Sample records for applied ecology group

  1. Ecological Group Work Applied to Schools (United States)

    Conyne, Robert K.; Mazza, Jamie


    This article underscores the value of school counselors connecting their group work practice with ecological concepts of context, collaboration, interconnection, social system maintenance, meaning-making, and sustainability (Conyne & Cook, 2004; Conyne, Crowell, & Newmeyer, in press). The authors elaborate ecological group work (Bemak & Conyne,…

  2. Summary of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group and correlative programs. Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, H.N. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    This summary document presents results in a broad context; it is not limited to findings of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group. This book is organized to present the findings of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group and correlative programs in accordance with the originally stated objectives of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group. This plan, in essence, traces plutonium from its injection into the environment to movement in the ecosystem to development of cleanup techniques. Information on other radionuclides was also obtained and will be presented briefly. Chapter 1 presents a brief description of the ecological setting of the Test Range Complex. The results of investigations for plutonium distribution are presented in Chapter 2 for the area surrounding the Test Range Complex and in Chapter 3 for on-site locations. Chapters 4 and 5 present the results of investigations concerned with concentrations and movement, respectively, of plutonium in the ecosystem of the Test Range Complex, and Chapter 6 summarizes the potential hazard from this plutonium. Development of techniques for cleanup and treatment is presented in Chapter 7, and the inventory of radionuclides other than plutonium is presented briefly in Chapter 8.

  3. Index of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group and associated publications available in the Coordination and Information Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, B.G.


    This publication was created by the Coordination and Information Center (CIC) to provide a readily available research tool for use by researchers interested in a specific area covered in the holdings of the CIC Archives. The Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) was formed and functioned in agreement with Planning Directive NVO-76 (July 29, 1970 and revised January 1, 1974, (CIC-165845 and CIC-16439) respectively) to coordinate the ecological and other environmental programs necessary to support the continued nuclear testing activities; and to provide a mechanism to effectively comply with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Executive Order 11514, and AEC Manual Chapter 0510.'' The publication contains only citations to documents currently available at the CIC. It represents a significant portion of the principal research findings of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group.

  4. Using Voice, Meaning, Mutual Construction of Knowledge, and Transfer of Learning to Apply an Ecological Perspective to Group Work Training (United States)

    Orr, Jonathan J.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana


    Concepts of voice, meaning, mutual construction of knowledge, and transfer of learning are presented in this paper as critical ingredients that support the teaching of group work from an ecological perspective. Examples of these concepts are given to illustrate their application in group work classes. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Applied systems ecology: models, data, and statistical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L L


    In this report, systems ecology is largely equated to mathematical or computer simulation modelling. The need for models in ecology stems from the necessity to have an integrative device for the diversity of ecological data, much of which is observational, rather than experimental, as well as from the present lack of a theoretical structure for ecology. Different objectives in applied studies require specialized methods. The best predictive devices may be regression equations, often non-linear in form, extracted from much more detailed models. A variety of statistical aspects of modelling, including sampling, are discussed. Several aspects of population dynamics and food-chain kinetics are described, and it is suggested that the two presently separated approaches should be combined into a single theoretical framework. It is concluded that future efforts in systems ecology should emphasize actual data and statistical methods, as well as modelling.

  6. Taxonomy, ecology and fishery of Lake Victoria haplochromine trophic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, F.; Oijen, van M.J.P


    Based on ecological and morphological features, the 300 or more haplochromine cichlid species of Lake Victoria are classified into fifteen (sub)trophic groups. A key to the trophic groups, mainly based on external morphological characters, is presented. Of each trophic group a description is given c

  7. Relationship between Ecological Species Groups and Environmental Factors (Case Study: Vezg Region in Southeast of Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aghaei


    Full Text Available In applied studies, identification and study of vegetation, for management and protection of natural ecosystems, are very important. This study was carried out in Vezg forest with an area of 308 hectares located in southeast of Yasouj city. The purpose of this study was to classify ecological species groups and survey their relation to soil physic-chemical properties and physiographic attributes. For this purpose, the field data were obtained using 52 sample plots (15m×30m in a systematic random grid. In each sample plot, the cover percentage of tree, shrub and grass species type were recorded, by using Braun-Blanquet method. The TWINSPAN method and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA were used for the definition of ecological species groups and determintion of the relationship between ecological species groups and environmental properties. Results showed that, there were four ecological species groups in the study area. The First group included: Anchusa italic-Quercus brantii, the second group: Heteranthelium piliferum-Avena clauda, the third group: Teucrium polium and the fourth group: Salvia reautreana. The first group was in an area, where there was a higher percentage of Persian oak litter. The second group was located in site a with higher grass cover than the site of other groups in the area. The third and fourth groups, were located in the higher elevation and steep points. Results of CCA showed that soil properties were not in significant relation with ecological species groups. But, the relationships of ecological species groups with other environmental factors such as litter, altitude, grass cover and slope were significant. So, we can conclude that these properties are effective in the separation and distribution of ecological groups.

  8. Applied research of landscape ecology in desertification monitoring and assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A preliminary research on landscape ecology in desertification monitoring and assessment was reported. Also, this paper laid stress on the study of landscape diversity, dominance, evenness and Markov Matrix model and their respective landscape ecological meanings in the desertification monitoring and assessment. Concurrently, it took Shazhuyu Experimental Area, Qinghai Province as a specific case study.

  9. Genetic tools for wildlife management: New TWS Working Group focuses on molecular ecology (United States)

    Latch, Emily; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Robinson, Stacie


    Granted interim status in November, 2013, The Wildlife Society’s (TWS) Molecular Ecology Working Group aims to promote scientific advancement by applying molecular techniques to wildlife ecology, management, and conservation. The working group—composed of sci - entists from diverse backgrounds—met for the first time in Pittsburgh at the TWS Annual Conference held in October. Our overarching goal is to enhance awareness of molecular ecology and genetic applica - tions to wildlife biology and act as an informational and networking resource. During the group’s interim status, which runs for three years, we intend to focus on a broad scope of molecular ecology that is applicable to wildlife including genetic and ge - nomic methods, conservation genetics, non-invasive genetic population monitoring, landscape genetics, evolutionary genetics, and molecular forensics

  10. Applying historical ecology to natural resource management institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petty, Aaron M.; Isendahl, Christian; Brenkert-Smith, Hannah


    Understanding the linkages between social and ecological systems is key to developing sustainable natural resource management (NRM) institutions. Frequently, however, insufficient attention is paid to the historical development of NRM institutions. Instead, discussion largely focuses on models......, an understanding of history is essential to questions of the desirability and feasibility of institutional change where such shifts are required from an ecological, social, or economic perspective. We further propose that institutional conflict arises from the differing goals and motives of resource management...

  11. Ecological change, group territoriality, and population dynamics in Serengeti lions. (United States)

    Packer, Craig; Hilborn, Ray; Mosser, Anna; Kissui, Bernard; Borner, Markus; Hopcraft, Grant; Wilmshurst, John; Mduma, Simon; Sinclair, Anthony R E


    Territorial behavior is expected to buffer populations against short-term environmental perturbations, but we have found that group living in African lions causes a complex response to long-term ecological change. Despite numerous gradual changes in prey availability and vegetative cover, regional populations of Serengeti lions remained stable for 10- to 20-year periods and only shifted to new equilibria in sudden leaps. Although gradually improving environmental conditions provided sufficient resources to permit the subdivision of preexisting territories, regional lion populations did not expand until short-term conditions supplied enough prey to generate large cohorts of surviving young. The results of a simulation model show that the observed pattern of "saltatory equilibria" results from the lions' grouping behavior.

  12. Numerical Simulation Analysis and Ecological Evaluation on Wind Environment of Dwelling Groups in Severe Cold Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jin; Teng Shao


    The wind environment around residential building groups is increasingly concerned, while the dwelling groups as the elementary unit of planning design, its quality of surrounding wind environment will directly affect people’ s life. This study based on the climatic conditions of severe cold regions, selects four dwellings groups with different openings scale and position as the research objects, and then simulates and analyzes the wind speed distribution characteristics of each pattern. Meanwhile, it extracts the wind speed values of one hundred points of each pattern and applies the coefficient of uniformity method to the ecological evaluation. It has been found that grouping pattern of buildings has a dramatic effect on the resulting airflow behavior. Configurations that contain a T⁃shaped central space with small opened side can effectively prevent and contain airflow in the site offer. The interactive influence between layout of dwelling groups and wind environment are explored, so as to provide basis for the planning design of dwelling groups.

  13. An Ecological and Conservation Perspective on Advances in the Applied Virology of Zoonoses


    Epstein, Jonathan H.; Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Nina Wale


    The aim of this manuscript is to describe how modern advances in our knowledge of viruses and viral evolution can be applied to the fields of disease ecology and conservation. We review recent progress in virology and provide examples of how it is informing both empirical research in field ecology and applied conservation. We include a discussion of needed breakthroughs and ways to bridge communication gaps between the field and the lab. In an effort to foster this interdisciplinary effort, w...

  14. Focus Groups: A Practical and Applied Research Approach for Counselors (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.


    Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…

  15. Harmonic and applied analysis from groups to signals

    CERN Document Server

    Mari, Filippo; Grohs, Philipp; Labate, Demetrio


    This contributed volume explores the connection between the theoretical aspects of harmonic analysis and the construction of advanced multiscale representations that have emerged in signal and image processing. It highlights some of the most promising mathematical developments in harmonic analysis in the last decade brought about by the interplay among different areas of abstract and applied mathematics. This intertwining of ideas is considered starting from the theory of unitary group representations and leading to the construction of very efficient schemes for the analysis of multidimensional data. After an introductory chapter surveying the scientific significance of classical and more advanced multiscale methods, chapters cover such topics as An overview of Lie theory focused on common applications in signal analysis, including the wavelet representation of the affine group, the Schrödinger representation of the Heisenberg group, and the metaplectic representation of the symplectic group An introduction ...

  16. Ecological Forecasting in the Applied Sciences Program and Input to the Decadal Survey (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph


    Ecological forecasting uses knowledge of physics, ecology and physiology to predict how ecosystems will change in the future in response to environmental factors. Further, Ecological Forecasting employs observations and models to predict the effects of environmental change on ecosystems. In doing so, it applies information from the physical, biological, and social sciences and promotes a scientific synthesis across the domains of physics, geology, chemistry, biology, and psychology. The goal is reliable forecasts that allow decision makers access to science-based tools in order to project changes in living systems. The next decadal survey will direct the development Earth Observation sensors and satellites for the next ten years. It is important that these new sensors and satellites address the requirements for ecosystem models, imagery, and other data for resource management. This presentation will give examples of these model inputs and some resources needed for NASA to continue effective Ecological Forecasting.

  17. Proceedings of the Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) Workshop in Mexico City (12–18 February 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.


    Plankton is an important constituent of aquatic ecosystems, dominated in freshwater ecosystems by diverse groups of bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, and zooplankton. The Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) has made noteworthy headway in understanding ecosystem dynamics through a series of formal PEG meetin

  18. Understanding Immigrant College Students: Applying a Developmental Ecology Framework to the Practice of Academic Advising (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.


    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow, but the complexity of their unique needs and issues remain relatively unknown. To gain a better understanding of the multiple contextual factors impacting immigrant students from a systems-based approach, I applied Bronfenbrenner's (1977) human ecology framework to the study. Students…

  19. An ecological and conservation perspective on advances in the applied virology of zoonoses. (United States)

    Vandegrift, Kurt J; Wale, Nina; Epstein, Jonathan H


    The aim of this manuscript is to describe how modern advances in our knowledge of viruses and viral evolution can be applied to the fields of disease ecology and conservation. We review recent progress in virology and provide examples of how it is informing both empirical research in field ecology and applied conservation. We include a discussion of needed breakthroughs and ways to bridge communication gaps between the field and the lab. In an effort to foster this interdisciplinary effort, we have also included a table that lists the definitions of key terms. The importance of understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir hosts is emphasized as a tool to both assess risk factors for spillover and to test hypotheses related to treatment and/or intervention strategies. In conclusion, we highlight the need for smart surveillance, viral discovery efforts and predictive modeling. A shift towards a predictive approach is necessary in today's globalized society because, as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic demonstrated, identification post-emergence is often too late to prevent global spread. Integrating molecular virology and ecological techniques will allow for earlier recognition of potentially dangerous pathogens, ideally before they jump from wildlife reservoirs into human or livestock populations and cause serious public health or conservation issues.

  20. Applying trait-based models to achieve functional targets for theory-driven ecological restoration. (United States)

    Laughlin, Daniel C


    Manipulating community assemblages to achieve functional targets is a key component of restoring degraded ecosystems. The response-and-effect trait framework provides a conceptual foundation for translating restoration goals into functional trait targets, but a quantitative framework has been lacking for translating trait targets into assemblages of species that practitioners can actually manipulate. This study describes new trait-based models that can be used to generate ranges of species abundances to test theories about which traits, which trait values and which species assemblages are most effective for achieving functional outcomes. These models are generalisable, flexible tools that can be widely applied across many terrestrial ecosystems. Examples illustrate how the framework generates assemblages of indigenous species to (1) achieve desired community responses by applying the theories of environmental filtering, limiting similarity and competitive hierarchies, or (2) achieve desired effects on ecosystem functions by applying the theories of mass ratios and niche complementarity. Experimental applications of this framework will advance our understanding of how to set functional trait targets to achieve the desired restoration goals. A trait-based framework provides restoration ecology with a robust scaffold on which to apply fundamental ecological theory to maintain resilient and functioning ecosystems in a rapidly changing world.

  1. Applying Group Work to Improve College Students' Oral English (United States)

    Jiang, Yongmei


    After a brief introduction, this paper dwells on the merits of group work, and then suggested the evaluation methods of group work. The author also mentioned the Demerits of group work and how to avoid them.

  2. Dialogical Approach Applied in Group Counselling: Case Study (United States)

    Koivuluhta, Merja; Puhakka, Helena


    This study utilizes structured group counselling and a dialogical approach to develop a group counselling intervention for students beginning a computer science education. The study assesses the outcomes of group counselling from the standpoint of the development of the students' self-observation. The research indicates that group counselling…

  3. Integrative taxonomy of the fly orchid group: insights from chemical ecology (United States)

    Joffard, Nina; Buatois, Bruno; Schatz, Bertrand


    Several authors have recently stressed the need to develop an integrative approach in taxonomy, but studies applying such an approach to Mediterranean orchids are scarce. In sexually deceptive orchids from the taxonomically difficult genus Ophrys, pollination is specific and performed by male insects attracted to the flowers by sex pheromone-mimicking floral scents. Floral compounds are therefore of primary importance for reproductive isolation and species delimitations in this genus. In the fly orchid group, molecular, morphological, and ecological characters have been extensively studied, but a comprehensive survey of floral scents is still lacking. In the present study, the blends of floral compounds of its three members, Ophrys insectifera, Ophrys aymoninii, and Ophrys subinsectifera, were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 107 compounds were found, with a majority of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Significant differentiation, both qualitative and quantitative, was found among the three taxa. This result, pooled with those from the literature, forms a comprehensive and congruent dataset that allows us to elucidate the taxonomic rank of the three members of the fly orchid group.

  4. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee


    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  5. Carbon concentration in species of the araucaria forest and effect of the ecological group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick


    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Boa Ventura do São Roque, Paraná State, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the carbon concentration in components of 12 arboreal species from the Araucaria Forest, as well as the performance of the 0.5 conversion factor and the influence of trees ecological groups in their carbon concentration. Carbon concentration averages were obtained from the tree components, and compared among them, among the species and the conversion factor, to assess the interspecific differences and the reliability of the conversion factor. To analyze the influence of ecological groups over the carbon concentration of the species, cluster analyzes were performed. It was not found significant difference among the carbon concentration in the components of the trees. However, comparing the 12 species, Luehea divaricata, Albizia polycephala and Cestrum sp. differed significantly, presenting lower carbon concentration. Comparison between carbon concentration average of the species and the 0.5 conversion factor indicated that the latter overestimates the carbon concentration in the trees at an average rate of 14.27%. No correlation was found between the ecological groups of the species and their carbon concentration, since groups were formed by species with distinct ecological traits.

  6. Signed directed social network analysis applied to group conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Quan; Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier


    Real-world social networks contain relationships of multiple different types, but this richness is often ignored in graph-theoretic modelling. We show how two recently developed spectral embedding techniques, for directed graphs (relationships are asymmetric) and for signed graphs (relationships...... are both positive and negative), can be combined. This combination is particularly appropriate for intelligence, terrorism, and law enforcement applications. We illustrate by applying the novel embedding technique to datasets describing conflict in North-West Africa, and show how unusual interactions can...

  7. The ICES Working Group on Zooplankton Ecology: Accomplishments of the first 25 years (United States)

    Wiebe, Peter H.; Harris, Roger; Gislason, Astthor; Margonski, Piotr; Skjoldal, Hein Rune; Benfield, Mark; Hay, Steve; O'Brien, Todd; Valdés, Luis


    The ICES Study Group on Zooplankton Ecology was created in 1991 to address issues of current and future concern within the field of zooplankton ecology. Within three years it became the ICES Working Group on Zooplankton Ecology (ICES WGZE) and this unique group in the world's oceanographic community has now been active for 25 years. This article reviews and synthesizes the products, and major accomplishments of the group. Achievements of the group, including the Zooplankton Methodology Manual, the Zooplankton Status Reports, and the International Zooplankton Symposia, have had an important impact on the wider field. Among the future issues that remain to be addressed by the group are the assessment of exploratory fisheries on zooplankton and micronekton species; further development of the zooplankton time-series; compilation and integration of allometric relationships for zooplankton species, and evaluation of new methodologies for the study of zooplankton distribution, abundance, physiology, and genetics. Marine science is an increasingly global undertaking and groups such as the ICES WGZE will continue to be essential to the advancement of understanding of zooplankton community structure and population dynamics in the world's oceans.

  8. Applying OWA operator to model group behaviors in uncertain QFD



    It is a crucial step to derive the priority order of design requirements (DRs) from customer requirements (CRs) in quality function deployment (QFD). However, it is not straightforward to prioritize DRs due to two types of uncertainties: human subjective perception and user variability. This paper proposes an OWA based group decision-making approach to uncertain QFD with an application to a flexible manufacturing system design. The proposed model performs computations solely based on the orde...

  9. One-Group Perturbation Theory Applied to Measurements with Void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf


    Formulas suitable for evaluating progressive as well as single rod substitution measurements are derived by means of one-group perturbation theory. The diffusion coefficient may depend on direction and position. By using the buckling concept one can derive expressions which are quite simple and the perturbed flux can be taken into account in a comparatively simple way. By using an unconventional definition of cells a transition region is introduced quite logically. Experiments with voids around metal rods, diam. 3.05 cm, have been analysed. The agreement between extrapolated and directly measured buckling values is excellent, the buckling difference between lattices with water-filled and voided shrouds being 0. 263 {+-} 0.015/m{sup 2} and 0.267 {+-} 0.005/m{sup 2} resp. From single-rod experiments differences between diffusion coefficients are determined to {delta}D{sub r}/D = 0.083 {+-} 0.004 and {delta}D{sub z}/D = 0.120 {+-} 0.018. With air-filled shrouds there is consequently anisotropy in the neutron diffusion and we have (D{sub z}/D{sub r}){sub air} = 1.034 {+-} 0.020.

  10. The policy chicken and the science egg. Has applied ecology failed the transgenic crops debate? (United States)

    Gray, A J


    Ecology has a long history of research relevant to and impacting on real-world issues. Nonetheless problems of communication remain between policy-makers and scientists because they tend to work at different levels of generality (policy deals with broad issues, science prefers specific questions), and complexity (policy-makers want simple answers, ecologists tend to offer multi-factorial solutions) and to different timescales (policy-makers want answers tomorrow, ecologists always seem to want more time). These differences are not unique to the debate about the cultivation of transgenic crops. Research on gene flow is used to illustrate how science and policy are intimately bound together in a value-laden, iterative and messy process unlike that characterised by the 'encounter problem-do science-make policy' model. It also demonstrates how the gap between science and policy is often characterised by value-laden language. Scientists involved in ERA for transgenic crops may find their engagement with policy- and decision-makers clouded by misunderstanding about what one should expect from the other. Not the least of these, that science can define harm, is explored in a discussion of the U.K. Farm Scale Evaluations of herbicide-tolerant GM crops. The varied responses to these extensive trials highlight the problems of linking specific scientific experiments with broad policy objectives. The problems of applied ecology in the transgenic crops debate are not unique but may differ from other areas of environmental policy in the intense politicisation of the debate, the emphasis on assessment of risk and the particularly broad policy objectives.

  11. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand. (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Oliveira, Rhaul; McDonough, Sakchai; Matser, Arrienne; Khatikarn, Jidapa; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Domingues, Inês; Van den Brink, Paul J


    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) and enrofloxacin (ENR), were monitored in river water and sediment samples. Moreover, we assessed the toxicity of OTC and ENR on tropical freshwater invertebrates and performed a risk assessment for aquatic ecosystems. All interviewed tilapia farmers reported to routinely use antibiotics. Peak water concentrations for OTC and ENR were 49 and 1.6 μg/L, respectively. Antibiotics were most frequently detected in sediments with concentrations up to 6908 μg/kg d.w. for OTC, and 2339 μg/kg d.w. for ENR. The results of this study indicate insignificant short-term risks for primary producers and invertebrates, but suggest that the studied aquaculture farms constitute an important source of antibiotic pollution.

  12. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González


    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  13. Ecological correlates of group-size variation in a resource-defense ungulate, the sedentary guanaco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marino

    Full Text Available For large herbivores, predation-risk, habitat structure and population density are often reported as major determinants of group size variation within and between species. However, whether the underlying causes of these relationships imply an ecological adaptation or are the result of a purely mechanistic process in which fusion and fragmentation events only depend on the rate of group meeting, is still under debate. The aim of this study was to model guanaco family and bachelor group sizes in contrasting ecological settings in order to test hypotheses regarding the adaptive significance of group-size variation. We surveyed guanaco group sizes within three wildlife reserves located in eastern Patagonia where guanacos occupy a mosaic of grasslands and shrublands. Two of these reserves have been free from predators for decades while in the third, pumas often prey on guanacos. All locations have experienced important changes in guanaco abundance throughout the study offering the opportunity to test for density effects. We found that bachelor group size increased with increasing density, as expected by the mechanistic approach, but was independent of habitat structure or predation risk. In contrast, the smaller and territorial family groups were larger in the predator-exposed than in the predator-free locations, and were larger in open grasslands than in shrublands. However, the influence of population density on these social units was very weak. Therefore, family group data supported the adaptive significance of group-size variation but did not support the mechanistic idea. Yet, the magnitude of the effects was small and between-population variation in family group size after controlling for habitat and predation was negligible, suggesting that plasticity of these social units is considerably low. Our results showed that different social units might respond differentially to local ecological conditions, supporting two contrasting hypotheses in a

  14. Applying Social Justice to Oppression and Marginalization in Group Process: Interventions and Strategies for Group Counselors (United States)

    Burnes, Theodore R.; Ross, Katherine L.


    A call from the group counseling literature (Brown, 2009) recognizes the need for theoretical and empirical writings that explore the intersection of social justice and counseling practice, as many counselors are unprepared to address the impact of oppression and privilege on group process. The authors explore these issues by making…

  15. Children's Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M.


    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous)…

  16. Applying the grey assessment to the evaluation system of ecological green space on greening projects in Taiwan. (United States)

    Lin, Li-Wei; Chen, Chui-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Cherng; Chen, Tzu-Chun


    This study is designed to develop an alternative evaluation method for ecological green space. It offers criteria for identifying ecological green space on building sites. The grey decision-making method is applied to assess the greening project at the first step. The evaluation items are rebuilt by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method at the second step. The range of standard values and the weighting values are also obtained by AHP. Grey classes are identified using the whitening weight function of the grey number. The evaluation system of the ecological green space is framed by grey clusters. We considered the factors of building environment and the scale of building sites in the ecological greenery of green building sites.This study proposes a new model to solve the problems hard to be quantified. Especially for those ecological benefits are too close to decide. Architects and landscape architects can input the engineering data and the design information into the ecological greenery assessment system. The identification and assessment system of green space is fit for Taiwan area. We will obtain the best greening project by the maximum value of absolute degree of grey incidence (max{epsilon(ij)}) in grey-decision making. The maximum value of synthetic clustering coefficient (max{sigma(k)}) in grey clustering assessment reflects the quality and variation of green space.

  17. How groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems: Symbolic coping and collective emotions. (United States)

    Caillaud, Sabine; Bonnot, Virginie; Ratiu, Eugenia; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia


    This study explores the way groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems. The social representations approach was adopted, and the collective symbolic coping model was used as a frame of analysis, integrating collective emotions to enhance the understanding of coping processes. The original feature of this study is that the analysis is at group level. Seven focus groups were conducted with French students. An original use of focus groups was proposed: Discussions were structured to induce feelings of collective responsibility and enable observation of how groups cope with such feelings at various levels (social knowledge; social identities; group dynamics). Two analyses were conducted: Qualitative analysis of participants' use of various kinds of knowledge, social categories and the group dynamics, and lexicometric analysis to reveal how emotions varied during the different discussion phases. Results showed that groups' emotional states moved from negative to positive: They used specific social categories and resorted to shared stereotypes to cope with collective responsibility and maintain the integrity of their worldview. Only then did debate become possible again; it was anchored in the nature-culture dichotomy such that groups switched from group-based to system-based emotions.

  18. A diagnostic procedure for applying the social-ecological systems framework in diverse cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hinkel


    Full Text Available The framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems (SES framework of Elinor Ostrom is a multitier collection of concepts and variables that have proven to be relevant for understanding outcomes in diverse SES. The first tier of this framework includes the concepts resource system (RS and resource units (RU, which are then further characterized through lower tier variables such as clarity of system boundaries and mobility. The long-term goal of framework development is to derive conclusions about which combinations of variables explain outcomes across diverse types of SES. This will only be possible if the concepts and variables of the framework can be made operational unambiguously for the different types of SES, which, however, remains a challenge. Reasons for this are that case studies examine other types of RS than those for which the framework has been developed or consider RS for which different actors obtain different kinds of RU. We explore these difficulties and relate them to antecedent work on common-pool resources and public goods. We propose a diagnostic procedure which resolves some of these difficulties by establishing a sequence of questions that facilitate the step-wise and unambiguous application of the SES framework to a given case. The questions relate to the actors benefiting from the SES, the collective goods involved in the generation of those benefits, and the action situations in which the collective goods are provided and appropriated. We illustrate the diagnostic procedure for four case studies in the context of irrigated agriculture in New Mexico, common property meadows in the Swiss Alps, recreational fishery in Germany, and energy regions in Austria. We conclude that the current SES framework has limitations when applied to complex, multiuse SES, because it does not sufficiently capture the actor interdependencies introduced through RS and RU characteristics and dynamics.

  19. A robust PCR primer design platform applied to the detection of Acidobacteria Group 1 in soil



    Environmental biosurveillance and microbial ecology studies use PCR-based assays to detect and quantify microbial taxa and gene sequences within a complex background of microorganisms. However, the fragmentary nature and growing quantity of DNA-sequence data make group-specific assay design challenging. We solved this problem by developing a software platform that enables PCR-assay design at an unprecedented scale. As a demonstration, we developed quantitative PCR assays for a globally widesp...

  20. Analysis on the indicator species and ecological groups of pelagic ostracods in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli


    Ecological adaptation and ecological groups of pelagic ostraceds were examined in the East China Sea (23°30' ~ 33°00'N,118°30'~ 128°00'E),in relation to temperature and salinity.The data were collected in four surveys conducted from 1997 to 2000.The density,yield density,or negative exponent models were used to determine the optimal temperature and salinity of wa-ter for the thriving growth of pelagic ostracods.Thereafter,ecological groups and potential distribution patterns of pelagic ostracods were determined based on the predicted parameters such as optimal temperature and salinity,consulting the geographic distribu-tion.The analytical results indicate that,among the numerical dominant pelagic ostraceds in the East China Sea (ECS),Eucon-choecia aculeata,E.elongata,E.chierchiae,E.maimai,and Cypridina dentata,etc.are offshore subtropical water species.These species are widely distributed in the area,and they can be brought by the warm current to north offshore during spring and winter.The predicated optimal temperature (OT) and optimal salinity (OS) for Paraconchoecia decipiens,P.echinata,P.spini-fera,P.oblonga,Conchoecia magna and Porroecia porrecta are all greater than 25℃ and 34 separately.These species are mainly distributed in the waters of the Kuroshio,the Taiwan Warm Current,and the Taiwan Strait,and therefore are designated as ocean-ic tropical water species.On the other hand,Pseudoconchoecia concentrica is considered as offshore subtropical water species based on its geographical distribution although its OT is 19~C.The other species,though their OSs are approximately 34 and with OTs ranging from 20° to 25℃,are considered as offshore subtropical water species because they were found to be widely distribu-ted from the South China Sea to the East China Sea.

  1. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets (United States)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  2. A robust PCR primer design platform applied to the detection of Acidobacteria Group 1 in soil (United States)

    Gans, Jason D.; Dunbar, John; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Wolinsky, Murray; Kuske, Cheryl R.


    Environmental biosurveillance and microbial ecology studies use PCR-based assays to detect and quantify microbial taxa and gene sequences within a complex background of microorganisms. However, the fragmentary nature and growing quantity of DNA-sequence data make group-specific assay design challenging. We solved this problem by developing a software platform that enables PCR-assay design at an unprecedented scale. As a demonstration, we developed quantitative PCR assays for a globally widespread, ecologically important bacterial group in soil, Acidobacteria Group 1. A total of 33 684 Acidobacteria 16S rRNA gene sequences were used for assay design. Following 1 week of computation on a 376-core cluster, 83 assays were obtained. We validated the specificity of the top three assays, collectively predicted to detect 42% of the Acidobacteria Group 1 sequences, by PCR amplification and sequencing of DNA from soil. Based on previous analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Acidobacteria Group 1 species were expected to decrease in response to elevated atmospheric CO2. Quantitative PCR results, using the Acidobacteria Group 1-specific PCR assays, confirmed the expected decrease and provided higher statistical confidence than the 16S rRNA gene-sequencing data. These results demonstrate a powerful capacity to address previously intractable assay design challenges. PMID:22434885

  3. Applying the Social Ecological Model to Creating Asthma-Friendly Schools in Louisiana (United States)

    Nuss, Henry J.; Hester, Laura L.; Perry, Mark A.; Stewart-Briley, Collette; Reagon, Valamar M.; Collins, Pamela


    Background: In 2010, the Louisiana Asthma Management and Prevention Program (LAMP) implemented the Asthma-Friendly Schools Initiative in high-risk Louisiana populations. The social ecological model (SEM) was used as a framework for an asthma program implemented in 70 state K-12 public schools over 2 years. Methods: Activities included a needs…

  4. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and their...or competitors, the size, composition and cohesion of the natal group as well as the dive activity of group members likely plays an important role in...context, by simultaeously tagging multiple individuals within the same group to study social coordination and group cohesion and how these social dynamics

  5. Applied Protocol for Appreciative Group Socialization [Protocol de aplicare a grupului de socializare apreciativ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU


    Full Text Available In this paper we aim to outline a protocol for the implementation of favorable social group, aiming to highlight a number of specific factors such as number of persons, type of group, which features the most important steps such as introduction, conduct etc. group. It will also enhance the models and techniques for applying the basic methods appreciative of this group. To achieve this subchapter shall follow the defining characteristics of a group as they are presented in the literature. Besides theoretical directions emphasis will be placed on how to implement in practice by mixing methodological relizat appreciative group socialization.

  6. Effects of Applying STR for Group Learning Activities on Learning Performance in a Synchronous Cyber Classroom (United States)

    Kuo, Tony C. T.; Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing


    This study aimed to apply Speech to Text Recognition (STR) for individual oral presentations and group discussions of students in a synchronous cyber classroom. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of applying STR on learning performance. Students' perceptions and behavioral intentions toward using STR were also investigated.…

  7. The role of community and population ecology in applying mycorrhizal fungi for improved food security. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alia; Sanders, Ian R


    The global human population is expected to reach ∼9 billion by 2050. Feeding this many people represents a major challenge requiring global crop yield increases of up to 100%. Microbial symbionts of plants such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represent a huge, but unrealized resource for improving yields of globally important crops, especially in the tropics. We argue that the application of AMF in agriculture is too simplistic and ignores basic ecological principals. To achieve this challenge, a community and population ecology approach can contribute greatly. First, ecologists could significantly improve our understanding of the determinants of the survival of introduced AMF, the role of adaptability and intraspecific diversity of AMF and whether inoculation has a direct or indirect effect on plant production. Second, we call for extensive metagenomics as well as population genomics studies that are crucial to assess the environmental impact that introduction of non-local AMF may have on native AMF communities and populations. Finally, we plead for an ecologically sound use of AMF in efforts to increase food security at a global scale in a sustainable manner.

  8. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and Their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Social ecology and group cohesion in pilot whales and their...N000141410410 LONG-TERM GOALS This project investigates the social ecology and cohesion of long-finned pilot whales as part of a broad noise affects large delphinids such as pilot whales is important since these species have different social systems and seem to respond

  9. The mechanically adaptive connective tissue of echinoderms: its potential for bio-innovation in applied technology and ecology. (United States)

    Barbaglio, A; Tricarico, S; Ribeiro, A; Ribeiro, C; Sugni, M; Di Benedetto, C; Wilkie, I; Barbosa, M; Bonasoro, F; Candia Carnevali, M D


    Echinoderms possess unique connective tissues, called mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs), which undergo nervously mediated, drastic and reversible or irreversible changes in their mechanical properties. Connective tissue mutability influences all aspects of echinoderm biology and is a key-factor in the ecological success of the phylum. Due to their sensitivity to endogenous or exogenous agents, MCTs may be targets for a number of common pollutants, with potentially drastic effects on vital functions. Besides its ecological relevance, MCT represents a topic with relevance to several applied fields. A promising research route looks at MCTs as a source of inspiration for the development of novel biomaterials. This contribution presents a review of MCT biology, which incorporates recent ultrastructural, biomolecular and biochemical analyses carried out in a biotechnological context.

  10. Applying the socio-ecological model to improving fruit and vegetable intake among low-income African Americans. (United States)

    Robinson, Tanya


    Despite the growing body of literature that provides evidence of the health benefits of a diet high in fruits and vegetables, most Americans eat much less than the recommended amounts of this food group. Among those who are least likely to meet the USDA guidelines for the recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables are non-Hispanic Blacks and individuals with lower incomes. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the dietary behaviors, focusing on fruit and vegetable intake, of low-income African Americans from a socio-ecological perspective, and to offer rationale for and guidance on integrating socio-ecological concepts into health promoting programs intended to improve dietary behaviors among this population. Based on the 12 descriptive studies retrieved in the review, dietary behaviors and fruit and vegetable intake among African Americans are the result of a complex interplay of personal, cultural, and environmental factors that can be categorized and described using the five levels of influence conceptualized by the socio-ecological model: Intrapersonal level (taste preferences, habits, and nutritional knowledge and skills), Interpersonal level/social environment (processes whereby culture, social traditions, and role expectations impact eating practices; and patterns within peer groups, friends and family), and Organizational, Community, and Public Policy levels/physical environment (environmental factors that affect food access and availability). The socio-ecological model provides a useful framework for achieving a better understanding of the multiple factors and barriers that impact dietary behaviors, and therefore can provide guidance for developing culturally appropriate and sensitive intervention strategies for African Americans. It is an integrative framework that shows great promise in moving the field closer to attaining the goal of improving dietary behaviors and nutritional status among African Americans.

  11. Statistical Mechanics Ideas and Techniques Applied to Selected Problems in Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fort


    Full Text Available Ecosystem dynamics provides an interesting arena for the application of a plethora concepts and techniques from statistical mechanics. Here I review three examples corresponding each one to an important problem in ecology. First, I start with an analytical derivation of clumpy patterns for species relative abundances (SRA empirically observed in several ecological communities involving a high number n of species, a phenomenon which have puzzled ecologists for decades. An interesting point is that this derivation uses results obtained from a statistical mechanics model for ferromagnets. Second, going beyond the mean field approximation, I study the spatial version of a popular ecological model involving just one species representing vegetation. The goal is to address the phenomena of catastrophic shifts—gradual cumulative variations in some control parameter that suddenly lead to an abrupt change in the system—illustrating it by means of the process of desertification of arid lands. The focus is on the aggregation processes and the effects of diffusion that combined lead to the formation of non trivial spatial vegetation patterns. It is shown that different quantities—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings for the desertification of arid lands. Remarkably, in the onset of a desertification transition the distribution of vegetation patches exhibits scale invariance typical of many physical systems in the vicinity a phase transition. I comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid. Third, I analyze the case of many species interacting in space. I choose tropical forests, which are mega-diverse ecosystems that exhibit remarkable dynamics. Therefore these ecosystems represent a research paradigm both for studies of complex systems dynamics as well as to

  12. The causal pie model: an epidemiological method applied to evolutionary biology and ecology. (United States)

    Wensink, Maarten; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Baudisch, Annette


    A general concept for thinking about causality facilitates swift comprehension of results, and the vocabulary that belongs to the concept is instrumental in cross-disciplinary communication. The causal pie model has fulfilled this role in epidemiology and could be of similar value in evolutionary biology and ecology. In the causal pie model, outcomes result from sufficient causes. Each sufficient cause is made up of a "causal pie" of "component causes". Several different causal pies may exist for the same outcome. If and only if all component causes of a sufficient cause are present, that is, a causal pie is complete, does the outcome occur. The effect of a component cause hence depends on the presence of the other component causes that constitute some causal pie. Because all component causes are equally and fully causative for the outcome, the sum of causes for some outcome exceeds 100%. The causal pie model provides a way of thinking that maps into a number of recurrent themes in evolutionary biology and ecology: It charts when component causes have an effect and are subject to natural selection, and how component causes affect selection on other component causes; which partitions of outcomes with respect to causes are feasible and useful; and how to view the composition of a(n apparently homogeneous) population. The diversity of specific results that is directly understood from the causal pie model is a test for both the validity and the applicability of the model. The causal pie model provides a common language in which results across disciplines can be communicated and serves as a template along which future causal analyses can be made.

  13. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others


    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  14. Alcohol consumption among university students: applying a social ecological approach for multi-level preventions. (United States)

    Vantamay, Somphol


    This study investigates factors affecting alcohol consumption among university students through a social ecological approach as a theoretical framework. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 1,200 university students in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis at the 0.05 level of statistical significance were used to analyze the data. The results showed that all 22 independent variables can copredict alcohol consumption among university students at 41.2% (Adjusted = 40.1%). However, there were only 13 variables that affected alcohol consumption significantly: gender, age, monthly income, living arrangement, attitude toward alcohol use, perceived susceptibility of alcohol use, perceived self-efficacy, peer drinking, relatives drinking, accessibility of alcohol around university, accessibility of alcohol around community, exposure to anti-alcohol campaign, and exposure to alcohol advertising. The findings suggested that alcohol consumption was not only affected by the individual-level factor, but it was also affected by multi-level environmental factors, including interpersonal-level, institutional-level, community-level, and societal-level factors. Consequently, multi-level preventions should be urgently considered to prevent alcohol use among university students in Thailand.

  15. Understanding adaptive capacity and capacity to innovate in social-ecological systems: Applying a gender lens. (United States)

    Cohen, Philippa J; Lawless, Sarah; Dyer, Michelle; Morgan, Miranda; Saeni, Enly; Teioli, Helen; Kantor, Paula


    Development policy increasingly focuses on building capacities to respond to change (adaptation), and to drive change (innovation). Few studies, however, focus specifically on the social and gender differentiation of capacities to adapt and innovate. We address this gap using a qualitative study in three communities in Solomon Islands; a developing country, where rural livelihoods and well-being are tightly tied to agriculture and fisheries. We find the five dimensions of capacity to adapt and to innovate (i.e. assets, flexibility, learning, social organisation, agency) to be mutually dependant. For example, limits to education, physical mobility and agency meant that women and youth, particularly, felt it was difficult to establish relations with external agencies to access technical support or new information important for innovating or adapting. Willingness to bear risk and to challenge social norms hindered both women's and men's capacity to innovate, albeit to differing degrees. Our findings are of value to those aspiring for equitable improvements to well-being within dynamic and diverse social-ecological systems.

  16. Applying the Codependency Model to a Group for Families of Obsessive-Compulsive People. (United States)

    Cooper, Marlene


    Applies codependency group model to families of obsessive-compulsive people based on view that these families are normal, feeling people who are trying to cope with unremitting stress. Clinical vignettes illustrate how these families are similar to families of alcoholics in their management of emotions and in their dysfunctional behaviors. (JBJ)

  17. Ecological assessment of the Tajan river using feeding groups of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharifinia


    Full Text Available One of the best practical methods to understand ecological status of a water body and determine impacts of human intervention in reducing water quality is using benthic macroinvertebrates as assessment tools for monitoring their biological integrity and health. The Tajan River is one of the rivers of Caspian Southernsub-basin that drains the Caspian Sea. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken using Surber’s sampler (40 x 40 cm and 100µ mesh size in 45 day intervals with 3 replicates in each sampling site for a period of one year (May 2010 to May 2011. The collected organisms were preserved in 4% formalin solution and transferred to the laboratory for identification and counting. Six different functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate e.g. Collector-gathering, Collector-filtering, Predator, Collector-gathering /Scraper, Predator/Collector-gathering and Scraper were determined. Feeding groups of Collector-gathering, Collector-filtering and Collector-gathering /Scraper were relatively dominant in comparison to other groups. Groups of Collector-filtering and Collector-gathering were dominant in slightly and heavily polluted stations, respectively. In this study population structure measures including abundance, EPT percent and the EPT and EPT/CHIR indics were mearsured. Species diversity, species richness were also determined using Shannon- Weiner, Margalef and Jacardindics. The minimum and maximum values of Hilsenhoff biotic index were observedin stations 1 (4.29 and 5 (5.57, respectively. Moreover, the highest and lowest values of BMWP/ASPT were observed in station 1 (4.51 and 5 (3.25, respectively. Evaluation of indicators revealed less water quality at stations 2, 3 and 5 which located at the lowermost of fish farms and effluent of factory. This reduction might be implicated to the effluents of water damps from fish farms running into the stream as diversity and total abundance (% of sociable macroinvertebrates decreased and that of

  18. "Stop and Go": In Search of New Ecology and Dynamics in Group Counselling for Employees in Transition (United States)

    Keskinen, Anita; Spangar, Timo


    "Stop and Go" (SG) is a group counselling concept developed for employees in transition. The SG approach has its main roots in relational psychology. This article explores the ecology and the dynamics of the SG process including the simultaneous presence of societal and social ('meso') factors, as well as the individual…

  19. Generalisations of Hamilton's Rule Applied to Non-Additive Public Goods Games with Random Group Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A R Marshall


    Full Text Available Inclusive fitness theory has been described as being limited to certain special cases of social evolution. In particular some authors argue that the theory can only be applied to social interactions having additive fitness effects, and involving only pairs of individuals. This article takes an elegant formulation of non-additive public goods games from the literature, and shows how the two main generalisations of Hamilton's rule can be applied to such games when group sizes are random. In doing so inclusive fitness theory is thus applied to a very general class of social dilemmas, thereby providing further evidence for its generality. Interestingly, one of the two predominant versions of Hamilton's rule is found to be mathematically easier to apply to the scenario considered, despite both necessarily giving equivalent predictions.

  20. The Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method applied to Interaction Round a Face Hamiltonians



    Given a Hamiltonian with a continuous symmetry one can generally factorize that symmetry and consider the dynamics on invariant Hilbert spaces. In statistical mechanics this procedure is known as the vertex-IRF map, and in certain cases, like rotational invariant Hamiltonians, it can be implemented via group theoretical techniques. Using this map we translate the DMRG method, which applies to 1D vertex Hamiltonians, into a formulation adequate to study IRF Hamiltonians. The advantage of the I...

  1. Using and Applying Focus Groups in Climate Change Impact Assessment Projects (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S.


    The focus group social science research method is an efficient and flexible data collection tool with broad applicability across disciplines and contexts. Through group dynamics, this interviewing approach offers strengths in gathering candid, spontaneous comments and detailed firsthand descriptions from stakeholders' perspectives. The method, which can stand alone or be integrated with other research frameworks, has much potential for helping to manage complex issues of global change. For optimal outcomes, however, careful planning and procedures are paramount. This presentation offers guidance in this regard via examples, tips, and lessons learned from a multidisciplinary NOAA-funded project: Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). Focus groups are a key component of the EESLR-NGOM project as they are being used to better understand coastal resource managers' operational and information behaviors and needs regarding sea level rise (SLR), erosion, and hurricane storm surge impact; to learn how to best develop and translate the project's expected scientific results into straightforward, useful, and readily-disseminated products; and to gather outreach recommendations. As part of an EESLR-NGOM project kickoff workshop, 12 coastal resource managers participated voluntarily in a focus group. A summary of findings and illustrative participant quotations will be included in the presentation. The initial focus group was productive in gaining insights into challenges and opportunities associated with a climate change project such as the EESLR-NGOM. It highlighted the importance of considering the interrelationships of natural and built environments and new avenues for resilience and sustainability. The coastal resource managers are not only end-users but also opinion leaders in their local communities who will diffuse this information widely through their networks of other potential end-users. Engaging coastal resource managers in

  2. Derivation of ecological criteria for copper in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Li, Jumei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Yibing; Smolders, Erik; Zhu, Nanwen


    The difference in availability between soil metals added via biosolids and soluble salts was not taken into account in deriving the current land-applied biosolids standards. In the present study, a biosolids availability factor (BAF) approach was adopted to investigate the ecological thresholds for copper (Cu) in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. First, the soil property-specific values of HC5add (the added hazardous concentration for 5% of species) for Cu(2+) salt amended were collected with due attention to data for organisms and soils relevant to China. Second, a BAF representing the difference in availability between soil Cu added via biosolids and soluble salts was estimated based on long-term biosolid-amended soils, including soils from China. Third, biosolids Cu HC5input values (the input hazardous concentration for 5% of species of Cu from biosolids to soil) as a function of soil properties were derived using the BAF approach. The average potential availability of Cu in agricultural soils amended with biosolids accounted for 53% of that for the same soils spiked with same amount of soluble Cu salts and with a similar aging time. The cation exchange capacity was the main factor affecting the biosolids Cu HC5input values, while soil pH and organic carbon only explained 24.2 and 1.5% of the variation, respectively. The biosolids Cu HC5input values can be accurately predicted by regression models developed based on 2-3 soil properties with coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.889 and 0.945. Compared with model predicted biosolids Cu HC5input values, current standards (GB4284-84) are most likely to be less protective in acidic and neutral soil, but conservative in alkaline non-calcareous soil. Recommendations on ecological criteria for Cu in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agriculture soils may be helpful to fill the gaps existing between science and regulations, and can be useful for Cu risk assessments in soils

  3. The Renormalization-Group Method Applied to Asymptotic Analysis of Vector Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kunihiro, T


    The renormalization group method of Goldenfeld, Oono and their collaborators is applied to asymptotic analysis of vector fields. The method is formulated on the basis of the theory of envelopes, as was done for scalar fields. This formulation actually completes the discussion of the previous work for scalar equations. It is shown in a generic way that the method applied to equations with a bifurcation leads to the Landau-Stuart and the (time-dependent) Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is confirmed that this method is actually a powerful theory for the reduction of the dynamics as the reductive perturbation method is. Some examples for ordinary diferential equations, such as the forced Duffing, the Lotka-Volterra and the Lorenz equations, are worked out in this method: The time evolution of the solution of the Lotka-Volterra equation is explicitly given, while the center manifolds of the Lorenz equation are constructed in a simple way in the RG method.

  4. The effects of group 1 versus group 2 carbapenems on imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: an ecological study. (United States)

    Carmeli, Yehuda; Lidji, Shiri Klarfeld; Shabtai, Esther; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Schwaber, Mitchell J


    Use of the group 2 carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem, may lead to emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance. The group 1 carbapenem ertapenem has limited activity against P. aeruginosa and is not associated with imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (IMP-R PA) in vitro. This retrospective, group-level, longitudinal study collected patient, antibiotic use, and resistance data from 2001 to 2005 using a hospital database containing information on 9 medical wards. A longitudinal data time series analysis was done to evaluate the association between carbapenem use (defined daily doses, or DDDs) and IMP-R PA. A total of 139 185 patient admissions were included, with 541 150 antibiotics DDDs prescribed: 4637 DDDs of group 2 carbapenems and 2130 DDDs of ertapenem. A total of 779 IMP-R PA were isolated (5.6 cases/1000 admissions). Univariate analysis found a higher incidence of IMP-R PA with group 2 carbapenems (P carbapenem use was highly associated with IMP-R PA, with a 20% increase in incidence (P = 0.0014) for each 100 DDDs. Group 2 carbapenem use tended to be associated with an increased proportion of IMP-R PA (P = 0.0625) in multivariate analysis. Ertapenem was not associated with IMP-R PA. These data would support preferentially prescribing ertapenem rather than group 2 carbapenems where clinically appropriate.

  5. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.


    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and [sup 137]Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  6. Applying the social-ecological system framework to the diagnosis of urban lake commons in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Nagendra


    Full Text Available The south Indian city of Bangalore provides a challenging yet representative context within which to examine issues of governance of urban social-ecological commons. The city was once famous for its numerous large water bodies, which have witnessed tremendous encroachment and pollution in recent years. These water bodies, called tanks or lakes, were typically managed by adjacent village communities but are now administered by a number of government departments involved with aspects of lake management, with multiple overlapping jurisdictions. The public's perceptions of lakes has also changed with urbanization, transitioning from community spaces valued for water and cultural services to urban recreational spaces used largely by joggers and walkers. We focus on a set of seven lakes located in the urbanizing peripheral areas of southeast Bangalore. Some water bodies have been restored and managed effectively by newly forged collaborations between citizens and local government. Others are extremely polluted, and some have completely dried up and have been encroached. We use a social-ecological system (SES framework to investigate why some locations have been successful in negotiating changes in governance from community-based systems to state management following urbanization, whereas other lakes have deteriorated. We use seven second-tier SES variables that were associated with self-organization in previous research: size of resource system, number of actors, leadership, social capital, importance of resource, existence of operational-choice rules, and existence of informal mechanisms for monitoring. We also include three third-tier variables previously identified as important in urban lake commons in Bangalore: scale and type of pre-existing pollution, exclusion of socioeconomic groups from the planning process, and networking with government organizations. We use this subset of 10 variables to examine social outcomes of the lakes, which we

  7. Applied nuclear physics group - activities report. 1977-1997; Grupo de fisica nuclear aplicada - relatorio de atividades. 1977-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto


    This report presents the activities conducted by the Applied Nuclear Physics group of the Londrina State University - Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory - Brazil, from the activities beginning (1977) up to the end of the year 1997.

  8. Agro-ecological aspects when applying the remaining products from agricultural biogas processes as fertilizer in crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo Dominguez, Gabriela


    With the increase of biogas production in recent years, the amount of digestates or the remaining residues increased accordingly. Every year in Germany more than 50 million tons of digestates are produced, which are used as fertilizer. Thus nutrients return into the circulation of agricultural ecosystems. However, the agro-ecological effects have not been deeply researched until now. For this reason, the following parameters were quantified: the influence of dry and liquid fermentation products on the yield of three selected crops in comparison to or in combination with mineral-N-fertilizers in on-farm experiments; the growth, development and yield of two selected crops in comparison to mineral-N-fertilizer, liquid manure and farmyard manure in a randomized complete block design; selected soil organisms as compared to mineral-N-fertilizer, liquid manure and farmyard manure in a randomized complete block design. In addition, the mineralization of dry and wet digestates in comparison with liquid manure and farmyard manure was investigated in order to evaluate the effects of different fertilizers on the humus formation under controlled conditions. The 2-year results of on-farm experiments showed that for a sandy soil, the combination of digestates in autumn and mineral-N-fertilizer in spring for winter crops (wheat, rye and rape) brought the highest yields. The wet digestate achieved the highest dry-matter yield as the only fertilizer for maize in spring. In a clayey soil, the use of 150 kg ha{sup -1} N mineral-N-fertilizer brought the highest grain yield. These results were similar to the ones obtained by the application of dry digestates, if they were applied in two doses. Maize showed no signif-icant differences between the dry-matter yields of the different treatments. The results in the field experiments from 2009 to 2011 showed that the effect of digestates on the yield of winter wheat and Sorghum sudanense was up to 15 % lower than the effect of the mineral

  9. Applying tensor renormalization group methods to frustrated and glassy systems: advantages, limitations, and applications (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G.


    We study the thermodynamic properties of the two-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin-glass model on a square lattice using the tensor renormalization group method based on a higher-order singular-value decomposition. Our estimates of the internal energy per spin agree very well with high-precision parallel tempering Monte Carlo studies, thus illustrating that the method can, in principle, be applied to frustrated magnetic systems. In particular, we discuss the necessary tuning of parameters for convergence, memory requirements, efficiency for different types of disorder, as well as advantages and limitations in comparison to conventional multicanonical and Monte Carlo methods. Extensions to higher space dimensions, as well as applications to spin glasses in a field are explored.

  10. Adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in local system on prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model


    Małgorzata Michel


    This article includes the analysis of possibility specific adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in Local System of Prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model.

  11. Adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in local system on prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel


    Full Text Available This article includes the analysis of possibility specific adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in Local System of Prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model.

  12. Group work in the English language curriculum sociocultural and ecological perspectives on second language classroom learning

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Philip


    This book explores how using small groups in second language classrooms supports language learning. Chappell's experience as a language teacher equips him to present a clear, evidence-based argument for the powerful influence group work has upon the opportunities for learning, and how it should therefore be an integral part of language lessons.

  13. Diversity of Bacillus cereus group strains is reflected in their broad range of pathogenicity and diverse ecological lifestyles. (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke


    Bacillus cereus comprises a highly versatile group of bacteria, which are of particular interest because of their capacity to cause disease. Emetic food poisoning is caused by the toxin cereulide produced during the growth of emetic B. cereus in food, while diarrhoeal food poisoning is the result of enterotoxin production by viable vegetative B. cereus cells in the small intestine, probably in the mucus layer and/or attached to the host's intestinal epithelium. The numbers of B. cereus causing disease are highly variable, depending on diverse factors linked to the host (age, diet, physiology and immunology), bacteria (cellular form, toxin genes and expression) and food (nutritional composition and meal characteristics). Bacillus cereus group strains show impressive ecological diversity, ranging from their saprophytic life cycle in soil to symbiotic (commensal and mutualistic) lifestyles near plant roots and in guts of insects and mammals to various pathogenic ones in diverse insect and mammalian hosts. During all these different ecological lifestyles, their toxins play important roles ranging from providing competitive advantages within microbial communities to inhibition of specific pathogenic organisms for their host and accomplishment of infections by damaging their host's tissues.

  14. Beyond the Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) Model: Mechanisms Driving Plankton Succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, U.; Adrian, R.; Domis, L.D.; Elser, J.J.; Gaedke, U.; Ibelings, B.; Jeppesen, E.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Molinero, J.C.; Mooij, W.M.; Donk, van E.; Winder, M.


    UV/H2O2 treatment can be part of the process converting surface water to drinking water, but would pose a potential problem when resulting in genotoxicity. This study investigates the genotoxicity of samples collected from the water treatment plant Andijk, applying UV/H2O2 treatment with an electric

  15. Thompson's renormalization group method applied to QCD at high energy scale

    CERN Document Server

    Nassif, Claudio; Silva, P R


    We use a renormalization group method to treat QCD-vacuum behavior specially closer to the regime of asymptotic freedom. QCD-vacuum behaves effectively like a "paramagnetic system" of a classical theory in the sense that virtual color charges (gluons) emerges in it as a spin effect of a paramagnetic material when a magnetic field aligns their microscopic magnetic dipoles. Due to that strong classical analogy with the paramagnetism of Landau's theory,we will be able to use a certain Landau effective action without temperature and phase transition for just representing QCD-vacuum behavior at higher energies as being magnetization of a paramagnetic material in the presence of a magnetic field $H$. This reasoning will allow us to apply Thompson's approach to such an action in order to extract an "effective susceptibility" ($\\chi>0$) of QCD-vacuum. It depends on logarithmic of energy scale $u$ to investigate hadronic matter. Consequently we are able to get an ``effective magnetic permeability" ($\\mu>1$) of such a ...

  16. Ecological footprint analysis applied to a sub-national area: the case of the Province of Siena (Italy). (United States)

    Bagliani, Marco; Galli, Alessandro; Niccolucci, Valentina; Marchettini, Nadia


    This work is part of a larger project, which aims at investigating the environmental sustainability of the Province of Siena and of its communes, by means of different indicators and methods of analysis. The research presented in this article uses ecological footprint and biocapacity as indicators to monitor the environmental conditions of the area of Siena, thus complementing previous studies carried out using Emergy, greenhouse gases balance and other methods. The calculations have been performed in such a way as to enable a disaggregation of the final results according to the classical categories of ecologically productive land and of consumption, but also according to citizen's and public administration's areas of influence. This information allows us to investigate in detail the socio-economic aspects of environmental resource use. Among the notable results, the Siena territory is characterized by a nearly breakeven total ecological balance, a result contrasting with the national average and most of the other Italian provinces. Furthermore, the analysis has been carried out at different spatial scales (province, districts and communes), highlighting an inhomogeneous territorial structure consisting of subareas in ecological deficit compensated by zones in ecological surplus.

  17. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual partnerships in South Africa’s language groups: An ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kenyon


    Full Text Available Background. There is considerable variation in HIV prevalence between different language groups in South Africa (SA. Sexual partner concurrency has been linked to the spread of HIV, but its effect on differential HIV transmission within SA’s language groups has not been investigated quantitatively. Objective. This ecological analysis was intended to explore the degree to which the variation in HIV prevalence according to language group can be explained by differential concurrency rates. Method. Linear regression was used to assess the association between each language group’s HIV prevalence and four risk factors: the prevalence of concurrency, multiple sexual partners in the preceding year, circumcision, and condom utilisation. Results. In multivariate analysis, only the point prevalence of concurrency remained associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion. There is evidence of a high prevalence of point concurrency in sexual partnerships in SA’s most HIV-affected language groups. Together with evidence that relatively small decreases in concurrency can lead to large declines in HIV incidence, this provides impetus for interventions to promote having only one sexual partner at a time. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:25-28. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.884

  18. Cooperation and the evolutionary ecology of bacterial virulence: the Bacillus cereus group as a novel study system. (United States)

    Raymond, Ben; Bonsall, Michael B


    How significant is social evolution theory for the maintenance of virulence in natural populations? We assume that secreted, distantly acting virulence factors are highly likely to be cooperative public goods. Using this assumption, we discuss and critically assess the potential importance of social interactions for understanding the evolution, diversity and distribution of virulence in the Bacillus cereus group, a novel study system for microbial social biology. We conclude that dynamic equilibria in Cry toxin production, as well as strong spatial structure and population bottlenecks in hosts are the main ecological factors maintaining the cooperative secretion of virulence factors and argue that collective action has contributed to the evolution of narrow host range. Non-linearities in the benefits associated with public goods, as well as the lack of private secretion systems in the Firmicutes may also explain the prevalence and importance of distantly acting virulence factors in B. cereus and its relatives.

  19. Ecological innovations in the Cambrian and the origins of the crown group phyla. (United States)

    Budd, Graham E; Jackson, Illiam S C


    Simulation studies of the early origins of the modern phyla in the fossil record, and the rapid diversification that led to them, show that these are inevitable outcomes of rapid and long-lasting radiations. Recent advances in Cambrian stratigraphy have revealed a more precise picture of the early bilaterian radiation taking place during the earliest Terreneuvian Series, although several ambiguities remain. The early period is dominated by various tubes and a moderately diverse trace fossil record, with the classical 'Tommotian' small shelly biota beginning to appear some millions of years after the base of the Cambrian at ca 541 Ma. The body fossil record of the earliest period contains a few representatives of known groups, but most of the record is of uncertain affinity. Early trace fossils can be assigned to ecdysozoans, but deuterostome and even spiralian trace and body fossils are less clearly represented. One way of explaining the relative lack of clear spiralian fossils until about 536 Ma is to assign the various lowest Cambrian tubes to various stem-group lophotrochozoans, with the implication that the groundplan of the lophotrochozoans included a U-shaped gut and a sessile habit. The implication of this view would be that the vagrant lifestyle of annelids, nemerteans and molluscs would be independently derived from such a sessile ancestor, with potentially important implications for the homology of their sensory and nervous systems.

  20. Ecological and phytopathological status of birch stands on the territory of Krasnoyarsk group of districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarintsev


    Full Text Available According to inspection data, the health and vital status of birch (Betula pendula Roth. stands in Krasnoyarsk group of lands (southern part of Central Siberia were estimated (established as satisfactory in general; about half of birch stands near urbanized areas were weakened. The condition of stands decreased significantly with increased recreation use, the effect of technogenic pollution was negligible. The most valuable (important representatives of pathogenic biota identified on birch trees were infestations of necrotic cancer and rot diseases. In birch stands the bacterial dropsy was found to be widespread (agent of infection – Erwinia multivora Scz.-Parf, occurrence of the disease ranged from a single ill tree up to 10–38 % of the stands. The birch stands in taiga areas were affected to a greater extent than in forest-steppe; there were high yield class stands on moist soils. Prevalence of bacteriosis rose with increasing stand age and density and not dependent on recreation use level. Trees with dropsy are dead in fact or potentially. In taiga birch forests the infection and rot of roots was caused by honey agaric (Armillaria mellea sensu lato, that lead to single or, rarely, group tree drying and the fungus usually eliminated already weakened trees. Wood biomass was destroyed by complex of aphyllophorous Hymenomycetes, their hemiparasitic species caused stem rots that decreased stand marketability and also resulted in rot-realated wind-break accumulation. Occurrence of rot was significantly higher in second growth birch stands, possibly above 20 %; the relationship between rot prevalence and forest assessment was not revealed.

  1. Applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Group Format. (United States)

    Deblinger, Esther; Pollio, Elisabeth; Dorsey, Shannon


    Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a well-established, evidence-based treatment for children who have experienced trauma, has been increasingly utilized in a group format. Group therapy formats are appealing because they can be highly effective and have the potential to reach larger numbers of clients. Moreover, TF-CBT group delivery may be particularly valuable in reducing the feelings of shame, isolation, and stigma experienced by youth and their caregivers in the aftermath of traumatic experiences. This article reviews the group TF-CBT research, discusses the therapeutic benefits of TF-CBT therapy groups, and provides clinical and logistical guidance for implementing TF-CBT in group format, including a session-by-session protocol. Future directions for research and clinical work in this area are also discussed.

  2. Collective action control by goals and plans: applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance. (United States)

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M


    In celebration of the 125th anniversary of The American Journal of Psychology, this article discusses a seminal publication by Marjorie Shaw (1932) on small group performance in the rational solution of complex problems. We then propose an approach for the effective regulation of group goal striving based on the collective action control perspective. From this perspective, group performance might be hindered by a collective intention-behavior gap: Groups fail to act on their intentions despite being strongly committed to the collective goal, knowing what the necessary actions are, and being capable of performing them. To reduce this gap, we suggest specific if-then plans (implementation intentions) in which groups specify when, where, and how to act toward their collective goal as an easily applicable self-regulation strategy to automate collective action control. Studies in which implementation intentions improved group performance in hidden profile, escalation of commitment, and cooperation task paradigms are reported and discussed.

  3. Galaxy ecology: groups and low-density environments in the SDSS and 2dFGRS

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, M; Miller, C; Lewis, I; Bower, R; Couch, W; Bridges, T J; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Colless, M; Collins, C; Cross, N; Dalton, G B; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, Richard S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Gómez, P; Gray, A; Hawkins, E; Jackson, C; Lahav, O; Lumsden, S; Maddox, S; Madgwick, D; Norberg, P; Peacock, J A; Percival, W; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K; Balogh, Michael; Eke, Vince; Miller, Chris; Lewis, Ian; Bower, Richard; Couch, Warrick; Bridges, Terry; Cannon, Russell; Cole, Shaun; Colless, Matthew; Collins, Chris; Cross, Nicholas; Dalton, Gavin; Propris, Roberto De; Driver, Simon P.; Efstathiou, George; Ellis, Richard S.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Glazebrook, Karl; Gomez, Percy; Gray, Alex; Hawkins, Edward; Jackson, Carole; Lahav, Ofer; Lumsden, Stuart; Maddox, Steve; Madgwick, Darren; Norberg, Peder; Peacock, John A.; Percival, Will; Peterson, Bruce A.; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith


    We analyse the observed correlation between galaxy environment and H-alpha emission line strength, using volume-limited samples and group catalogues of 24968 galaxies drawn from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (Mb<-19.5) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Mr<-20.6). We characterise the environment by 1) Sigma_5, the surface number density of galaxies determined by the projected distance to the 5th nearest neighbour; and 2) rho1.1 and rho5.5, three-dimensional density estimates obtained by convolving the galaxy distribution with Gaussian kernels of dispersion 1.1 Mpc and 5.5 Mpc, respectively. We find that star-forming and quiescent galaxies form two distinct populations, as characterised by their H-alpha equivalent width, EW(Ha). The relative numbers of star-forming and quiescent galaxies varies strongly and continuously with local density. However, the distribution of EW(Ha) amongst the star-forming population is independent of environment. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows strong sensitivity t...

  4. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini


    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  5. A developmental teaching method applied to a select group of nursing students. (United States)

    James, R M


    This study investigates the relationships between Integrated Skills Reinforcement (ISR), an instructional method that reinforces basic skills, student reading comprehension and student attrition rates using a quasi-experimental method. Ninety-three junior level baccalaureate nursing students at a city university participated in the study. One class of 42 students taught by the ISR method was designated the treatment group. Another class of 51 students taught by the lecture method served as the comparison group. Reading comprehension data were collected by retest and posttest the second and twelfth weeks of the semester, respectively, using the Descriptive Test of Language Skills (DTLS). Differences between the comparison and treatment group mean scores on the DTLS were not statistically significant (p lecture method and the ISR method effectively improve reading comprehension levels. Comparison group experienced attrition at 22.5 percent (13 students). By contrast, all 42 students in the treatment group completed the course. Possibly, some elements of the ISR method viably reduce attrition in the school of nursing at this city university.

  6. The Wilson Renormalisation Group Applied to the Potential in NN Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Birse, M C; Richardson, K G; Birse, Michael C.; Govern, Judith A. Mc; Richardson, Keith G.


    Nonrelativistic two-body scattering by a short-ranged potential is studied using the renormalisation group. Two fixed points are identified: a trivial one and one describing systems with a bound state at zero energy. The eigenvalues of the linearised renormalisation group are used to assign a systematic power-counting to terms in the potential near each of these fixed points. The expansion around the nontrivial fixed point defines a power counting scheme which is equivalent to the effective-range expansion.

  7. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. (United States)

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Faria, Deborah; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Rhodes, Jonathan


    Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists) and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores) to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%). At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  8. Intentional Teaching, Intentional Scholarship: Applying Backward Design Principles in a Faculty Writing Group (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.; Cooper, Frank Rudy; McKenzie, Elizabeth M.; Raesch, Monika; Reeve, Patricia A.


    Backward design is a course creation method that encourages teachers to identify their goals for student understanding and measurable objectives for learning from the outset. In this article we explore the application of backward design to the production of scholarly articles. Specifically, we report on a writing group program that encourages…

  9. Bayesian probability theory applied to the space group problem in powder diffraction (United States)

    Markvardsen, A. J.


    Crystal structure determination from powder diffraction data has become a viable option for molecules with less than 50 non-hydrogen atoms in the asymmetric unit and this includes the majority of compounds of pharmaceutical interest. The solution of crystal structures, including space group determination, is more challenging from powder diffraction data than from single crystal diffraction data. Here, it will be demonstrated how a Bayesian probability analysis of this problem has helped to provide a new algorithm for the determination of the space group symmetry of a crystal from powder diffraction data. Specifically, the relative probabilities of different extinction symbols are accessed within a particular crystal system. Examples will be presented to illustrate this approach.

  10. Excited state geometry optimization with the density matrix renormalization group as applied to polyenes

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Weifeng


    We describe and extend the formalism of state-specific analytic density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) energy gradients, first used by Liu et al (J. Chem. Theor.Comput. 9, 4462 (2013)). We introduce a DMRG wavefunction maximum overlap following technique to facilitate state-specific DMRG excited state optimization. Using DMRG configuration interaction (DMRG-CI) gradients we relax the low-lying singlet states of a series of trans-polyenes up to C20H22. Using the relaxed excited state geometries as well as correlation functions, we elucidate the exciton, soliton, and bimagnon ("single-fission") character of the excited states, and find evidence for a planar conical intersection.

  11. The Density Matrix Renormalization Group applied to single-particle Quantum Mechanics



    A simplified version of White's Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm has been used to find the ground state of the free particle on a tight-binding lattice. We generalize this algorithm to treat the tight-binding particle in an arbitrary potential and to find excited states. We thereby solve a discretized version of the single-particle Schr\\"odinger equation, which we can then take to the continuum limit. This allows us to obtain very accurate results for the lowest energy le...

  12. Time series analysis applied to construct US natural gas price functions for groups of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashnikov, V.V. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistemas, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Col. Tecnologico, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 64849 (Mexico); Matis, T.I. [Deparment of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University, 2500 Broadway, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Perez-Valdes, G.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistemas, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Col. Tecnologico, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 64849 (Mexico); Deparment of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University, 2500 Broadway, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)


    The study of natural gas markets took a considerably new direction after the liberalization of the natural gas markets during the early 1990s. As a result, several problems and research opportunities arose for those studying the natural gas supply chain, particularly the marketing operations. Consequently, various studies have been undertaken about the econometrics of natural gas. Several models have been developed and used for different purposes, from descriptive analysis to practical applications such as price and consumption forecasting. In this work, we address the problem of finding a pooled regression formula relating the monthly figures of price and consumption volumes for each state of the United States during the last twenty years. The model thus obtained is used as the basis for the development of two methods aimed at classifying the states into groups sharing a similar price/consumption relationship: a dendrogram application, and an heuristic algorithm. The details and further applications of these grouping techniques are discussed, along with the ultimate purpose of using this pooled regression model to validate data employed in the stochastic optimization problem studied by the authors. (author)

  13. Estimating the Mass of the Local Group using Machine Learning Applied to Numerical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Michael; Lahav, Ofer; Hoffman, Yehuda


    We revisit the estimation of the combined mass of the Milky Way and Andromeda (M31), which dominate the mass of the Local Group. We make use of an ensemble of 30,190 halo pairs from the Small MultiDark simulation, assuming a $\\Lambda$CDM (Cosmological Constant with Cold Dark Matter) cosmology, to investigate the relationship between the bound mass and parameters characterising the orbit of the binary and their local environment with the aid of machine learning methods (artificial neural networks, ANN). Results from the ANN are most successful when information about the velocity shear is provided, which demonstrates the flexibility of machine learning to model physical phenomena and readily incorporate new information as it becomes available. The resulting estimate for the Local Group mass, when shear information is included, is $4.9 \\times 10^{12} M_\\odot$, with an error of $\\pm0.8 \\times 10^{12} M_\\odot$ from the 68% uncertainty in observables, and a 68% confidence interval of $^{+1.3}_{-1.4} \\times 10^{12}M...

  14. Excited-State Geometry Optimization with the Density Matrix Renormalization Group, as Applied to Polyenes. (United States)

    Hu, Weifeng; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic


    We describe and extend the formalism of state-specific analytic density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) energy gradients, first used by Liu et al. [J. Chem. Theor. Comput. 2013, 9, 4462]. We introduce a DMRG wave function maximum overlap following technique to facilitate state-specific DMRG excited-state optimization. Using DMRG configuration interaction (DMRG-CI) gradients, we relax the low-lying singlet states of a series of trans-polyenes up to C20H22. Using the relaxed excited-state geometries, as well as correlation functions, we elucidate the exciton, soliton, and bimagnon ("single-fission") character of the excited states, and find evidence for a planar conical intersection.

  15. Division of ecological species groups and functional groups based on interspecific association - a case study of the tree layer in the tropical lowland rainforest of Jianfenling in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yide LI; Han XU; Dexiang CHEN; Tushou LUO; Jinhua MO; Wen LUO; Huangqiang CHEN; Zhongliang JIANG


    Twenty-three sample plots dominated by Vatica mangachapoi at various elevations in the tropical lowland rainforest in the Jianfengling National Nature Reserve of Hainan Island were established. The interspecific asso-ciation among the 32 dominant species was analyzed and the division of ecological species groups and functional groups are discussed. The results showed that these dom-inant populations had an overall positive interspecific asso-ciation. The species pairs with significant, positive association accounted for only about 10% of the total 496 species pairs. Most of the other species pairs showed weak association or non-association, i.e., the dominant popula-tions investigated had relatively independent distributions. The 32 dominant species were divided into four ecological species groups and ten functional groups according to their interspecific association coefficients, based on a cluster ana-lysis of the species. Recognition characteristics of the ten functional groups are proposed.

  16. Using ecological momentary assessment in testing the effectiveness of an alcohol intervention: a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V Voogt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. METHODS: Data were used from a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial applying ecological momentary assessment (EMA with 30 data time-points in total. Students between 18 and 24 years old who reported heavy drinking in the past six months and who were ready to change their alcohol consumption were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 456: web-based brief alcohol intervention and control condition (n = 451: no intervention. Outcome measures were weekly alcohol consumption, frequency of binge drinking, and heavy drinking status. RESULTS: According to the intention-to-treat principle, regression analyses revealed that intervention effects on alcohol consumption varied when exploring multiple follow-up time-points. Intervention effects were found for a weekly alcohol consumption at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 weeks follow-up, b frequency of binge drinking at 1, 2, 7, and 12 weeks follow-up, and c heavy drinking status at 1, 2, 7, and 16 weeks follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that the commonly used one and six month follow-up time-points are relatively arbitrary and not using EMA might bring forth erroneous conclusions on the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, future trials in alcohol prevention research and beyond are encouraged to apply EMA when assessing outcome measures and intervention effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR2665.

  17. The involvement of naturalists: Introduction to the Special Feature "Applying ecology" La participación de los naturalistas: Introducción al Tema Especial "Aplicando la ecología"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article firstly introduces the Special Feature "Applying Ecology", addressing the use of ecological information for dealing with conservation and environmental problems in Chile. This is part of a series of special features in Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, intended for exploring the contribution of naturalists in making sound decisions in social-environmental planning. However, the low involvement of Chilean biologists has become a factor potentially affecting the quality of environmental decisions and policies, and increasing the chance of unwanted results, which raises some open questions about ethics. In such a context, the second part of the article analyzes the issue of involvement from different perspectives, considering its causes and consequences at individual and collective levels.Este artículo presenta en primer lugar el Tema Especial "Aplicando la Ecología", que aborda el uso de información ecológica para enfrentar problemas ambientales y de conservación en Chile. Este es parte de una serie de temas especiales en la Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, destinados a explorar la contribución de los naturalistas en la toma de decisiones bien fundamentadas en planificación socio-ambiental. Sin embargo, la baja participación de los biólogos chilenos se ha convertido en un factor que potencialmente afecta la calidad de las decisiones y políticas ambientales, y aumenta la probabilidad de los resultados no deseados, lo cual plantea algunas preguntas abiertas sobre ética. En este contexto, la segunda parte del artículo analiza el problema de la participación desde distintas perspectivas, considerando sus causas y consecuencias a nivel individual y colectivo.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Williams


    Full Text Available Mental health day treatment (MHDT programs provide intensive group psychotherapy for patients with psychiatric pathology complicated by personality disorder. Recently, researchers have begun to examine specific components of these programs. Of importance is the theoretical rationale, which may be challenging to understand given the complexity of the treatment. The purpose of this project was to investigate the theory of one MHDT program. Community-based participatory research was chosen and accordingly, all stages of the project were collaborative with the MHDT clinical team. We engaged in a six-month, iterative process of weekly action-reflection cycles wherein material was discussed, analyzed for themes, and the findings presented back to the team to further the conversation. Results summarize this program’s Theories of Dysfunction and Therapeutic Change, which were primarily psychodynamic, but also integrative through assimilation of elements from other paradigms. Usefulness of the research process is discussed and recommendations are provided for others wishing to undergo a similar process.

  19. Interaction of a human blood group Sd(a-) Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein with applied lectins. (United States)

    Wu, J H; Watkins, W M; Chen, C P; Song, S C; Wu, A M


    Unlike the human blood group Sd(a+) Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THGP), the Sd(a-) one lacks terminal GalNAcbeta1--> residues at the nonreducing ends. The binding properties of this glycoprotein and its asialo product with lectins were characterized by quantitative precipitin (QPA) and precipitin inhibition assays. Among 20 lectins tested by QPA, both native and asialo Sd(a-) THGP reacted best with Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis and completely precipitated the lectin added. They also precipitated well Wistaria floribunda (WFA), Glycine max (SBA), Bauhinia purpurea alba, abrin-a and ricin, all of which recognize the Galbeta1--> 4GlcNAcbeta1--> sequence, although at different strength. The lectin-glycan interactions were inhibited by Galbeta1--> 4GlcNAc and Galbeta1--> 4Glc. When the precipitability of Sd(a-) THGP was compared with that of the Sd(a+) phenotype, the native Sd(a-) THGP exhibited a 40% lesser affinity for WFA, SBA, WGA and mistletoe lectin-I (ML-I). Mapping the precipitation and inhibition profiles of the present study and the results of THGP Sd(a+), it is concluded that Sd(a-) THGP showed a strongly diminished affinity for GalNAcbeta1--> active lectins (SBA and WFA) than the Sd(a+) phenotype.

  20. Applying Fishers' ecological knowledge to construct past and future lobster stocks in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. (United States)

    Eddy, Tyler D; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Pérez-Matus, Alejandro


    Over-exploited fisheries are a common feature of the modern world and a range of solutions including area closures (marine reserves; MRs), effort reduction, gear changes, ecosystem-based management, incentives and co-management have been suggested as techniques to rebuild over-fished populations. Historic accounts of lobster (Jasus frontalis) on the Chilean Juan Fernández Archipelago indicate a high abundance at all depths (intertidal to approximately 165 m), but presently lobsters are found almost exclusively in deeper regions of their natural distribution. Fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK) tells a story of serial depletion in lobster abundance at fishing grounds located closest to the fishing port with an associated decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE) throughout recent history. We have re-constructed baselines of lobster biomass throughout human history on the archipelago using historic data, the fishery catch record and FEK to permit examination of the potential effects of MRs, effort reduction and co-management (stewardship of catch) to restore stocks. We employed a bioeconomic model using FEK, fishery catch and effort data, underwater survey information, predicted population growth and response to MR protection (no-take) to explore different management strategies and their trade-offs to restore stocks and improve catches. Our findings indicate that increased stewardship of catch coupled with 30% area closure (MR) provides the best option to reconstruct historic baselines. Based on model predictions, continued exploitation under the current management scheme is highly influenced by annual fluctuations and unsustainable. We propose a community-based co-management program to implement a MR in order to rebuild the lobster population while also providing conservation protection for marine species endemic to the Archipelago.

  1. Applying Fishers' ecological knowledge to construct past and future lobster stocks in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D Eddy

    Full Text Available Over-exploited fisheries are a common feature of the modern world and a range of solutions including area closures (marine reserves; MRs, effort reduction, gear changes, ecosystem-based management, incentives and co-management have been suggested as techniques to rebuild over-fished populations. Historic accounts of lobster (Jasus frontalis on the Chilean Juan Fernández Archipelago indicate a high abundance at all depths (intertidal to approximately 165 m, but presently lobsters are found almost exclusively in deeper regions of their natural distribution. Fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK tells a story of serial depletion in lobster abundance at fishing grounds located closest to the fishing port with an associated decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE throughout recent history. We have re-constructed baselines of lobster biomass throughout human history on the archipelago using historic data, the fishery catch record and FEK to permit examination of the potential effects of MRs, effort reduction and co-management (stewardship of catch to restore stocks. We employed a bioeconomic model using FEK, fishery catch and effort data, underwater survey information, predicted population growth and response to MR protection (no-take to explore different management strategies and their trade-offs to restore stocks and improve catches. Our findings indicate that increased stewardship of catch coupled with 30% area closure (MR provides the best option to reconstruct historic baselines. Based on model predictions, continued exploitation under the current management scheme is highly influenced by annual fluctuations and unsustainable. We propose a community-based co-management program to implement a MR in order to rebuild the lobster population while also providing conservation protection for marine species endemic to the Archipelago.

  2. Applying Behavioral Ecology and Behavioral Economics to Conservation and Development Planning: An Example from the Mikea Forest, Madagascar. (United States)

    Tucker, Bram


    Governments and non-govermental organizations (NGOs) that plan projects to conserve the environment and alleviate poverty often attempt to modify rural livelihoods by halting activities they judge to be destructive or inefficient and encouraging alternatives. Project planners typically do so without understanding how rural people themselves judge the value of their activities. When the alternatives planners recommend do not replace the value of banned activities, alternatives are unlikely to be adopted, and local people will refuse to participate. Human behavioral ecology and behavioral economics may provide useful tools for generating and evaluating hypotheses for how people value economic activities in their portfolios and potential alternatives. This is demonstrated with a case example from southwestern Madagascar, where plans to create a Mikea Forest National Park began with the elimination of slash-and-burn maize agriculture and the encouragement to plant labor-intensive manioc instead. Future park plans could restrict access to wild tuber patches, hunting small game, and fishing. The value of these activities is considered using observational data informed by optimal foraging theory, and experimental data describing people's time preference and covariation perception. Analyses suggest that manioc is not a suitable replacement for maize for many Mikea because the two crops differ in terms of labor requirements, delay-to-reward, and covariation with rainfall. Park planners should promote wild tuber foraging and stewardship of tuber patches and the anthropogenic landscapes in which they are found. To conserve small game, planners must provide alternative sources of protein and cash. Little effort should be spent protecting lemurs, as they are rarely eaten and never sold.

  3. Elder abuse by adult children: an applied ecological framework for understanding contextual risk factors and the intergenerational character of quality of life. (United States)

    Schiamberg, L B; Gans, D


    Elder abuse in family settings has increased in recent years for a variety of reasons, including the increasing proportion of older adults in the total population, the related increase in chronic disabling diseases, and the increasing involvement of families in caregiving relationships with elders. Future trends indicate not only continued growth of the older population but suggest, as well, an increased demand for family caregiving which may, in turn, be accompanied by increasing rates of elder abuse. It is important to consider issues associated with such caregiving and elder abuse in families from an ecological perspective as a basis both for framing conceptually relevant and effective prevention strategies as well as for understanding the specific character of the broader issue of the intergenerational nature of the quality of life in an aging society. Using an applied ecological model, the article focuses on the contextual risk factors of elder abuse. Specifically, five levels of environment--microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem--will be utilized to organize and interpret existing research on the risk factors asociated with elder abuse (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1986, 1997). The configuration of the risk factors provides a useful framework for understanding the intergenerational character of the quality of life for older adults, for developing recommendations for empirically-based action research, and for the development of community-based prevention and intervention strategies. The application of a contextual perspective to the development of intervention and prevention programs will be addressed, the latter in relation to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

  4. Ecological Inference (United States)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.


    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  5. 生态建筑理论应用于建筑设计中的分析%The Ecological Architectural Theory Is Applied to Architectural Design Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      In recent years, China's economic construction has made remarkable achievements in al walks of life to enter into a period of rapid development, more and more building into the building and use them effectively meet the growing archi-tectural needs. The construction industry has always been a high energy-consuming industries in the global environme-nt al crisis and the growing resource crisis context, the appli-cation of the theory of ecological building architectural design became a necessity. This article will briefly analyze how to apply ecological architectural theory and architectural design which I hope can be helpful to the persons concerned.%  近年来,我国在经济建设方面取得了举世瞩目的成就,各行各业都进入到了快速发展的时期,越来越多的建筑投入到建设和使用当中,有效满足了人们日益增长的对建筑的需求。建筑行业一直都是一个高耗能产业,在全球环境危机及资源危机日益严重的背景下,在建筑设计中应用生态建筑理论成为必然。本文将简单分析生态建筑理论如何应用与建筑设计当中,希望能对有关人士有所帮助。

  6. Ecological Evaluation Index continuous formula (EEI-c application: a step forward for functional groups, the formula and reference condition values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Ecological Evaluation Index continuous formula (EEI-c was designed to estimate the habitat- based ecological status of rocky coastal and sedimentary transitional waters using shallow benthic macrophyte communities as bioindicators. This study aimed to remedy the weaknesses of the currently used EEI methodology in: (1 ecological status groups (ESG, (2 the formula, and (3 reference condition values. A cluster analysis of twelve species traits was used to delineate ESGs. Two main clusters (ESG I, late-successional; ESG II, opportunistic were identified that were hierarchically divided into three and two sub-clusters, respectively: ESG I comprised thick perennial (IA, thick plastic (IB and shade-adapted plastic (IC coastal water species, and angiosperm plastic (IA, thick plastic (IB and shade-adapted plastic (IC transitional water species. ESG II comprised fleshy opportunistic (IIB and filamentous sheet-like opportunistic (IIA species both in coastal and transitional waters. To avoid discrete jumps at the boundaries between predefined ecological categories, a hyperbolic model that approximates the index values and expresses the ecosystem status in continuous numbers was developed. Seventy-four quantitative and destructive samples of the upper infralittoralCystoseira crinita and coastal lagoonRuppia cirrhosa communities from tentative pristine to less impacted sites in Greece verified 10 as an ‘ideal’ EEI-c reference condition value.

  7. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.


    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  8. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for girls victims of sexual violence in Brazil: Are there differences in effectiveness when applied by different groups of psychologists?: effectiveness of group therapy for girls victims of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Habigzang

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy model for the treatment of girls victims of sexual violence (SV was investigated when applied by different groups of practitioners: researchers/psychologists who developed it (G1 and psychologists from the public social care network trained by the first group (G2. A quasi-experimental study was carried out, in which the group therapy model was applied by the two groups. A total of 103 girls victims of sexual violence (SV, aged between seven and 16 years (M=11.76 years, SD=2.02 years were included, with 49 attended by G1, and 54 by G2. The results indicated a significant reduction in the symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and PTSD. The comparison between the results obtained by the two groups of practitioners in the application of the model indicated no significant differences in the rates of improvement of the participants. These results indicate the effectiveness of the cognitive-behavioral group therapy model evaluated and the possibility of it being used as a care strategy by psychology practitioners working in public services.

  9. Applying the Fuzzy Delphi Method for determining socio-ecological factors that influence adherence to mammography screening in rural areas of Mexico. (United States)

    Sánchez-Lezama, Ana Paola; Cavazos-Arroyo, Judith; Albavera-Hernández, Cidronio


    In Mexico, regular participation in mammography screening is low, despite higher survival rates. The objective of our research is to highlight healthcare procedures to be optimized and target areas to encourage investment and to raise awareness about the benefits of early diagnosis. Those socio-ecological factors (community, interpersonal and individual) were collected through a review of literature and based on the spatial interaction model of mammography use developed by Mobley et al. The opinion of diverse groups of experts on the importance of those factors was collected by survey. The Fuzzy Delphi Method helped to solve the inherent uncertainty of the survey process. Our findings suggest that population health behaviors, proximity-density to facilities/ physicians and predisposing factors are needed to increase the screening rate. Variations in expert group size could affect the accuracy of the conclusions. However, the application of the enhanced aggregation method provided a group consensus that is less susceptible to misinterpretation and that weighs the opinion of each expert according to their clinical experience in mammography research.

  10. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.


    While phylogenetic and cluster analyses are often used to define clonal groups within bacterial species, the identification of clonal groups that are associated with specific ecological niches or host species remains a challenge. We used Listeria monocytogenes, which causes invasive disease...... in humans and different animal species and which can be isolated from a number of environments including food, as a model organism to develop and implement a two-step statistical approach to the identification of phylogenetic clades that are significantly associated with different source populations...

  11. Toward ecologically scaled landscape indices. (United States)

    Vos, C C; Verboom, J; Opdam, P F; Ter Braak, C J


    Nature conservation is increasingly based on a landscape approach rather than a species approach. Landscape planning that includes nature conservation goals requires integrated ecological tools. However, species differ widely in their response to landscape change. We propose a framework of ecologically scaled landscape indices that takes into account this variation. Our approach is based on a combination of field studies of spatially structured populations (metapopulations) and model simulations in artificial landscapes. From these, we seek generalities in the relationship among species features, landscape indices, and metapopulation viability. The concept of ecological species profiles is used to group species according to characteristics that are important in metapopulations' response to landscape change: individual area requirements as the dominant characteristic of extinction risk in landscape patches and dispersal distance as the main determinant of the ability to colonize patches. The ecological profiles and landscape indices are then integrated into two ecologically scaled landscape indices (ESLI): average patch carrying capacity and average patch connectivity. The field data show that the fraction of occupied habitat patches is correlated with the two ESLI. To put the ESLI into a perspective of metapopulation persistence, we determine the viability for six ecological profiles at different degrees of habitat fragmentation using a metapopulation model and computer-generated landscapes. The model results show that the fraction of occupied patches is a good indicator for metapopulation viability. We discuss how ecological profiles, ESLI, and the viability threshold can be applied for landscape planning and design in nature conservation.

  12. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco


    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  13. A study on associations of Korean sample group for colors applied to the nuclear power plant control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, In Seok; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Lee, Dhong Ha [Suwon University, Whasung (Korea)


    Colors are widely used to warn risk levels and to attract attention of the public. Korea Standard Nuclear Reactor Control Room (KSNRCR) also uses several colors to differentiate warnings, priorities, status, borders, and messages based on the HF010 guideline. However the previous studies showed that the general public not engaged in a specific job domain had different associations of colors as regulated in the standards or the guidelines. It is also expected that the general public not engaged in nuclear power plant industry will have different color association system from the color coding system applied to the KSNRCR. So, this study was performed to show whether there is any difference between color association of a sample Korean group and the color meanings specified in the HF010 guideline. The general public not engaged in the nuclear power plant industry have no idea of the color usage in the nuclear control room. So we converted the specific color usage situation into similar but general situations. In questionnaire, we gave subjects the general situation where color coding is appled and alternative colors which were applied to the HF010 guidelines. And we asked the subjects to choose the colors proper to the situation and to rank the colors according to the degree of suitability. A hundred college students participated in the experiment. 10 refs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  14. Changes in sexual signals are greater than changes in ecological traits in a dichromatic group of fishes. (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Mendelson, Tamra C


    Understanding the mechanisms by which phenotypic divergence occurs is central to speciation research. These mechanisms can be revealed by measuring differences in traits that are subject to different selection pressures; greater influence of different types of selection can be inferred from greater divergence in associated traits. Here, we address the potential roles of natural and sexual selection in promoting phenotypic divergence between species of snubnose darters by comparing differences in body shape, an ecologically relevant trait, and male color, a sexual signal. Body shape was measured using geometric morphometrics, and male color was measured using digital photography and visual system-dependent color values. Differences in male color are larger than differences in body shape across eight allopatric, phylogenetically independent species pairs. While this does not exclude the action of divergent natural selection, our results suggest a relatively more important role for sexual selection in promoting recent divergence in darters. Variation in the relative differences between male color and body shape across species pairs reflects the continuous nature of speciation mechanisms, ranging from ecological speciation to speciation by sexual selection alone.

  15. Group-effort applied research: expanding opportunities for undergraduate research through original, class-based research projects. (United States)

    Moore, Sean D; Teter, Ken


    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's laboratory. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student-one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this article, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience.

  16. Comparison of the density-matrix renormalization group method applied to fractional quantum Hall systems in different geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zi-Xiang, E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Physics, ChongQing University, ChongQing 400044 (China); Papić, Z.; Johri, S.; Bhatt, R.N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Schmitteckert, Peter [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    We report a systematic study of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) using the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method on two different geometries: the sphere and the cylinder. We provide convergence benchmarks based on model Hamiltonians known to possess exact zero-energy ground states, as well as an analysis of the number of sweeps and basis elements that need to be kept in order to achieve the desired accuracy. The ground state energies of the Coulomb Hamiltonian at ν=1/3 and ν=5/2 filling are extracted and compared with the results obtained by previous DMRG implementations in the literature. A remarkably rapid convergence in the cylinder geometry is noted and suggests that this boundary condition is particularly suited for the application of the DMRG method to the FQHE. -- Highlights: ► FQHE is a two-dimensional physics. ► Density-matrix renormalization group method applied to FQH systems. ► Benchmark study both on sphere and cylinder geometry.

  17. An Ecology of Prestige in New York City: Examining the Relationships Among Population Density, Socio-economic Status, Group Identity, and Residential Canopy Cover (United States)

    Grove, J. Morgan; Locke, Dexter H.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.


    Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. We use diverse data sources including the City's property database, time-series demographic and socio-economic data from the US Census, and land cover data from the University of Vermont's Spatial Analysis Lab (SAL). These data are analyzed using a multi-model inferential, spatial econometrics approach. We also examine the distribution of vegetation within distinct market categories using Claritas' Potential Rating Index for Zipcode Markets (PRIZM™) database. These categories can be disaggregated, corresponding to the four social theories. We compare the econometric and categorical results for validation. Models associated with ecology of prestige theory are more effective for predicting the distribution of vegetation. This suggests that private, residential patterns of vegetation, reflecting the consumption of environmentally relevant goods and services, are associated with different lifestyles and lifestages. Further, our spatial and temporal analyses suggest that there are significant spatial and temporal dependencies that have theoretical and methodological implications for understanding urban ecological systems. These findings may have policy implications. Decision makers may need to consider how to most effectively reach different social groups in terms of messages and messengers in order to advance land management practices and achieve urban sustainability.

  18. An ecology of prestige in New York City: examining the relationships among population density, socio-economic status, group identity, and residential canopy cover. (United States)

    Grove, J Morgan; Locke, Dexter H; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P M


    Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. We use diverse data sources including the City's property database, time-series demographic and socio-economic data from the US Census, and land cover data from the University of Vermont's Spatial Analysis Lab (SAL). These data are analyzed using a multi-model inferential, spatial econometrics approach. We also examine the distribution of vegetation within distinct market categories using Claritas' Potential Rating Index for Zipcode Markets (PRIZM™) database. These categories can be disaggregated, corresponding to the four social theories. We compare the econometric and categorical results for validation. Models associated with ecology of prestige theory are more effective for predicting the distribution of vegetation. This suggests that private, residential patterns of vegetation, reflecting the consumption of environmentally relevant goods and services, are associated with different lifestyles and lifestages. Further, our spatial and temporal analyses suggest that there are significant spatial and temporal dependencies that have theoretical and methodological implications for understanding urban ecological systems. These findings may have policy implications. Decision makers may need to consider how to most effectively reach different social groups in terms of messages and messengers in order to advance land management practices and achieve urban sustainability.

  19. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove


    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...... in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  20. Integrated risk assessment for WFD ecological status classification applied to Llobregat river basin (Spain). Part I-Fuzzy approach to aggregate biological indicators. (United States)

    Gottardo, S; Semenzin, E; Giove, S; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; de Zwart, D; Ginebreda, A; Marcomini, A


    Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements and recommendations for Ecological Status (ES) classification of surface water bodies do not address all issues that Member States have to face in the implementation process, such as selection of appropriate stressor-specific environmental indicators, definition of class boundaries, aggregation of heterogeneous data and information and uncertainty evaluation. In this context the "One-Out, All-Out" (OOAO) principle is the suggested approach to lead the entire classification procedure and ensure conservative results. In order to support water managers in achieving a more comprehensive and realistic evaluation of ES, an Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) methodology was developed. It is based on the Weight of Evidence approach and implements a Fuzzy Inference System in order to hierarchically aggregate a set of environmental indicators, which are grouped into five Lines of Evidence (i.e. Biology, Chemistry, Ecotoxicology, Physico-chemistry and Hydromorphology). The whole IRA methodology has been implemented as an individual module into a freeware GIS (Geographic Information System)-based Decision Support System (DSS), named MODELKEY DSS. The paper focuses on the conceptual and mathematical procedure underlying the evaluation of the most complex Line of Evidence, i.e. Biology, which identifies the biological communities that are potentially at risk and the stressors that are most likely responsible for the observed alterations. The results obtained from testing the procedure through application of the MODELKEY DSS to the Llobregat case study are reported and discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel eAnaya


    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology, which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation. As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology. In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status, gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  2. The Autoimmune Ecology. (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana


    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  3. [Ecology and ecologies]. (United States)

    Valera, Luca


    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  4. Co-operative groups in their environments : a population-ecological model for co-operative membership and performance


    Lasowski, Ophir


    The aim of this work is to develop an alternative evolutionary approach to assessing the performance of co-operative organizations. The focus of investigation is turned to the co-operative organization as a group of members in a market environment containing non-members. Significant unique features of the co-operative organization is illustrated at first. After reviewing historical aspects of evolution theories and their positioning in biology, economic and social sciences, alternative notion...

  5. Applied group theory applications in the engineering (physical, chemical, and medical), biological, social, and behavioral sciences and in the fine arts (United States)

    Borg, S. F.


    A generalized applied group theory is developed, and it is shown that phenomena from a number of diverse disciplines may be included under the umbrella of a single theoretical formulation based upon the concept of a group consistent with the usual definition of this term.

  6. Population size, group composition and behavioural ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Kifle, Zewdu; Belay, Gurja; Bekele, Afework


    Primates that live in protected areas are intensively studied; however, those that live outside protected areas are less studied by primatologists. Therefore, the present study was carried out outside protected areas on the endemic gelada (Theropithecus gelada) to estimate the population size and group composition and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia from August 2008-March 2009. Total count method was used to determine the population size and group composition of geladas. A band of geladas was selected to carry out behavioural research. Data were collected on activity, diet and ranging patterns for one band of geladas using scan samples at 15 min intervals. Data on human-gelada conflict was gathered using questionnaire interview method. The total number of geladas in the study area was 1525. The average size of one-male unit was 16.96. Adult male to adult female sex ratio was 1.00:6.61. The average size of the band was 58.03. Group size ranged from 3 to 220. Geladas spent 65.2% of their time feeding, 16.3% moving, 4.6% resting and 13.9% socializing. The total time spent feeding on grass blades was 83.8% and 11.8% for bulbs and roots. The home range size was 1.5 km2 during the dry season and 0.2 km2 during the wet season. Geladas in the study area caused crop damage and shared pasture and drinking water with livestock. They consume crops during harvesting stage more than the seedling and vegetative stages. The study has immense contribution for the conservation and management of this endemic primate in unprotected areas.

  7. Patterns and processes of diversification in a widespread and ecologically diverse avian group, the buteonine hawks (Aves, Accipitridae). (United States)

    do Amaral, Fábio Raposo; Sheldon, Frederick H; Gamauf, Anita; Haring, Elisabeth; Riesing, Martin; Silveira, Luís F; Wajntal, Anita


    Buteonine hawks represent one of the most diverse groups in the Accipitridae, with 58 species distributed in a variety of habitats on almost all continents. Variations in migratory behavior, remarkable dispersal capability, and unusual diversity in Central and South America make buteonine hawks an excellent model for studies in avian evolution. To evaluate the history of their global radiation, we used an integrative approach that coupled estimation of the phylogeny using a large sequence database (based on 6411 bp of mitochondrial markers and one nuclear intron from 54 species), divergence time estimates, and ancestral state reconstructions. Our findings suggest that Neotropical buteonines resulted from a long evolutionary process that began in the Miocene and extended to the Pleistocene. Colonization of the Nearctic, and eventually the Old World, occurred from South America, promoted by the evolution of seasonal movements and development of land bridges. Migratory behavior evolved several times and may have contributed not only to colonization of the Holarctic, but also derivation of insular species. In the Neotropics, diversification of the buteonines included four disjunction events across the Andes. Adaptation of monophyletic taxa to wet environments occurred more than once, and some relationships indicate an evolutionary connection among mangroves, coastal and várzea environments. On the other hand, groups occupying the same biome, forest, or open vegetation habitats are not monophyletic. Refuges or sea-level changes or a combination of both was responsible for recent speciation in Amazonian taxa. In view of the lack of concordance between phylogeny and classification, we propose numerous taxonomic changes.

  8. Behavioural ecology and group cohesion of juvenile western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla during rehabilitation in the Bateke Plateaux National Park, Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Flohic

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct. The western lowland gorilla (WLG, Gorilla g. gorilla is persistently poached; infants are often illegally traded and used as pets. Some are confiscated and rehabilitated, then kept in sanctuaries or reintroduced into the wild. Prior to reintroduction, the ability of the orphans to survive independently in their environment needs to be assessed. Here, we performed a multivariate analysis, including diet composition, activity-budget, and pattern of strata using of a group of five juvenile WLG in the process of rehabilitation and distinguished three sub-periods of ecological significance: the high furgivory period, the Dialium fruits consumption period, and the high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on their well-being (play behaviour and the group cohesion (spatial proximity and social interactions were examined. Like wild WLGs, diets shifted seasonally from frugivorous to folivorous, while the same staple foods were consumed and large amounts of Dialium fruits were seasonally gathered high in trees. When succulent fruit intake was the highest, thus providing high energy from sugar, juveniles spent less time feeding, more time playing and group cohesion was the highest. Conversely, the cohesion decreased with increasing folivory, individuals spent more time feeding and less time playing together. Nonetheless, the group cohesion also decreased after the death of one highly social, wild-born orphan. This may underscore the importance of skilled individuals in the cohesion and well-being of the entire group and, ultimately, to rehabilitation success. This study evaluates the rehabilitation success with regards to the methods used and highlights the need to consider a set of individual and environmental factors for

  9. Behavioural ecology and group cohesion of juvenile western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) during rehabilitation in the Batéké Plateaux National Park, Gabon. (United States)

    Le Flohic, Guillaume; Motsch, Peggy; DeNys, Hélène; Childs, Simon; Courage, Amos; King, Tony


    Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct. The western lowland gorilla (WLG, Gorilla g. gorilla) is persistently poached; infants are often illegally traded and used as pets. Some are confiscated and rehabilitated, then kept in sanctuaries or reintroduced into the wild. Prior to reintroduction, the ability of the orphans to survive independently in their environment needs to be assessed. Here, we performed a multivariate analysis, including diet composition, activity-budget, and pattern of strata using of a group of five juvenile WLG in the process of rehabilitation and distinguished three sub-periods of ecological significance: the high furgivory period, the Dialium fruits consumption period, and the high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on their well-being (play behaviour) and the group cohesion (spatial proximity and social interactions) were examined. Like wild WLGs, diets shifted seasonally from frugivorous to folivorous, while the same staple foods were consumed and large amounts of Dialium fruits were seasonally gathered high in trees. When succulent fruit intake was the highest, thus providing high energy from sugar, juveniles spent less time feeding, more time playing and group cohesion was the highest. Conversely, the cohesion decreased with increasing folivory, individuals spent more time feeding and less time playing together. Nonetheless, the group cohesion also decreased after the death of one highly social, wild-born orphan. This may underscore the importance of skilled individuals in the cohesion and well-being of the entire group and, ultimately, to rehabilitation success. This study evaluates the rehabilitation success with regards to the methods used and highlights the need to consider a set of individual and environmental factors for enhancing

  10. Professionally significant psychophysiological qualities of information logical group of specialties at implementation of the experimental program of professionally applied physical training of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Y.O.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve vocational and applied physical training of students of economics. Material: the pedagogical study involved 72 male students (aged 19-20 years. Results: job study was conducted. Defined professionally significant neurobehavioral performance of students of information logical group. Matched professionally applied exercises for their development. The results showed that in the process of purposeful muscle activity improved mechanisms of regulation of neural processes, adaptive changes occur that affect the temporal parameters of sensorimotor motor responses. A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological indicators of students of the control and experimental groups was done. Conclusions: it was found that matched professionally applied exercises positively affect the development of psycho-physiological qualities of students information and logical group of specialties.

  11. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher


    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…

  12. Group Training of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Knowledge Competencies to Community-Based Service Providers for Adults with Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.; St. Amand, CarrieAnne; MaGee, Christine; Sperry, James M.


    We describe a training program to teach applied behavior analysis (ABA) knowledge competencies to paraprofessional staff (N = 47) at a habilitation services agency for adults with developmental disabilities. Before and following training, staff completed assessment of knowledge tests for three content areas: basic learning principles,…

  13. Administrative Ecology (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda


    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  14. Ecological Species Groups of Wetland Vegetation on Lianbotan in Fen River, Shanxi%汾河连伯滩湿地植被生态种组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦磊; 张峰


    根据42个野外样方调查资料,采用Fisher精确检验、Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关系数,研究汾河连伯滩湿地21个优势种的种间关系,结合组平均法的聚类结果,对生态种组进行了划分.结果表明:1)在210个种对中,Fisher精确检验结果表明共有16个种对为正关联,1个种对为负关联;Pearson相关系数有20个种对为正相关,5个种对为负相关;Spearman秩相关系数有34个种对为正相关,7个种对为负相关;2)在所有的种对中,大多数种对间表现为不显著关联,种间不显著相关,说明优势种群间生态位相对分离;3)综合种间关联、种间相关和聚类分析结果,将21个优势种划分成4个生态种组,分别是芦苇生态种组、赖草生态种组、白茅生态种组和野艾蒿生态种组,这4个生态种组反映了随水分条件变化连伯滩湿地植被群落的组成特征.%Interspecies relationships between the dominant species of wetland vegetation on Lianbotan in Fen River,Shanxi by Fishers exact test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation based on the data collected from 42 field plots. Ecological species groups of those dominant species were studied by using group averaging clustering.The results indicated that: Sixteen species-pairs had positive association coefficient and one species-pair had negative association coefficient by Fisher's exact test. In addition, 20 species-pairs had positive correlation coefficient and 5 species-pairs had negative correlation coefficient by Pearson's correlation analysis. Furthermore, 34 species-pairs displayed positive and 7 were negative correlations by Spearman. Associations and correlations between most species-pairs were not significant, which suggested that the dominant species distributed in an isolated pattern and their inches separated. On the basis of the results of association and correlation of those dominant species as well as that of analysis of clustering, those

  15. Agro-ecological analysis for the EU water framework directive: an applied case study for the river contract of the Seveso basin (Italy). (United States)

    Bocchi, Stefano; La Rosa, Daniele; Pileri, Paolo


    The innovative approach to the protection and management of water resources at the basin scale introduced by the European Union water framework directive (WFD) requires new scientific tools. WFD implementation also requires the participation of many stakeholders (administrators, farmers and citizens) with the aim of improving the quality of river waters and basin ecosystems through cooperative planning. This approach encompasses different issues, such as agro-ecology, land use planning and water management. This paper presents the results of a methodology suggested for implementing the WFD in the case of the Seveso river contract in Italy, one of the recent WFD applications. The Seveso basin in the Lombardy region has been one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Italy over the last 50 years. First, land use changes in the last 50 years are assessed with the use of historical aerial photos. Then, elements of an ecological network along the river corridor are outlined, and different scenarios for enhancing existing ecological connections are assessed using indicators from graph theory. These scenarios were discussed in technical workshops with involved stakeholders of the river contract. The results show a damaged rural landscape, where urbanization processes have decimated the system of linear green features (hedges/rows). Progressive reconnections of some of the identified network nodes may significantly increase the connectivity and circuitry of the study area.

  16. Agro-Ecological Analysis for the EU Water Framework Directive: An Applied Case Study for the River Contract of the Seveso Basin (Italy) (United States)

    Bocchi, Stefano; La Rosa, Daniele; Pileri, Paolo


    The innovative approach to the protection and management of water resources at the basin scale introduced by the European Union water framework directive (WFD) requires new scientific tools. WFD implementation also requires the participation of many stakeholders (administrators, farmers and citizens) with the aim of improving the quality of river waters and basin ecosystems through cooperative planning. This approach encompasses different issues, such as agro-ecology, land use planning and water management. This paper presents the results of a methodology suggested for implementing the WFD in the case of the Seveso river contract in Italy, one of the recent WFD applications. The Seveso basin in the Lombardy region has been one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Italy over the last 50 years. First, land use changes in the last 50 years are assessed with the use of historical aerial photos. Then, elements of an ecological network along the river corridor are outlined, and different scenarios for enhancing existing ecological connections are assessed using indicators from graph theory. These scenarios were discussed in technical workshops with involved stakeholders of the river contract. The results show a damaged rural landscape, where urbanization processes have decimated the system of linear green features (hedges/rows). Progressive reconnections of some of the identified network nodes may significantly increase the connectivity and circuitry of the study area.

  17. Benefits of ecological engineering practices


    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.


    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engineering: from Concepts to Application” organized by the Ecological Engineering Applications Group GAIE. This paper presents the results of the workshop related to three key questions: (1) what are t...

  18. "It's All Scientific to Me": Focus Group Insights into Why Young People Do Not Apply Safe-Sex Knowledge (United States)

    McKee, Alan; Watson, Anne-Frances; Dore, Johanna


    Despite rising levels of safe-sex knowledge in Australia, sexually transmitted infection notifications continue to increase. A culture-centred approach suggests it is useful in attempting to reach a target population first to understand their perspective on the issues. Twenty focus groups were conducted with 89 young people between the ages of 14…

  19. Aligning Coordination Class Theory with a New Context: Applying a Theory of Individual Learning to Group Learning (United States)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Wittmann, Michael C.


    This article presents an empirical analysis of conceptual difficulties encountered and ways students made progress in learning at both individual and group levels in a classroom environment in which the students used an embodied modeling activity to make sense of a specific scientific scenario. The theoretical framework, coordination class theory,…

  20. Group Oral Review in the Reading Lab: A Means of Synthesizing Individualized Approaches Applied to One Body of Written Material. (United States)

    Tomlinson, Louise M.

    Theorists and researchers have indicated that the Group Oral Review (GOR) provides valuable classroom interaction. Some objectives of the GOR approach to reading (for developmental studies reading students) are as follows: to reinforce the process used in a reading assignment, to aid development of metacognitive awareness, to emphasize the idea…

  1. Single older women who applied for the giving life more lustre course : Are they the target group that was aimed for?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Ismay; Steverink, Nardi; Albersnagel, Frans A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.


    The present study investigated whether the women who applied for the self-management of well-being course Giving life more LUSTRE can be considered the target group that was intended. By comparing the course applicants with a random sample of community dwelling single women, it was found that, as ex

  2. On the use of applying Lie-group symmetry analysis to turbulent channel flow with streamwise rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Frewer, Michael


    The study by Oberlack et al. (2006) consists of two main parts: a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent plane channel flow with streamwise rotation and a preceding Lie-group symmetry analysis on the two-point correlation equation (TPC) to analytically predict the scaling of the mean velocity profiles for different rotation rates. We will only comment on the latter part, since the DNS result obtained in the former part has already been commented on by Recktenwald et al. (2009), stating that the observed mismatch between DNS and their performed experiment is possibly due to the prescription of periodic boundary conditions on a too small computational domain in the spanwise direction. By revisiting the group analysis part in Oberlack et al. (2006), we will generate more natural scaling laws describing better the mean velocity profiles than the ones proposed. However, due to the statistical closure problem of turbulence, this improvement is illusive. As we will demonstrate, any arbitrary invariant scal...

  3. Developments in numerical ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, P.; Legendre, L.


    From earlier ecological studies it has become apparent that simple univariate or bivariate statistics are often inappropriate, and that multivariate statistical analyses must be applied. Despite several difficulties arising from the application of multivariate methods, community ecology has acquired a mathematical framework, with three consequences: it can develop as an exact science; it can be applied operationally as a computer-assisted science to the solution of environmental problems; and it can exchange information with other disciplines using the language of mathematics.

  4. Applying the RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate Integrative Medicine Group Visits Among Diverse Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain. (United States)

    Chao, Maria T; Abercrombie, Priscilla D; Santana, Trilce; Duncan, Larissa G


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate group medical visits using an integrative health approach for underserved women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). We implemented an integrative medicine program to improve quality of life among women with CPP using Centering, a group-based model that combines healthcare assessment, education, and social support. Patients were from university-affiliated and public hospital-affiliated clinics. We evaluated the program with qualitative and quantitative data to address components of the RE-AIM framework: Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance. Participants of the Centering CPP Program participants (n = 26) were demographically similar to a sample of women with CPP who sought care at Bay Area hospitals (n = 701). Participants were on average 40 years of age, a majority of whom were racial/ethnic minorities with low household income (76%). Women who attended four or more sessions (n = 16) had improved health-related quality of life, including decreases in average number of unhealthy days in the past month (from 24 to 18, p < .05), depressive symptoms (from 11.7 to 9.0, p < .05), and symptom severity (from 4.2 to 3.1, p < .01). Sexual health outcomes also improved (30.5 to 50.3, p = .02). No improvements were observed for pain catastrophizing. Our pilot program provides preliminary data that an integrative health approach using a group-based model can be adapted and implemented to reach diverse women with CPP to improve physical and psychological well-being. Given these promising findings, rigorous evaluation of implementation and effectiveness of this approach compared with usual care is warranted.

  5. What is dental ecology? (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L


    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context.

  6. [Demography and human ecology]. (United States)

    Nazareth, J M


    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology

  7. Binding properties of a blood group Le(a+) active sialoglycoprotein, purified from human ovarian cyst, with applied lectins. (United States)

    Wu, A M; WU, J H; Watkins, W M; Chen, C P; Tsai, M C


    Studies on the structures and binding properties of the glycoproteins, purified from human ovarian cyst fluids, will aid the understanding of the carbohydrate alterations occurring during the biosynthesis of blood group antigens and neoplasm formation. These glycoproteins can also serve as important biological materials to study blood group A, B, H, Le(a), Le(b), Le(x), Le(y), T and Tn determinants, precursor type I and II sequences and cold agglutinin I and i epitopes. In this study, the binding property of a cyst glycoprotein from a human blood group Le(a+) nonsecretor individual, that contains an unusually high amount (18%) of sialic acid (HOC 350) was characterized by quantitative precipitin assay with a panel of lectins exhibiting a broad range of carbohydrate-binding specificities. Native HOC 350 reacted well only with three out of nineteen lectins tested. It precipitated about 80% of Ricinus communis (RCA1), 50% of Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and 37% of Bauhinia purpurea aba (BPA) agglutinins, respectively. However, its asialo product had dramatically enhanced reactivity and reacted well with many I/II (Gal beta1 --> 3/4GcNAc), T(Gal beta1 --> 3GalNAc) and Tn(GaNIAc alphaI --> Ser/Thr) active lectins. It bound best to Jacalin, BPA, and abrin-a and completely precipitated all the lectins added. Asialo-HOC 350 also reacted strongly with Wistaria floribunda, Abrus precatorius agglutinin, ricin and RCA1 and precipitated over 75% of the lectin nitrogen added, and moderately with Arachis hypogaea, Maclura pomifera, WGA, Vicia viosa-B4, Codium fragile tomentosoides and Ulex europaeus-II. But native HOC 350 and its asialo product reacted not at all or poorly with Dolichos biflorus, Helix pomatia, Lotus tetra-gonolobus, Ulex europaeus-I, Lens culinaris lectins and Con A. The lectin-glycoform interactions through bioactive sugars were confirmed by precipitin inhibition assay. Mapping the precipitation profiles of the interactions have led to the conclusion that HOC 350

  8. “Low Cost” Pore Expanded SBA-15 Functionalized with Amine Groups Applied to CO2 Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vilarrasa-García


    Full Text Available The CO2 adsorption capacity of different functionalized mesoporous silicas of the SBA-15 type was investigated and the influence of textural properties and the effect of the silicon source on the CO2 uptake studied. Several adsorbents based on SBA-15 were synthesized using sodium silicate as silicon source, replacing the commonly used tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS. Thus, we synthesized three couples of supports, two at room temperature (RT, RT-F, two hydrothermal (HT, HT-F and two hydrothermal with addition of swelling agent (1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TiPB, TiPB-F. Within each couple, one of the materials was synthesized with ammonium fluoride (NH4F. The supports were functionalized via grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and via impregnation with polyethylenimine ethylenediamine branched (PEI. The adsorption behavior of the pure materials was described well by the Langmuir model, whereas for the amine-silicas, a Dualsite Langmuir model was applied, which allowed us to qualify and quantify two different adsorption sites. Among the materials synthesized, only the SBA-15 synthesized at room temperatures (RT improved its properties as an adsorbent with the addition of fluoride when the silicas were functionalized with APTES. The most promising result was the TiPB-F/50PEI silica which at 75 °C and 1 bar CO2 captured 2.21 mmol/g.

  9. Fish-based groups for ecological assessment in rivers: the importance of environmental drivers on taxonomic and functional traits of fish assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matono P.


    Full Text Available The use of river-types is of practical value, serving as groups for which assessment procedures can be developed and applied. An abiotic typology was set by the Portuguese Water Agency, mainly based on 6 major morphoclimatic regions. However, to be biologically meaningful, this typology should fit the distribution patterns of the biological quality elements communities proposed in Water Framework Directive under the lowest possible human pressure. This study aimed to identify and characterize fish-based geographical groups for continental Portugal and their environmental and geographical discriptors, using taxonomic and functional traits. Sampling took place between 2004 and 2006 during Spring. Fish fauna from 155 reference sites was analysed using a multivariate approach. Cluster Analysis on fish composition identified 10 fish-groups, expressing a clear correspondence to the river basin level, due to the restrict basin distribution of many species. Groups showed a wider aggregation in 4 regions with a larger geographical correspondence, statistically supported by Similarity Analysis, both on fish composition and mostly on fish metrics/guilds. Principal Components Analysis revealed major environmental drivers associated to fish-groups and fish-regions. Fish-groups were hierarchically grouped over major and local regions, expressing a large-scale response to a North-South environmental gradient defined by temperature, precipitation, mineralization and altitude, and a regional scale response mainly to drainage area and flow discharge. From North to South, fish-regions were related to the morphoclimatic regions. Results contributed to reduce redundance in abiotic river-types and set the final typology for Portuguese rivers, constituting a fundamental tool for planning and managing water resources.

  10. Civic ecology practices: insights from practice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne E. Krasny


    Full Text Available Our aim was to explore the use of practice theory as an approach to studying urban environmental stewardship. Urban environmental stewardship, or civic ecology practice, contributes to ecosystem services and community well-being and has been studied using social-ecological systems resilience, property rights, communities of practice, and governance frameworks. Practice theory, which previously has been applied in studies of consumer behaviors, adds a new perspective to urban stewardship research, focusing on how elements of a practice, such as competencies, meanings, and physical resource, together define the practice. We applied practice theory to eight different civic ecology practices, including oyster gardening in New York City, a civil society group engaged in litter cleanup in Iran, and village grove restoration in South Korea. Our analysis suggests that in applying practice theory to the civic ecology context, consideration should be given to social and communication competencies, how meanings can motivate volunteers and sustain practice, and the nature of the resource that is being stewarded. Future studies may want to focus on how practice elements interact within and vary across practices and may be used to more systematically analyze and share ideas among diverse civic ecology practices.

  11. Evaluating direct-to-consumer marketing of race-based pharmacogenomics: a focus group study of public understandings of applied genomic medication. (United States)

    Bates, Benjamin R; Poirot, Kristan; Harris, Tina M; Condit, Celeste M; Achter, Paul J


    Some medical providers have advocated applied genomics, including the use of genetically linked racial phenotypes in medical practice, raising fear that race-based medication will become justified. As with other emerging medical genetic technologies, pharmaceutical companies may advertise these treatments. Researchers fear that consumers will uncritically accept pharmaceutical messages and demand the product. In this exploratory study, we examined public reactions to advertisements for applied genomic medications. A focus group methodology was employed. Participants tended to resist the message and generated warrants for doing so, indicating critical reception of the messages. Message accepters also provided warrants. Warrants for resistance and acceptance differ between self-identified racial groups. Consumers, health care providers, and pharmaceutical corporations will benefit from a better understanding of direct-to-consumer advertisements as medical communication. Our study concludes that both advocates and opponents of direct-to-consumer advertisements should recognize that potential consumers of pharmacogenomics act as critical consumers of health advertising discourse.

  12. Molecular approach for the rapid detection of Bacillus and Pseudomonas genera--dominant antagonistic groups--from diverse ecological niches using colony multiplex PCR. (United States)

    Nair, Anusree V; Pradeep, M A; Vijayan, K K


    Bacillus and Pseudomonas are the dominant groups of bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against many plant and animal pathogens. Presently, exploration of these genera with antagonistic property for disease management of aquaculture system is gaining more importance to overcome the use of antibiotics and related resistance issues. Rapid screening and identification of these genera from diverse bacterial populations by conventional methods is laborious, cost-intensive, and time-consuming. To overcome these limiting factors, in the present study, a colony multiplex PCR (cmPCR) method was developed and evaluated for the rapid detection of Bacillus and Pseudomonas. The technique amplifies the partial 16S rRNA gene of Bacillus and Pseudomonas with a product size of ~1,100 and ~375 bp, respectively, using single forward (BSF2) and two reverse primers (PAGSR and BK1R). Reliability of the cmPCR method was confirmed by screening 472 isolates obtained from ten different eco-stations, of which 133 isolates belonged to Bacillus and 32 to Pseudomonas. The cmPCR method also helped to identify six different Pseudomonas spp. and 14 different Bacillus spp. from environmental samples. Of the total 472 isolates studied, 46 showed antagonistic activity, among which 63 % were Bacillus and 17.4 % were Pseudomonas. Thus, the newly developed molecular approach provides a quick, sensitive, and potential screening tool to detect novel, antagonistically important Bacillus and Pseudomonas genera for their use in aquaculture. Further, it can also act as a taxonomic tool to understand the distribution of these genera from wide ecological niches and their exploitation for diverse biotechnological applications.

  13. 试论白族本主信仰中的生态伦理思想%Analysis:Ecological Ethics in the Local Gods belief from Bai Ethic Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶峻姝; 李珍明


    Ecological ethics of the Local Gods belief among Bai ethnic group is the unique phenomenon of religion and culture and it has a very distinct characteristics and rich connotation of folk belief. The Local Gods belief contains rich ecological ethics thoughts deeply. Carding and studying its rational Ecological ethics and revealing the connection between the cultural existence and ecological protection provide important spiritual resources for the construction of the modern ecological ethics ,as well as practical wisdom and humanistic care for the consistent customs of the civil society and public spiritual settlement.%本主信仰是白族特有的一种宗教文化现象,是一种极具鲜明特色和丰富内涵的民族民间信仰。本主信仰中蕴含着丰富深刻的生态伦理思想,梳理和研究其中所含有的合理生态伦理思想,阐释文化生存与生态保护的内在关联,为生态伦理的现代建构提供重要的精神资源,也为民间社会的整齐风俗与民众的精神安顿提供实践智慧和人文关怀。

  14. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie


    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  15. Applying Banks' Typology of Ethnic Identity Development and Curriculum Goals to Story Content, Classroom Discussion, and the Ecology of Classroom and Community: Phase One. Instructional Resource No. 24. (United States)

    Tomlinson, Louise M.

    This instructional resource describes ways in which J. A. Banks' typology of the stages of ethnic identity development and related curriculum goals can be applied to literacy instruction. Banks' definitions of the stages of development and the curriculum goals for each stage are provided. Strategies for analyzing materials and developing relevant…

  16. Source-sink landscape theory and its ecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Exploring the relatiouships between landscape pattern and ecological processes is the key topic of landscape ecology,for which,a large number of indices as well as landscape pattern analysis model were developed.However,one problem faced by landscape ecologists is that it is hard to link the landscape indices with a specific ecological process.Linking landscape pattern and ecological processes has become a challenge for landscape ecologists."Source" and "sink" are common concepts used in air pollution research,by which the movement direction and pattern of different pollutants in air can be clearly identified.In fact,for any ecological process,the research can be considered as a balance between the source and the sink in space.Thus,the concepts of "source" and "sink" could be implemented to the research of landscape pattern and ecological processes.In this paper,a theory of sourcesink landscape was proposed,which include:(1) In the research of landscape pattern and ecological process,all landscape types can be divided into two groups,"source"landscape and "sink" landscape."Source" landscape contributes positively to the ecological process,while "sink" landscape is unhelpful to the ecological process.(2) Both landscapes are recognized with regard to the specific ecological process."Source" landscape in a target ecological process may change into a "sink"landscape as in another ecological process.Therefore,the ecological process should be determined before "source"or "sink" landscape were defined.(3) The key point to distinguish "source" landscape from "sink" landscape is to quantify the effect of landscape on ecological process.The positive effect is made by "source" landscape,and the negative effect by "sink" landscape.(4) For the same ecological process,the contribution of "source" landscapes may vary,and it is the same to the "sink"landscapes.It is required to determine the weight of each landscape type on ecological processes.(5) The sourcesink principle can be

  17. Developmental Issues among Applied Undergraduate Colleges and Universities under Ecological Theory Field%论生态理论视域下应用型本科院校发展问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡守敏; 杨正强


    Due to the complex, community and crossover of higher education , it’s difficult to solve its devel-opmental issues according to dual antithesis thoughts such as host -guest or cause-effect.There is a matching of theory and practice between ecology theory related values and higher education ’ revolution , distribution and devel-opment.Using ecology theory’ ecological niche, win-lose way, mutualism, entirety, diversification, etc, we sur-vey and provide copy strategy about related issues among applied bachelor degrees to give new considerations about scientific revolution and development .%高等教育的复杂化、群落化与交叉化,导致其发展问题很难用“主客”或者“因果”式的二元对立思维范式予以解决。生态理论相关的价值观与方法论对高等教育的变革、布局及其发展具有理论与实践的匹配性。运用生态理论的生态位、胜汰性、共生式、整体性、多元化等观点,对应用型本科院校的相关问题予以审视且提出应对策略,从而为应用型本科院校的科学变革与发展提供全新的思考。

  18. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes. (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L


    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  19. Positive Psychology As Applied to Group Counseling for Drug Abstainers%积极心理学在戒毒人员团体辅导中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞晓歆; 耿文秀; 姜永; 张衍


    戒毒人员的心理干预与矫治正日益受到重视。积极心理学关注人们发掘自身的积极品质和积极力量,戒毒人员同样拥有积极力量。本研究对上海市某强制隔离戒毒所的戒毒人员开展了以积极心理学为理论基础的团体心理辅导。团体辅导之后,实验组在正性情感和乐观上的得分都显著高于团体辅导前,对照组在团体辅导前后则没有显著变化。可见,将积极心理学应用于戒毒人员的团体辅导具有积极意义,团体辅导是一种有效的戒毒心理矫治方式。%Positive psychology is a scientific study of positive experiences, individual traits and institutions that facilitate development. Psychological intervention has been applied to drug abstainers to help them quit drugs in recent years. However, nowadays, in the field of psychological intervention, group counseling is not a common way for drug abstainers. So we conducted the study to assess the effectiveness of group counseling in helping drug abstainers. In the study, we designed a series of courses and activities applying positive psychology and focusing on the positive strength of drug abstainers as our intervention program. A sample of 28 subjects (2 of them quitted because of their sickness during the study) from a drug rehabilitation center in Shanghai was selected to participate in the study. Their ages ranged from 22 to 40 years old( average age = 30. 9). 13 of them were randomly chosen as the experimental group and the other 13 as the control group. They completed the Affect Scale and the Life Orientation Test (LOT) before and after the group counse- ling. The experimental group took part in the group counseling for 4 months, once every week. Each course lasted about 2 hours. The 16 courses included topics of family love, thanksgiving, positive communication, optimism, confidence and hope, etc. The group members shared their past life experiences and family lives

  20. Group method of data handling and neral networks applied in monitoring and fault detection in sensors in nuclear power plants; Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) e Redes Neurais na Monitoracao e Deteccao de Falhas em sensores de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio


    The increasing demand in the complexity, efficiency and reliability in modern industrial systems stimulated studies on control theory applied to the development of Monitoring and Fault Detection system. In this work a new Monitoring and Fault Detection methodology was developed using GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) algorithm and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) which was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. The Monitoring and Fault Detection system was developed in two parts: the first was dedicated to preprocess information, using GMDH algorithm; and the second part to the process information using ANNs. The GMDH algorithm was used in two different ways: firstly, the GMDH algorithm was used to generate a better database estimated, called matrix{sub z}, which was used to train the ANNs. After that, the GMDH was used to study the best set of variables to be used to train the ANNs, resulting in a best monitoring variable estimative. The methodology was developed and tested using five different models: one Theoretical Model and four Models using different sets of reactor variables. After an exhausting study dedicated to the sensors Monitoring, the Fault Detection in sensors was developed by simulating faults in the sensors database using values of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in these sensors database. The results obtained using GMDH algorithm in the choice of the best input variables to the ANNs were better than that using only ANNs, thus making possible the use of these methods in the implementation of a new Monitoring and Fault Detection methodology applied in sensors. (author)

  1. Ecological risk assessment of land use in core area of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban group%长株潭城市群核心区土地利用生态风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽华; 谢炳庚; 张晔; 邓楚雄; 左婕


    With the rapid development of Changsha - Zhuzhou - Xiangtan Urban group, the change of land use structure and mode caused by human' s activities has formed, a great ecological and environment pressure . The land use ecological risk assessment based on GIS and landscape ecology were used for selecting the typical transect core area of this urban group as the study area, and the Xiangjiang River shoreline as sample belt. Based on the "Source" and "sink" theory with the function of landscape ecological risk assessment, the index analysis framework and the ecological risk assessment model for spatial analysis and comprehenive evaluation was established.The results show that the high ecological risk is in the built-up area of Changsha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan are followed. Among them, the risk index value is decreased from urban built-up areas to urban fringe. The ecological risk index in the junction of three cities is low. According to the character and distribution of the ecological risk, the corresponding risk control management strategies are proposed.%随着长株潭城市群的快速发展,人类活动导致的土地利用结构及方式改变对生态环境构成了巨大压力.运用GIS和景观生态学方法的土地利用生态风险评价,以长株潭城市群核心区为研究区域,选择湘江岸线为典型样带,建立了基于"源"与"汇"景观功能的土地利用生态风险评价指标体系,并构建了评价模型,对生态风险进行了空间分析和综合评价.结果表明,长沙市建成区的土地利用生态风险指数整体最高,株洲和湘潭居次.其中,从城市群建成区向外,风险指数逐渐降低,长沙、株洲、湘潭三市交界处生态风险指数也较低.根据研究区域生态风险状况、变化和分布特征,提出了相应的风险调控策略和管理方法,为实现区域土地利用与生态、社会、经济的可持续发展提供决策依据.

  2. GIS Based Measurement and Regulatory Zoning of Urban Ecological Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang


    Full Text Available Urban ecological vulnerability is measured on the basis of ecological sensitivity and resilience based on the concept analysis of vulnerability. GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA methods are used, supported by the spatial analysis tools of GIS, to define different levels of vulnerability for areas of the urban ecology. These areas are further classified into different types of regulatory zones. Taking the city of Hefei in China as the empirical research site, this study uses GIS-MCDA, including the index system, index weights and overlay rules, to measure the degree of its ecological vulnerability on the GIS platform. There are eight indices in the system. Raking and analytical hierarchy process (AHP methods are used to calculate index weights according to the characteristics of the index system. The integrated overlay rule, including selection of the maximum value, and weighted linear combination (WLC are applied as the overlay rules. In this way, five types of vulnerability areas have been classified as follows: very low vulnerability, low vulnerability, medium vulnerability, high vulnerability and very high vulnerability. They can be further grouped into three types of regulatory zone of ecological green line, ecological grey line and ecological red line. The study demonstrates that ecological green line areas are the largest (53.61% of the total study area and can be intensively developed; ecological grey line areas (19.59% of the total area can serve as the ecological buffer zone, and ecological red line areas (26.80% cannot be developed and must be protected. The results indicate that ecological green line areas may provide sufficient room for future urban development in Hefei city. Finally, the respective regulatory countermeasures are put forward. This research provides a scientific basis for decision-making around urban ecological protection, construction and sustainable development. It also provides theoretical method


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Patrick-Encina


    Full Text Available The international canon in charge of recognising the heritage of indigenous peoples over the last decade has been structured by three converging arena: the entrepreneurship, the academic and the legal ones. Efforts from First Nations to insert themselves in decision-making processes have been fruitful, since they have achieved to establish a special committee to discuss Article 8j of the CBD. However, as years of negotiation pass by, incertitude regarding viability of the agreements has increased, due to the fact that peoples are not adequately preparing themselves to take advantage of the warranties provided. It has been proven that, when traditional practices for the protection of biocultural heritage are maintained within, resilience of the socio-ecological system is bigger, allowing for a better response to different crises, while preventing risks upon integrity and identity. The problem is that additional factors such as local climate change, have reduced availability of water, fauna and flora in situ, as well as of basic food crops and cash. This affects the capacity of peoples to maintain such protection practices, hence jeopardising a sustainable adaptive response. The model of Intercultural Universities obliges the practice of a dialogic research, which is also participatory and co-responsible, in order to detect weaknesses of socio-ecological systems and design strategies to deal with problems. This will ensure internal resilience. The major challenge faced by the Intercultural University of Mexico State is to work with the Mexican Institute of Industrial Property in order to register aspects of peoples‟ heritage in a collective way.

  4. The challenges of long-term ecological research in springs in the northern and southern Alps: indicator groups, habitat diversity, and medium-term change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available After extensive exploratory investigations into crenic habitats at the beginning of the 1990s, a number of springs were selected and long-term ecological research programmes independently initiated in the Berchtesgaden National Park (north-eastern Alps, Bavaria and the Adamello-Brenta Nature Park (south-eastern Alps, Trentino. Following more than a decade of standardized work, this paper presents a selection of results from both sides of the Alps, with a focus on zoobenthos in Bavaria and on pro- and eukaryotic algae in Trentino. In order to test the assumption that permanent springs are particularly suitable habitats for long-term ecological research, the following topics are addressed: (1 taxonomic diversity and relationships between diversity and spring typology; (2 transverse gradients in crenic habitats, hygrophilous terrestrial invertebrates and xerotolerant algae; (3 possibilities of documenting changes in species composition over decadal time scales ("medium-term" based on emergence traps, benthos, and benthic algae. The data obtained show that: (1 crenic habitats support particularly high biological diversity (but a thorough documentation of insect diversity is impossible without emergence studies; (2 helocrenes are the most species-rich habitats, for both invertebrates and diatoms; (3 dynamic (unstable and occasionally-impacted springs show identifiable signs of medium-term change, whilst particularly complex and stable crenic habitats seem to be controlled by internal processes. Our results suggest that: (1 the meiofauna is likely to react directly to environmental change, while emergers and the hygrophilous terrestrial fauna are indirectly affected, and (2 diatoms react both to direct effects of environmental change, e.g. discharge and hydrochemistry, and to indirect effects on the surroundings of the spring. Based on our results, long-term research strategies are discussed. For long-term studies, we propose a focus on meiofauna and

  5. Ecological Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.


    The Encyclopedia of Globalization provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of globalization as well as the various historical and analytical interpretations. Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, poli

  6. Cognitive ecology. (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin


    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  7. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server


    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  8. Establishing ecological reference conditions and tracking post-application effectiveness of lanthanum-saturated bentonite clay (Phoslock®) for reducing phosphorus in aquatic systems: an applied paleolimnological approach. (United States)

    Moos, M T; Taffs, K H; Longstaff, B J; Ginn, B K


    Innovative management strategies for nutrient enrichment of freshwater are important in the face of this increasing global problem, however many strategies are not assessed over long enough time periods to establish effectiveness. Paleolimnological techniques using diatoms as biological indicators were utilized to establish ecological reference conditions, environmental variation, and the effectiveness of lanthanum-saturated bentonite clay (brand name: Phoslock(®)) applied to reduce water column phosphorus (P) concentrations in four waterbodies in Ontario, Canada, and eastern Australia. In sediment cores from the two Canadian sites, there were short-lived changes to diatom assemblages, relative to inferred background conditions, and a temporary reduction in both measured and diatom-inferred total phosphorus (TP) before returning to pre-application conditions (particularly in the urban stormwater management pond which has a high flushing rate and responds rapidly to precipitation and surface run-off). The two Australian sites (a sewage treatment pond and a shallow recreational lake), recorded no reduction in diatom-inferred TP. Based on our pre-application environmental reconstruction, changes to the diatom assemblages and diatom-inferred TP appeared to be driven by larger, climatic factors. While laboratory tests involving this product showed sharp reductions in water column TP, management strategies require detailed information on pre-application environmental conditions and variations in order to accurately assess the effectiveness of new technologies for lake management.

  9. Psychometric Evaluation of the Overexcitability Questionnaire-Two Applying Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (BSEM) and Multiple-Group BSEM-Based Alignment with Approximate Measurement Invariance. (United States)

    De Bondt, Niki; Van Petegem, Peter


    The Overexcitability Questionnaire-Two (OEQ-II) measures the degree and nature of overexcitability, which assists in determining the developmental potential of an individual according to Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration. Previous validation studies using frequentist confirmatory factor analysis, which postulates exact parameter constraints, led to model rejection and a long series of model modifications. Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) allows the application of zero-mean, small-variance priors for cross-loadings, residual covariances, and differences in measurement parameters across groups, better reflecting substantive theory and leading to better model fit and less overestimation of factor correlations. Our BSEM analysis with a sample of 516 students in higher education yields positive results regarding the factorial validity of the OEQ-II. Likewise, applying BSEM-based alignment with approximate measurement invariance, the absence of non-invariant factor loadings and intercepts across gender is supportive of the psychometric quality of the OEQ-II. Compared to males, females scored significantly higher on emotional and sensual overexcitability, and significantly lower on psychomotor overexcitability.

  10. Linking ecological sensitivity to hydrological information in perspective of flow-ecology compliance status and water management (United States)

    Lathouri, Maria; Klaar, Megan; Hannah, David; Dunbar, Mike; Futter, Alison; England, Judy; Warren, Mark


    Increasing pressures and climate change effects on water resources suggest that we may need to re-consider flow regulations in the context of river ecological sensitivity to abstraction, and how this can be better integrated into flow standards. An increasing number of ecosystems have been identified as vulnerable to hydrological change. Different flow pressures, especially very low flows, can be can be very destructive to aquatic biodiversity. However, although this vulnerability is recognized, knowledge is lacking regarding the most ecologically sensitive regimes to hydrology and associated water stress and habitat disturbance. In addition, any interaction between hydromorphology and river ecology is still generally poorly understood - particularly in quantitative terms. To further understand the relationships between hydrology and ecology and to help us protect the long term future of the water environment for water resources management, the present study is focused on underpinning different aspects of flow pressures on ecology and establishing quantitative relationships between physicochemical factors, hydrological pressures and biological indicators. This includes carrying-out a review of existing typology approaches to grouping water bodies on the basis of similar ecological sensitivity to flow and therefore to evaluate the ecological impacts of the flow regime alterations. Explicitly generalised additive models are applied to demonstrate a relationship between ecology (macroinvertebrate) scores and flow pressure data, including geographical, geological and physical habitat conditions. This evidence base will to be used to further recommend ecologically appropriate flow regimes in rivers to help provide efficient flow management practices and support the classification of the ecological status under the Water Framework Directive.

  11. Measurement equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® Applied Cognition – General Concerns, short forms in ethnically diverse groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fieo


    Full Text Available Aims: The goals of these analyses were to examine the psychometric properties and measurement equivalence of a self-reported cognition measure, the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® Applied Cognition – General Concerns short form. These items are also found in the PROMIS Cognitive Function (version 2 item bank. This scale consists of eight items related to subjective cognitive concerns. Differential item functioning (DIF analyses of gender, education, race, age, and (Spanish language were performed using an ethnically diverse sample (n = 5,477 of individuals with cancer. This is the first analysis examining DIF in this item set across ethnic and racial groups. Methods: DIF hypotheses were derived by asking content experts to indicate whether they posited DIF for each item and to specify the direction. The principal DIF analytic model was item response theory (IRT using the graded response model for polytomous data, with accompanying Wald tests and measures of magnitude. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using ordinal logistic regression (OLR with a latent conditioning variable. IRT-based reliability, precision and information indices were estimated. Results: DIF was identified consistently only for the item, brain not working as well as usual. After correction for multiple comparisons, this item showed significant DIF for both the primary and sensitivity analyses. Black respondents and Hispanics in comparison to White non-Hispanic respondents evidenced a lower conditional probability of endorsing the item, brain not working as well as usual. The same pattern was observed for the education grouping variable: as compared to those with a graduate degree, conditioning on overall level of subjective cognitive concerns, those with less than high school education also had a lower probability of endorsing this item. DIF was observed for age for two items after correction for multiple comparisons for both the IRT and

  12. A universal simulator for ecological models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Niels


    Software design is an often neglected issue in ecological models, even though bad software design often becomes a hindrance for re-using, sharing and even grasping an ecological model. In this paper, the methodology of agile software design was applied to the domain of ecological models. Thus...

  13. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.


    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory`s research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL).

  14. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda


    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  15. Ecological epigenetics. (United States)

    Kilvitis, Holly J; Alvarez, Mariano; Foust, Christy M; Schrey, Aaron W; Robertson, Marta; Richards, Christina L


    Biologists have assumed that heritable variation due to DNA sequence differences (i.e., genetic variation) allows populations of organisms to be both robust and adaptable to extreme environmental conditions. Natural selection acts on the variation among different genotypes and ultimately changes the genetic composition of the population. While there is compelling evidence about the importance of genetic polymorphisms, evidence is accumulating that epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., chromatin modifications, DNA methylation) can affect ecologically important traits, even in the absence of genetic variation. In this chapter, we review this evidence and discuss the consequences of epigenetic variation in natural populations. We begin by defining the term epigenetics, providing a brief overview of various epigenetic mechanisms, and noting the potential importance of epigenetics in the study of ecology. We continue with a review of the ecological epigenetics literature to demonstrate what is currently known about the amount and distribution of epigenetic variation in natural populations. Then, we consider the various ecological contexts in which epigenetics has proven particularly insightful and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of epigenetic variation. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions of ecological epigenetics research.

  16. Ecological profiles of wetland plant species in the northern Apennines (N. Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello TOMASELLI


    Full Text Available Eighteen selected species occurring in the wetlands of the northern Apennines were studied by the ecological profile method. By this method, it is possible to identify the ecological factors mostly influencing species distribution within a particular vegetation. Moreover, it is possible to evaluate both ecological amplitude and ecological preferences of species. Ecological profiles were built for three factors (altitude, pH and electrical conductivity from a data set of 265 phytosociological relevés, used for altitude, and from a set of 92 measures, carried out in selected sites, for idrochemical variables. By numerical classification, based on chord distance and minimum variance, the ecological species groups for each factor were individuated. Subsequently, they were ordered by correspondence analysis for detecting relationships between ecological groups and classes of factors. By applying a goodness-of-fit test to ecological profiles, the species significantly deviating from uniformity were detected. They can be regarded as indicators for the corresponding ecological factor. We found seven indicator species for altitude (Carex nigra, C. rostrata, Juncus filiformis, J. alpino-articulatus, Eriophorum latifolium, E. angustifolium and Warnstorfia exannulata, four indicator species for electrical conductivity (Campylium stellatum, Carex tumidicarpa, Eriophorum latifolium and Juncus alpino-articulatus and one indicator species for pH (Sphagnum capillifolium. The ecological profiles of the wetland species in the northern Apennines were compared with those reported in literature for the same species from the Alps (namely Dolomites. In this way, a certain degree of ecological shift in several wetland species of the northern Apennines was documented. For altitude, it is possible to explain the shift considering the reduced elevational amplitude of northern Apennine wetlands with respect to those of the Alps. For pH, Sphagnum capillifolium occurs in

  17. DNA barcodes for ecology, evolution, and conservation. (United States)

    Kress, W John; García-Robledo, Carlos; Uriarte, Maria; Erickson, David L


    The use of DNA barcodes, which are short gene sequences taken from a standardized portion of the genome and used to identify species, is entering a new phase of application as more and more investigations employ these genetic markers to address questions relating to the ecology and evolution of natural systems. The suite of DNA barcode markers now applied to specific taxonomic groups of organisms are proving invaluable for understanding species boundaries, community ecology, functional trait evolution, trophic interactions, and the conservation of biodiversity. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology will greatly expand the versatility of DNA barcodes across the Tree of Life, habitats, and geographies as new methodologies are explored and developed.

  18. Doctoral education in a successful ecological niche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Ole


    explore the microclimate in an ecological niche of doctoral education. Based on a theoretical definition of microclimate as the emotional atmosphere that ties group members together and affects their actions, we conducted a case study that aimed to describe the key features of the microclimate...... in a successful ecological niche of doctoral education, and the ways in which the microclimate support the doctoral students’ learning. The methods we applied in the case study were based on short-term ethnographic fieldwork. The results reveal four key features of the emotional atmosphere in the microclimate...... successful doctoral education because it: 1) fleshes out the professional attitude that is necessary for becoming a successful researcher in the department, 2) shapes and adapts the doctoral students’ desires to grasp and identify with the department’s practices, and 3) provides the doctoral students...

  19. Assessment on the ecological quality based on the macrozoobenthos functional feeding groups%基于大型底栖动物摄食群上的生态质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文倩; 林岿璇; 朱延忠; 周娟; 夏阳; 刘录三


    基于2011年5月和9月航次获取的大型底栖动物和环境数据,采用建立在功能摄食群上的摄食均匀度指数(the feeding evenness index, jFD)并辅以建立在群落结构指标上的多元AZTI海洋生物指数(Multivariate AZTI Marine Biological Index, M-AMBI)评价渤海湾生态质量状况.本研究将所有大型底栖动物划分为5个摄食群,但2个航次均未发现植食者.从物种丰富度的角度看,碎屑食者和肉食者占比最高;从栖息密度的角度看则是浮游生物食者占比最高,而杂食者则在上述两个指标中均占比最低.摄食均匀度指数值大都低于0.60,说明研究区大部分海域的大型底栖动物群落受到不同程度的干扰,生态环境质量较差,这可能与该海域所受到的人为干扰如陆源排污、围海造陆有关.与M-AMBI相比,二者指示的渤海湾生态质量状况基本一致,且均能敏感地响应渤海湾近岸河口至离岸海域的环境压力梯度.总体上来讲, jFD适用于评价渤海湾的生态质量状况.%Based on data collected during May and September of 2011, the feeding evenness index developed from the functional feeding groups, together with the M-AMBI (Multivariate AZTI Marine Biological Index) derived from the community structure, were used to assess the ecological quality status of Bohai Bay. Results showed that the macrozoobenthos community was divided into five feeding groups in the study but no herbivorous group was found. Groups detritivorous and carnivorous displayed the greatest percentages of species richness, and the group planktivorous displayed the highest percentage of the community density. However, the group omnivorous displayed the smallest percentage of the above two indicators. Furthermore, the feeding evenness index in the most sampling stations were less than 0.60, indicating that most marine waters were disturbed to some degree in this study which was corresponding to the degraded ecological quality

  20. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom


    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  1. Ecology of ephemeroptera, plecoptera and trichoptera (insecta) in rivers of the gunung jerai forest reserve: diversity and distribution of functional feeding groups. (United States)

    Hamid, Suhaila Ab; Md Rawi, Che Salmah


    A field study was performed to describe the functional feeding groups (FFGs) of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in the Tupah, Batu Hampar and Teroi Rivers in the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve (GJFR), Kedah, Malaysia. Twenty-nine genera belonging to 19 families were identified. The EPTs were classified into five FFGs: collector-gatherers (CG), collector-filterers (CF), shredders (SH), scrapers (SC) and predators (P). In this study, CG and CF were the dominant groups inhabiting all three rivers. Ephemeroptera dominated these rivers due to their high abundance, and they were also the CG (90.6%). SC were the lowest in abundance among all groups. Based on the FFGs, the Teroi River was suitable for CG, whereas the Tupah and Batu Hampar Rivers were suitable for CG and CF. The distribution of FFGs differed among the rivers (CG, χ(2) = 23.6, p = 0.00; SH, χ(2) = 10.02, p = 0.007; P, χ(2) = 25.54, p = 0.00; CF, χ(2) = 21.95, p = 0.00; SC, χ(2) = 9.31, p = 0.01). These findings indicated that the FFGs found in rivers of the GJFR represent high river quality.

  2. Spatial assessment of landscape ecological connectivity in different urban gradient. (United States)

    Park, Sohyun


    Urbanization has resulted in remnant natural patches within cities that often have no connectivity among themselves and to natural reserves outside the urban area. Protecting ecological connectivity in fragmented urban areas is becoming crucial in maintaining urban biodiversity and securing critical habitat levels and configurations under continual development pressures. Nevertheless, few studies have been undertaken for urban landscapes. This study aims to assess ecological connectivity for a group of species that represent the urban desert landscape in the Phoenix metropolitan area and to compare the connectivity values along the different urban gradient. A GIS-based landscape connectivity model which relies upon ecological connectivity index (ECI) was developed and applied to this region. A GIS-based concentric buffering technique was employed to delineate conceptual boundaries for urban, suburban, and rural zones. The research findings demonstrated that urban habitats and potential habitat patches would be significantly influenced by future urban development. Particularly, the largest loss of higher connectivity would likely to be anticipated in the "in-between areas" where urban, suburban, and rural zones overlap one another. The connectivity maps would be useful to provide spatial identification regarding connectivity patterns and vulnerability for urban and suburban activities in this area. This study provides planners and landscape architects with a spatial guidance to minimize ecological fragmentation, which ultimately leads to urban landscape sustainability. This study suggests that conventional planning practices which disregard the ecological processes in urban landscapes need to integrate landscape ecology into planning and design strategies.

  3. Preventing Undesirable Effects of Mutual Trust and the Development of Skepticism in Virtual Groups by Applying the Knowledge and Information Awareness Approach (United States)

    Engelmann, Tanja; Kolodziej, Richard; Hesse, Friedrich W.


    Empirical studies have proven the effectiveness of the knowledge and information awareness approach of Engelmann and colleagues for improving collaboration and collaborative problem-solving performance of spatially distributed group members. This approach informs group members about both their collaborators' knowledge structures and their…

  4. Root depth and morphology in response to soil drought: comparing ecological groups along the secondary succession in a tropical dry forest. (United States)

    Paz, Horacio; Pineda-García, Fernando; Pinzón-Pérez, Luisa F


    Root growth and morphology may play a core role in species-niche partitioning in highly diverse communities, especially along gradients of drought risk, such as that created along the secondary succession of tropical dry forests. We experimentally tested whether root foraging capacity, especially at depth, decreases from early successional species to old-growth forest species. We also tested for a trade-off between two mechanisms for delaying desiccation, the capacity to forage deeper in the soil and the capacity to store water in tissues, and explored whether successional groups separate along such a trade-off. We examined the growth and morphology of roots in response to a controlled-vertical gradient of soil water, among seedlings of 23 woody species dominant along the secondary succession in a tropical dry forest of Mexico. As predicted, successional species developed deeper and longer root systems than old-growth forest species in response to soil drought. In addition, shallow root systems were associated with high plant water storage and high water content per unit of tissue in stems and roots, while deep roots exhibited the opposite traits, suggesting a trade-off between the capacities for vertical foraging and water storage. Our results suggest that an increased capacity of roots to forage deeper for water is a trait that enables successional species to establish under the warm-dry conditions of the secondary succession, while shallow roots, associated with a higher water storage capacity, are restricted to the old-growth forest. Overall, we found evidence that the root depth-water storage trade-off may constrain tree species distribution along secondary succession.

  5. Applying the nominal group technique in an employment relations conflict situation: A case study of a university maintenance section in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis (Kees S. van der Waal


    Full Text Available After a breakdown in employment relations in the maintenance section of a higher education institution, the authors were asked to intervene in order to try and solve the employment relations conflict situation. It was decided to employ the Nominal Group Technique (NGT as a tool in problem identification during conflict in the workplace. An initial investigation of documentation and interviews with prominent individuals in the organisation was carried out. The NGT was then used in four focus group discussions to determine the important issues as seen by staff members. The NGT facilitates the determination of shared perceptions and the ranking of ideas. The NGT was used in diverse groups, necessitating adaptations to the technique. The perceived causes of the conflict were established. The NGT can be used in a conflict situation in the workplace in order to establish the perceived causes of employment relations conflict.

  6. King's theory of goal attainment applied in group therapy for inpatient juvenile sexual offenders, maximum security state offenders, and community parolees, using visual aids. (United States)

    Laben, J K; Dodd, D; Sneed, L


    Group psychotherapy has been considered the treatment of choice by many therapists working with offenders within the criminal justice system. However, there has been little written by nurses regarding this special population. This article's purpose is to illustrate how King's theory of goal attainment may be used in conducting group psychotherapy with offender populations. The application of King's model is demonstrated in three milieus: an inpatient setting for juvenile sexual offenders, a state maximum security prison, and a halfway house for offenders involved in a work-release program. The methodology and use of visual aids in actualizing King's theory of mutual goal setting and goal attainment are discussed.

  7. Valuation of ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.


    Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

  8. Fundamental ecology is fundamental. (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E


    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences.

  9. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller


    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova


    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  11. Molecular ecological network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ye


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs through Random Matrix Theory (RMT-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological

  12. Emergence Unites Ecology and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper


    Full Text Available The effort to combine analysis of ecosystems and social systems requires a firm theoretical basis. When humans are present in an ecosystem, their actions affect emergent structures; this paper examines forms of emergence that account for the presence of humans. Humans monitor and regulate ecosystems based on their cultural systems. Cultural systems consist of concepts linked in complicated ways that can form consistent world views, can contain inconsistencies, and may or may not accurately model the properties of a social–ecological system. Consequently, human monitoring and regulating processes will differ, depending on cultural systems. Humans, as agents, change or maintain pre-existing material and cultural emergent structures. The presentation is illustrated with a case study of fire-prone forests. The paper shows that explicit attention to emergence serves very well in unifying the following requirements for social–ecological analysis: coherent and observable definitions of sustainability; ways to link ecological and social phenomena; ways to understand cultural reasons for stability and instability in dynamic social–ecological systems; and ways to include human self-evaluation and culture within dynamic models of social–ecological systems. Analysis of cultural emergent structures clarifies many differences in assumptions among the fields of economics, sociology, political science, ecology, and ecological economics. Because it can be readily applied to empirical questions, the framework provides a good way to organize policy analysis that is not dominated by one or another discipline.

  13. Group Theory of Circular-Polarization Effects in Chiral Photonic Crystals with Four-Fold Rotation Axes, Applied to the Eight-Fold Intergrowth of Gyroid Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Saba, Matthias; Mecke, Klaus; Gu, Min; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E


    We use group or representation theory and scattering matrix calculations to derive analytical results for the band structure topology and the scattering parameters, applicable to any chiral photonic crystal with body-centered cubic symmetry I432 for circularly-polarised incident light. We demonstrate in particular that all bands along the cubic [100] direction can be identi?ed with the irreducible representations E+/-,A and B of the C4 point group. E+ and E- modes represent the only transmission channels for plane waves with wave vector along the ? line, and can be identi?ed as non-interacting transmission channels for right- (E-) and left-circularly polarised light (E+), respectively. Scattering matrix calculations provide explicit relationships for the transmission and reflectance amplitudes through a ?nite slab which guarantee equal transmission rates for both polarisations and vanishing ellipticity below a critical frequency, yet allowing for ?nite rotation of the polarisation plane. All results are veri?...

  14. Communicating Ecological Indicators to Decision Makers and the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford S. Russell


    Full Text Available Ecological assessments and monitoring programs often rely on indicators to evaluate environmental conditions. Such indicators are frequently developed by scientists, expressed in technical language, and target aspects of the environment that scientists consider useful. Yet setting environmental policy priorities and making environmental decisions requires both effective communication of environmental information to decision makers and consideration of what members of the public value about ecosystems. However, the complexity of ecological issues, and the ways in which they are often communicated, make it difficult for these parties to fully engage such a dialogue. This paper describes our efforts to develop a process for translating the indicators of regional ecological condition used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency into common language for communication with public and decision-making audiences. A series of small-group sessions revealed that people did not want to know what these indicators measured, or how measurements were performed. Rather, respondents wanted to know what such measurements can tell them about environmental conditions. Most positively received were descriptions of the kinds of information that various combinations of indicators provide about broad ecological conditions. Descriptions that respondents found most appealing contained general reference to both the set of indicators from which the information was drawn and aspects of the environment valued by society to which the information could be applied. These findings can assist with future efforts to communicate scientific information to nontechnical audiences, and to represent societal values in ecological programs by improving scientist-public communication.

  15. A tool for assessing ecological status of forest ecosystem (United States)

    Rahman Kassim, Abd; Afizzul Misman, Muhammad; Azahari Faidi, Mohd; Omar, Hamdan


    Managers and policy makers are beginning to appreciate the value of ecological monitoring of artificially regenerated forest especially in urban areas. With the advent of more advance technology in precision forestry, high resolution remotely sensed data e.g. hyperspectral and LiDAR are becoming available for rapid and precise assessment of the forest condition. An assessment of ecological status of forest ecosystem was developed and tested using FRIM campus forest stand. The forest consisted of three major blocks; the old growth artificially regenerated native species forests, naturally regenerated forest and recent planted forest for commercial timber and other forest products. Our aim is to assess the ecological status and its proximity to the mature old growth artificially regenerated stand. We used airborne LiDAR, orthophoto and thirty field sampling quadrats of 20x20m for ground verification. The parameter assessments were grouped into four broad categories: a. forest community level-composition, structures, function; landscape structures-road network and forest edges. A metric of parameters and rating criteria was introduced as indicators of the forest ecological status. We applied multi-criteria assessment to categorize the ecological status of the forest stand. The paper demonstrates the application of the assessment approach using FRIM campus forest as its first case study. Its potential application to both artificially and naturally regenerated forest in the variety of Malaysian landscape is discussed

  16. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge


    of this discussion includes contributions from actors involved with efforts to advance a ‘Green New Deal’ that repeats the idea that the promotion of green innovation and government funding of greener infrastructure would improve competitiveness and increase employment. This time ‘Green Keynesianism’ is accompanied...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...... to energy, transport, housing, food and so forth. The fourth section outlines briefly the roles of consumer-citizens in relation to such sustainability transformations and the final section considers the possibilities for initiating the envisioned changes....

  17. Enhancing the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention programs targeted to unique population groups in Thailand: lessons learned from applying concepts of diffusion of innovation and social marketing. (United States)

    Svenkerud, P J; Singhal, A


    Diffusion of innovations theory and social marketing theory have been criticized for their limited applicability in influencing unique population groups (e.g., female commercial sex workers (CSWs) working in low-class brothels). This study investigated the applicability of these two theoretical frameworks in outreach efforts directed to unique populations at high risk for HIV/AIDS in Bangkok, Thailand. Further, this study examined Thai cultural characteristics that influence communication about HIV/AIDS prevention. The results suggest that certain concepts and strategies drawn from the two frameworks were used more or less by effective outreach programs, providing several policy-relevant lessons. Cultural constraints, such as the lack of visibility of the disease and traditional sexual practices, influenced communication about HIV/AIDS prevention.

  18. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings XV: an investigation of polysiloxane anti-fouling/fouling-release coatings containing tethered quaternary ammonium salt groups. (United States)

    Majumdar, Partha; Crowley, Elizabeth; Htet, Maung; Stafslien, Shane J; Daniels, Justin; VanderWal, Lyndsi; Chisholm, Bret J


    As part of ongoing efforts aimed at the development of extensive structure−property relationships for moisture-curable polysiloxane coatings containing tethered quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) moieties for potential application as environmental friendly coatings to combat marine biofouling, a combinatorial/high-throughput (C/HT) study was conducted that was focused on four different compositional variables. The coatings that were investigated were derived from solution blends of a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HO-PDMS-OH), QAS-functional alkoxysilane, and methyltriacetoxysilane. The compositional variables investigated were alkoxysilane functionality of the QAS-functional silane, chain length of the monovalent alkyl group attached to the QAS nitrogen atom, concentration of the QAS-functional alkoxysilane, and molecular weight of the HO-PDMS-OH. Of these variables, the composition of the alkoxysilane functionality of the QAS-functional silane was a unique variable that had not been previously investigated. The antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) characteristics of the 24 unique coating compositions were characterized using HT assays based on three different marine microorganisms, namely, the two bacteria, Cellulophaga lytica and Halomonas pacifica, and the diatom, Navicula incerta. Coatings surfaces were characterized by surface energy, water contact angle hysteresis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A wide variety of responses were obtained over the compositional space investigated. ANOVA analysis showed that the compositional variables and their interactions significantly influenced AF/FR behaviors toward individual marine microorganisms. It was also found that utilization of the ethoxysilane-functional QASs provided enhanced AF character compared to coatings based on methoxysilane-functional analogues. This was attributed to enhanced surface segregation of QAS groups at the coating-air interface and confirmed by phase images using AFM.

  19. Towards a network ecology of software ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos


    of the ``network ecology'' approach to the analysis of natural ecosystems. In doing so, we mine the Maven central Java repository and analyze two OSGi ecosystems: Apache Felix and Eclipse Equinox. In particular, we define the concept of an ecosystem ``neighborhood'', apply network ecology metrics...

  20. Management of the post accidental situation applied to Nogent-Sur-Seine nuclear power plant environment. First results of the decontamination of soil and food chain working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, E.; Mignon, F. [District Agricultural and Forestry Dept. (Aube Administrative AREA), 10 - Troyes (France); Cessac, B.; Gallay, F.; Metivier, J.M.; Reales, N. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 10 - Troyes (France); Gofette, R. [Veterinary Div. (Aube Administrative AREA), 10 - Troyes (France); Mahot, M. [Farmer' s Association (Aube Administrative AREA), 10 - Troyes (France)


    From the beginning of 2002, Troyes prefecture has initiated a reflection about the management of a nuclear crisis caused by an accident at the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear power plant. Five workshops have been created, dealing with the following themes: 'Administrative and economic organization', 'Health risk assessment and the epidemiology', 'Monitoring of environment', 'Movement in the contaminated area' and 'Decontamination of soil and Food chain'. The first results of the 'Decontamination of soil and Food chain' working group, which involves the District Agricultural and Forestry Department, the Farmer's Association, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety and the Veterinary Division are presented in the poster. The scenario that had been developed for the accident considers the release of 3 radionuclides ({sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) in the environment. The scale of the crisis didn't require the evacuation and the sheltering of the population during the emergency phase. The consequences on the local agricultural products (cereal, beetroot, vine, milk, cow meat...) have been assessed up to 50 km and different strategies of agricultural countermeasures have been studied regarding to the local constraints (soil types, surfaces and quantities concerned) and to the consequences of their implementation (waste types and quantities, costs). Then, decision-making diagrams summed up the technical results and allowed to deepen the global thought. (author)

  1. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred


    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  2. On Science, Ecology and Environmentalism (United States)

    Tulloch, Lynley


    Using ecological science as a backdrop for this discussion, the author applies Michel Foucault's historical genealogical strategy to an analysis of the processes through which sustainable development (SD) gained hegemonic acceptance in the West. She analyses some of the ideological mutations that have seen SD emerge from an environmentalist…

  3. 兰州南北两山生态环境建设决策支持模式初探%A New Decision Support Model Applied to Ecological Environment Construction in the Southern and Northern Mountains of Lanzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹振良; 肖洪浪; 邹松兵; 陆志翔; 许宝荣; 王万鹏; 钟芳


    Artificially ecological environment construction is the necessary approach to greening Lanzhou Cit-y due to fragile natural environment. This paper proposed a decision support model which was comprised of "decision support system" and "expert's knowledge". Based on introduction of the decision support model, we developed a decision support system for ecological environment construction in the southern and northern mountains of Lanzhou City. Through discussing the experimental results of the decision support system, a water conservancy scheme for ecological environment construction in the southern and northern mountains of Lanzhou City was presented as below: (1) Collecting rainwater for environmental construction in the area where the average annual rainfall exceeds 400 mm; (2) Operating irrigation in the area where the average annual rainfall is below 400 mm, and the irrigation amount equals to 200 mm rainfall. Furthermore, a planning map for ecological environment construction in the southern and northern mountains of Lanzhou City is demonstrated to assist decision makers.%兰州南北两山生态环境脆弱,自然状态下无法达到城市发展的绿化要求,必须进行生态环境建设.针对生态环境建设的决策困境,提出构建“决策支持系统+专家知识”的决策支持模式.在详细阐述此决策支持模式的基础上,以兰州南北两山作为研究案例,建立了兰州南北两山生态环境建设决策支持系统,通过该系统的试验结果讨论,最终给出兰州南北两山生态环境建设的两项用水措施建议,即:①在多年平均降雨量大于400 mm的区域进行人工集雨;②在多年平均降雨量小于400 mm的区域进行人工灌溉(灌溉量相当于200 mm降雨).最后结合专家知识形成兰州南北两山生态环境建设规划图,供决策者参考.

  4. Wordsworthian Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Wordsworth devoted himself to the ideal of a harmonious relation between human and nature, between man and soci-ety, between man and the ego. In this sense, Wordsworth improved the development of ecology. This argument will be support-ed by the approach of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy. And it is supported by the following points.The first part points out that Wordsworth’s love of nature led to his love of man, which was reflected by his care for common people. Part Two shows Wordsworth’s solicitude for dwelling. His notion of dwelling had aspect of poetic dwelling. The harmonious hu-man-nature relationship reveals thee essence of free dwelling. His poetic experiment agreed with Heidegger ’s argument on poet-ic creation. His discussion of free labour was like Heidegger’s interpretation of“merit”. Part Three tells about Wordsworth’s great effort to amend the alienated human nature by treasuring the Child’s nature, imagination and human feelings.In this way, the conclusion can be got:although it would be a huge project to reinterpret Wordsworth with the approaches of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy, it is still worth making the effort.

  5. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy


    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  6. Freshwater Ecology. (United States)

    Finkel, Liza; Early, Heidi; Fuller, Erin; Gleske, Angel; Hadwen, Sandy; Menard, Christina; Roderick, Stefanie


    Presents details of how a local stream is studied as part of a ninth-grade science curriculum, the goal of which is to learn about the school's ecosystem. Provides examples of specific group projects related to the stream. (DDR)

  7. Squamation and ecology of thelodonts (United States)

    Botella, Héctor


    Thelodonts are an enigmatic group of Paleozoic jawless vertebrates that have been well studied from taxonomical, biostratigraphic and paleogeographic points of view, although our knowledge of their ecology and mode of life is still scant. Their bodies were covered by micrometric scales whose morphology, histology and the developmental process are extremely similar to those of extant sharks. Based on these similarities and on the well-recognized relationship between squamation and ecology in sharks, here we explore the ecological diversity and lifestyles of thelodonts. For this we use classic morphometrics and discriminant analysis to characterize the squamation patterns of a significant number of extant shark species whose ecology is well known. Multivariate analyses have defined a characteristic squamation pattern for each ecological group, thus establishing a comparative framework for inferring lifestyles in thelodonts. We then use this information to study the squamation of the currently described 147 species of thelodonts, known from both articulated and disarticulated remains. Discriminant analysis has allowed recognizing squamation patterns comparable to those of sharks and links them to specific ecological groups. Our results suggest a remarkable ecological diversity in thelodonts. A large number of them were probably demersal species inhabiting hard substrates, within caves and crevices in rocky environments or reefs, taking advantage of the flexibility provided by their micromeric squamations. Contrary to classical interpretations, only few thelodonts were placed among demersal species inhabiting sandy and muddy substrates. Schooling species with defensive scales against ectoparasites could be also abundant suggesting that social interactions and pressure of ectoparasites were present in vertebrates as early the Silurian. The presence of species showing scales suggestive of low to moderate speed and a lifestyle presumably associated with open water

  8. Ecological residence: theory and application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper makes an overall introduction of ecological residence (ER), a new type of eco-building and studies its origin, definition, status quo and characteristics. Firstly, it shapes like a forest seen from afar and like a garden seen inside; secondly, its environment should be up to the natural level; thirdly, designing, management, green energy utilization and sanitation should be up to environmental standard;fourthly, the green ecology concept is not only applied to building but also rooted in the residents. In this paper, the features of ecological residence are summarized- coziness,health, high-efficiency and beauty, and principles of ecological residence are proposed - ecology-based, human-oriented,local-conditions-based and systematic. Also, techniques, problems and various understandings are discussed for the enhancement of ecological residence.

  9. Concept of ecological corridors and agroforestal systems applied for the implementation of PETROBRAS punctual and linear projects: case study of COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex); Conceito de corredores ecologicos e sistemas agroflorestais aplicados a implantacao de empreendimentos pontuais e lineares em ambito PETROBRAS: estudo de caso do COMPERJ (Complexo Petroquimico do Rio de Janeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secron, Marcelo B.; Mesquita, Ivan D.; Soares, Luiz Felipe R.; Almeida, Ronaldo Bento G. de; Fernandes, Renato; Dellamea, Giovani S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Rodrigo T.; Pereira Junior, Edson Rodrigues [SEEBLA, Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The land use and human occupation realized with an indiscriminate form across many parts of the world, including Brazil, have been causing destruction of great amount of forest mass and green areas. These actions results an isolation of a forest reminder fragment, and in such case, along the time, these fragments become weak and debilitated, characterizing general biodiversity loss or its extinction, in a worse case. This study presents basic concepts of ecological corridors and agroforestal systems, showing the case study that will be implemented in COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex), pointing the aspects that can be applied for PETROBRAS to offset impacts (biodiversity offsets concept) of punctual and linear projects. (author)

  10. Interim balance: Ecology. Oekologische Zwischenbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.


    The world wide ecology problem is discussed with examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, and water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord is considered. Conservative in our political parties and their views on environmental protection are presented, including alliance between reds and 'greens''. The Rhine initiative is discussed. Lead respects no borders accounts experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life is hearing on environmental protection. Other subjects include: 'Green's in the Bremen Senate; policy in a hard-hearing world psychology of citizens' action groups; critical ecological research and scientific establishment; full productivity and ecology; the deluge to follow/hints on how to build an ark; symbiosis is more than coexistence/ecologists' social theory; throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science; scientific journals; alternative literature; and a teaching model for a teaching subject' ecology'.

  11. The Ecological Economics of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Reisch, Lucia A.

    In accordance with the transdisciplinary basis of ecological economics, this volume encompasses contributions from different perspectives, often cutting across disciplines. It is divided into three parts that group contributions on · problematizing consumption both as a concept and as an economic...

  12. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to ... (United States)

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments. This final report presents a case study of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs); it focuses on the specific example of MWCNTs as used in flame-retardant coatings applied to upholstery textiles. This case study is organized around the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework, which structures available information pertaining to the product life cycle, environmental transport and fate, exposure-dose in receptors (i.e., humans, ecological populations, and the environment), and potential impacts in these receptors. A group of experts representing multiple disciplines and multiple sector perspectives used an earlier draft of the case study in conjunction with a structured workshop process to identify and prioritize research gaps that, if pursued, could inform future MWCNT assessment efforts. The final report is not a health, risk, or exposure assessment and as such does not draw conclusions about potential risks, or present an exhaustive review of the literature. Rather, it presents the MWCNT research priorities that experts identified in this application of CEA in order to aid research planning throughout the scientific community. The outcomes of these research efforts may subsequ

  13. Examples of Application of Exergy Analysis for the Evaluation of Ecological Effects in Thermal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Stanek


    Full Text Available Unfavourable influence of human activity on the natural environment can be divided into two groups: depletion of limited non-renewable resources and rejection of harmful substances. The depletion of non-renewable resources should be minimized to keep them for future mankind (sustainable development. Exergy can be applied as measure of the quality of natural resources. The influence of human activities on the depletion of natural resources can be evaluated by means of the calculus of cumulative consumption of exergy of non-renewable natural resources (thermo-ecological cost. The paper presents selected applications of the theory of thermo-ecological cost developed by Szargut.

  14. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Meister


    briefly introduces the reader to the triangular model used by Bachmair, Pachler and Cook in this issue (and in other publications to analyse the socio-cultural and cognitive possibilities opened up by various mobile media. Sandra Aßmann and Bardo Herzig discuss three theoretical approaches – a network perspective, systems theory and semiotics – in order to conceptualize and analyze learning with media in a range of formal and informal settings. They use the example of «friending» someone via Facebook, a context in which the formal and informal often intersect in unexpected ways. In this way, Aßmann and Herzig demonstrate the manifest complexities of communication analysis and pragmatics in these relatively new networked, mediated contexts. Judith Seipold provides an extensive overview of the burgeoning literature on the use and potential of mobile technologies in learning and educational ecologies. The research perspectives or frameworks covered by Seipold include critical, ethical, resource-centered, learning process-centered as well as ecological frames of reference. In her coverage of the last of these, not only does Seipold help to reframe the theme of this special issue as a whole, she also provides an excellent segue to the ecologically oriented analysis of «mobile learning» that follows. Ben Bachmair and Norbert Pachler’s contribution, «A Cultural Ecological Frame for Mobility and Learning», reflects the work of the London Mobile Learning Group, examining mobile resources and affordances from the ecological perspectives of Gibson, Postman and the seminal German media-pedagogue, Dieter Baacke. Using the structuration theory of Anthony Giddens, Bachmair, Norbert and Cook elaborate the aforementioned triangular model for understanding both the agency and the cultural and structural constraints offered by mobile technologies. In «Building as Interface: Sustainable Educational Ecologies», Suzanne de Castell, Milena Droumeva and Jen Jenson connect

  15. Interacting personalities: behavioural ecology meets quantitative genetics. (United States)

    Dingemanse, Niels J; Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G


    Behavioural ecologists increasingly study behavioural variation within and among individuals in conjunction, thereby integrating research on phenotypic plasticity and animal personality within a single adaptive framework. Interactions between individuals (cf. social environments) constitute a major causative factor of behavioural variation at both of these hierarchical levels. Social interactions give rise to complex 'interactive phenotypes' and group-level emergent properties. This type of phenotype has intriguing evolutionary implications, warranting a cohesive framework for its study. We detail here how a reaction-norm framework might be applied to usefully integrate social environment theory developed in behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics. The proposed emergent framework facilitates firm integration of social environments in adaptive research on phenotypic characters that vary within and among individuals.

  16. Understanding social-ecological change and transformation through community perceptions of system identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Andrachuk


    Full Text Available We developed an empirical approach to consider social-ecological system change and transformation by drawing on resource users' knowledge and perceptions. We applied this approach in the Cau Hai lagoon, a coastal area dominated by small-scale fisheries in central Vietnam. Nine focus groups with more than 70 fishers were used to gather information about key social-ecological system elements and interactions, historical social-ecological dynamics, and possible thresholds between distinct social-ecological system identities. The patterns of change in livelihoods and resource exploitation in the Cau Hai lagoon are similar to those seen in other coastal lagoon and small-scale fishery contexts. Our findings show some promise for the use of local knowledge and the perceptions of resource user communities to understand and characterize social-ecological transformations. Importantly, however, we also demonstrate how social-ecological transformations are complicated processes driven by many factors beyond the control of any singular individual or group. We argue that (1 the occurrence of social-ecological transformations can result in either positive or negative outcomes and (2 that we need to direct our thinking away from drawing tidy conclusions about if and when social-ecological transformations take place. Our research also encourages scholars to carefully consider how we frame the benefits of participatory, community-based governance initiatives. Importantly, we need to examine the ways that governance initiatives will be beneficial for some people and detrimental for others, and we need to be fully aware of locally contested interests and acknowledge competing priorities for fisheries management and human well-being. Community-oriented assessments informed by resilience thinking can help to open up questions about economic, political, cultural, and environmental aspects of undesirable path dependencies and traps.

  17. Relația de facilitare interspecifică și aplicațiile sale în ecologia reabilitării și în reconstrucția ecologică [Interspecific facilitative interaction applied to ecological rehabilitation and reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fodor Ecaterina


    Full Text Available The new paradigm of community ecology, facilitation as a driving force of plant communities’ assemblage under various abiotic and biotic stresses has gained important empirical support during the last two decades. Conceived at the beginning as a positive, asymmetrical interaction at the same trophic level the concept was refined and at the present moment, facilitation covers a continuum from diffuse mutualism to protective effect of one species upon the benefactor species. The paper is a review of the current state of knowledge on facilitation in plant communities dominated or only containing woody species such as shrubs and trees. The nurse plant syndrome is analyzed in a large context, from degraded or exposed to extreme factors mediterranean ecosystems to ecological rehabilitations in various parts of the world. Several empirical observation performed during 2015 in North-Western Transylvania on nurse plant syndrome characterizing secondary successions are presented with the aim to support the idea of using this natural model for reforestation and rehabilitation plans in Romania. The aim of the present paper was to endorse the idea of the employment of natural models in the rehabilitation of degraded lands or in biodiversity conservation.

  18. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.


    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vakili-Ardebili


    Full Text Available The sustainable building design process is driven on the basis of a range of design eco-indicators. Consideration of a multitude of eco-determinants, such as environment, economy, resources, energy consumption and society values in addition to design characteristics and contexts, makes the process of ecological design even more complex. A large number of eco-drivers are extracted from the literature and current design practices. To gain a better insight on eco-design determinants, a survey focusing on the use of eco-design drivers has been conducted with various architects in the UK. The factor analysis method was used to remove redundant data from the survey. Through the factor analysis approach, 115 eco-determinants are grouped into six main clusters. This article presents the process, analysis and findings of this work. The extracted eco-indicators and their associated clusters can be used to improve the process of ecological building design. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0096 Source: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, Volume 6, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 111-131(21

  20. World-Ecology and Ireland: The Neoliberal Ecological Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharae Deckard


    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the Celtic Tiger, the socio-economic particularity of neoliberal capitalism in its Irish manifestation has increasingly been critiqued, but little attention has been paid to neoliberalism as ecology within Ireland. This article conducts an exploratory survey of the characteristics of the Irish neoliberal ecological regime during and after the Celtic Tiger, identifying the opening of new commodity frontiers (such as fracking, water, agro-biotechnology, and biopharma constituted in the neoliberal drive to appropriate and financialize nature. I argue for the usefulness of applying not only the tools of world-systems analysis, but also Jason W. Moore’s world-ecological paradigm, to analysis of Ireland as a semi-periphery. What is crucial to a macro-ecological understanding of Ireland’s role in the neoliberal regime of the world-ecology is the inextricability of its financial role as a tax haven and secrecy jurisdiction zone from its environmental function as a semi-peripheral pollution and water haven. We can adapt Jason W. Moore’s slogan that “Wall Street…becomes a way of organizing all of nature, characterized by the financialization of any income-generating activity” (Moore 2011b: 39 to say that to say that the “IFSC is a way of organizing nature,” with pernicious consequences for water, energy, and food systems in Ireland. Financial service centers and pharmaceutical factories, plantations and cattle ranches, tax havens and pollution havens, empires and common markets are all forms of environment-making that constellate human relations and extra-human processes into new ecological regimes. More expansive, dialectical understandings of “ecology” as comprising the whole of socio-ecological relations within the capitalist world-ecology—from farming to pharma to financialization—are crucial to forming configurations of knowledge able not only to take account of Ireland’s role in the environmental

  1. Ecological, Pedagogical, Public Rhetoric (United States)

    Rivers, Nathaniel A.; Weber, Ryan P.


    Public rhetoric pedagogy can benefit from an ecological perspective that sees change as advocated not through a single document but through multiple mundane and monumental texts. This article summarizes various approaches to rhetorical ecology, offers an ecological read of the Montgomery bus boycotts, and concludes with pedagogical insights on a…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-gao; LI Xiu-zhen; HE Hong S; HU Yuan-man


    Ecological restoration is widely employed from tens to millions of hectares in space, and from tens of days to thousands of years in time, which forces consideration of it thoroughly. We argue that three questions are the most important among the contents relevant of ecological restoration, including why, what and how to restore degraded systems. Why to restore determines whether or not the degraded ecological systems should be restored. What to restore is the goal of ecological restoration. The explicit goal of ecological restoration is necessary to guide ecological restoration workers in pursuit of excellence and prevent restoration from being swamped by purely technological activities. And how to restore means the methods and steps we should apply. To ensure the final success of ecological restoration, restored sites should be monitored and managed for long time to determine whether the selected methods are appropriate, and can be remedy better. Only to deal with these effectively, ecological restoration would be the hope for the future.

  3. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L


    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  4. Application of ecological footprint in ecological industrial systems :a study case of maize-MSG production systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lizhen; Cheng Shengkui; Min Qingwen; Sun Yehong


    To improve the comparability of the research results of ecological industry, the ecological footprint is applied to analyze the resource utilization and environmental pollution in various subsystems, taking maize-MSG as a case.Results show that the production process from maize to MSG is a extended process of ecological footprint, and that the ecological footprint of the maize production is the biggest; the extension of ecological footprint is followed by the increase of footprint profit, which means that the extension of production chain is an important method to improve the resources profit; the systems have a big proportion of the indirect energy ecological footprint; the air and water pollution in MSG subsystem is the most serious. At last, it can be identified that ecological footprint is a good method to measure resource utilization and environmental pollution in various subsystems of an integrated ecological industry.

  5. Ecology through time, an overview. (United States)

    Santangelo, Giovanni; Bramanti, Lorenzo


    This brief review is an attempt to condense the major events in the history of Ecology into short 10 sections. In little more than two generations, a new science has emerged and developed into a fundamental part of our lives, spurred on by increasing interest in "natural systems" and concerns over the environmental changes we are witnessing. Ecology, rather neglected until the early decades of last century, flourished and established itself as mature science during the mid-1900s, producing many theories, models, hypothesis and trends of thought. Ecology deals with interacting natural systems and eclectically applies tools drawn from several different sciences (Biology, Mathematics, Statistics, Chemistry, Geology, Physics and so on). The beauty of the subject and its multidisciplinary approach makes Ecology extremely intriguing for researchers. One of the main goals of Ecology is to forecast population, community and ecosystem trends over time. Ecological systems are complex: they are composed of such a large number of different, interacting components that their overall behavior can only be understood in terms of emerging properties. Therefore, some interactions and effects are difficult to predict. However, some insights into population and community trends can be inferred from exhaustive data sets and sufficiently long-term, time-series data and dynamic models. Unfortunately, due to the limited funding of environmental data collection, only a few exhaustive, long-term samplings have been carried out, and systematic record keeping for the purposes of ecological research has only recently become widespread. However, it is still possible to garner some insights from historical reports (proxies), which clearly show how the population structures of most of today's communities have been affected by human activities. This short review is based on a talk given at Arcidosso (Grosseto, Italy) during the September, 2005 workshop: "Scientific research and society during the

  6. Genomics and marine microbial ecology. (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos


    Genomics has brought about a revolution in all fields of biology. Before the development of microbial ecology in the 1970s, microbes were not even considered in marine ecological studies. Today we know that half of the total primary production of the planet must be credited to microorganisms. This and other discoveries have changed dramatically the perspective and the focus of marine microbial ecology. The application of genomics-based approaches has provided new challenges and has allowed the discovery of novel functions, an appreciation of the great diversity of microorganisms, and the introduction of controversial ideas regarding the concepts of species, genome, and niche. Nevertheless, thorough knowledge of the traditional disciplines of biology is necessary to explore the possibilities arising from these new insights. This work reviews the different genomic techniques that can be applied to marine microbial ecology, including both sequencing of the complete genomes of microorganisms and metagenomics, which, in turn, can be complemented with the study of mRNAs (transcriptomics) and proteins (proteomics). The example of proteorhodopsin illustrates the type of information that can be gained from these approaches. A genomics perspective constitutes a map that will allow microbiologists to focus their research on potentially more productive aspects.

  7. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A


    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  8. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David


    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  9. An ecosystemic approach to evaluating ecological, socioeconomic and group dynamics affecting the prevalence of Aedes aegypti in two Colombian towns Aproximación ecosistémica para evaluar las relaciones entre ecología, factores socioeconómicos, dinámicas sociales y la presencia del dengue en dos ciudades de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Quintero


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the epidemiological methods and results of a global Ecohealth study that explored the complexity of the relationship between ecological, biological, economical, social and political factors and vector presence. The study was carried out in two dengue endemic areas of Colombia. A transdisciplinary team gathered quantitative and qualitative data. A survey in randomly sampled households was applied and, simultaneously, direct observation of potential breeding sites was carried out. Logistic regressions and qualitative techniques were used. Qualitative and quantitative data were compared using triangulation. The presence of low water containers increases seven-fold the risk of finding immature forms ofAedes aegypti in the household (OR = 7.5; 95%CI: 1.7-32.2. An inverse association between socioeconomic stratum and presence of the vector was identified (Low stratum OR = 0.9; 95%CI: 0.6-1.4; High stratum OR =0.4; 95%CI: 0.07-1.7. Water management is a complex social dynamic associated with the presence of Ae. aegypti. Dengue control is a challenge for public health authorities and researchers as they should address promotion and prevention strategies that take into account cultural, behavioral, socioeconomic and health factors.Este artículo se enfoca en los métodos epidemiológicos y resultados de una investigación global en Ecosalud que exploró la complejidad de la relación entre factores ecológicos, biológicos, económicos, sociales y políticos y la presencia de Aedes aegypti. El estudio se llevó acabo en dos áreas endémicas de Colombia. Un equipo transdisciplinario recogió y analizó información, tanto cualitativa como cuantitativa. Se aplicó una encuesta en una muestra de casas escogidas aleatoriamente. Simultáneamente, se realizó observación directa de criaderos potenciales. La articulación entre los datos cuantitativos y cualitativos se efectuó mediante triangulación. La presencia de tanques bajos

  10. Ecological control of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811: five years after a Costa Rican pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zeledó


    Full Text Available An ecological pilot project for the control of Triatoma dimidiata allowed a new evaluation four and five years after environmental modifications in the peridomestic areas of 20 households. It was verified that the two groups of houses, 10 case-houses and 10 control-houses, were free of insects after those periods of time. In the first group, the owners started a chicken coop in the backyard and a colony of bugs was found there without infesting the house. In the second group, the inhabitants of one house once again facilitated the conditions for the bugs to thrive in the same store room, reaffirming that man-made ecotopes facilitates colonization. This ecological control method was revealed to be reliable and sustainable and it is recommended to be applied to those situations where the vectors of Chagas disease can colonize houses and are frequent in wild ecotopes.

  11. Applied Enzymology. (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.


    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  12. Where is behavioural ecology going? (United States)

    Owens, Ian P F


    Since the 1990s, behavioural ecologists have largely abandoned some traditional areas of interest, such as optimal foraging, but many long-standing challenges remain. Moreover, the core strengths of behavioural ecology, including the use of simple adaptive models to investigate complex biological phenomena, have now been applied to new puzzles outside behaviour. But this strategy comes at a cost. Replication across studies is rare and there have been few tests of the underlying genetic assumptions of adaptive models. Here, I attempt to identify the key outstanding questions in behavioural ecology and suggest that researchers must make greater use of model organisms and evolutionary genetics in order to make substantial progress on these topics.

  13. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner


    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  14. Industrial ecology Prosperity Game{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.; Boyack, K.; Berman, M.


    Industrial ecology (IE) is an emerging scientific field that views industrial activities and the environment as an interactive whole. The IE approach simultaneously optimizes activities with respect to cost, performance, and environmental impact. Industrial Ecology provides a dynamic systems-based framework that enables management of human activity on a sustainable basis by: minimizing energy and materials usage; insuring acceptable quality of life for people; minimizing the ecological impact of human activity to levels that natural systems can sustain; and maintaining the economic viability of systems for industry, trade and commerce. Industrial ecology applies systems science to industrial systems, defining the system boundary to incorporate the natural world. Its overall goal is to optimize industrial activities within the constraints imposed by ecological viability, globally and locally. In this context, Industrial systems applies not just to private sector manufacturing and services but also to government operations, including provision of infrastructure. Sandia conducted its seventeenth Prosperity Game{trademark} on May 23--25, 1997, at the Hyatt Dulles Hotel in Herndon, Virginia. The primary sponsors of the event were Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory, who were interested in using the format of a Prosperity Game to address some of the issues surrounding Industrial Ecology. Honorary game sponsors were: The National Science Foundation; the Committee on Environmental Improvement, American Chemical Society; the Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Division, American Chemical Society; the US EPA--The Smart Growth Network, Office of Policy Development; and the US DOE-Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development.

  15. Explicating Practicum Program Theory: A Case Example in Human Ecology (United States)

    Chandler, Kathryn M. M.; Williamson, Deanna L.


    This study explicated the theory underpinning the Human Ecology Practicum Program offered in the Department of Human Ecology at the University of Alberta. The program has operated for 40 years but never been formally evaluated. Using a document analysis, focus group and individual interviews, and a stakeholder working group, we explored…

  16. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas


    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  17. Social Ecological Economics


    Spash, Clive L.


    This paper introduces and explains how ecological economics has developed as a modern movement with its roots in environmentalism and radical environmental economics. Divisions and conflicts within the field are explored to show why material claiming to fall under the title of ecological economics fails to be representative of progress or the vision which drove socio-economic specialists to interact with ecologists in the first place. The argument is then put forward that ecological economics...

  18. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  19. Chemical ecology of fungi. (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter


    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  20. Energetic and ecological constraints on population density of reef fishes. (United States)

    Barneche, D R; Kulbicki, M; Floeter, S R; Friedlander, A M; Allen, A P


    Population ecology has classically focused on pairwise species interactions, hindering the description of general patterns and processes of population abundance at large spatial scales. Here we use the metabolic theory of ecology as a framework to formulate and test a model that yields predictions linking population density to the physiological constraints of body size and temperature on individual metabolism, and the ecological constraints of trophic structure and species richness on energy partitioning among species. Our model was tested by applying Bayesian quantile regression to a comprehensive reef-fish community database, from which we extracted density data for 5609 populations spread across 49 sites around the world. Our results indicate that population density declines markedly with increases in community species richness and that, after accounting for richness, energetic constraints are manifested most strongly for the most abundant species, which generally are of small body size and occupy lower trophic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that, at the global scale, factors associated with community species richness are the major drivers of variation in population density. Given that populations of species-rich tropical systems exhibit markedly lower maximum densities, they may be particularly susceptible to stochastic extinction.

  1. EI: A Program for Ecological Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary King


    Full Text Available The program EI provides a method of inferring individual behavior from aggregate data. It implements the statistical procedures, diagnostics, and graphics from the book A Solution to the Ecological Inference Problem: Reconstructing Individual Behavior from Aggregate Data (King 1997. Ecological inference, as traditionally defined, is the process of using aggregate (i.e., "ecological" data to infer discrete individual-level relationships of interest when individual-level data are not available. Ecological inferences are required in political science research when individual-level surveys are unavailable (e.g., local or comparative electoral politics, unreliable (racial politics, insufficient (political geography, or infeasible (political history. They are also required in numerous areas of ma jor significance in public policy (e.g., for applying the Voting Rights Act and other academic disciplines ranging from epidemiology and marketing to sociology and quantitative history.

  2. Ecology and bioprospecting. (United States)

    Beattie, Andrew J; Hay, Mark; Magnusson, Bill; de Nys, Rocky; Smeathers, James; Vincent, Julian F V


    Bioprospecting is the exploration of biodiversity for new resources of social and commercial value. It is carried out by a wide range of established industries such as pharmaceuticals, manufacturing and agriculture as well as a wide range of comparatively new ones such as aquaculture, bioremediation, biomining, biomimetic engineering and nanotechnology. The benefits of bioprospecting have emerged from such a wide range of organisms and environments worldwide that it is not possible to predict what species or habitats will be critical to society, or industry, in the future. The benefits include an unexpected variety of products that include chemicals, genes, metabolic pathways, structures, materials and behaviours. These may provide physical blueprints or inspiration for new designs. Criticism aimed at bioprospecting has been addressed, in part, by international treaties and legal agreements aimed at stopping biopiracy and many activities are now funded by agencies that require capacity-building and economic benefits in host countries. Thus, much contemporary bioprospecting has multiple goals, including the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable management of natural resources and economic development. Ecologists are involved in three vital ways: first, applying ecological principles to the discovery of new resources. In this context, natural history becomes a vast economic database. Second, carrying out field studies, most of them demographic, to help regulate the harvest of wild species. Third, emphasizing the profound importance of millions of mostly microscopic species to the global economy.

  3. The ecological research needs of business. (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia


    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services.We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK's Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector.Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement.Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses' impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses

  4. Materials Testing - Digital Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Wiley


    Full Text Available Access to credible building product performance information throughout the design and construction process is critical to enable project development, vet product selections, ensure as-built quality, and successfully complete construction. This is common knowledge and part of common practice for nearly all parties involved in design and construction. The sources of such information can range from vernacular to formal – from common practice to special reference. The focus of this paper is one of the more formal or specialized information sources, performance testing, as well as how such performance testing information can be better used. This paper’s goals are to familiarize the reader with performance testing and to depict a new kind of valuable informational tool (digital ecology. Reference to pertinent nomenclature, description of a real world example, and detailed description of such an informational tool’s values will be provided.The major content of this paper was developed during project-based work and firm-funded internal research at point b design, ltd. over approximately the previous 4 years. The phrase ‘digital ecology’ as herein used is a new concept proposed by the author. The analysis contained in this paper could be applied to the field of operations and maintenance as it is herein applied to design and construction; however, operations and maintenance is beyond the scope of this paper and may be addressed in future papers. It is my hope that this paper will contribute to tangible and real improvements of the built environment via continued, positive development within academic and professional practice.

  5. Robustness or resilience? Managing the intersection of ecology and engineering in an urban Alaskan fishery



    Systems theories of robustness and resilience, which are derived from engineering and ecology, respectively, have been increasingly applied to social-ecological systems (SESs). Social-ecological robustness has been applied primarily to management of physical dimensions of SESs (e.g., water management) and resilience to management of ecological dimensions of SESs (e.g., rangelands). However, cases of highly engineered systems have yet to be adequately evaluated by either approach. We find the ...

  6. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    The subject of this project/paper is the challenges that digital media pose to earlier definitions, divisions and conceptions of learning institutions and their activities. It is argued that, in the light of digital media, the idea of institutional co-creation of learning and literacies needs...... in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...

  7. Bagunça na escola: estratégias para serem aplicadas entre escola e grupos / Mess in the school: strategies to be applied among schools and groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Estevam da Silva


    Full Text Available Partindo de uma perspectiva intercultural, este artigo pretende cartografar algumas práticas de alunos e grupos de alunos em sala de aula, a conhecida bagunça, comumente tratadas como prejudiciais ao ensino e organização escolares. Baseando-se na reconstrução documentária de grupos de discussão e entrevistas com alunos do quinto ano de diferentes sistemas escolares (público e privado no Brasil e escolas de baixa e alta qualificação educacionais na Alemanha, discutiremos o conceito de bagunça considerando a sua função social em relação à constituição de grupos de amigos, à carreira escolar e a um descontentamento ou crítica do aluno sobre qualidade de ensino. Função esta que se diferencia e configura de acordo com o contexto social, econômico e cultural do aluno revelando-se, muitas vezes, como sua voz face à obsolescência e ao fracasso da instituição escolar. Do ponto de vista metodológico, empregamos o método de pesquisa qualitativa relacionada a investigações interculturais assim como o método de triangulação sobre o material cultural relacionado.Based on a cross-cultural study in this paper we outline practices of groups of students in the class room, known as ‘disruptive behaviour’, which are seen as disruptions to classroom and school’s order. Using documentary reconstructions of data from interview and group discussions with 5th graders from different schools and school systems (public and private schools in Brazil, lower and higher qualifying schools in Germany, we discuss the concept of ‘bagunça’ in relation to its social functions concerning the construction of peer-groups, school careers and school-related attitudes. A fundamental difference between pupil on different educational and social contexts can be seen concerning the function of school critique, which is only applied in schools of lower educational or social status. From a methodological point of view we address questions of class

  8. The Drosophila flavopilosa species group (Diptera, Drosophilidae) (United States)

    Robe, Lizandra J.; De Ré, Francine Cenzi; Ludwig, Adriana; Loreto, Elgion L.S.


    The D. flavopilosa group encompasses an ecologically restricted set of species strictly adapted to hosting flowers of Cestrum (Solanaceae). This group presents potential to be used as a model to the study of different questions regarding ecologically restricted species macro and microevolutionary responses, geographical vs. ecological speciation and intra and interspecific competition. This review aims to revisit and reanalyze the patterns and processes that are subjacent to the interesting ecological and evolutionary properties of these species. Biotic and abiotic niche properties of some species were reanalyzed in face of ecological niche modeling approaches in order to get some insights into their ecological evolution. A test of the potential of DNA-Barcoding provided evidences that this technology may be a way of overcoming difficulties related to cryptic species differentiation. The new focus replenishes the scenario with new questions, presenting a case where neither geographical nor ecological speciation may be as yet suggested. PMID:23459119

  9. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted


    artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik


    Full Text Available The author's investigations results are presented in comparing with literary materials concerning the application of principles and methods of ecological immunology for solving radioecological questions. The data on characteristic of immunity and health of human population affected with radiation factors of the environment is given as well as animals' population state as the links offood ecological chains.

  11. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian


    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement......, will not be covered in this e-book....

  12. The ecology of citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Robert; Garmany, Jeff


    This article calls into question the relationship between citizenship, space and ecological stability. Drawing on case study research from urban Brazil, we argue that while space may be crucial to Western perspectives of citizenship – particularly in urban areas – the ecological coproduction of thes

  13. Applied photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Wenham, Stuart R; Watt, Muriel E; Corkish, Richard; Sproul, Alistair


    The new edition of this thoroughly considered textbook provides a reliable, accessible and comprehensive guide for students of photovoltaic applications and renewable energy engineering. Written by a group of award-winning authors it is brimming with information and is carefully designed to meet the needs of its readers. Along with exercises and references at the end of each chapter, it features a set of detailed technical appendices that provide essential equations, data sources and standards. The new edition has been fully updated with the latest information on photovoltaic cells,

  14. The movement ecology of seagrasses. (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos


    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  15. A method for phenomenological analysis of ecological data. (United States)

    Huang, H.-W.; Morowitz, H. J.


    The experimental meaning of the phenomenological differential equations for a competing population is reviewed. It is concluded that it is virtually impossible to construct the differential equations precise enough for studying stability. We consider instead a method of phenomenological analysis which can be applied to a set of population curves. We suggest an ecological index calculated from the population curves, which indicates a group property of the entire system. As a function of time, the index is presumably insensitive to Volterra type fluctuations. A marked increase of the index's value however indicates a marked change of the environmental conditions. It is not easy to deduce the group property from the population curves alone, because a change in population is in general due to the superposition of external disturbances and Volterra fluctuations.

  16. Predictive systems ecology. (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G


    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.

  17. Detecting Tipping points in Ecological Models with Sensitivity Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten G.A.; Voorn, van G.A.K.; Kooi, B.W.; Molenaar, Jaap


    Simulation models are commonly used to understand and predict the development of ecological systems, for instance to study the occurrence of tipping points and their possible ecological effects. Sensitivity analysis is a key tool in the study of model responses to changes in conditions. The appli

  18. Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach (United States)

    Muhovic-Dorsner, Kamala


    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to…

  19. Adopting an ecological view of metropolitan landscape: the case of "three circles" system for ecological construction and restoration in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Xin-Shi


    Ecological construction and restoration for sustainable development are now a driving paradigm. It is increasingly recognized that ecological principles, especially landscape ecology theory, are not only necessary but also essential to maintain the long-term sustainability worldwide. Key landscape ecology principles-element,structure and process, dynamics, heterogeneity, hierarchies, connectivity, place and time were reviewed, and use Beijing area as a case study to illustrate how these principles might be applied to ecological construction and restoration, to eventually achieve sustainability. An example to more effectively incorporate the ecological principles in sustainable planning in China was presented.

  20. Trophic groups and modules: two levels of group detection in food webs. (United States)

    Gauzens, Benoit; Thébault, Elisa; Lacroix, Gérard; Legendre, Stéphane


    Within food webs, species can be partitioned into groups according to various criteria. Two notions have received particular attention: trophic groups (TGs), which have been used for decades in the ecological literature, and more recently, modules. The relationship between these two group concepts remains unknown in empirical food webs. While recent developments in network theory have led to efficient methods for detecting modules in food webs, the determination of TGs (groups of species that are functionally similar) is largely based on subjective expert knowledge. We develop a novel algorithm for TG detection. We apply this method to empirical food webs and show that aggregation into TGs allows for the simplification of food webs while preserving their information content. Furthermore, we reveal a two-level hierarchical structure where modules partition food webs into large bottom-top trophic pathways, whereas TGs further partition these pathways into groups of species with similar trophic connections. This provides new perspectives for the study of dynamical and functional consequences of food-web structure, bridging topological and dynamical analysis. TGs have a clear ecological meaning and are found to provide a trade-off between network complexity and information loss.

  1. Applied combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  2. An Ecological Analysis of Mathematics Teachers' Noticing (United States)

    Jazby, Dan


    Most studies which investigate mathematics teacher noticing cast perception into a passive role. This study develops an ecological analysis of mathematics teachers' noticing in order to investigate how teachers actively look for information in classroom environments. This method of analysis is applied to data collected as an experienced primary…

  3. Introduction to the Special Issue: Beyond traits: integrating behaviour into plant ecology and biology. (United States)

    Cahill, James F


    The way that plants are conceptualized in the context of ecological understanding is changing. In one direction, a reductionist school is pulling plants apart into a list of measured 'traits', from which ecological function and outcomes of species interactions may be inferred. This special issue offers an alternative, and more holistic, view: that the ecological functions performed by a plant will be a consequence not only of their complement of traits but also of the ways in which their component parts are used in response to environmental and social conditions. This is the realm of behavioural ecology, a field that has greatly advanced our understanding of animal biology, ecology and evolution. Included in this special issue are 10 articles focussing not on the tried and true metaphor that plant growth is similar to animal movement, but instead on how application of principles from animal behaviour can improve our ability to understand plant biology and ecology. The goals are not to draw false parallels, nor to anthropomorphize plant biology, but instead to demonstrate how existing and robust theory based on fundamental principles can provide novel understanding for plants. Key to this approach is the recognition that behaviour and intelligence are not the same. Many organisms display complex behaviours despite a lack of cognition (as it is traditionally understood) or any hint of a nervous system. The applicability of behavioural concepts to plants is further enhanced with the realization that all organisms face the same harsh forces of natural selection in the context of finding resources, mates and coping with neighbours. As these ecological realities are often highly variable in space and time, it is not surprising that all organisms-even plants-exhibit complex behaviours to handle this variability. The articles included here address diverse topics in behavioural ecology, as applied to plants: general conceptual understanding, plant nutrient foraging, root

  4. Recent Developments in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...

  5. Emerging Relationships Between Structure and Ecological Function in the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brown


    Full Text Available The concepts of landscape ecology are theoretically applicable to landscapes anywhere in the world. Much information has been generated relating sizes, shapes, and composition of patches and corridors in the landscape to their ecological function. Many patterns related to ecological processes are emerging that can be applied with increasing confidence in landscape planning and design. In this context, we developed a comprehensive approach that makes use of three-dimensional (3-D models to describe visually the structural properties of landscape elements. This approach may be used by landscape architects so that the patterns they create also have an appropriate ecological function.

  6. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian


    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  7. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology]. (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S


    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  8. Ecological operation for Three Gorges reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian GUO


    Full Text Available The traditional operation rule of Three Gorges reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply and recreation and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied to maintain healthy river ecosystem. The study considered the ecological operation targets, including maintaining river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Based on the flow data from 1900 to 2006 of Yichang gauge as the control station of the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. The paper proposed a reservoir ecological operation model of comprehensively considering flood control, power generation, navigation and ecological environment. Three typical periods including wet, normal and dry year were selected and particle swarm optimization was applied to analyze the model. The results show that there are different influences of ecological operation rules on economic benefit of hydropower station and reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for requirement of spawning of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Finally, ecological operation measures of Three Gorges reservoir were proposed. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand can be met. The results provide the reference for making the reasonable operation schemes for Three Gorges reservoir.

  9. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu


    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  10. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  11. Market Squid Ecology Dataset (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ecological information collected on the major adult spawning and juvenile habitats of market squid off California and the US Pacific Northwest....

  12. Ecological Provinces of Minnesota (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the first level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  13. Ecological Subsections of Minnesota (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the third level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  14. Ecological Sections of Minnesota (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the second level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta


    Full Text Available To mark the 25th Anniversary of the Polish Society of Ecological Engineering (PTIE and the 15th Anniversary of the journal “Inżynieria Ekologiczna - Ecological Engineering” it was decided to come back with the contribution on „Essence and tasks of ecological engineering” first published in the proceedings of scientific seminar on „Engineering of agricultural environment” held in Lublin 1996, as well as to report on the most significant achievements of the PTIE and the conclusions resulting therefrom. Ecological engineering encompasses both theoretical and applied knowledge covering many fields of science and technology which provide fundamentals for a wise use and protection of the natural environment and anthropogenic resources. Ecological engineering supports environmental aspects of civilization development. The basics of ecological engineering are the oldest (next to medicine fields of science and technology.

  16. Sraffa and ecological economics


    Verger, Yoann


    References to Sraffa and to the neo-Ricardian school is something quite customary in ecological economics. By looking at contributions in this area since the beginning of ecological economics and at contributions on environmental problem from the neo-Ricardian school, we see that a connection between both school still has to be made. This connection should be articulated around the initial aim of Sraffa: to develop a new paradigm, competing against the neoclassical one. Only then it will be p...

  17. Indicators of Ecological Change (United States)


    Wang et al. (2003) and earlier those of Chapra and Di Toro (1991). Wang et al. (2003) termed their approach the extreme value method and used it to...Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 210 pp. Chapra , S. C., Di Toro, D. M., 1991. Delta method for estimating primary production, respiration, and...characteristics, The challenge in using ecological indicators is determining which of the numerous measures of ecological systems best characterize

  18. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine


    of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel...... to how artists working with new information and media technologies create inventive ways of inserting sound and image into urban environments....

  19. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John;

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts...

  20. The consideration of ecological safety in judicial practice-also on the ecological safety legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zhongmei


    Ecological safety has been one of the hot issues of environmental law in recent years.The maintenance of ecological safety has become one of the legislative principles,as exemplified by the revision of the Law of Sand Prevention and Sand.Management and the Law against Solid Waste Environmental Pollution,and the relevant rules that will be established.However actual cases will still happen,whether the legislators have made the statutory law or not.While scholars and legislators are debating,the judges have to handle cases and render judgments.Through the analysis of a case,this article will discuss the feasibility for judges to make ecological safety considerations in the judicial process by applying the principle of good faith and will also discuss the legislative issues related to ecological safety.

  1. On the Ecological Application of Lexical Cohesion in English Writing Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang


    According to ecological linguistics, lexical cohesion, as an ecological factor of an English text, is helpful to make up a balanced ecological environment of a text. Therefore, in English writing teaching, students should know about different patterns and functions of lexical cohesion, and be guided how to apply different lexical cohesive devices to improve their writing ability as well.

  2. On the Ecological Application of Lexical Cohesion in English Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fu-liang


    According to ecological linguistics, lexical cohesion, as an ecological factor of an English text, is helpful to make up a balanced ecological environment of a text. Therefore, in English reading, students should know about different patterns and func-tions of lexical cohesion, and be guided how to apply different lexical cohesion devices to improve their reading comprehension as well.

  3. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.


    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engin

  4. Urban ecology and its Importance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the development of ecological problems are becoming more and more serious people pay more and more attention on ecological city,, this paper analyzes the sources of city ecological problems from the angle of the city planning, to explore the feasible measures to solve or al eviate the increasingly serious ecological problems.

  5. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks (United States)

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn


    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  6. Lubei Ecological Industry Project:A Case Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jiutian


    Lubei General Company of Enterprise Group, Shangdong Province, set up joint enterprises industrial ecosystem by sharing resources, symbiosis industry and compact structure. As an ecological industry park, the industrial ecosystem has been operated successfully with rich experiment and has become one of ecological industry examples in the world. Based on the case study of Lubei ecological industry project, components of industrial chains,matter recycle and conversion, energy cycle and multilevel utilization, systematic structure and impact factor identification are analyzed and summarized in this paper. The possible extension and development of Lubei ecological industry project in future is brought forward as well.

  7. [Using ecology thinking reconstructing traditional agronomy: role of production ecology]. (United States)

    Wang, Song-Liang


    Traditional agronomy, as a discipline or specialty, is originated from the reductionism thinking of neoteric experimental sciences and motivated by the great success of industrialized revolution, but loses the ensemble grasp of the relationships between agricultural organisms and their resources and environment, i.e., agroecosystem mechanism. Moreover, due to the excessively relying on exogenous fossil energy input and the monoculture with a few highly productive crop cultivars, the agricultural interior sustainability has unceasingly lost, making our mankind facing the double crises of grain security and food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to reconstruct the traditional agronomy and its educational system. In this paper, the author proposed to link traditional agronomy with ecology, establishing agroecology as the core subject and agroecosystem management as the core applied system, and in particular, establishing 'production ecology' to fill up the wide gap between the crop cultivation and farming system and the crop genetics and breeding, the two second grade disciplines under agronomy. Ideologically and methodologically, this proposal could provide disciplinary, scientific, and educational bases to authentically implement the strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.

  8. Ecological quality of production: accounting approach on sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Syroid


    Full Text Available The specific weight of resource and power consuming technologies that is typical for Ukrainian economy, the absence of effective legal, administrative and economic mechanisms of management of nature and the low level of ecological society consciousness have led to the significant deterioration of environment state in Ukraine, excessive pollution of waters, air, and soil, accumulation of a large number of waste products. Besides, the produce as a result of such enterprises’ production affects consumers’ health badly. This causes the need to develop theory and methodology of production ecological quality accounting. The problem of quality is the most important factor of increasing of life level, economic, social and ecological security in market economy. This, the current research aims to formulate the essence of concept “ecological quality of production” The research determines that ecological quality is characterized by the following main 6 aspects: social, technical, legal, economic, aesthetic and ecological. If one of these six aspects does not work, we cannot speak about ecological quality of a certain commodity. Many various factors influence upon the level of ecological quality of products and services. According to their contents and directions, they can be united into the following main 6 groups: technical, organizational, economic and social, ecological and aesthetic and legal. The article determines the directions of production ecological quality increasing.

  9. Teoria ego-ecológica e o estudo da identidade social : aplicabilidade em pesquisas de enfermagem Teoría egoecológica y el estudio de la identidad social : aplicabilidad en la investigación en enfermería The ego-ecological theory and the study of the social identity applied to nursing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosâne Mello


    development of a kind of knowledge that is able to discuss, to analyze and provide a basis to its daily practice. This text aims to discuss the methodological basis and the application of the ego-ecological theory in nursing research. According to this theory it is possible to know the individual's identity, its peculiarities and its reality, by means of his/her self-representations and the representations (she has about his/her social groups. The ego-ecologic theory sees identity as a reality construct in which the outer world and the inner world merge in face of the individual history. The ego-ecological analysis allows one to understand the client and his/her complexities and paradoxes and the relations established on family, work, leisure and micro-social and macro-social levels.

  10. Urban sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Krogh Groth


    Full Text Available Within recent years, there has been a renewed focus on sound in urban environments. From sound installations in public space to sound festivals in alternative settings, we find a common interest in sound art relating to the urban environment. Artworks or interventions presented in such contexts share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel. The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point to how artists working with new information and media technologies create inventive ways of inserting sound and image into urban environments.

  11. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies. (United States)

    Benevento, A L


    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  12. Molecular ecology studies of marine Synechococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying; JIAO Nianzhi


    Cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus is a dominant component of microbial community in the world's oceans, and is a major contributor to marine primary productivity and thus plays an important role in carbon cycling in the oceans. Besides the ecological importance, the cultivability also made Synechococcus a very special group of marine microorganisms, which has attracted great attention from oceanographers and biologists. Great progress in the physiology, biochemistry and phylogeny of Synechococcus has been made since its discovery. We here review the current status of molecular ecology of marine Synechococcus and give a perspective into the future based on our understanding of the literature and our own work.

  13. Butterfly Community Conservation Through Ecological Landscape Design in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Borsai


    Full Text Available Due urbanization and extension of agricultural areas most of the ecosystems are strongly affected. As a result, preservation of biodiversity becomes more and more important aiming to reestablish the lost habitats of different species (mammals, birds, amphibians, insects, etc.. Our research focuses on butterflies which constitute an extremely important group of ‘model’ organisms. We have identified 12 diurnal ‘flying beauties’ specific to Cluj area (threatened and unthreathened species and investigated their ecological requirements that have to be provided for in any landscapes. Furthermore, based on the data colleted we have illustrated the utility of our approach by applying it to a hypothetical urban landscape (private garden following the traditional environmental guidelines in our landscape design.

  14. Coevolutionary ecological economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallis, Giorgos [ICREA Researcher, ICTA, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, ETSE, QC/3095, 08193 Bellatera, Barcelona (Spain); Norgaard, Richard B. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States)


    This paper maps a coevolutionary research agenda for ecological economics. At an epistemological level coevolution offers a powerful logic for transcending environmental and social determinisms and developing a cross-disciplinary approach in the study of socio-ecological systems. We identify four consistent stories emerging out of coevolutionary studies in ecological economics, concerning: environmental degradation and development failure in peripheral regions; the lock-in of unsustainable production-consumption patterns; the vicious cycle between human efforts to control undesirable micro-organisms and the evolution of these organisms; and the adaptive advantages of other-regarding, cooperative behaviors and institutions. We identify challenges in the conceptualization of coevolutionary relationships in relation to: the interaction between different hierarchical levels of evolution; the role of space and social power; uneven rates of change and crises. We conclude with the political implications of a coevolutionary perspective based on the premises of pragmatism. (author)

  15. Reverse Ecology: from systems to environments and back. (United States)

    Levy, Roie; Borenstein, Elhanan


    The structure of complex biological systems reflects not only their function but also the environments in which they evolved and are adapted to. Reverse Ecology-an emerging new frontier in Evolutionary Systems Biology-aims to extract this information and to obtain novel insights into an organism's ecology. The Reverse Ecology framework facilitates the translation of high-throughput genomic data into large-scale ecological data, and has the potential to transform ecology into a high-throughput field. In this chapter, we describe some of the pioneering work in Reverse Ecology, demonstrating how system-level analysis of complex biological networks can be used to predict the natural habitats of poorly characterized microbial species, their interactions with other species, and universal patterns governing the adaptation of organisms to their environments. We further present several studies that applied Reverse Ecology to elucidate various aspects of microbial ecology, and lay out exciting future directions and potential future applications in biotechnology, biomedicine, and ecological engineering.

  16. Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects (United States)

    McKechnie, Iain; Ekblom, Anneli; Szabó, Péter; Lane, Paul J.; McAlvay, Alex C.; Boles, Oliver J.; Walshaw, Sarah; Petek, Nik; Gibbons, Kevin S.; Quintana Morales, Erendira; Anderson, Eugene N.; Ibragimow, Aleksandra; Podruczny, Grzegorz; Vamosi, Jana C.; Marks-Block, Tony; LeCompte, Joyce K.; Awâsis, Sākihitowin; Nabess, Carly; Sinclair, Paul; Crumley, Carole L.


    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural. PMID:28235093

  17. A Review of Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Mixter


    Full Text Available Review of: Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications, 2nd ed.; Colin Munn; (2011. Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, NY. Paperback, 364 pages. ISBN 9780815365174.

  18. Ecology of gelatious plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia

    as a result of this invasion and its ecological and economic impacts. In 2005, when M. leidyi was sighted in Northern Europe for the first time, similar consequences were feared. The aim of my PhD project was to understand the potential impact of M. leidyi on the Baltic Sea ecosystem and constrains on its...... in high and intermediate saline areas in Northern Europe. While the ecological impact of M. leidyi in the central Baltic appears to be limited concern, the environment in other European waters should be more favourable to their populations. In these areas, it is suggested that M. leidyi constitutes...

  19. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie


    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims...... and limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  20. The ecological mandala of M. K. Gandhi (United States)

    Willey, Priscilla Kamala

    Industrialization and urbanization have brought about environmental disassociation. The works of Orr, Naess, College of the Atlantic, conservation groups, communities such as Findhorn indicate that responsible personal behavior to the earth is an evident necessity, and growing requirement. This study is a philosophical analysis of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's ecological education. Gandhi's role in the political emancipation India was inseparable from the groundwork he laid environmentally, to light a path in creating a new India through a new human consciousness. Gandhi sought to transform his own life and mind radically along with many dimensions of the social, physical and ideational environment around him with his experiments with Truth. This study accepts as ecological Reality, the Truth that Gandhi claimed to be the purpose and source of his life. The study builds a literary Ecological Mandala, through the theoretical background of Gandhi's ecological education. Using inherently universal human ethics, which I have called universal Simples consisting of three groups, the framework of the Ecological Mandala is built (chapters 2 and 3). The Simples assist the observances, which I have also called the root tools, as they act upon the core of the individual. These are; fearlessness, control of the palate, tolerance, equality, non-possession and non-stealing which found its ideal in Trusteeship, bread labor and brahmacharya. The goal of these observances was Ahimsa, or Truth. Satyagraha is explained as a comprehensive methodology for ecological education which utilizes all aspects of the universal Simples. The fast is a weapon in its arsenal. The applications of Gandhi's ecological education are examined as seen in the eco-communities he established in South Africa, Phoenix and Tolstoy, and in the Ashrams in India (chapters 4 and 5). The eco-communities served as prototypes for the national education that Gandhi sought to implement through the constructive program

  1. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) that is managed in conjunction with the University`s Institute of Ecology. The laboratory`s overall mission is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under an M&O contract with the US Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. Significant accomplishments were made during the year ending July 31, 1994 in the areas of research, education and service. Reviewed in this document are research projects in the following areas: Environmental Operations Support (impacted wetlands, streams, trace organics, radioecology, database synthesis, wild life studies, zooplankton, safety and quality assurance); wood stork foraging and breeding ecology; defence waste processing facility; environmental risk assessment (endangered species, fish, ash basin studies); ecosystem alteration by chemical pollutants; wetlands systems; biodiversity on the SRS; Environmental toxicology; environmental outreach and education; Par Pond drawdown studies in wildlife and fish and metals; theoretical ecology; DOE-SR National Environmental Research Park; wildlife studies. Summaries of educational programs and publications are also give.

  2. Groups, combinatorics and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A A; Saxl, J


    Over the past 20 years, the theory of groups in particular simplegroups, finite and algebraic has influenced a number of diverseareas of mathematics. Such areas include topics where groups have beentraditionally applied, such as algebraic combinatorics, finitegeometries, Galois theory and permutation groups, as well as severalmore recent developments.

  3. The development of ecological tourism and ecological civilization construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This passage shows us the characters of ecology tourism and reveals the problems in the modern tourism , emphasises that we should develop ecology tourism and make a link between them, then leads to Sustainable Development.

  4. Key ecological challenges for closed systems facilities (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William F.; Allen, John P.


    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet, recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the maintenance of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of critical elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities, the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and backup technologies and strategic options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  5. Sustainability: ecological, social, economic, technological, and systems perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Heriberto; Pawlowski, Christopher W.; Mayer, Audrey L.; Hoagland, N.Theresa [West Martin Luther King Drive, 45268, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: ''.. development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs..'' However, there is no mathematical theory embodying these concepts, although one would be immensely valuable in humanity's efforts to manage the environment. The concept of sustainability applies to integrated systems comprising humans and the rest of nature; the structures and operation of the human component (society, economy, law, etc.) must be such that they reinforce the persistence of the structures and operation of the natural component (ecosystem trophic linkages, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, etc.). One of the challenges of sustainability research lies in linking measures of ecosystem functioning to the structure and operation of the associated social system. We review the nature of this complex system including its ecological, social, economic, and technological aspects, and propose an approach to assessing sustainability based on Information Theory that bridges the natural and human systems. These principles are then illustrated using a model system with an ecological food web linked to a rudimentary social system. This work is part of the efforts of a larger multidisciplinary group at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory. (orig.)

  6. Soil ecological investigations into the effect and distribution of organic groups of compounds (PAHs, PCBs) in ecosystems typical of agglomerations.. Joint final report; Bodenoekologische Untersuchungen zur Wirkung und Verteilung von organischen Stoffgruppen (PAK, PCB) in ballungsraumtypischen Oekosystemen. Gemeinsamer Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, M.; Klementz, D.; Reese-Staehler, G.; Luedersdorf, M. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Berlin (Germany); Achazi, R.; Kratz, W.; Heck, M.; Beylich, A.; Neumeister, H.; Hesse, M.; Quader, S. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Metz, R.; Dorn, J. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Schuphan, I.; Maier-Gaipl, S.; Herlitz, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany); Wilke, B.M.; Koch, C.; Marschner, B.; Brose, A.; Doering, U.; Peters, M.; Pieper, S.; Baschien, C. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)


    In this interdisciplinary complex of matched field and laboratory experiments, the effects of defined pollutant loads were analysed by means of suitable representatives of different groups of soil organisms (soil fauna and soil micro-organisms) and by means of soil processes depending on them (for instance, enzyme activities, degradation of litter, nitrification, feeding damage). Similarly, the influence of selected organic pollutants, part of them in combination with heavy metals, on the soil-plant system was studied in selected herbaceous and ligneous types of plants in different development stages. Further, the possibility of developing a test battery was investigated which would indicate the toxicity of soil by means of watery and organic extracts. (orig.) [Deutsch] In diesem interdisziplinaeren Verbund von abgestimmten Freiland- und Laborversuchen wurde anhand repraesentativer Vertreter verschiedener Bodenorganismengruppen (Bodenfauna und Bodenmikroorganismen) und von durch sie bestimmten Bodenprozessen (z.B. Enzymaktivitaeten, Streuabbau, Nitrifikation, Frass) die Wirkungen von definierten Schadstoffbelastungen analysiert. In der gleichen Weise wurde der Einfluss von ausgewaehlten organischen Schadstoffen, z.T. in Kombination mit Schwermetallen auf das System Boden-Pflanze an ausgewaehlten krautigen und holzigen Pflanzenarten in unterschiedlichen Entwicklungsstadien untersucht. Darueberhinaus wurde ueberprueft ob sich eine Testbatterie entwickeln laesst, die die Toxizitaet von Boeden aufgrund von waessrigen und organischen Extrakten anzeigt. (orig.)

  7. 团辅式教学法在高校思想政治课中的应用研究%Applied Research on Group Counseling for College Ideological and Political Education Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万晶晶; 祝意


    In order to improve the reliability of research results, we chose a quasi - experimental design to rest group counseling teaching effectiveness of teaching methods. In the actual teaching situation, several classes were randomly selected. These classes were set for experimental group and control group and matched group. At the same time, we used qualitative research methods to test the experimental results. The results showed that the group counseling teaching methods can significantly improve students' learning motivation.%为了考察团体辅导式教学方法在高校思政课程中的教学效果,采用准实验设计的方法,通过实验组和对照组使用不同的教学方法,在干预前后进行了施测。结果发现:团体辅导的教学法能有效提高大学生的思政课学习动机,收到了较好的教学效果。与传统教学方法而言,团体辅导式教学主要提高了学生的内部学习动机而降低了外部学习动机。

  8. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency. (United States)

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F


    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour.

  9. Evolution in Littorina: ecology matters (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin


    Organisms of marine rocky shores are exposed to physical stress from abiotic factors, such as temperature, salinity and wave action. These factors vary over compressed temporal and spatial scales, producing an exceedingly heterogeneous habitat with steep gradients of selection, and it seems likely that this has a strong influence on the evolution of populations of rocky shore organisms. With the periwinkles (genus Littorina) as a model group, I review strategies for coping with small-scale heterogeneous environments and what implications these strategies have on the evolution of these species. Some species of Littorina have long-lived pelagic larvae and sites of various habitats are thus recruited from a common gene pool. This largely prevents local adaptation but minor adjustments are possible through a plastic phenotype. Other species of the genus are directly developing with no larval dispersal and among these there is evidence of strong local adaptation forming distinct ecotypes in contrasting habitats by parallel evolution. In at least one of the directly developing species ( L. saxatilis) divergent selection among ecotypes has resulted in partial reproductive barriers that further impede gene flow among ecotypes. Furthermore, convergent evolution among species has produced superficially similar morphs in different habitats. Ecotype formation, ecological reproductive barriers and convergence among species all indicate that ecological processes are critical for evolution of Littorina species.

  10. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...

  11. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology. (United States)

    Learning, 1992


    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  12. Ecology and Human Destiny. (United States)

    Haught, John F.


    Examines eschatology as the heart of Christian faith, suggesting that an appreciation of an eschatological interpretation of the cosmos enables acceptance of nature's transience and a grounding for an ecological ethic. Maintains that recent scientific developments present a promising, rather than pessimistic, picture of the universe. Holds that…

  13. Ecology in Urban Education. (United States)

    Johnson, Letitia K.; Ryan, Michael

    In this course guide to the teaching of urban ecology, six learning activities on the following topics are outlined: (1) city location and growth; (2) an in-depth study of New Orleans; (3) city shape and structure; (4) size and spacing of cities; (5) cities with special functions; (6) local community study. Educational objectives for each activity…

  14. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars


    The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many ecosys...

  15. Metabolomics in chemical ecology. (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg


    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  16. Ecology of lianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Burnham, R.J.; Putz, F.E.


    A liana is a long-stemmed, woody vine that is rooted in the soil at ground level and uses trees to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest. The main goal of this book is to present the current status of liana ecology in tropical and temperate forests. In essence, it is a

  17. Aspects of Marine Ecology. (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  18. Marine and Island Ecology. (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others


    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  19. Maximum information entropy: a foundation for ecological theory. (United States)

    Harte, John; Newman, Erica A


    The maximum information entropy (MaxEnt) principle is a successful method of statistical inference that has recently been applied to ecology. Here, we show how MaxEnt can accurately predict patterns such as species-area relationships (SARs) and abundance distributions in macroecology and be a foundation for ecological theory. We discuss the conceptual foundation of the principle, why it often produces accurate predictions of probability distributions in science despite not incorporating explicit mechanisms, and how mismatches between predictions and data can shed light on driving mechanisms in ecology. We also review possible future extensions of the maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE), a potentially important foundation for future developments in ecological theory.

  20. A landscape ecology approach identifies important drivers of urban biodiversity. (United States)

    Turrini, Tabea; Knop, Eva


    Cities are growing rapidly worldwide, yet a mechanistic understanding of the impact of urbanization on biodiversity is lacking. We assessed the impact of urbanization on arthropod diversity (species richness and evenness) and abundance in a study of six cities and nearby intensively managed agricultural areas. Within the urban ecosystem, we disentangled the relative importance of two key landscape factors affecting biodiversity, namely the amount of vegetated area and patch isolation. To do so, we a priori selected sites that independently varied in the amount of vegetated area in the surrounding landscape at the 500-m scale and patch isolation at the 100-m scale, and we hold local patch characteristics constant. As indicator groups, we used bugs, beetles, leafhoppers, and spiders. Compared to intensively managed agricultural ecosystems, urban ecosystems supported a higher abundance of most indicator groups, a higher number of bug species, and a lower evenness of bug and beetle species. Within cities, a high amount of vegetated area increased species richness and abundance of most arthropod groups, whereas evenness showed no clear pattern. Patch isolation played only a limited role in urban ecosystems, which contrasts findings from agro-ecological studies. Our results show that urban areas can harbor a similar arthropod diversity and abundance compared to intensively managed agricultural ecosystems. Further, negative consequences of urbanization on arthropod diversity can be mitigated by providing sufficient vegetated space in the urban area, while patch connectivity is less important in an urban context. This highlights the need for applying a landscape ecological approach to understand the mechanisms shaping urban biodiversity and underlines the potential of appropriate urban planning for mitigating biodiversity loss.

  1. Ecological zones of California deserts (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  2. The redoubtable ecological periodic table (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  3. Applied Research of Treatment of Wounded in Batches of Group Improved Triage in the Hospital%改良伤票在院内小组式救治成批伤员中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文媛; 翟光维; 周丽红; 杨作勤


    Objective To explore the effect of modified triage in the group type treatment of mass casualties in the hospi-tal .Methods The 84 patients who were cured in sudden public events from 2007 to 2012 divided into control group and ob-servation group according to the time sequence .For the patients in the control group treat them with conventional emergency procedure ,and with modified triage team for the observation group .And compared triage time ,average treatment time ,the identification error rate and the medical staff satisfaction rate of patients in two groups .Results The triage time in observa-tion group was (31 .63 ± 2 .35) seconds .The average treatment time was A (29 .50 ± 13 .60) ,B(34 .00 ± 12 .84) ,C(31 .11 ± 12 .87) ,it's significantly lower than in the control group of triage time (62 .91 ± 4 .75) seconds ,the average treatment time (A area 65 .17 ± 20 .44) ,B(58 .50 ± 7 .31) ,C(51 .38 ± 13 .96) .There was statistically significant difference between groups (t were 3 .274 ,5 .034 ,4 .871 ,4 .760 ;P<0 .05) .The identity recognition error rate in observation group was 4 .65% ,while 24 .39% in the control group ,there was statistically significant difference between groups (χ2 =6 .678 ,P<0 .05) .The ob-servation group staff satisfaction rate of 93 .02% ,75 .60% in the control group ,there was statistically significant difference between groups (χ2 =4 .865 ,P<0 .05) .Conclusion Application of modified triage in batches of the wounded in rapid tri-age ,zoning of group treatment ,can quickly establish the treatment with good order ,reduce the identification error rate of patients ,shorten the rescue time ,effectively improve the wounded treatment efficiency .%目的:探讨改良伤票在院内小组式救治成批伤员中的应用效果。方法选择我院急诊中心2007年7月~2012年12月救治的15起突发公共事件84例,将2007年7月~2009年1月应用常规急诊流程救治的8起成批伤员41例作为对照组,2010年11

  4. Ecological Factors in Human Development. (United States)

    Cross, William E


    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences.

  5. The Social-Ecological Ideal. (United States)

    Gaidamak, A.; Tiittanen, T.


    Argues that it is essential for preschool education to explore environmental and ecological values. Discusses cognitive development of socio-ecological knowledge at three age levels. Asserts that folk tales provide good examples of ecological values because beauty usually triumphs over ugliness and good over evil. (CFR)

  6. Hanford Site Ecological Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, Gordon R.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tzemos, Spyridon


    This report reviews the ecological quality profile methodology and results for the Hanford Site. It covers critical ecological assets and terrestrial resources, those in Columbia River corridor and those threatened and engdangered, as well as hazards and risks to terrestrial resources. The features of a base habitat value profile are explained, as are hazard and ecological quality profiles.

  7. The Bayesian statistical decision theory applied to the optimization of generating set maintenance; La theorie de la decision statistique bayesienne appliquee a l`optimisation de la maintenance des groupes electrogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procaccia, H.; Cordier, R.; Muller, S.


    The difficulty in RCM methodology is the allocation of a new periodicity of preventive maintenance on one equipment when a critical failure has been identified: until now this new allocation has been based on the engineer`s judgment, and one must wait for a full cycle of feedback experience before to validate it. Statistical decision theory could be a more rational alternative for the optimization of preventive maintenance periodicity. This methodology has been applied to inspection and maintenance optimization of cylinders of diesel generator engines of 900 MW nuclear plants, and has shown that previous preventive maintenance periodicity can be extended. (authors). 8 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Advancing the integration of history and ecology for conservation. (United States)

    Szabó, Péter; Hédl, Radim


    The important role of humans in the development of current ecosystems was recognized decades ago; however, the integration of history and ecology in order to inform conservation has been difficult. We identified four issues that hinder historical ecological research and considered possible solutions. First, differences in concepts and methods between the fields of ecology and history are thought to be large. However, most differences stem from miscommunication between ecologists and historians and are less substantial than is usually assumed. Cooperation can be achieved by focusing on the features ecology and history have in common and through understanding and acceptance of differing points of view. Second, historical ecological research is often hampered by differences in spatial and temporal scales between ecology and history. We argue that historical ecological research can only be conducted at extents for which sources in both disciplines have comparable resolutions. Researchers must begin by clearly defining the relevant scales for the given purpose. Third, periods for which quantitative historical sources are not easily accessible (before AD 1800) have been neglected in historical ecological research. Because data from periods before 1800 are as relevant to the current state of ecosystems as more recent data, we suggest that historical ecologists actively seek out data from before 1800 and apply analytic methods commonly used in ecology to these data. Fourth, humans are not usually considered an intrinsic ecological factor in current ecological research. In our view, human societies should be acknowledged as integral parts of ecosystems and societal processes should be recognized as driving forces of ecosystem change.

  9. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David


    1. The science of nutritional ecology spans a wide range of fields, including ecology, nutrition, behaviour, morphology, physiology, life history and evolutionary biology. But does nutritional ecology have a unique theoretical framework and research program and thus qualify as a field of research...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...... requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维存; 康凯


    提出一种求解柔性作业车间成组调度FGJSS(flexible grouped job-shop scheduling)问题的蚁群粒子群求解算法.算法采用主从递阶形式,主级为蚁群优化算法,选择零件加工设备;从级为粒子群优化算法,在主级零件加工设备约束下优化设备作业排序以实现流通时间最小的目标.算法中,以工序加工时间和设备承载的作业族数为启发式信息设计蚂蚁在工序可用设备间转移概率;以粒子向量优先权值和作业族号为依据设计解码方法实现设备上的成组作业排序.最后,通过仿真实验,验证了该算法的有效性.%A hybrid algorithm of ant colony optimisation and particle swarm optimisation is proposed to solve the flexible grouped job-shop scheduling problem. The algorithm is formulated in a form of hierarchical master-slave structure. The ant colony optimisation is performed at master level to select equipments for parts machining, while the particle swarm optimisation is carried out at the slave level to optimise job-scheduling of the equipments in constrained condition of equipments for parts machining at master level to achieve the target of minimized circulation time. In ihe algorithm, the processing time of working procedure and the number of job groups the equipments loaded are used as the heuristic information to design the transfer probability of ant between the available machines of working procedure. The particle vector priority values and the jobs group number are employed as the base to design decoding method in order to implement grouped job scheduling of the equipments. In the end, the validity of the proposed algorithm is verified through simulative experiment.

  11. The Methodology of Psychological Research of Ecological Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Shmeleva


    Full Text Available The paper examines the methodological principles of the psychological study of ecological consciousness as one of the urgent interdisciplinary problems of XX–XXI century, caused by the aggravation of global ecological problems and the need for the realization of the “sustainable development”ideas. Ecological consciousness is considered as multilayered, dynamic, reflexive element of human consciousness, incorporating multivariate, holistic aspects of interaction of the human being as the H.S. and the Humanity representative with the environment and the Planet. The possibility of the more active introduction of Russian psychology in the process is argued for in connection with the existing conceptual approaches, which compose the methodological basis for ecological consciousness research. Among these approaches are considered: the principles of holistic study of the human being by B. Ananyev, the methodology of system psychological description by V. Gansen and G. Sukhodolsky, the idea of reflexivity of consciousness by S. Rubinstein, the humanitarian- ecological imperative of the development of consciousness by V. Zinchenko, the theory of relations by V. Myasishev, consideration of ecological consciousness as relation to nature by S. Deryabo and V. Yasvin, theories of consciousness by V. Petrenko, V. Allakhverdov and other Russian psychologists. The value component of ecological consciousness is distinguished as the most significant. The possibility of applying the Values’ theory of the by S. Schwartz for studying the ecological values is discussed along with the prognostic potential of the universalism value.

  12. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John


    EFSA performs environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives and for invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. In this risk assessment domain, the EFSA Scientific Committee...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  13. Chasing Ecological Interactions (United States)


    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species—naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities. PMID:27631692

  14. Biosemiotics and ecological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio


    Through recent decades a global cultural-institutional network has gradually grown up to project, implement and use the enormous technological web that is supposed to observe, monitor, communicate, inventory and asses our environment and its biodiversity in order to implement sustainable management...... models. The majority of “knowledge tools” that have been incorporated in the mainstream of this “techno-web” are amply based on a combination of mechanistic biology, genetic reductionism, economical determinism and neo-Darwinian cultural and biological perspectives. These approaches leave aside many...... of the qualitative and relational aspects that can only be grasped by considering the semiotic networks operative in complex ecological and cultural systems. In this paper, it is suggested that a biosemiotic approach to ecology may prove useful for the modelling process, which in turn will allow the construction...

  15. To the Ecological Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Landscape design is one of the space form and space environment comprehensive planning and design, to im-prove the quality of urban environment, quality of life and urban landscape level play a very important role.It is expounded in this article based on the value of landscape ecological aesthetics under the background of productive landscape, discusses the"bigfoot aesthetics"innovative application in modern landscape design and new thinking.

  16. To the Ecological Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Landscape design is one of the space form and space environment comprehensive planning and design, to im- prove the quality of urban environment, quality of life and urban landscape level play a very important role.It is expounded in this article based on the value of landscape ecological aesthetics under the background of productive landscape, discusses the "bigfoot aesthetics" innovative application in modern landscape design and new thinking.

  17. Pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Y.N. [Mexico City Univ. (Mexico). Center for Atmospheric Sciences


    Method based on using the pollutant transport equation and the adjoint technique is described here for estimating the pollutant concentration level in ecologically important zones. The method directly relates the pollution level in such zones with the power of the pollution sources and the initial pollution field. Assuming that the wind or current velocities are known (from climatic data or dynamic model), the main and adjoint pollutant transport equations can be considered in a limited area to solve such theoretically and practically important problems as: (1) optimal location of new industries in a given region with the aim to minimize the pollution concentration in certain ecologically important zones, (2) optimization of emissions from operating industries, (3) detection of the plants violating sanitary regulations, (4) analysis of the emissions coming from the vehicle traffic (such emissions can be included in the model by means of the linear pollution sources located along the main roadways), (5) estimation of the oil pollution in various ecologically important oceanic (sea) zones in case of accident with the oil tanker, (6) evaluation of the sea water desalination level in estuary regions, and others. These equations considered in a spherical shell domain can also be applied to the problems of transporting the pollutants from a huge industrial complex, or from the zone of an ecological catastrophe similar to the Chernobyl one

  18. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta


    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  19. Ecological planning: A review (United States)

    Steiner, Frederick; Brooks, Kenneth


    Beginning with the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, the federal government of the United States has enacted numerous pieces of legislation intended to protect or conserve the environment. Other national governments have also enacted environmental legislation during the past two decades. State and local governments have also adopted policies concerned with environmental planning and management. Multiple laws and overlapping governmental agency responsibilities have confused development and resource management efforts. A comprehensive methodology that integrates the legal mandates and the agency missions into a common and unified framework is needed. Ecological planning offers such a method. Application of the method allows planners and resource managers to better understand the nature and character of the land and/or resource and therefore make better decisions about its appropriate use or management. The steps taken in an ecological planning process—1) goal setting, 2) inventory and analysis of data, 3) suitability analysis, 4) developing alternatives, 5) implementation, 6) administration, and 7) evaluation—are outlined and explained. Hand-drawn overlays and computer programs as techniques for handling ecological planning information are compared. Observations and suggestions for further research are offered.

  20. Ecological Econophysics for Degrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Pueyo


    Full Text Available This paper outlines a synthesis of ecological economics with econophysics and other complexity approaches to economics. Arguably, the resulting “ecological econophysics” will be scientifically sounder than mainstream economics and much better suited to addressing a major challenge of our times: the development of democratically-based policies to reduce economic throughput to an environmentally sustainable level without triggering economic crises and without excluding part of the world’s population, i.e., to implement degrowth. Degrowth will need major structural changes, which leads us to question whether there are limits to the malleability of the economic system’s architecture. A fundamental limit will be encountered if, as suggested by the physics of complexity, long-lasting complex systems always occur midway between an ordered and a disordered state. There is much evidence that this hypothesis holds and that the current economic system satisfies this condition. However, this does not mean that the problems posed by this system should be unavoidable. Ecological econophysics gives clues to identifying alternative economic systems that would also function between order and chaos, but which would have radically different implications for environmental sustainability and social justice.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ya-juan; GUO Huai-cheng; LIU Yong; WANG Shu-tong; WANG Jin-feng


    Ecological demonstration area (EDA) is an authorized nomination, which should be assessed from several aspects, including ecological, social, environmental, economic ones and so on. It is difficult to advance an exact developing level index of EDA due to its indicator system's complexity and disequilibrium. In this paper, a framework of indicators was set to evaluate, monitor and examine the comprehensive level of ecological demonstration area (EDA). Fuzzy logic method was used to develop the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model (FCEM), which could quantitatively reveal the developing degree of EDA. Huiji District of Zhengzhou, Henan Province, one of the 9th group of national EDAs, was taken as a study case. The framework of FCEM for the integrated system included six subsystems, which were social, economic, ecological, rural, urban and accessorial description ones. The research would be valuable in the comprehensive quantitative evaluation of EDA and would work as a guide in the construction practices of Huiji ecological demonstration area.

  2. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  3. Statistical ecology comes of age. (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric


    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data.

  4. 融合团体箱庭在儿童自闭症康复训练中的应用%Applying Inclusive group sandplay in rehabilitation training of autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林彩云; 陈顺森; 叶桂青


    Participated in sandplay games together with typical children can help autistic children gain specific experience and growth,which is consistent with the principle of the inclusive education.During the process of inclusive group sandplay, demonstration,guidance and assistance from typical children will promote autistic children to develop their peer relation-ships,and to gain ability of social interaction,spontaneous imitation and symbolic game.Therefore,inclusive group sand-play is considered to be an effective measure of autism assistance.%让自闭症儿童与正常儿童共同参与箱庭游戏,收获体验和成长,是融合教育理念的体现。在融合团体箱庭过程中,正常儿童的示范、引导和帮助,有利于帮助自闭症儿童发展出同伴关系,提升社会互动、自发性模仿和象征性游戏等方面能力,融合团体箱庭是行之有效的自闭症援助方式。

  5. Linking microbial and ecosystem ecology using ecological stoichiometry: a synthesis of conceptual and empirical approaches (United States)

    Hall, E.K.; Maixner, F.; Franklin, O.; Daims, H.; Richter, A.; Battin, T.


    Currently, one of the biggest challenges in microbial and ecosystem ecology is to develop conceptual models that organize the growing body of information on environmental microbiology into a clear mechanistic framework with a direct link to ecosystem processes. Doing so will enable development of testable hypotheses to better direct future research and increase understanding of key constraints on biogeochemical networks. Although the understanding of phenotypic and genotypic diversity of microorganisms in the environment is rapidly accumulating, how controls on microbial physiology ultimately affect biogeochemical fluxes remains poorly understood. We propose that insight into constraints on biogeochemical cycles can be achieved by a more rigorous evaluation of microbial community biomass composition within the context of ecological stoichiometry. Multiple recent studies have pointed to microbial biomass stoichiometry as an important determinant of when microorganisms retain or recycle mineral nutrients. We identify the relevant cellular components that most likely drive changes in microbial biomass stoichiometry by defining a conceptual model rooted in ecological stoichiometry. More importantly, we show how X-ray microanalysis (XRMA), nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (NanoSIMS), Raman microspectroscopy, and in situ hybridization techniques (for example, FISH) can be applied in concert to allow for direct empirical evaluation of the proposed conceptual framework. This approach links an important piece of the ecological literature, ecological stoichiometry, with the molecular front of the microbial revolution, in an attempt to provide new insight into how microbial physiology could constrain ecosystem processes.

  6. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling


    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, LIU; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis


    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  7. Applying DRGs in medical quality management of the attending physician group%应用 DRGs 对主诊医师组进行医疗质量管理的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With performance evaluation management as the stepping stone,the hospital joined the DRGs with the attending in-charge method by means of enforcing the attending in charge practice,DRGs knowledge training,and identifying problems with DRGs grouped data of the attending physician group, in an effort to explore new methods of medical quality control.Two years of practice provide tools of quality control to strengthen the hospital’s fine management.At the same time,it should also be noticed that DRGs merely diversify management means,as the content and form of which still need to constantly be improved in the course.%医院以绩效考核管理为契机,通过实施主诊医师负责制、培训 DRGs 知识、利用主诊医师组的 DRGs 分组数据查找问题等措施,将 DRGs 评价与主诊医师负责制工作相结合,探索新的医疗质量管理方法。经过两年的实践,给医院和科室质量管理提供了抓手,加强了医院精细化管理,提高了医疗质量。同时,也应注意应用 DRGs 只是丰富了管理手段,在使用的过程中还需不断完善管理内容和形式。

  8. Análisis discriminante aplicado a los grupos sexuales de Potimirim mexicana, camarón hermafrodita protándrico Discriminant analysis applied to the sexual groups of Potimirim mexicana, a protandric hermaphrodite shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Pilar Alonso-Reyes


    Full Text Available Se analizó una población del camaroncito de río Potimirim mexicana obtenida del río Máquinas en el estado de Veracruz, México. Esta especie presenta una distribución de tallas por sexo que sugiere que se trata de una especie con hermafroditismo secuencial. Se aplicó el método de análisis discriminante para establecer los subgrupos que conforman la población, dando como resultado 3 clases: organismos sexualmente indeterminados, machos y hembras. En el subgrupo de los machos se establecieron 3 conjuntos, con base en el tamaño del appendix masculina. Mediante este análisis se confirmó que P. mexicana es una especie hermafrodita secuencial.A population of the river shrimp Potimirim mexicana from the Máquinas River in Veracruz, Mexico, was analyzed. The pattern of size distribution by sex in this species suggests that it is a sequential hermaphrodite. A discriminant analysis method applied to establish the subgroups that are part or the population showed the existence of 3 classes: sexually undifferentiated organisms, males and females. Within the male subgroup 3 types or organisms were established depending on the length of the appendix masculina. With this analysis it is confirmed that P. mexicana is a species with sequential hermaphroditism.

  9. construction and optimization of motion control curriculum group for Applied Undergraduate Talent%基于应用型人才培养的运动控制类课程群建设与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛远香; 罗先喜; 王怀平; 夏洪


    运动控制类课程在自动化专业课程设置中占有很大的比例。针对现在教学存在的问题,结合应用型人才的培养,着重对该课程群体系建设、理论教学方法和实践教学环节等方面进行改革和优化,以寻求培养适应信息化时代工作要求的自动化专业人才的有效方法。%Motion control classes occupied large proportion in the curriculum of automation specialty . In view of the existing problem of the motion control curriculum, combined with the cultivation of applied talents, Mainly from the course of system construction, teaching methods and practice teaching link and so on has carried on the reform and optimization, seeking to effective method of automation professional that can adapt to the information age requires.

  10. Ecological public goods games: cooperation and bifurcation. (United States)

    Hauert, Christoph; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Doebeli, Michael


    The Public Goods Game is one of the most popular models for studying the origin and maintenance of cooperation. In its simplest form, this evolutionary game has two regimes: defection goes to fixation if the multiplication factor r is smaller than the interaction group size N, whereas cooperation goes to fixation if the multiplication factor r is larger than the interaction group size N. Hauert et al. [Hauert, C., Holmes, M., Doebeli, M., 2006a. Evolutionary games and population dynamics: Maintenance of cooperation in public goods games. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 273, 2565-2570] have introduced the Ecological Public Goods Game by viewing the payoffs from the evolutionary game as birth rates in a population dynamic model. This results in a feedback between ecological and evolutionary dynamics: if defectors are prevalent, birth rates are low and population densities decline, which leads to smaller interaction groups for the Public Goods game, and hence to dominance of cooperators, with a concomitant increase in birth rates and population densities. This feedback can lead to stable co-existence between cooperators and defectors. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the dynamics of the Ecological Public Goods Game, showing that the model exhibits various types of bifurcations, including supercritical Hopf bifurcations, which result in stable limit cycles, and hence in oscillatory co-existence of cooperators and defectors. These results show that including population dynamics in evolutionary games can have important consequences for the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation.

  11. Mapping ecological states in a complex environment (United States)

    Steele, C. M.; Bestelmeyer, B.; Burkett, L. M.; Ayers, E.; Romig, K.; Slaughter, A.


    The vegetation of northern Chihuahuan Desert rangelands is sparse, heterogeneous and for most of the year, consists of a large proportion of non-photosynthetic material. The soils in this area are spectrally bright and variable in their reflectance properties. Both factors provide challenges to the application of remote sensing for estimating canopy variables (e.g., leaf area index, biomass, percentage canopy cover, primary production). Additionally, with reference to current paradigms of rangeland health assessment, remotely-sensed estimates of canopy variables have limited practical use to the rangeland manager if they are not placed in the context of ecological site and ecological state. To address these challenges, we created a multifactor classification system based on the USDA-NRCS ecological site schema and associated state-and-transition models to map ecological states on desert rangelands in southern New Mexico. Applying this system using per-pixel image processing techniques and multispectral, remotely sensed imagery raised other challenges. Per-pixel image classification relies upon the spectral information in each pixel alone, there is no reference to the spatial context of the pixel and its relationship with its neighbors. Ecological state classes may have direct relevance to managers but the non-unique spectral properties of different ecological state classes in our study area means that per-pixel classification of multispectral data performs poorly in discriminating between different ecological states. We found that image interpreters who are familiar with the landscape and its associated ecological site descriptions perform better than per-pixel classification techniques in assigning ecological states. However, two important issues affect manual classification methods: subjectivity of interpretation and reproducibility of results. An alternative to per-pixel classification and manual interpretation is object-based image analysis. Object-based image

  12. Ecological stability of Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhibin; XU Xinwen; LEI Jiaqiang; LI Shengyu


    The Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt,located in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert, is irrigated by underground saline water, with three to thirty gram per litter mineral degrees. The sustainability and stability are affected by multifarious stress.The structural and functional characteristics of shelterbelt are studied to probe into correlation between environment and shelterbelt. On basis, decision analysis is applied to study ecological stability of the Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt, to screen out limited factors, to establish general index system, and to evaluate the stability of the shelterbelt nowadays.Finally, the concept of ecological stability is utilized to manage the artificial ecosystem. The results show that the artificial ecosystem is relatively flimsy, whose stability can be increased by adjusting stand structure and improving the nutrient cycle.

  13. Towards a network ecology of software ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos


    "Software ecosystems'' are gaining importance in commercial software development; the iPhone iOS and ecosystems are examples of this. In contrast to traditional forms of software reuse, such as common platforms or product lines, software ecosystems have a heterogeneous set of actors...... sharing and collaborating over one or more technological platforms and business model(s) that serve the actors. However, little research has investigated the properties of actual software ecosystems. In this paper, we present an exploratory study of software ecosystems using the formalizations and metrics...... of the "network ecology'' approach to the analysis of natural ecosystems. In doing so, we mine the Maven central Java repository and analyze two OSGi ecosystems: Apache Felix and Eclipse Equinox. In particular, we define the concept of an ecosystem ``neighborhood'', apply network ecology metrics...

  14. Dieta de um grupo de mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Mammalia, Callitrichidae, na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo Diet of a black lion tamarin group, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Mammalia, Callitrichidae, in Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Camargo Passos


    Full Text Available In this study carried out in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, a wild group of black lion tamarins was accompanied during 1989 to 1991, to analyse the dietary habits of the species. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. A total of 961 behaviors were recorded, of which feeding occupied 23.3% of the time involved in the behaviors. The major dietary components observed in the black lion tamarins were fruits, tree exudates and animal preys (67.9%, 22.8% and 8.9% respectively. Fruits varied monthly from 47.4 to 97.1 %, being consumed more during the rainy season, while tree exudates varied from 0 to 54.7%, and were consumed mainly during the dry season. The animal prey accounted for 0 to 15.8% of the diet. The most important dietary resource for the black lion tamarins was the fruit of Syagrus romanzoffiana Glass., representing 29.9% of the foraging observations. The diet exhibited pronounced differences among dry and rainy seasons, presumably as a consequence of the food shortage of fruits during dry season.

  15. Ecological and general systems an introduction to systems ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Odum, Howard T.


    Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles. First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy.

  16. Chemical components of aquatic plants applied in ecological restoration of eutrophic water in Lake Hongfeng, Guizhou Province of Southwest China%红枫湖富营养化水体生态修复中水生植物化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬富; 陈敬安; 濮培民; 李键; 杨永琼; 杨海全


    The deep lakes in Plateau Canyon, because of their deep water and their dramatic water level change, are not conducive to the growth of aquatic plants, and thus, the ecological restoration techniques used for shallow lakes are difficult to be applied in deep lakes. In this study, various kinds of aquatic plants were planted on the floating island carrier in Youer Bay at the Lake Hongfeng, a typical plateau deep lake in Guizhou, and the chemical components ( nitrogen , phosphorus, and heavy metals) in the roots, stems, and leaves of the plants were analyzed. The nitrogen content of the plants was Potamogeton crispus > Rumex > Silpniumper folia-tum, the phosphorous content was P. crispus > Elodea muttallii > Rumex, and the effective plants for both nitrogen- and phosphorus removal were P. crispus, E. muttallii, and Rumex. All test aquatic plants could accumulate the heavy metals Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg. The cumulative concentration of the heavy metals in the plants was in the order of Zn > Pb > Cu >> Cd > Hg. In different parts of the plants, root had a higher bioaccumulation coefficient than stem and leaf. The Zn/Cd ratio was higher in leaves than in stems and roots. Overall, Loliumperenne, Rumex,' and P. crispus had greater potential application prospect in water phytoremediation. There was a significant positive correlation between plant total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) , but no obvious correlation between plant nutrients and heavy metals. The plant heavy metals were significantly positively correlated with each other. This study also showed that terrestrial plants could grow well on the floating island barrier, being available in the ecological remediation of the polluted water in deep lakes. In practice, both the water pollution and the plant absorption characteristics should be considered in selecting the best plant combinations.%高原山区深水型湖泊水深大、水位变化剧烈,不利于水生植物生长,通常的浅水

  17. Ecological model of extinctions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, G


    We present numerical results based on a simplified ecological system in evolution, showing features of extinction similar to that claimed for the biosystem on Earth. In the model each species consists of a population in interaction with the others, that reproduces and evolves in time. Each species is simultaneously a predator and a prey in a food chain. Mutations that change the interactions are supposed to occur randomly at a low rate. Extinctions of populations result naturally from the predator-prey dynamics. The model is not pinned in a fitness variable, and natural selection arises from the dynamics.

  18. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri


    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  19. Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Index in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping; HUANG; Xiaolin; PENG


    The society and related research fields were paying close attention to make great efforts to promote the construction level of ecological civilization in China. And measuring and evaluating the status of eco-economic development always was the focus and difficulty in current researches. Based on the methods of Analytic Hierarchy Process( AHP) and the concept of Eco-Factor of Economic Growth and Ecological Efficiency,combined with the fact of research area,the index system of Ecological Economy Index( EEI),which includes social development,economic growth,ecological building,resource use and environmental protection,was built up to measure and evaluate the eco-economic system’s development situation. The weights of all indicators in the EEI system were acquired from the method of expert consultation. All the methods were applied to assess the eco-economic development situation in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone of Jiangxi Province. The results showed that:( i) The model of EEI could intuitively apply to reflect the eco-economic development situation and coordinate extent of the assessment units in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone,which could provide some scientific guides on finding breakthrough point of evaluating eco-economic level for concerned management departments and policies making organizations.( ii) There were distinct differences of Ecological Economy Index value between the counties,cities or districts. Wannian county was on the best situation with the highest EEI value( EEI = 55.74),and Ruichang city was found to be on the worst eco-economic development situation with the lowest EEI value( EEI = 28. 65).( iii) The developed counties( cities or districts) with high EEI value should improve resource use’s efficiency,protect environment and strengthen ecological construction. The other areas should effectively combine the speed with the quality of economic growth in the process of eco-economic development.( iv) The counties( cities or districts

  20. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah


    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  1. Sharing razors behavioral intervention model applied in the analysis of different groups%共用剃刀行为干预模式在不同群体中应用的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳青; 席光湘


    Objective: To analyze the shared razors intervention models for different types of intervention in the application object effect. Methods: 591 migrant workers and 540 blood donors to evaluate the effect of intervention. Results:12 variables of blood donors and migrant workers before intervention, there was a significant difference between the intervention, there was statistically significant difference (P=0.00) before and after intervention between; blood donors were statistically significant, there was statistically significant difference between migrant workers before and after the intervention (P=0.00). Migrant workers after the intervention of behavior change is more significant. Conclusion: The same intervention models for different groups of interventions should adopt a different strategy, the focus should be different.%目的:分析共用剃刀干预模式在对不同类型的干预对象中应用效果。方法对591名农民工和565名献血者干预的效果进行评价。结果12个变量分析献血者与农民工干预前比较差别有统计学意义,干预后比较差别有统计学意义(P=0.00);献血者干预前后差别比较有统计学意义,农民工干预前后比较差别有统计学意义(P=0.00)。农民工被干预后行为变化更为显著。结论相同的干预模式对不同群体的干预应采取不同的策略,侧重点应有所不同。

  2. Predator attack rate evolution in space: the role of ecology mediated by complex emergent spatial structure and self-shading. (United States)

    Messinger, Susanna M; Ostling, Annette


    Predation interactions are an important element of ecological communities. Population spatial structure has been shown to influence predator evolution, resulting in the evolution of a reduced predator attack rate; however, the evolutionary role of traits governing predator and prey ecology is unknown. The evolutionary effect of spatial structure on a predator's attack rate has primarily been explored assuming a fixed metapopulation spatial structure, and understood in terms of group selection. But endogenously generated, emergent spatial structure is common in nature. Furthermore, the evolutionary influence of ecological traits may be mediated through the spatial self-structuring process. Drawing from theory on pathogens, the evolutionary effect of emergent spatial structure can be understood in terms of self-shading, where a voracious predator limits its long-term invasion potential by reducing local prey availability. Here we formalize the effects of self-shading for predators using spatial moment equations. Then, through simulations, we show that in a spatial context self-shading leads to relationships between predator-prey ecology and the predator's attack rate that are not expected in a non-spatial context. Some relationships are analogous to relationships already shown for host-pathogen interactions, but others represent new trait dimensions. Finally, since understanding the effects of ecology using existing self-shading theory requires simplifications of the emergent spatial structure that do not apply well here, we also develop metrics describing the complex spatial structure of the predator and prey populations to help us explain the evolutionary effect of predator and prey ecology in the context of self-shading. The identification of these metrics may provide a step towards expansion of the predictive domain of self-shading theory to more complex spatial dynamics.

  3. 实施生态移民,推进少数民族地区跨越发展*--以云南省怒江傈僳族自治州为例%Implementing Ecological Migration in the Areas Inhabited by Minority Ethnic Groups to Promote Leaping Development---A Case Study of Lujiang Lisu Nationality Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    贫困、地质环境条件恶劣和自然灾害是怒江傈僳族自治州(简称怒江州)发展的结症,恶劣的地理地质生态环境和频发的自然灾害导致边疆民族群众贫困,贫困又加剧生态环境恶化。由此形成恶性循环圈,成为长期制约怒江州发展的瓶颈。在新常态下,实施怒江州生态移民,推进民族特色的山地小城镇发展安置移民,转变陡坡农垦生产方式,消除发展瓶颈,闯出一条跨越式发展的路子来,使怒江州实现云南省委省政府提出的到2020年完全解决贫困任务目标,率先建成云南“生态文明建设的排头兵,民族团结进步示范区”。%Poverty, extreme geographical conditions and natural disasters impede development and undermine national unity of Lujiang Lisu Nationality Autonomous Prefecture and these conditions interact to make things worse.Under the condition of the New Normal, it is necessary that ecological migration be a-dopted in the mountainous towns mainly inhabited by the minority ethnic groups and the traditional agricul-ture be changed to “open up a new approach for leaping development.” This way, the objectives pre-scribed by the CPC Yunnan Provincial Committee of eliminating poverty and constructing demonstrative ec-ological civilization can be accomplished.

  4. The influence of ecology on sociality in the killer whale (Orcinus orca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Suzanne; Kuningas, Sanna; Esteban, Ruth


    The persistence and size of social groups can be plastic and governed by ecological selection or be under greater genetic control and constrained by phylogenetic inertia. Comparing sociality of phylogenetically divergent populations under the same ecolog- ical conditions or between groups within ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    An analysis of ecological groups has been performed on the, Dutch Holocene palaeobotanical record excluding wood and pollen data and compared with the recent flora. Although all ecological groups are represented by plants that are preserved by both waterlogging and charring, this especially concerns

  6. Sensory Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin STEVENS; Guest Editor


    @@ 1 Introduction Sensory ecology deals with how animals capture in formation from their environment, and the sensory sys tems involved in doing so (Hailman, 1977; Lythgoe, 1979; Dusenbery, 1992; Mappes and Stevens 2010). Although the term sensory ecology itself is compara tively recent, its basis has a long history, in part due to numerous links with subjects such as neurobiology, physiology, ethology, and evolutionary behavioral ecology.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingren; Zeng Dezhang; Zhang Shiquan; Shi Lifeng


    @@ Introduction During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period(1991-1995), a study about crude impacts on ecology in oil exploitation was conducted in seven representative onshore oil fields of China. The study discusses crude pollutant's impacts on ecology in terms of its production,movement, transformation and concentration in the ecological system,as well as its toxicity and damage degree on living things , by means of investigation on the spot, test analysis and analogue test.

  8. [Landscape and ecological genomics]. (United States)

    Tetushkin, E Ia


    Landscape genomics is the modern version of landscape genetics, a discipline that arose approximately 10 years ago as a combination of population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. It studies the effects of environmental variables on gene flow and other microevolutionary processes that determine genetic connectivity and variations in populations. In contrast to population genetics, it operates at the level of individual specimens rather than at the level of population samples. Another important difference between landscape genetics and genomics and population genetics is that, in the former, the analysis of gene flow and local adaptations takes quantitative account of landforms and features of the matrix, i.e., hostile spaces that separate species habitats. Landscape genomics is a part of population ecogenomics, which, along with community genomics, is a major part of ecological genomics. One of the principal purposes of landscape genomics is the identification and differentiation of various genome-wide and locus-specific effects. The approaches and computation tools developed for combined analysis of genomic and landscape variables make it possible to detect adaptation-related genome fragments, which facilitates the planning of conservation efforts and the prediction of species' fate in response to expected changes in the environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna BLUSZCZ


    Full Text Available The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natu-ral resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degra-dation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consump-tion level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure – the ecological footprint – was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today’s generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural envi-ronment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies – the Human Develop-ment Index (HDI, including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  10. Ecological Growth Boundaries (United States)

    Bluszcz, Anna


    The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natural resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degradation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consumption level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure - the ecological footprint - was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today's generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural environment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies - the Human Development Index (HDI), including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  11. Graduate Education in Ecological Economics


    John M. Polimeni


    Interest in graduate education in ecological economics is increasing. However, no formal plan of study for a Ph.D. in ecological economics has been disseminated. The lack of a formal plan is problematic as the field of ecological economics matures, interest grows, and new programs are being developed. This paper attempts to fill a void by creating a program of study addressing the proficiencies a graduate student in ecological economics should have upon completion of his/her Ph.D. based on th...

  12. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes. (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan


    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions.

  13. Ecological Effects of Allelopathic Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, M.; Strandberg, M.; Strandberg, B.

    with the environment through spread of GM-plants or transgenes outside agricultural areas. The last chapter discuss GM-allelopathic plants in relation to the ecological risk assessment. Preface: This report is based on a literature review on allelopathy from an ecological impact point of view carried out in 1999...... on allelopathy in these crops. It discusses the ecological effects of allelopathic plants in natural ecosystems and factors of importance for the effects of these plants are pointed out. Finally the report presents suggestions for an ecological risk assessment of crops with an enhanced release of allelochemicals...

  14. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.


    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  15. Integrating evo-devo with ecology for a better understanding of phenotypic evolution. (United States)

    Santos, M Emília; Berger, Chloé S; Refki, Peter N; Khila, Abderrahman


    Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has provided invaluable contributions to our understanding of the mechanistic relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Similarly, evolutionary ecology has greatly advanced our understanding of the relationship between the phenotype and the environment. To fully understand the evolution of organismal diversity, a thorough integration of these two fields is required. This integration remains highly challenging because model systems offering a rich ecological and evolutionary background, together with the availability of developmental genetic tools and genomic resources, are scarce. In this review, we introduce the semi-aquatic bugs (Gerromorpha, Heteroptera) as original models well suited to study why and how organisms diversify. The Gerromorpha invaded water surfaces over 200 mya and diversified into a range of remarkable new forms within this new ecological habitat. We summarize the biology and evolutionary history of this group of insects and highlight a set of characters associated with the habitat change and the diversification that followed. We further discuss the morphological, behavioral, molecular and genomic tools available that together make semi-aquatic bugs a prime model for integration across disciplines. We present case studies showing how the implementation and combination of these approaches can advance our understanding of how the interaction between genotypes, phenotypes and the environment drives the evolution of distinct morphologies. Finally, we explain how the same set of experimental designs can be applied in other systems to address similar biological questions.

  16. [Genetic ecological monitoring in human populations: heterozygosity, mtDNA haplotype variation, and genetic load]. (United States)

    Balanovskiĭ, O P; Koshel', S M; Zaporozhchenko, V V; Pshenichnov, A S; Frolova, S A; Kuznetsova, M A; Baranova, E E; Teuchezh, I E; Kuznetsova, A A; Romashkina, M V; Utevskaia, O M; Churnosov, M I; Villems, R; Balanovskaia, E V


    Yu. P. Altukhov suggested that heterozygosity is an indicator of the state of the gene pool. The idea and a linked concept of genetic ecological monitoring were applied to a new dataset on mtDNA variation in East European ethnic groups. Haplotype diversity (an analog of the average heterozygosity) was shown to gradually decrease northwards. Since a similar trend is known for population density, interlinked changes were assumed for a set of parameters, which were ordered to form a causative chain: latitude increases, land productivity decreases, population density decreases, effective population size decreases, isolation of subpopulations increases, genetic drift increases, and mtDNA haplotype diversity decreases. An increase in genetic drift increases the random inbreeding rate and, consequently, the genetic load. This was confirmed by a significant correlation observed between the incidence of autosomal recessive hereditary diseases and mtDNA haplotype diversity. Based on the findings, mtDNA was assumed to provide an informative genetic system for genetic ecological monitoring; e.g., analyzing the ecology-driven changes in the gene pool.

  17. Correspondence Analysis applied to psychological research


    Laura Doey; Jessica Kurta


    Correspondence analysis is an exploratory data technique used to analyze categorical data (Benzecri, 1992). It is used in many areas such as marketing and ecology. Correspondence analysis has been used less often in psychological research, although it can be suitably applied. This article discusses the benefits of using correspondence analysis in psychological research and provides a tutorial on how to perform correspondence analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

  18. Correspondence Analysis applied to psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Doey


    Full Text Available Correspondence analysis is an exploratory data technique used to analyze categorical data (Benzecri, 1992. It is used in many areas such as marketing and ecology. Correspondence analysis has been used less often in psychological research, although it can be suitably applied. This article discusses the benefits of using correspondence analysis in psychological research and provides a tutorial on how to perform correspondence analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS.

  19. Optimization of Land Use Structure Based on Ecological GREEN Equivalent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Optimization of land use structure consists of economic and social and ecological optimization.Applying the minds of system engineering and principles of ecology,this paper presents such thoughts:the optimal forest-coverage rate calculated according to the reality of a district is set as main standard of ecological rationality in the district;through considering the value of ecosystem services of the land with GREEN equivalent (mainly cultivated land and grassland)and based on the rule,GREEN equivalent,this paper introduces the area conversion between woodland and cultivated land,also between woodland and grassland;this paper establishes a multi-dimension controlling model of optimization of land use structure.In addition,a multi-objective linear programming model for optimization of land use structure is designed.In the end,this paper tests and verifies this theory of ecological optimization,taking Qionghai city in Hainan Province as an example.

  20. Ecological risk assessment in the function of environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an appropriate methodology for ecological risk assessment. The methodology has been applied in the region of Boka Kotorska Bay (Bay, Montenegro. The emphasis of the research is on the analysis of the impact of various stressors on the ecological components of Bay. The consequences of that impact can be seen in an increased level of eutrophication of water environment, mostly through the influence of nitrogen and its compounds. The actual research at/about the region of Boka Kotorska Bay was performed in the period of 2008. The study emphasized the importance of the acquisition, processing and analysis of various ecologically related data for more efficient monitoring and management of the environment. The suggested methodology of the ecological risk assessment is, therefore, a remarkable scientific and expert contribution in the area of environmental protection in our country and in general.

  1. Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David


    Background: Studies of ecological speciation tend to focus on a few model biological systems. In contrast, few studies on non-model organisms have been able to infer ecological speciation as the underlying mechanism of evolutionary divergence. Questions: What are the pitfalls in studying ecological...... speciation in non-model organisms that lead to this bias? What alternative approaches might redress the balance? Organism: Genetically differentiated types of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) exhibiting differences in prey preference, habitat use, morphology, and behaviour. Methods: Review of the literature...... variation underlie reproductive isolation between sympatric killer whale types. Perhaps ecological speciation has occurred, but it is hard to prove. We will probably face this outcome whenever we wish to address non-model organisms – species in which it is not easy to apply experimental approaches...

  2. The application of the Internet of Things to animal ecology. (United States)

    Guo, Songtao; Qiang, Min; Luan, Xiaorui; Xu, Pengfei; He, Gang; Yin, Xiaoyan; Xi, Luo; Jin, Xuelin; Shao, Jianbin; Chen, Xiaojiang; Fang, Dingyi; Li, Baoguo


    For ecologists, understanding the reaction of animals to environmental changes is critical. Using networked sensor technology to measure wildlife and environmental parameters can provide accurate, real-time and comprehensive data for monitoring, research and conservation of wildlife. This paper reviews: (i) conventional detection technology; (ii) concepts and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) in animal ecology; and (iii) the advantages and disadvantages of IoT. The current theoretical limits of IoT in animal ecology are also discussed. Although IoT offers a new direction in animal ecological research, it still needs to be further explored and developed as a theoretical system and applied to the appropriate scientific frameworks for understanding animal ecology.

  3. [Ecological carrying capacity of Chinese shrimp stock enhancement in Laizhou Bay of East China based on Ecopath model]. (United States)

    Lin, Qun; Li, Xian-sen; Li, Zhong-yi; Jin, Xian-shi


    Stock enhancement is an important way of fishery resources conservation, which can increase the high quality fishery resources and improve the fish population structure. The study of ecological carrying capacity is the premise for the scientific implementation of stock enhancement. Based on the survey data of the fishery resources and ecological environment in Laizhou Bay from 2009 to 2010, an Ecopath mass-balance model of the Laizhou Bay ecosystem consisted of 26 functional groups was constructed, and applied to analyze the overall characteristics of the ecosystem, the trophic interrelationships, and the keystone species, and to calculate the ecological carrying capacity of Chinese shrimp enhancement. As for the overall characteristics of the ecosystem, the total primary production/total respiration (TPP/TR) was 1. 53, total primary production/total biomass (TPP/B) was 24.54, Finn' s cycling index was lower (0.07), surplus production was higher (434. 41 t km-2 a-1 ), and system connectance index was lower (0. 29), indicating that this ecosystem was at an early development stage. The analysis on the keystone species showed that Chinese shrimp was not a keystone species of this ecosystem. At present, the biomass of Chinese shrimp in the ecosystem was 0. 1143 t km-2, with a greater potential of continued enhancement. It did not exceed the ecological carrying capacity of 2. 9489 t km-2 when the biomass of the Chinese shrimp was increased by 25. 8 times.

  4. Microbial ecology: Fundamentals and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R.M.; Bartha, R.


    Chapter 1 contains a short historical introduction. Chapter 2, represents an updated review of microbial diversity and systematics. It also provides essential information required for the understanding of the form, function, and systematic relationship of microorganisms. Chapter 3 is devoted to the formation and structure of microbial communities, and deals with this subject both in the evolutionary and successional senses. Chapter 4 describes the interactions between microorganisms, and Chapters 5 and 6 explore the interactions of microorganisms with plants and with animals, respectively. Chapter 7 discusses the quantitative measurement of numbers, biomass, and activity of microorganisms; Chapter 8 examines the influence and the measurement of their environmental determinants. Chapter 9 presents air, water, and soil as microbial habitats and describes the typical composition of their communities. Chapters 10 and 11 contain an expanded discussion of the biogeochemical cycling activities performed by microbial communities. Chapters 12-15 deal with applied aspects of microbial ecology evident in biodeterioration control, sanitation, soil conservation, pollution control, resource recovery, and biological control.

  5. Reinventing the Wheel: Teaching Restoration Ecology without the Ecology (United States)

    Speldewinde, Peter


    Restoration ecology is "the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed." Restoration can range from returning the system to its "natural" state through to restoring some ecological functionality to a system. The University of Western Australia offers an undergraduate degree in Restoration…

  6. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.


    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  7. Reinventing the Wheel: Teaching Restoration Ecology without the Ecology (United States)

    Speldewinde, Peter


    Restoration ecology is "the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed." Restoration can range from returning the system to its "natural" state through to restoring some ecological functionality to a system. The University of Western Australia offers an undergraduate degree in…

  8. Ecological Research Division Theoretical Ecology Program. [Contains abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents the goals of the Theoretical Ecology Program and abstracts of research in progress. Abstracts cover both theoretical research that began as part of the terrestrial ecology core program and new projects funded by the theoretical program begun in 1988. Projects have been clustered into four major categories: Ecosystem dynamics; landscape/scaling dynamics; population dynamics; and experiment/sample design.

  9. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Mörsdorf


    Full Text Available In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in

  10. Statistical physics and ecology (United States)

    Volkov, Igor

    This work addresses the applications of the methods of statistical physics to problems in population ecology. A theoretical framework based on stochastic Markov processes for the unified neutral theory of biodiversity is presented and an analytical solution for the distribution of the relative species abundance distribution both in the large meta-community and in the small local community is obtained. It is shown that the framework of the current neutral theory in ecology can be easily generalized to incorporate symmetric density dependence. An analytically tractable model is studied that provides an accurate description of beta-diversity and exhibits novel scaling behavior that leads to links between ecological measures such as relative species abundance and the species area relationship. We develop a simple framework that incorporates the Janzen-Connell, dispersal and immigration effects and leads to a description of the distribution of relative species abundance, the equilibrium species richness, beta-diversity and the species area relationship, in good accord with data. Also it is shown that an ecosystem can be mapped into an unconventional statistical ensemble and is quite generally tuned in the vicinity of a phase transition where bio-diversity and the use of resources are optimized. We also perform a detailed study of the unconventional statistical ensemble, in which, unlike in physics, the total number of particles and the energy are not fixed but bounded. We show that the temperature and the chemical potential play a dual role: they determine the average energy and the population of the levels in the system and at the same time they act as an imbalance between the energy and population ceilings and the corresponding average values. Different types of statistics (Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and one corresponding to the description of a simple ecosystem) are considered. In all cases, we show that the systems may undergo a first or a second order

  11. 2011 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism, & Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keneth Stedman


    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  12. 2009 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism & Molecular Biology GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Julie Maupin- Furlow


    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses; and industrial applications. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  13. Implicit assimilation for marine ecological models (United States)

    Weir, B.; Miller, R.; Spitz, Y. H.


    We use a new data assimilation method to estimate the parameters of a marine ecological model. At a given point in the ocean, the estimated values of the parameters determine the behaviors of the modeled planktonic groups, and thus indicate which species are dominant. To begin, we assimilate in situ observations, e.g., the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study, the Hawaii Ocean Time-series, and Ocean Weather Station Papa. From there, we estimate the parameters at surrounding points in space based on satellite observations of ocean color. Given the variation of the estimated parameters, we divide the ocean into regions meant to represent distinct ecosystems. An important feature of the data assimilation approach is that it refines the confidence limits of the optimal Gaussian approximation to the distribution of the parameters. This enables us to determine the ecological divisions with greater accuracy.

  14. Plant Terpenoids: Biosynthesis and Ecological Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Xia Cheng; Yong-Gen Lou; Ying-Bo Mao; Shan Lu; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen


    Among plant secondary metabolites terpenoids are a structurally most diverse group; they function as phytoalexins in plant direct defense, or as signals in indirect defense responses which involves herbivores and their natural enemies. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the investigation of the ecological role of plant terpenoids. The biosynthesis pathways of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes include the synthesis of C5 precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its allylic isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the synthesis of the immediate diphosphate precursors, and the formation of the diverse terpenoids. Terpene synthases (TPSs) play a key role in volatile terpene synthesis. By expression of the TPS genes, significant achievements have been made on metabolic engineering to increase terpenoid production. This review mainly summarizes the recent research progress in elucidating the ecological role of terpenoids and characterization of the enzymes involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis. Spatial and temporal regulations of terpenoids metabolism are also discussed.

  15. The Bayesian group lasso for confounded spatial data (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Russell, Robin E.; Walsh, Daniel P.


    Generalized linear mixed models for spatial processes are widely used in applied statistics. In many applications of the spatial generalized linear mixed model (SGLMM), the goal is to obtain inference about regression coefficients while achieving optimal predictive ability. When implementing the SGLMM, multicollinearity among covariates and the spatial random effects can make computation challenging and influence inference. We present a Bayesian group lasso prior with a single tuning parameter that can be chosen to optimize predictive ability of the SGLMM and jointly regularize the regression coefficients and spatial random effect. We implement the group lasso SGLMM using efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms and demonstrate how multicollinearity among covariates and the spatial random effect can be monitored as a derived quantity. To test our method, we compared several parameterizations of the SGLMM using simulated data and two examples from plant ecology and disease ecology. In all examples, problematic levels multicollinearity occurred and influenced sampling efficiency and inference. We found that the group lasso prior resulted in roughly twice the effective sample size for MCMC samples of regression coefficients and can have higher and less variable predictive accuracy based on out-of-sample data when compared to the standard SGLMM.

  16. Social Information on Fear and Food Drives Animal Grouping and Fitness. (United States)

    Gil, Michael A; Emberts, Zachary; Jones, Harrison; St Mary, Colette M


    Empirical studies in select systems suggest that social information-the incidental or deliberate information produced by animals and available to other animals-can fundamentally shape animal grouping behavior. However, to understand the role of social information in animal behavior and fitness, we must establish general theory that quantifies effects of social information across ecological contexts and generates expectations that can be applied across systems. Here we used dynamic state variable modeling to isolate effects of social information about food and predators on grouping behavior and fitness. We characterized optimal behavior from a set of strategies that included grouping with different numbers of conspecifics or heterospecifics and the option to forage or be vigilant over the course of a day. We show that the use of social information alone increases grouping behavior but constrains group size to limit competition, ultimately increasing individual fitness substantially across various ecological contexts. We also found that across various contexts, foraging in mixed-species groups is generally better than foraging in conspecific groups, supporting recent theory on competition-information quality trade-offs. Our findings suggest that multiple forms of social information shape animal grouping and fitness, which are sensitive to resource availability and predation pressure that determine information usefulness.

  17. Socio-Ecological Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    for Sustainability is (generally) a subset of the enterprise innovation portfolio. Effective and efficient integration of Innovation for Sustainability and Sustainable Innovation aids translation of 3E (equity, ecology, economy) enterprise strategyof the Triple Top Line into 3P (people, planet, profit) Triple Bottom...... Line enterprise results in operationalization of the cradle‐to‐cradle product and service design, delivery, and lifecycle philosophy. While SEI is defined, it must also be assessed. Any serious assessment of SEI requires not only understanding of what it is, but also how it manifests and in what forms......, how developed or mature it is, and how future SEI strategy and results can be improved. As an aid to these efforts, non‐prescriptive approaches to SEI are discussed, maturity scale assessment for SEI is developed and discussed, and a simple assessment report that combines graphic and narrative...

  18. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.


    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  19. Education in ecology. Praxisnahe Umwelterziehung; Handreichungen fuer Schule und Lehrerfortbildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, R. (ed.)


    It is not enough to convey knowledge, insights and attitudes if education in ecology is to have fruitful effects. Space and opportunity for action and creativity must be provided in addition. This includes personal consumer habits (eating, transport, hygiene, leisure activities etc.); an individual workplace - in this case school - that can be shaped according to ecological needs. Beyond this, ecological maturation should not be confined to, but should transcend school, for instance in youth groups, citizens' committees, political parties. If school does not inspire action - including action outside school - then education in ecology could be smothered by the Midas effect, where all life is reduced to material, to the curriculum in this case. This book presents ecological projects that have been tried at schools. They aim at an education in ecology that is oriented to the pupil and open to experience. They could be an incentive for colleagues to conduct similar projects at their schools. The projects work from the pupils' own experience and aim at concrete action and activities in his or her own environment. They should encourage teachers to venture outside the classroom with the pupils and teach ecology where it takes place. (orig.)


    Michaud, Jean-Philippe; Schoenly, Kenneth G; Moreau, Gaétan


    Ecological succession is arguably the most enduring contribution of plant ecologists and its origins have never been contested. However, we show that French entomologist Pierre Mégnin, while collaborating with medical examiners in the late 1800s, advanced the first formal definition and testable mechanism of ecological succession. This discovery gave birth to the twin disciplines of carrion ecology and forensic entomology. As a novel case of multiple independent discovery, we chronicle how the disciplines of plant and carrion ecology (including forensic entomology) accumulated strikingly similar parallel histories and contributions. In the 1900s, the two groups diverged in methodology and purpose, with carrion ecologists and forensic entomologists focusing mostly on case reports and observational studies instead of hypothesis testing. Momentum is currently growing, however, to develop the ecological framework of forensic entomology and advance carrion ecology theory. Researchers are recognizing the potential of carcasses as subjects for testing not only succession mechanisms (without assuming space-for-time substitution), but also aggregation and coexistence models, diversity-ecosystem function relationships, and the dynamics of pulsed resources. By comparing the contributions of plant and carrion ecologists, we hope to stimulate future crossover research that leads to a general theory of ecological succession.

  1. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.


    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  2. Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park is a Five-star hotel which has developed multi-functions of restaurant, lodge, bath, landscape seeing, leisure,body exercise, recreation, Ecology agriculture,etc. Occupying an area of 500 mu, the park is an environmental friendly five-star hotel.

  3. Coastal Adaptation and Ecological Engineering (United States)

    Cheong, S. M.


    Ecological engineering combines ecology and engineering to sustain coastal environment and facilitate adaptation to climate change. This paper discusses how the cases of mangroves, oyster reefs, and marshes help mainstream climate change with ecosystem conservation. It demonstrates the benefits of combining strategies to combat changing climate given the financial and political constraints.

  4. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others


    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  5. Ecological Networks in Urban Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.


    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature preserves this

  6. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  7. The dimensionality of ecological networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklöf, Anna; Jacob, Ute; Kopp, Jason;


    How many dimensions (trait-axes) are required to predict whether two species interact? This unanswered question originated with the idea of ecological niches, and yet bears relevance today for understanding what determines network structure. Here, we analyse a set of 200 ecological networks, incl...

  8. The Future of Urban Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten


    This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won.......This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won....

  9. Ecological Monitoring Information System (EMIS). (United States)

    Fiene, Richard John; And Others

    A system for evaluating and monitoring child development projects, with possible computerization capabilities, was developed for the State of Pennsylvania in connection with 26 child development projects funded by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The Ecological Monitoring Information System (EMIS), provides a series of ecological measurement…

  10. Ecological optimization for general heat engines (United States)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei


    We conducted an analysis of efficiency and its bounds for general heat engines under the maximum ecological criterion. For generality, both nonisothermal heat-exchanging processes and internal dissipation were taken into consideration. When the product of the internal dissipation and the heat capacity ratio is one, the efficiency under the maximum ecological criterion is the same as that of the irreversible Carnot model. However, the efficiencies have different physical meanings and optimization spaces. Furthermore, the efficiency is independent of the time it takes to complete each process and the heat conductance. For other situations, numerical calculations were conducted to investigate the parameters' effects on optimal efficiency. When the dimensionless contact times approach zero, the irreversible Carnot model is recovered. The general upper and lower bounds of optimal efficiency are obtained by applying the asymmetric heat capacity ratio limits when the dimensionless contact times approach infinity. In addition, the efficiency of general endoreversible heat engines was investigated. The efficiency bounds of different real-life heat engines under the maximum ecological criterion are proposed.

  11. Application of Thermoeconomics to Industrial Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Valero


    Full Text Available Industrial Ecology involves the transformation of industrial processes from linear to closed loop systems: matter and energy flows which were initially considered as wastes become now resources for existing or new processes. In this paper, Thermoeconomics, commonly used for the optimization and diagnosis of energy systems, is proposed as a tool for the characterization of Industrial Ecology. Thermoeconomics is based on the exergy analysis (Thermodynamics but goes further by introducing the concepts of purpose and cost (Economics. It is presented in this study as a systematic and general approach for the analysis of waste flow integration. The formulation is based on extending the thermoeconomic process of the cost formation of wastes in order to consider their use as input for other processes. Consequently, it can be applied to important Industrial Ecology issues such as identification of integration possibilities and efficiency improvement, quantification of benefits obtained by integration, or determination of fair prices based on physical roots. The capability of the methodology is demonstrated by means of a case study based on the integration of a power plant, a cement kiln and a gas-fired boiler.

  12. Marine and estuarine natural microbial biofilms: ecological and biogeochemical dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Roger Anderson


    Full Text Available Marine and estuarine microbial biofilms are ubiquitously distributed worldwide and are increasingly of interest in basic and applied sciences because of their unique structural and functional features that make them remarkably different from the biota in the plankton. This is a review of some current scientific knowledge of naturally occurring microbial marine and estuarine biofilms including prokaryotic and microeukaryotic biota, but excluding research specifically on engineering and applied aspects of biofilms such as biofouling. Because the microbial communities including bacteria and protists are integral to the fundamental ecological and biogeochemical processes that support biofilm communities, particular attention is given to the structural and ecological aspects of microbial biofilm formation, succession, and maturation, as well as the dynamics of the interactions of the microbiota in biofilms. The intent is to highlight current state of scientific knowledge and possible avenues of future productive research, especially focusing on the ecological and biogeochemical dimensions.

  13. Personalized learning Ecologies in Problem and Project Based Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Ryberg, Thomas; Zander, Pär-Ola


    learning. In Aalborg University students have to work in groups each semester to understand and address a self-defined and complex problem and provide a solution to the problem which is evaluated in a report format (called the project). Students work with a real life problem in their project which....... making it important to understand and conceptualise students’ use of technology. Ecology is the study of relationship between organisms in an environment which is the set of circumstances surrounding that organism. Learning ecologies are the study of the relationship of a learner or a group of learners...... and technologies. This study demonstrates how students interact with tools, networks, and communities within learning ecologies in problem and project based learning environments by using an analysis of students’ blog posts on ‘how they use technologies to support their PBL project collaboration within their group...

  14. 基于SSU rDNA和线粒体cox1序列分析甲藻中不同生态类群的演化规律%Analysis of the evolution of different ecological groups of dinoflagellates based on SSU rDNA and mitochondrial cox 1 sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晨; 董丽; 饶涛; 贾睿; 于克锋; 吴维宁; 王金辉; 徐韧; 何培民


    应用SSU rDNA和线粒体cox1序列研究甲藻(Dinoflagellate)中不同生态类群的演化关系.通过PCR扩增和测序获取4株甲藻SSU rDNA及其线粒体cox1部分片段,结合GenBank中24株甲藻的相关序列,以Plasmodiumfalciparum为外群,构建ML树和NJ树,并采用自展支持度评估进化树分支结构,通过计算后验概率评估进化树整体结构,应用1sKH、SH、ELW和2sKH等方法评估两株ML树间的拓扑结构.结果显示,在由上述两序列构建的进化树上,底栖原甲藻均未与浮游原甲藻聚类,且前沟藻具有独特演化地位.表明联合选择SSU rDNA和线粒体c甜1序列构建的进化树在一定程度上能够反映出甲藻的演化规律.这为从基因层面深入探索甲藻中不同生态类群的演化关系初步奠定了基础.%In this paper, we analyze the evolution of different ecological groups of dinoflagellates, based on SSU rDNA and mitochondrial cox 1 sequences. After PCR and sequencing, we obtained partial sequences of SSU rDNA and mitochondrial cox 1 for 4 dinoflagellates. By combining with related sequences of 26 dinoflagellates downloaded from GenBank, their maximum likelihood (ML) and neighbor-joining trees were constructed, using Plasmodium falciparum as the outgroup. The tree branch structure was evaluated by bootstrap support and calculation of the posterior probability was employed to assess the overall tree structure. This was followed by assessment of the two ML tree topologies by lsKH, SH, ELW and 2sKH tests. This analysis indicated that benthic Pro-rocentrum did not cluster with planktonic Prorocentrum in phylogenetic trees based on different genes. Analysis of Amphidinium carterae further supported their unique evolutionary positions. We conclude that the phylogenetic tree based on SSU rDNA and mitochondrial cox 1 substantially reflects the evolution of dinoflagellates. The results of this study laid a foundation for further research on the evolution between different

  15. Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna M. Shackeroff


    Full Text Available Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, and scientific knowledge systems. Based on 61 in-depth interviews with these ocean experts, historical trends, abundance, and distribution over 80 years and a 50-mile region for 271 species emerged. Analyzing trends by ecological guild, e.g., herbivores, proved inappropriate to these data; rather, based on qualitative analyses, five distinct trends encompassing nearly all species emerged in what we term "social-ecological guilds." Ocean expert's observations of change were surprisingly consistent, regardless of their knowledge system, whereas perceptions of change varied widely. The historical picture was far broader and richer when the contributions of six knowledge systems were incorporated, compared to that of any one alone. Social-ecological guilds also matter critically from a management perspective, because understanding how experts from a multiplicity of perspectives observe, interpret, and respond to ecological change can help managers anticipate responses to management activities and perhaps to design better management strategies.

  16. Ecological optimization of an irreversible harmonic oscillators Carnot heat engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A model of an irreversible quantum Carnot heat engine with heat resistance,internal irreversibility and heat leakage and many non-interacting harmonic oscillators is established in this paper. Based on the quantum master equation and semi-group approach,equations of some important performance parameters,such as power output,efficiency,exergy loss rate and ecological function for the irreversible quantum Carnot heat engine are derived. The optimal ecological performance of the heat engine in the classical limit is analyzed with numerical examples. Effects of internal irreversibility and heat leakage on the ecological performance are discussed. A performance comparison of the quantum heat engine under maximum ecological function and maximum power conditions is also performed.

  17. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney


    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  18. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste management: I. Methodology (United States)

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with e...

  19. Applying Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development in Group Care Settings. (United States)

    Larsen, John A.


    Argues that Kohlberg's theory of moral development and his methods of moral education have special relevance to residential treatment because they (1) provide a framework for understanding the moral decision-making process at various levels of development, and (2) encourage child care professionals of any theoretical or clinical persuasion to…

  20. Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Epstein


    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge from the natural sciences. It finds that the mixture of inductive and deductive reasoning associated with socially-oriented investigations of these systems is lacking on the ecological side, which relies upon induction alone. As a result the paper proposes the addition of a seventh core sub-system to the social-ecological systems framework, ecological rules, which would allow scholars to explicitly incorporate knowledge from the natural sciences for deductive reasoning. The paper shows, through an instructive case study, how the addition of ecological rules can provide a more nuanced description of the factors that contribute to outcomes in social-ecological systems.

  1. The relationship between cranial structure, biomechanical performance and ecological diversity in varanoid lizards. (United States)

    McCurry, Matthew R; Mahony, Michael; Clausen, Phillip D; Quayle, Michelle R; Walmsley, Christopher W; Jessop, Tim S; Wroe, Stephen; Richards, Heather; McHenry, Colin R


    Skull structure is intimately associated with feeding ability in vertebrates, both in terms of specific performance measures and general ecological characteristics. This study quantitatively assessed variation in the shape of the cranium and mandible in varanoid lizards, and its relationship to structural performance (von Mises strain) and interspecific differences in feeding ecology. Geometric morphometric and linear morphometric analyses were used to evaluate morphological differences, and finite element analysis was used to quantify variation in structural performance (strain during simulated biting, shaking and pulling). This data was then integrated with ecological classes compiled from relevant scientific literature on each species in order to establish structure-function relationships. Finite element modelling results showed that variation in cranial morphology resulted in large differences in the magnitudes and locations of strain in biting, shaking and pulling load cases. Gracile species such as Varanus salvadorii displayed high strain levels during shaking, especially in the areas between the orbits. All models exhibit less strain during pull back loading compared to shake loading, even though a larger force was applied (pull =30N, shake = 20N). Relationships were identified between the morphology, performance, and ecology. Species that did not feed on hard prey clustered in the gracile region of cranial morphospace and exhibited significantly higher levels of strain during biting (P = 0.0106). Species that fed on large prey clustered in the elongate area of mandible morphospace. This relationship differs from those that have been identified in other taxonomic groups such as crocodiles and mammals. This difference may be due to a combination of the open 'space-frame' structure of the varanoid lizard skull, and the 'pull back' behaviour that some species use for processing large prey.

  2. The relationship between cranial structure, biomechanical performance and ecological diversity in varanoid lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R McCurry

    Full Text Available Skull structure is intimately associated with feeding ability in vertebrates, both in terms of specific performance measures and general ecological characteristics. This study quantitatively assessed variation in the shape of the cranium and mandible in varanoid lizards, and its relationship to structural performance (von Mises strain and interspecific differences in feeding ecology. Geometric morphometric and linear morphometric analyses were used to evaluate morphological differences, and finite element analysis was used to quantify variation in structural performance (strain during simulated biting, shaking and pulling. This data was then integrated with ecological classes compiled from relevant scientific literature on each species in order to establish structure-function relationships. Finite element modelling results showed that variation in cranial morphology resulted in large differences in the magnitudes and locations of strain in biting, shaking and pulling load cases. Gracile species such as Varanus salvadorii displayed high strain levels during shaking, especially in the areas between the orbits. All models exhibit less strain during pull back loading compared to shake loading, even though a larger force was applied (pull =30N, shake = 20N. Relationships were identified between the morphology, performance, and ecology. Species that did not feed on hard prey clustered in the gracile region of cranial morphospace and exhibited significantly higher levels of strain during biting (P = 0.0106. Species that fed on large prey clustered in the elongate area of mandible morphospace. This relationship differs from those that have been identified in other taxonomic groups such as crocodiles and mammals. This difference may be due to a combination of the open 'space-frame' structure of the varanoid lizard skull, and the 'pull back' behaviour that some species use for processing large prey.

  3. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul


    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based…

  4. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Fremantle (United States)

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  5. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Dublin (United States)

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  6. Historical development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology (United States)

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  7. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Sydney (United States)

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  8. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Perth (United States)

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  9. The Ecology of Interactive Learning Environments: Situating Traditional Theory (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie


    In educational discourse on human learning (i.e. the result of experience) and development (i.e. the result of maturation), there are three fundamental theoretical frameworks, -- behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism, each of which have been applied, with varying degrees of success, in online environments. An ecological framework of human…

  10. A quest for ecologically based pest management systems (United States)

    Altieri, M. A.; Martin, P. B.; Lewis, W. J.


    The article presents a holistic approach to studying and applying crop protection in agricultural systems A theoretical framework of integrated pest management (IPM) is presented that allows an understanding of pest population processes on a whole-agroecological-system basis The need for and emergence of holistic research on agroecosystems is discussed, as are the current trends in ecological theory and pest management

  11. Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene. (United States)

    Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J


    Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felichesmi Selestine Lyakurwa


    Full Text Available A precise understanding of the link between industrial ecology and sustainability is vitally important for sustainable environmental performances. In this study an intensive review of industrial ecology principles, its application areas and the extent to which industrial ecology has been applied was documented. It was observed that effective application of industrial ecology is critical for sustainability, since the industry is the main polluter of the environment. It was further infered that, there is inadequate application of industrial ecology by developing countries. Thus, I hypothesis that, there is great opportunity for new investment in this field, considering the absence of modern means for the liquid and solid waste management. For example improper incineration of wastes such as hospital wastes and electrical and electronic equipment was perceived to bring health problems in the near future. Thus, it is time for governments, both in developed and developing countries to increase the applicability of industrial ecology, for sustainable social, political, economic and environmental sustainability.

  13. Advances and Limitations of Disease Biogeography Using Ecological Niche Modeling. (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E; Craft, Meggan E


    Mapping disease transmission risk is crucial in public and animal health for evidence based decision-making. Ecology and epidemiology are highly related disciplines that may contribute to improvements in mapping disease, which can be used to answer health related questions. Ecological niche modeling is increasingly used for understanding the biogeography of diseases in plants, animals, and humans. However, epidemiological applications of niche modeling approaches for disease mapping can fail to generate robust study designs, producing incomplete or incorrect inferences. This manuscript is an overview of the history and conceptual bases behind ecological niche modeling, specifically as applied to epidemiology and public health; it does not pretend to be an exhaustive and detailed description of ecological niche modeling literature and methods. Instead, this review includes selected state-of-the-science approaches and tools, providing a short guide to designing studies incorporating information on the type and quality of the input data (i.e., occurrences and environmental variables), identification and justification of the extent of the study area, and encourages users to explore and test diverse algorithms for more informed conclusions. We provide a friendly introduction to the field of disease biogeography presenting an updated guide for researchers looking to use ecological niche modeling for disease mapping. We anticipate that ecological niche modeling will soon be a critical tool for epidemiologists aiming to map disease transmission risk, forecast disease distribution under climate change scenarios, and identify landscape factors triggering outbreaks.

  14. Advances and Limitations of Disease Biogeography Using Ecological Niche Modeling (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Craft, Meggan E.


    Mapping disease transmission risk is crucial in public and animal health for evidence based decision-making. Ecology and epidemiology are highly related disciplines that may contribute to improvements in mapping disease, which can be used to answer health related questions. Ecological niche modeling is increasingly used for understanding the biogeography of diseases in plants, animals, and humans. However, epidemiological applications of niche modeling approaches for disease mapping can fail to generate robust study designs, producing incomplete or incorrect inferences. This manuscript is an overview of the history and conceptual bases behind ecological niche modeling, specifically as applied to epidemiology and public health; it does not pretend to be an exhaustive and detailed description of ecological niche modeling literature and methods. Instead, this review includes selected state-of-the-science approaches and tools, providing a short guide to designing studies incorporating information on the type and quality of the input data (i.e., occurrences and environmental variables), identification and justification of the extent of the study area, and encourages users to explore and test diverse algorithms for more informed conclusions. We provide a friendly introduction to the field of disease biogeography presenting an updated guide for researchers looking to use ecological niche modeling for disease mapping. We anticipate that ecological niche modeling will soon be a critical tool for epidemiologists aiming to map disease transmission risk, forecast disease distribution under climate change scenarios, and identify landscape factors triggering outbreaks. PMID:27547199

  15. On the methodology of feeding ecology in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikia Surjya Kumar


    Full Text Available Feeding ecology explains predator’s preference to some preys over others in their habitat and their competitions thereof. The subject, as a functional and applied biology, is highly neglected, and in case of fish, a uniform and consistent methodology is absent. The currently practiced methods are largely centred on mathematical indices and highly erroneous because of non-uniform outcomes. Therefore, it requires a relook into the subject to elucidate functional contributions and to make it more comparable and comprehensive science. In this article, approachable methodological strategies have been forwarded in three hierarchical steps, namely, food occurrence, feeding biology and interpretative ecology. All these steps involve wide ranges of techniques, within the scope of ecology but not limited to, and traverse from narrative to functional evolutionary ecology. The first step is an assumption-observation practice to assess food of fish, followed by feeding biology that links morphological, histological, cytological, bacteriological or enzymological correlations to preferred food in the environment. Interpretative ecology is the higher level of analysis in which the outcomes are tested and discussed against evolutionary theories. A description of possible pedagogics on the methods of feeding ecological studies has also been forwarded.

  16. Advances and Limitations of Disease Biogeography Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Escobar


    Full Text Available Mapping disease transmission risk is crucial in public and animal health for evidence based decision-making. Ecology and epidemiology are highly related disciplines that may contribute to improvements in mapping disease, which can be used to answer health related questions. Ecological niche modeling is increasingly used for understanding the biogeography of diseases in plants, animals, and humans. However, epidemiological applications of niche modeling approaches can fail to generate robust study designs, generating incomplete or incorrect inferences. This manuscript is an overview of the history and conceptual bases behind ecological niche modeling, specifically as applied to epidemiology and public health; it does not pretend to be an exhaustive and detailed description of ecological niche modeling literature and methods. Instead, this review includes selected state-of-the-science approaches and tools, providing a short guide to designing studies incorporating information on the type and quality of the input data (i.e., occurrences and environmental variables, identification and justification of the extent of the study area, and encourages users to explore and test diverse algorithms for more informed conclusions. We provide a friendly introduction to the field of disease biogeography presenting an updated guide for researchers looking to use ecological niche modeling for disease mapping. We anticipate that ecological niche modeling will soon be a critical tool for epidemiologists aiming to map disease transmission risk, forecast disease distribution under climate change scenarios, and identify landscape factors triggering outbreaks.

  17. Spatial dynamics of ecological public goods. (United States)

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Nowak, Martin A; Hauert, Christoph


    The production, consumption, and exploitation of common resources ranging from extracellular products in microorganisms to global issues of climate change refer to public goods interactions. Individuals can cooperate and sustain common resources at some cost or defect and exploit the resources without contributing. This generates a conflict of interest, which characterizes social dilemmas: Individual selection favors defectors, but for the community, it is best if everybody cooperates. Traditional models of public goods do not take into account that benefits of the common resource enable cooperators to maintain higher population densities. This leads to a natural feedback between population dynamics and interaction group sizes as captured by "ecological public goods." Here, we show that the spatial evolutionary dynamics of ecological public goods in "selection-diffusion" systems promotes cooperation based on different types of pattern formation processes. In spatial settings, individuals can migrate (diffuse) to populate new territories. Slow diffusion of cooperators fosters aggregation in highly productive patches (activation), whereas fast diffusion enables defectors to readily locate and exploit these patches (inhibition). These antagonistic forces promote coexistence of cooperators and defectors in static or dynamic patterns, including spatial chaos of ever-changing configurations. The local environment of cooperators and defectors is shaped by the production or consumption of common resources. Hence, diffusion-induced self-organization into spatial patterns not only enhances cooperation but also provides simple mechanisms for the spontaneous generation of habitat diversity, which denotes a crucial determinant of the viability of ecological systems.

  18. Ecological economic benefit in sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xuemin; Ren Long


    From the concept of ecological economic benefit, I put forward the general formula for the benefit of ecological economy and the appraisal methods of the ecological economy, Theory on ecological benefit and economic benefit is the base of the benefits of ecological economy To some extent, the development of ecological economy, theory and practice on eco-agriculture are both the production made from opposition and unify of ecological benefit and economic benefit. This paper discusses the "T" type structure, which will give the theoretical bases for enhancing the ecological and economical benefits.

  19. Advances in ecological genomics in forest trees and applications to genetic resources conservation and breeding. (United States)

    Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N; Cooke, Janice E K; Fady, Bruno; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Heuertz, Myriam; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Lexer, Christian; Staton, Margaret; Whetten, Ross W; Plomion, Christophe


    Forest trees are an unparalleled group of organisms in their combined ecological, economic and societal importance. With widespread distributions, predominantly random mating systems and large population sizes, most tree species harbour extensive genetic variation both within and among populations. At the same time, demographic processes associated with Pleistocene climate oscillations and land-use change have affected contemporary range-wide diversity and may impinge on the potential for future adaptation. Understanding how these adaptive and neutral processes have shaped the genomes of trees species is therefore central to their management and conservation. As for many other taxa, the advent of high-throughput sequencing methods is expected to yield an understanding of the interplay between the genome and environment at a level of detail and depth not possible only a few years ago. An international conference entitled 'Genomics and Forest Tree Genetics' was held in May 2016, in Arcachon (France), and brought together forest geneticists with a wide range of research interests to disseminate recent efforts that leverage contemporary genomic tools to probe the population, quantitative and evolutionary genomics of trees. An important goal of the conference was to discuss how such data can be applied to both genome-enabled breeding and the conservation of forest genetic resources under land use and climate change. Here, we report discoveries presented at the meeting and discuss how the ecological genomic toolkit can be used to address both basic and applied questions in tree biology.

  20. Ecological periodic tables: Killer apps for translational ecology (United States)

    The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are information organizing structures that have transformed chemistry, biology and astronomy, respectively. Ecological periodic tables are information organizing structures wit...

  1. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  2. Operational Considerations for Geomorphological and Ecological Forecasting (United States)

    Costanza, Katelyn


    Applying predictive models beyond weather and water has become a relatively new topic of research in the operational setting. It has become increasingly important to provide answers related to: • fate and transport of pollutants and hazardous wastes • shoaling and impacts to navigation • water quality and its potential impacts to ecology • deltaic processes. The Water Institute and Deltares are currently working on a pilot project to develop a system that will potentially answer these questions. The Mississippi River Delta is the area of focus for this pilot project. This project is utilizing and enhancing the capabilities of the Flood Early Warning System (FEWS). The Mississippi River Delta has been devastated by anthropogenic influences over the last century. These influences in conjunction with subsidence and sea level rise have caused astounding land loss rates. Government agencies are in the process of developing innovative ways to reconnect the river with the dying delta. One of the alternatives being planned is a system of sediment diversion projects. These diversions are much like flood water diversions which already exist along the river today. These planned diversions provide Deltares and The Water Institute of the Gulf the perfect case scenario to test both morphology and ecological models within an operational system. In order to build an operational system such as this, it was necessary to use FEWS as a platform to analyze multivariate and disparate sources of environmental data. This was necessary for monitoring the delta and providing boundary conditions to the models. Applying morphological models in a predictive manner is a new concept. Researchers from Deltares and The Water Institute have had to develop new methods to provide predictive boundaries and warm states to the models. It is intended that this system will ultimately be used to provide forecasted guidance on the optimal operation of the diversions to reduce the impacts to

  3. Group Grammar (United States)

    Adams, Karen


    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  5. Chemical ecology of marine plankton. (United States)

    Schwartz, Emily R; Poulin, Remington X; Mojib, Nazia; Kubanek, Julia


    Covering: January 2013 to online publication December 2014This review summarizes recent research in the chemical ecology of marine pelagic ecosystems, and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the field in the time period covered. In order to highlight the role of chemical cues and toxins in plankton ecology this review has been organized by ecological interaction types starting with intraspecific interactions, then interspecific interactions (including facilitation and mutualism, host-parasite, allelopathy, and predator-prey), and finally community and ecosystem-wide interactions.

  6. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris


    This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

  7. Conceptualizing analyses of ecological momentary assessment data. (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul


    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods, which involve collection of real-time data in subjects' real-world environments, are particularly well suited to studying tobacco use. Analyzing EMA datasets can be challenging, as the datasets include a large and varied number of observations per subject and are relatively unstructured. This paper suggests that time is typically a key organizing principle in EMA data and that conceptualizing the data as a timeline of events, behaviors, and experiences can help define analytic approaches. EMA datasets lend themselves to answering a diverse array of research questions, and the research question must drive how data are arranged for analysis, and the kinds of statistical models that are applied. This is illustrated this with brief examples of diverse analyses applied to answer different questions from an EMA study of tobacco use and relapse.

  8. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László


    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  9. Who counts resilience and whose resilience counts? Reflections on applying the Resilience Assessment Workbook along a contested Amazonian frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy-Lin Bartels


    Full Text Available The Brazilian Amazon is a complex social-ecological system, the management of which includes diverse groups of social actors whose values and interests influence decision making and outcomes. Such management requires leaders who appreciate the multiple knowledge systems and historical land occupation trajectories that have shaped this region. Twenty-three emerging leaders from universities, government agencies, the private sector, and social movement organizations participated in a two-year Specialization Course in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Course participants applied the Resilience Assessment (RA Workbook for Practitioners to analyze three livelihood sub-systems within the municipality of Cotriguaçu. This paper offers reflections on the utility of the RA workbook as a tool for bridging multiple stakeholders’ knowledge, identities, power and interests in collaborative social-ecological management. Our experience points to the risks of conducting expert-led RAs in regions dominated by historical legacies of oppression, weak institutions, and limited governance.

  10. Ecological perspective: linking ecology, GIS, and remote sensing to ecosystem management (United States)

    Allen, C. D.


    Awareness of significant human impacts on the ecology of Earth's landscapes is not new (Thomas 1956). Over the past decade (Forman and Godron 1986, Urban et a1. 1987) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies have supported a rapid rise in landscape.stale research. The heightened recognition within the research community of the ecological linkages between local sites and larger spatial scales has spawned increasing calls for more holistic management of landscapes (Noss 1983, Harris 1984, Risser 1985, Norse et al. 1986, Agee and Johnson 1988, Franklin 1989, Brooks and Grant 1992, Endangered Species Update-Special Issue 1993, Crow 1994, Grumbine 1994). As a result agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Park Service are now converging on "ecosystem management" as a new paradigm to sustainably manage wildlands and maintain biodiversity. However, as this transition occurs, several impediments to implementation of this new paradigm persist, including (1) significant uncenainty among many land managers about the definition and goals of ecosystem management, (2) inadequate ecological information on the past and present processes and structural conditions of target ecosystems, (3) insufficient experience on the part of land managers with the rapidly diversifying array of GIS and remote sensing tools to effectively use them to support ecology-based land management, and (4) a paucity of intimate, long-term relationships between people (including land managers) and the particular landscape communities to which they belong. This chapter provides an ecological perspective on these issues as applied to ecosystem management in a southwestern U.S. landscape.

  11. Meeting the relational challenge of ecological engineering within ecological sciences


    Barot, Sébastien; Lata, J. C.; Lacroix, G.


    Due to the current environmental problems human societies have to face and the lack of sustainability of most of their activities, the time of Ecological Engineering (EE) has surely come. To assess the development of EE within the academic world we conducted a literature survey based on an exhaustive count of all articles mentioning EE and related terms since the 1980s, and a classification of all articles published in 2008 and 2009 in the journal Ecological Engineering. This survey reveals t...

  12. Urbanism in the Anthropocene: Ecological urbanism or premium ecological enclaves?


    Hodson, Michael; Marvin, Simon


    Earth scientists now argue that the current geological era should be re-named the anthropocene to better reflect the impact of humans in reshaping planetary ecology. Urbanism encompasses the social, economic and political processes most closely linked to the rapid transformation of habitats, destruction of ecologies, over use of materials and resources, and the production of pollutants and carbon emissions that threaten planetary terracide. Consequently, the key concern for 21st-century globa...

  13. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration. (United States)

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D


    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration.

  14. 2007 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imke Schroeder


    The Archaea are a fascinating and diverse group of prokaryotic organisms with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of this GRC conference, 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology', expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting the evolution and composition of microbial communities and novel archaeal species, their impact on the environment, archaeal metabolism, and research that stems from sequence analysis of archaeal genomes. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple reputable areas with new scientific topics in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  15. On the Value of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge in Water Storing and Maintaining%本土生态知识在水资源储养与维护中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红; 伍磊


    本土生态知识的利用实质是指服务于生态建设的文化对策,不同民族的本土生态知识在缓解水资源的短缺方面有各自的对策,本文在田野调查的基础上,根据水资源生态功能,将我国西部地区划分为六大片区,分别收集了相关民族的本土生态知识,以期为我国水资源的稳定、储养、维护提供可资借鉴的参考。%The essence of applying indigenous ecological knowledge is to serve cultural countermeasures on ecological construction. The indigenous ecological knowledge of each different ethnic group has its own countermeasures to help relieve water shortage. In this paper based on fieldwork, Western China is categorized into 6 major regions for ecological function in water resources. Furthermore, indigenous ecological knowledge of some related ethnic groups has been collected for the current study in hope of providing useful references for stabilizing, storing and maintaining water resources in China.

  16. Lakeshore zoning has heterogeneous ecological effects: an application of a coupled economic-ecological model. (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C


    Housing growth has been widely shown to be negatively correlated with wildlife populations, avian richness, anadromous fish, and exotic invasion. Zoning is the most frequently used public policy to manage housing development and is often motivated by a desire to protect the environment. Zoning is also pervasive, taking place in all 50 states. One relevant question that has received little research concerns the effectiveness of zoning to meet ecological goals. In this paper, we examined whether minimum frontage zoning policies have made a positive impact on the lakes they were aimed to protect in Vilas County, Wisconsin, U.S.A. We used an economic model that estimated when a given lot will be subdivided and how many new lots will be created as a function of zoning. Using the economic model, we simulated the effects of multiple zoning scenarios on lakeshore development. The simulated development patterns were then input to ecological models that predicted the amount of coarse woody debris (CWD) and the growth rate of bluegills as a function of residential density. Comparison of the ecological outcomes under different simulated zoning scenarios quantified the effect of zoning policies on residential density, CWD, and bluegill growth rates. Our results showed that zoning significantly affected residential density, CWD counts, and bluegill growth rates across our study area, although the effect was less clear at the scale of individual lake. Our results suggest that homogeneous zoning (i.e., for a county) is likely to have mixed results when applied to a heterogeneous landscape. Further, our results suggest that zoning regimes with a higher minimum shoreline frontage are likely to have larger ecological effects when applied to lakes that are less developed.

  17. Differences among major taxa in the extent of ecological knowledge across four major ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Fisher

    Full Text Available Existing knowledge shapes our understanding of ecosystems and is critical for ecosystem-based management of the world's natural resources. Typically this knowledge is biased among taxa, with some taxa far better studied than others, but the extent of this bias is poorly known. In conjunction with the publically available World Registry of Marine Species database (WoRMS and one of the world's premier electronic scientific literature databases (Web of Science®, a text mining approach is used to examine the distribution of existing ecological knowledge among taxa in coral reef, mangrove, seagrass and kelp bed ecosystems. We found that for each of these ecosystems, most research has been limited to a few groups of organisms. While this bias clearly reflects the perceived importance of some taxa as commercially or ecologically valuable, the relative lack of research of other taxonomic groups highlights the problem that some key taxa and associated ecosystem processes they affect may be poorly understood or completely ignored. The approach outlined here could be applied to any type of ecosystem for analyzing previous research effort and identifying knowledge gaps in order to improve ecosystem-based conservation and management.

  18. US Forest Service Ecological Sections (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations for...

  19. Teaching Ecology in Urban Environments. (United States)

    Fail, Joseph, Jr.


    Discusses the teaching of ecology and environmental education in urban environments by using field trips to city parks, airports, nuclear power plants, water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, incinerators, foundries, and forests. (MKR)

  20. Ecological studies in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ With an objective of making clear the ecological conditions in local region and offering countermeasures for its protection, a CAS task force recently visited Alxa League in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region.

  1. Online ecological and environmental data

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Virginia Ann


    Discover important Internet resources for research data made public individually and collectively by researchers from a variety of entities in the fields of environmental studies and ecology Online Ecological and Environmental Data explores innovative projects from a diverse array of institutions that have made environmental and ecological research information freely available online. You will find a wealth of Web site listings with URLs and complete descriptions, data field descriptions, controlled vocabulary examples, and Web screen shots that demonstrate how to use a specific site. The book will help you locate the data, procedures, instruments, notes, and other descriptive information that scientists and engineers need for replicating and building on the research of others. With Online Ecological and Environmental Data, you''ll gain a better understanding of: * the cooperative design, development, and management of interdisciplinary data * cataloging multidisciplinary environmental data * data netw...

  2. Global Ecological Land Units (ELUs) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In response to the need and an intergovernmental commission for a high resolution and data-derived global ecosystem map, land surface elements of global ecological...

  3. How Much "Group" Is There in Online Group Work? (United States)

    Lowes, Susan


    The ability to work in groups across time and space has become a frequent requirement for the workplace and is increasingly common in higher education, but there is a surprising lack of research on how online groups work. This research applies analytic approaches used in studies of face-to-face classroom "talk" to multiple groups in two…

  4. Professional development of undergraduates in wildlife ecology and management (United States)

    Moen, A.N.; Boomer, G.S.; Runge, M.C.


    This paper describes a cooperative learning environment and a course continuum in wildlife ecology and management which promote the professional development of undergraduates. Students learn about functional relationships in ecology and management in lecture periods that focus on concepts, with participation by students in active learning exercises. Laboratory periods are designed around learning groups, which consist of freshmen through graduate students who focus on a common theme as they work together, while each student is responsible for his or her own research. Undergraduate teaching assistants and senior wildlife management students coordinate the activities of the learning groups and supervise the student research, learning about personnel management by active participation in leadership roles. Publication of research results on a wildlife ecology and management information system in the department's Cooperative Learning Center enables students to share what they learn with their peers and with students who follow in later years.

  5. A primer for data assimilation with ecological models using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). (United States)

    Zobitz, J M; Desai, A R; Moore, D J P; Chadwick, M A


    Data assimilation, or the fusion of a mathematical model with ecological data, is rapidly expanding knowledge of ecological systems across multiple spatial and temporal scales. As the amount of ecological data available to a broader audience increases, quantitative proficiency with data assimilation tools and techniques will be an essential skill for ecological analysis in this data-rich era. We provide a data assimilation primer for the novice user by (1) reviewing data assimilation terminology and methodology, (2) showcasing a variety of data assimilation studies across the ecological, environmental, and atmospheric sciences with the aim of gaining an understanding of potential applications of data assimilation, and (3) applying data assimilation in specific ecological examples to determine the components of net ecosystem carbon uptake in a forest and also the population dynamics of the mayfly (Hexagenia limbata, Serville). The review and examples are then used to provide guiding principles to newly proficient data assimilation practitioners.

  6. Ecology of playa lakes (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.


    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  7. Civic Ecology: A Postmodern Approach to Ecological Sustainability (United States)

    Lopes, V. L.


    Human agency is transforming the planetary processes at unprecedented rates risking damaging essential life-support systems. Climate change, massive species extinction, land degradation, resources depletion, overpopulation, poverty and social injustice are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. The survival of our modern economic systems depends upon insatiable consumption - a simple way of life no longer satisfies most people. Detached, instrumental rationality has created an ideal of liberalism based on individual pursuit of self-interest, leading the way into unprecedented material progress but bringing with it human alienation, social injustice, and ecological degradation. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a community-based systems response to a growing sense that the interlocked social-ecological crisis is as much a problem of human thought and behavior as it is about identifying carrying capacities and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This approach, referred to here as civic ecology, presents a new and important paradigm shift in sustainability practice that attempts to bring together and integrate ecological ideas and postmodern thinking. As such, it is as much a holistic, dynamic, and synergistic approach to ecological sustainability, as it is a philosophy of life and ethical perspective born of ecological understanding and insight. Civic ecology starts with the proposition that the key factor determining the health of the ecosphere is the behavior of human beings, and therefore many of the most important issues related to sustainability lie in the areas of human thought and culture. Thus, the quest for sustainability must include as a central concern the transformation of psychological and behavioral patterns that have become an imminent danger to planetary health. At the core of this understanding is a fundamental paradigm shift from the basic commitments of modern Western culture to its model of mechanism

  8. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...... of homogeneous varieties, \\item representation categories and their connections to orbits and flag varieties. \\end{itemize} The first three days started with survey talks that will help to make the subject accessible to the next generation. The talks on the last day introduced to several recent advances...

  9. Industrial Design and Ecological Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Horia Chinda


    Full Text Available This work presents the direct link between the Industrial Production process of prodfucts ad the Ecological disaster we are witnessing today. The main contribution is the definition of the industrial designer's role in this process and the multiple ways the designer can influence and avoid the ecological imbalance. From the design concept to materials and processing, from packing and recycling to transportation, the author clearly defines the designer's complex involvement and offers solutions.

  10. The Approach of Ecological Economics


    John M. Gowdy; Jon D Erickson


    This paper discusses the major tenets of ecological economics - including value pluralism, methodological pluralism, and multi-criteria policy assessment. Ecological economics offers viable alternatives to the theoretical foundations and policy recommendations of neoclassical welfare economics. A revolution in neoclassical economics is currently taking place and the core assumptions of welfare economics are being replaced with more realistic models of consumer and firm behavior. But we argue ...

  11. Strategic Ideas of Greenway Construction in Ecological Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBinyi; XUWenhui


    This article grasps the implication of ecology based on the theory of greenway, With the purpose of making Zhejiang Province become an ecological province, it points out that the problems exist in the greenway construction and makes it clear that the greenway construction is very important. Furthermore, in combination with the linear green open spaces, such as greening passages, tourist areas, and administration facilities in Zhejiang Province, this article puts forward the strategic ideas of the greenways construction and the strategies, measures to apply the greenways construction.

  12. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61


    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  13. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy (United States)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.


    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  14. The National Ecological Observatory Network (United States)

    Michener, W. K.


    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research platform designed to advance understanding of how ecosystems and organisms respond to variations in climate and changes in land use. NEON is the first long-term ecological observatory conceived as a continental-scale network; equipped with standardized sensors, cyberinfrastructure, and data-collection protocols across the network; and designed to simultaneously address a common set of research questions and support investigator-driven ecological research in all regions of the United States. The Observatory focuses on variations in climate and land use because they are primary drivers of the Nation's environmental challenges, as identified by the National Research Council--i.e., biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, climate change, hydroecology, infectious disease, invasive species, and land use. At the broadest scale, NEON links the complexity of climate variation to the behavior of ecological systems, a core aspect of ecological complexity. At the same time, because of the complexity of the interactions among humans and ecosystems, the network design includes NEON sites in wild, managed and urban systems within climate domains. Observatory data will also be part of a national education program designed to advance ecological science literacy through new programs and activities that develop and promote scientific ways of thinking.

  15. Comparison and evaluation of nutrient composition of two ecological groups of Japanese grenadier anchovy-river-anchovy and sea-anchovy%刀鲚两种生态类群-"江刀"和"海刀"鱼肉营养组成的比较及品质的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐钢春; 顾若波; 张呈祥; 郑金良; 闻海波; 徐跑


    In this study, to evaluate the fish quality, the nutritional composition of two ecological groups of Japanese grenadier anchovy ( river-anchovy and sea anchovy) were analyzed. The results showed that the crude lipid content of the whole fish in river-anchovy was significantly higher than that of sea anchovy( P <0.01) and was 2.03 times higher. However, the crude protein, moisture and ash content were less than that of sea anchovy; two ecological groups of Japanese grenadier anchovy have almost the same amino acid composition, and both contain 18 amino acids, accounting for 11.55% and 15.37 % in wet weight respectively. We also found that the content seven kinds of EAA (Leu, Ile, Phe, Try, Thr, Val, Lys), the HEAA (Arg) and four kinds of NEAA (Glu, Ser, Tyr, Pro) in the two species have a significant difference ( P <0.05), 8 essential amino acid content in the fresh fish is 4.87% and 6.4%, while the ratio of non-essential amino acids were 85.59% and 83.44%. It is basically in agreement with the standard value issued by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) in the United Nations and WHO (World Health Organization). Moreover, the essential amino acid index (EAAI) was calculated and were 22.32 and 41.82; branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acid ratio ( F value) were 2.43 and 2.49. Four kinds of amino acid content in river-anchovy (4.59 %) was significantly lower than that of sea anchovy(6.12% ); The taurine content of river-anchovy was as high as 265.43 mg/100 g,which was significantly higher than that of sea anchovy. 20 kinds of fatty acids in river-anchovy were identified by using methyl esterization, which included 9 saturated fatty acids (SFA), 5 single-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The polyunsaturated fatty acids (9.05 %) in Coilia nasus was significantly lower than that of sea anchovy(13.20%). Similarly, this tendency toward decreased EPA and DHA was also observed in river-anchovy(4.21%, 2.26%) as compared to

  16. Ecological momentary assessment in addiction. (United States)

    Lukasiewicz, M; Fareng, M; Benyamina, A; Blecha, L; Reynaud, M; Falissard, B


    Numerous symptoms in psychiatry are subjective (e.g., sadness, anxiety, craving or fatigue), fluctuate and are environment dependent. Accurate measurement of these phenomena requires repeated measures, and ideally needs to be performed in the patient's natural environment rather than in an artificial laboratory environment or a protected hospital environment. The usual paper and pencil questionnaires do not meet these two conditions for reasons of logistics. A recently developed method, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), made it possible to implement these field assessments via ingenious use of various devices (most frequently an electronic diary) coupling an auditory signal with computerized data capture. The subject carries the device with him/her at all times, and data is recorded in vivo in real time. The programming of repeated measures in the form of a Likert scale or pull-down menu is easily achieved. A recall alarm system can help increase compliance. Compared with classical self-report, EMA improves the validity of the assessment of certain symptoms, which are the main evaluation criteria in clinical trials concerning certain pathologies (e.g., craving and treatment of addiction), where measurement was previously liable to bias. This article sets out to present this method, its advantages and disadvantages, and the interest it presents in psychiatry, in particular via three original applications developed by the authors including: measurement of reaction time without the knowledge of the subject in order to test certain cognitive models; use of a graphic solution for the data recorded for functional analysis of disorders; and the use of data collection via mobile phone and text messages, which also enables therapeutic interventions in real time by text messages, personalized on the basis of the situational data collected (e.g., in the case of craving, the associated mood, solitary or group consumption or concomitant occupations).

  17. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart


    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an Inter

  18. 36 CFR 219.20 - Ecological sustainability. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ecological sustainability... Sustainability § 219.20 Ecological sustainability. To achieve ecological sustainability, the responsible official... diversity and species diversity are components of ecological sustainability. The planning process...

  19. Methodology Series Module 7: Ecologic Studies and Natural Experiments (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh


    In this module, we have discussed study designs that have not been covered in the previous modules – ecologic studies and natural experiments. In an ecologic study, the unit of analysis is a group or aggregate rather than the individual. It may be the characteristics of districts, states, or countries. For example, per capita income across countries, income quintiles across districts, and proportion of college graduates in states. If the data already exist (such as global measures and prevalence of diseases, data sets such as the National Family Health Survey, census data), then ecologic studies are cheap and data are easy to collect. However, one needs to be aware of the “ecologic fallacy.” The researcher should not interpret ecologic level results at the individual level. In “natural experiments,” the researcher does not assign the exposure (as is the case in interventional studies) to the groups in the study. The exposure is assigned by a natural process. This may be due to existing policies or services (example, one city has laws against specific vehicles and the other city does not); changes in services or policies; or introduction of new laws (such helmet for bikers and seat-belts for cars). We would like to encourage researchers to explore the possibility of using these study designs to conduct studies. PMID:28216721

  20. Methodology series module 7: Ecologic studies and natural experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia


    Full Text Available In this module, we have discussed study designs that have not been covered in the previous modules – ecologic studies and natural experiments. In an ecologic study, the unit of analysis is a group or aggregate rather than the individual. It may be the characteristics of districts, states, or countries. For example, per capita income across countries, income quintiles across districts, and proportion of college graduates in states. If the data already exist (such as global measures and prevalence of diseases, data sets such as the National Family Health Survey, census data, then ecologic studies are cheap and data are easy to collect. However, one needs to be aware of the “ecologic fallacy.” The researcher should not interpret ecologic level results at the individual level. In “natural experiments,” the researcher does not assign the exposure (as is the case in interventional studies to the groups in the study. The exposure is assigned by a natural process. This may be due to existing policies or services (example, one city has laws against specific vehicles and the other city does not; changes in services or policies; or introduction of new laws (such helmet for bikers and seat-belts for cars. We would like to encourage researchers to explore the possibility of using these study designs to conduct studies.

  1. Methodology Series Module 7: Ecologic Studies and Natural Experiments. (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh


    In this module, we have discussed study designs that have not been covered in the previous modules - ecologic studies and natural experiments. In an ecologic study, the unit of analysis is a group or aggregate rather than the individual. It may be the characteristics of districts, states, or countries. For example, per capita income across countries, income quintiles across districts, and proportion of college graduates in states. If the data already exist (such as global measures and prevalence of diseases, data sets such as the National Family Health Survey, census data), then ecologic studies are cheap and data are easy to collect. However, one needs to be aware of the "ecologic fallacy." The researcher should not interpret ecologic level results at the individual level. In "natural experiments," the researcher does not assign the exposure (as is the case in interventional studies) to the groups in the study. The exposure is assigned by a natural process. This may be due to existing policies or services (example, one city has laws against specific vehicles and the other city does not); changes in services or policies; or introduction of new laws (such helmet for bikers and seat-belts for cars). We would like to encourage researchers to explore the possibility of using these study designs to conduct studies.

  2. Ecological insecurity and Fulbe pastoral society in the Niger Bend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.W.M.; Breedveld, A.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Azarya, V.


    This collective volume discusses social change and ecological and cultural adaptation among the Fulbe of West Africa. The introduction is by Victor Azarya. Part 1 (Ethnicity) contains chapters by Roger Blench (the question of why there are so many pastoral groups in East Africa whereas in West Afric

  3. Ecological Factors Improving Efficiency of Business Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononova G. A.


    Full Text Available The economic importance of optimizing the environmental situation from the perspective of an entrepreneur are assessed in the article. The classification of administrative decisions taken in the course of the business activities is proposed. The authors identified a group of solutions directly providing optimization of environment external to the enterprise, solutions that have an indirect positive impact on the environment and solutions that improve ecology of industrial premises. The nature of economic effect of resulting solutions of various types is taken into account. Vectors of influence of working conditions on the economic results of business activities are described. The nature and strength of the impact of model management decisions results of business activities are defined. Key performance indicators of entrepreneurial activity are identified: employee productivity, the amount of revenue and profitability, solvency, staff stability, the competitiveness of enterprises. Grouping the costs of ecological parameters optimization of the production environment is proposed. Relationship between level of working conditions and socio-psychological climate in the collective enterprise is disclosed. The methods of motivation of entrepreneurs in solving of environmental, production problems are considered. The role of training entrepreneurs engaged of medium and small businesses are underlined especially. Thus, in the article the relationship between environmental and economic problems of entrepreneurial activity is investigated. Role and opportunities of entrepreneurs in solving these problems are defined and structured.


    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor


    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  5. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea


    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  6. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij


    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...... of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would...

  7. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor


    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.

  8. A truly ecological epigenetics study. (United States)

    Bossdorf, Oliver; Zhang, Yuanye


    Until a few years ago, epigenetics was a field of research that had nothing to do with ecology and that virtually no ecologist had ever heard of. This is now changing, as more and more ecologists learn about epigenetic processes and their potential ecological and evolutionary relevance, and a new research field of ecological epigenetics is beginning to take shape. One question that is particularly intriguing ecologists is to what extent epigenetic variation is an additional, and hitherto overlooked, source of natural variation in ecologically important traits. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Herrera & Bazaga (2011) provide one of the first attempts to truly address this question in an ecological setting. They study variation of DNA methylation in a wild population of the rare, long-lived violet Viola cazorlensis, and they use these data to explore interrelations between environmental, genetic and epigenetic variation, and in particular the extent to which these factors are related to long-term differences in herbivore damage among plants. They find substantial epigenetic variation among plant individuals. Interestingly, this epigenetic variation is significantly correlated with long-term differences in herbivory, but only weakly with herbivory-related DNA sequence variation, which suggests that besides habitat, substrate and genetic variation, epigenetic variation may be an additional, and at least partly independent, factor influencing plant–herbivore interactions in the field. Although the study by Herrera & Bazaga (2011) raises at least as many new questions as it answers, it is a pioneering example of how epigenetics can be incorporated into ecological field studies, and it illustrates the value and potential novel insights to be gained from such efforts.

  9. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  10. Conceptual frameworks and methods for advancing invasion ecology. (United States)

    Heger, Tina; Pahl, Anna T; Botta-Dukát, Zoltan; Gherardi, Francesca; Hoppe, Christina; Hoste, Ivan; Jax, Kurt; Lindström, Leena; Boets, Pieter; Haider, Sylvia; Kollmann, Johannes; Wittmann, Meike J; Jeschke, Jonathan M


    Invasion ecology has much advanced since its early beginnings. Nevertheless, explanation, prediction, and management of biological invasions remain difficult. We argue that progress in invasion research can be accelerated by, first, pointing out difficulties this field is currently facing and, second, looking for measures to overcome them. We see basic and applied research in invasion ecology confronted with difficulties arising from (A) societal issues, e.g., disparate perceptions of invasive species; (B) the peculiarity of the invasion process, e.g., its complexity and context dependency; and (C) the scientific methodology, e.g., imprecise hypotheses. To overcome these difficulties, we propose three key measures: (1) a checklist for definitions to encourage explicit definitions; (2) implementation of a hierarchy of hypotheses (HoH), where general hypotheses branch into specific and precisely testable hypotheses; and (3) platforms for improved communication. These measures may significantly increase conceptual clarity and enhance communication, thus advancing invasion ecology.

  11. Engineering microbial systems to explore ecological and evolutionary dynamics. (United States)

    Tanouchi, Yu; Smith, Robert P; You, Lingchong


    A major goal of biological research is to provide a mechanistic understanding of diverse biological processes. To this end, synthetic biology offers a powerful approach, whereby biological questions can be addressed in a well-defined framework. By constructing simple gene circuits, such studies have generated new insights into the design principles of gene regulatory networks. Recently, this strategy has been applied to analyze ecological and evolutionary questions, where population-level interactions are critical. Here, we highlight recent development of such systems and discuss how they were used to address problems in ecology and evolutionary biology. As illustrated by these examples, synthetic ecosystems provide a unique platform to study ecological and evolutionary phenomena that are challenging to study in their natural contexts.

  12. The ecology of adolescent substance abuse service utilization. (United States)

    Jones, Diana L; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Saunders, Robert C


    This paper presents an ecological-community model toward the explanation of variation in patterns of substance abuse (SA) service utilization among adolescents who are enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program (TennCare). Guided by a theoretical framework that draws from the social ecology work of Bronfenbrenner and health services utilization models promoted by Aday and Andersen, we apply a social indicators approach toward explaining the impact of community ecology on identification of SA and treatment engagement. Both county-level rates and individual-level treatment utilization are examined and hierarchical linear modeling is incorporated to examine the individual-in-community phenomenon. This study is an expansion of previous service utilization research and suggests that explanations of youth's service utilization must necessarily include not only individual, familial, and service system characteristics, but community factors, as well.

  13. Hydrology and Ecology Go to Court (United States)

    Wise, W. R.; Crisman, T. L.


    historical data from which to quantify the flow regime. Nevertheless, the authors worked with their legal team to fill in the blanks based on their knowledge of hydrology and ecology. One of the most important lessons learned by the authors is the importance of participating in the public process. Often, scientists shy away from such matters. Many of the principles that were applied were researched long ago. No research papers were generated by the case, but many were used to solidify arguments. It was gratifying to the authors to realize that the work product of their disciplines could be applied in a cooperative manner to address an issue with such profound implications. It was a clear demonstration that ecohydrology, the linkage of hydrology and ecology, was much preferred as a way to address a complicated legal issue.

  14. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching. (United States)

    Griffiths, Dorothy


    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  15. Perspectives on Applied Ethics



    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  16. Advances in Applied Mechanics



    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  17. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  18. Ecosystem services as assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment. (United States)

    Munns, Wayne R; Rea, Anne W; Suter, Glenn W; Martin, Lawrence; Blake-Hedges, Lynne; Crk, Tanja; Davis, Christine; Ferreira, Gina; Jordan, Steve; Mahoney, Michele; Barron, Mace G


    Ecosystem services are defined as the outputs of ecological processes that contribute to human welfare or have the potential to do so in the future. Those outputs include food and drinking water, clean air and water, and pollinated crops. The need to protect the services provided by natural systems has been recognized previously, but ecosystem services have not been formally incorporated into ecological risk assessment practice in a general way in the United States. Endpoints used conventionally in ecological risk assessment, derived directly from the state of the ecosystem (e.g., biophysical structure and processes), and endpoints based on ecosystem services serve different purposes. Conventional endpoints are ecologically important and susceptible entities and attributes that are protected under US laws and regulations. Ecosystem service endpoints are a conceptual and analytical step beyond conventional endpoints and are intended to complement conventional endpoints by linking and extending endpoints to goods and services with more obvious benefit to humans. Conventional endpoints can be related to ecosystem services even when the latter are not considered explicitly during problem formulation. To advance the use of ecosystem service endpoints in ecological risk assessment, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Assessment Forum has added generic endpoints based on ecosystem services (ES-GEAE) to the original 2003 set of generic ecological assessment endpoints (GEAEs). Like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are defined by an entity and an attribute. Also like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are broadly described and will need to be made specific when applied to individual assessments. Adoption of ecosystem services as a type of assessment endpoint is intended to improve the value of risk assessment to environmental decision making, linking ecological risk to human well-being, and providing an improved means of communicating those risks. Integr Environ Assess Manag

  19. Consumptive ecological footprint and productive ecological footprint:a modification on ecological footprint theory to evaluate regional sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XlONG Deguo; XIAN Xuefu


    Ecological footprint theory and its application achievements in global and regional sustainable development systems are studied by consulting the published literature, which finds that the application of ecological footprint theory to regional sustainability evaluation has leaded to a perplexity that the indicated result was inconsistent with the philosophy of sustainable development theory. Illuminated by the mechanical system of the movement of matters, it comes up that ecological footprint based on consumption of biologic production could not tell whether the ecological pressure acts on the specified region, and the original ecological footprint theory also undervalued the development impartiality of a region. A modification on this theory is made by introducing consumptive ecological footprint and productive ecological footprint, in which the latter is taken as the indicator of regional sustainability. The development impartiality can be demonstrated by comparison between the global ecological deficit per capita and regional consumptive ecological deficit per capita.

  20. Does the ecological study of managed habitats constitute "real" ecology?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gábor L. L(O)VEI


    Ecology is not a very "old" science,with about one hundred years of history.In the early period,the general attitude was that the study of undisturbed ecological systems will provide us with clues of how the world is organised.To understand this world,we should study the regions,ecosystems,habitats that are still in their undisturbed condition,far from settlements,are uncultivated,and unspoilt.From these,we can form a picture how things should be.We can then use this knowledge to wisely manage other habitats,more under the influence