatially explicit gridded data and socio-economic statistical data.

  13. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal dynamics of green house gases emission urban ecosystems of forest-steppe zone of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzhanov, Dmitrii; Vasenev, Viacheslav; Sotnikova, Iuliia; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change, mainly determined by increased anthropic emissions of green house gases (GHG) (CO2, CH4, N2O), is among the key contemporary environmental problems. Land use is a principal parameter, distinguishing GHG fluxed in terrestrial ecosystems. Urbanization increase is an important feature of recent land-use change. Formation of urban soils, which are significantly different form natural ones, is one of urbanization results. Urban soils provide a key element of urban ecosystems. Urban ecosystems located in forest-steppe zone in Central-Chernozemic region of Russia are of especial interest, since zonal soil in the region are represented by chernozems and dark grey soils, having the largest carbon stocks and the highest rate of soil respiration. Spatial and temporal variability of urban soil's respiration was carried out over vegetation seasons of 2013-2014 in different functional zone of the Kursk city: residential, recreational and industrial. GHG fluxes were measured once in 10 days before 12 am by chamber approach. CO2 flux was measured in situ using Li-820 close-path analyzer. Diurnal dynamic of CO2 efflux from soil was measured twice a year: in cold and warm season. Soil air samples were collected by syringe into glass vials and further analyzed on GC to estimate CH4 and N2O fluxes. Soil temperature and moisture was measured in parallel to soil respiration. CO2emission estimated for urban soils in 2013-2014 was 20-25% higher than in reference zonal soils. Obtained seasonal dynamics showed the highest СО2 emissions in August of 2013 (39-83 g СО2/m2 day) with further decrease by the end of October for major part of the plots. Significant diurnal dynamics was found for the case of the industrial zone. Maximal CO2 emission was obtained between maximal 40 g СО2/m2 day at 5 AM and 1 PM and minimal 28 g СО2/m2 day at 23 PM in June. Soil CO2 efflux was positively correlated with soil temperature (r = 0.65) and negatively correlated with soil

  14. SPATIAL AND MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE SURFACE WATER AND DEEP SEDIMENTS OF FRESH WATER AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantha Deivi Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of various trace metals present in water and sediment of fresh water aquatic ecosystem during the post monsoon season. The study was extended to identify the trace metal contamination in the water and sediment samples collected along the shores of Lambapur and Peddagattu the tribal villages in India using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPMS. The trace metal contents in water samples were copper- 24.2 to 47.5, chromium- 4.4 to 8.2, cadmium- 0.1 to 0.3, lead- 2.1 to 3.8, Nickel- 5.9 to 9.7, Zinc- 4.6 to 9.7, Manganese- 10.8 to 13.2, Iron- 52.9 to 157.2 (µg L-1 cobalt and arsenic were in BDL and the values were within the limits of Indian drinking water standards (BIS 10500: 1991. The trace metals concentration in the sediment samples ranged from (mg kg-1: Copper- 61.5 to 113.7, chromium- 138.4 to 177.5, cobalt- 33.2 to 42.7, cadmium- 1.0 to 2.1, lead- 57.9 to 103.4, Nickel- 36.1 to 56.6, Zinc- 51.2 to 102.1, Manganese- 610.8 to 1301.7 and Iron- 2.5 to 2.9%. In our study, four reliable indices such as Enrichment factor, Contamination factor, Geoaccumulation Index and Pollution Load Index were applied to estimate metal pollution and the results comparison are discussed below. The data generated were used to determine the quality of the sediments based on the enrichment factor, contamination factor and degree of contamination, geochemical index and Pollution Load Index (PLI.

  15. Retrospective analysis of bottlenose dolphin foraging: a legacy of anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Sam; Barros, Nélio B.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Stricker, Craig A.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Gandhi, Hasand; Wells, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    We used stable isotope analysis to investigate the foraging ecology of coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in relation to a series of anthropogenic disturbances. We first demonstrated that stable isotopes are a faithful indicator of habitat use by comparing muscle isotope values to behavioral foraging data from the same individuals. δ13C values increased, while δ34S and δ15N values decreased with the percentage of feeding observations in seagrass habitat. We then utilized stable isotope values of muscle to assess temporal variation in foraging habitat from 1991 to 2010 and collagen from tooth crown tips to assess the time period 1944 to 2007. From 1991 to 2010, δ13C values of muscle decreased while δ34S values increased indicating reduced utilization of seagrass habitat. From 1944 to 1989 δ13C values of the crown tip declined significantly, likely due to a reduction in the coverage of seagrass habitat and δ15N values significantly increased, a trend we attribute to nutrient loading from a rapidly increasing human population. Our results demonstrate the utility of using marine mammal foraging habits to retrospectively assess the extent to which anthropogenic disturbance impacts coastal food webs.

  16. Advantages and Drawbacks of Applying Periodic Time-Variant Modal Analysis to Spur Gear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune; Santos, Ilmar; Hede, Ivan Arthur

    2010-01-01

    ensure sufficient accuracy of the results. The method of time-variant modal analysis is applied, and the changes in the fundamental and the parametric resonance frequencies as a function of the rotational speed of the gears, are found. By obtaining the stationary and parametric parts of the time......-dependent modes shapes, the importance of the time-varying component relative to the stationary component is investigated and quantified. The method used for calculation and subsequent sorting of the left and right eigenvectors based on a first order Taylor expansion is explained. The advantages and drawbacks of...

  17. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. C.; Fujimaru, S.

    2012-12-01

    Time-of-arrival (TOA) analysis is applied to observations performed during ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. In 2012, a variety of ELF/VLF wave generation techniques were employed to identify the dominant source altitude for each case. Observations were performed for beat-wave modulation, AM modulation, STF modulation, ICD modulation, and cubic frequency modulation, among others. For each of these cases, we identify the dominant ELF/VLF source altitude and compare the experimental results with theoretical HF heating predictions.

  18. A comparative analysis of three metaheuristic methods applied to fuzzy cognitive maps learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Angélico

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the performance of three different population-based metaheuristic approaches applied to Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM learning in qualitative control of processes. Fuzzy cognitive maps permit to include the previous specialist knowledge in the control rule. Particularly, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Genetic Algorithm (GA and an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO are considered for obtaining appropriate weight matrices for learning the FCM. A statistical convergence analysis within 10000 simulations of each algorithm is presented. In order to validate the proposed approach, two industrial control process problems previously described in the literature are considered in this work.

  19. Analysis of Preconditioning and Relaxation Operators for the Discontinuous Galerkin Method Applied to Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, H. L.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2001-01-01

    The explicit stability constraint of the discontinuous Galerkin method applied to the diffusion operator decreases dramatically as the order of the method is increased. Block Jacobi and block Gauss-Seidel preconditioner operators are examined for their effectiveness at accelerating convergence. A Fourier analysis for methods of order 2 through 6 reveals that both preconditioner operators bound the eigenvalues of the discrete spatial operator. Additionally, in one dimension, the eigenvalues are grouped into two or three regions that are invariant with order of the method. Local relaxation methods are constructed that rapidly damp high frequencies for arbitrarily large time step.

  20. Object-based image analysis for scaling properties of rangeland ecosystems: Linking field and image data for management decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Jason William

    Management of semi-arid shrub-steppe ecosystems (i.e., rangelands) requires accurate information over large landscapes, and remote sensing is an attractive option for collecting such data. To successfully use remotely-sensed data in landscape-level rangeland management, questions as to the relevance of image data to landscape patterns and optimal scales of analysis must be addressed. Object-based image analysis (OBIA), which segments image pixels into homogeneous regions, or objects, has been suggested as a way to increase accuracy of remotely-sensed products, but little research has gone into how to determine sizes of image objects with regard to scaling of ecosystem properties. The purpose of my dissertation was to determine if OBIA could be used to generate observational scales to match ecological scales in rangelands and to explore the potential for OBIA to generate accurate and repeatable remote-sensing products for managers. The work presented here was conducted in southern Idaho's Snake River Plain region. By comparing OBIA segmentation of satellite imagery into successively coarser objects to pixel-based aggregation methods, I found that canonical correlations between field-collected and image data were similar at the finest scales, but higher for image segmentation as scale increased. I also detected scaling thresholds with image segmentation that were confirmed via semi-variograms of field data. This approach proved useful for evaluating the overall utility of an image to address an objective, and identifying scaling limits for analysis. I next used observations of percent bare-ground cover from 346 field sites to consider how hierarchies of image objects created through OBIA could be used to discover appropriate scales for analysis given a specific objective. Using a regression-based approach, I found that segmentation levels whose predictions of bare-ground cover had spatial dependence that most closely matched the spatial dependence of the field