WorldWideScience

Sample records for applied approaches modelisation

  1. Comparison of ensemble post-processing approaches, based on empirical and dynamical error modelisation of rainfall-runoff model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, J.; Mathevet, T.; Le Lay, M.; Gailhard, J.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of a national energy company (EDF : Electricité de France), hydro-meteorological forecasts are necessary to ensure safety and security of installations, meet environmental standards and improve water ressources management and decision making. Hydrological ensemble forecasts allow a better representation of meteorological and hydrological forecasts uncertainties and improve human expertise of hydrological forecasts, which is essential to synthesize available informations, coming from different meteorological and hydrological models and human experience. An operational hydrological ensemble forecasting chain has been developed at EDF since 2008 and is being used since 2010 on more than 30 watersheds in France. This ensemble forecasting chain is characterized ensemble pre-processing (rainfall and temperature) and post-processing (streamflow), where a large human expertise is solicited. The aim of this paper is to compare 2 hydrological ensemble post-processing methods developed at EDF in order improve ensemble forecasts reliability (similar to Monatanari &Brath, 2004; Schaefli et al., 2007). The aim of the post-processing methods is to dress hydrological ensemble forecasts with hydrological model uncertainties, based on perfect forecasts. The first method (called empirical approach) is based on a statistical modelisation of empirical error of perfect forecasts, by streamflow sub-samples of quantile class and lead-time. The second method (called dynamical approach) is based on streamflow sub-samples of quantile class and streamflow variation, and lead-time. On a set of 20 watersheds used for operational forecasts, results show that both approaches are necessary to ensure a good post-processing of hydrological ensemble, allowing a good improvement of reliability, skill and sharpness of ensemble forecasts. The comparison of the empirical and dynamical approaches shows the limits of the empirical approach which is not able to take into account hydrological

  2. Apply the Communicative Approach in Listening Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; changxue; Su; na

    2014-01-01

    Speaking and listening are the two obstacles in the process of our learning and they are also the most important abilities that we should possess. Communicative approach aims to the ability of learners’ communicative competence, thus apply the communicative approach in listening class is an effective way in English teaching procedure.

  3. Apply the Communicative Approach in Listening Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang changxue; Su na

    2014-01-01

    Speaking and listening are the two obstacles in the process of our learning and they are also the most important abilities that we should possess. Communicative approach aims to the ability of learners’communicative competence, thus apply the communicative approach in listening class is an effective way in English teaching procedure.

  4. Reflector modelization in neutronic and optimization methods applied to fuel loading pattern; Modelisation du reflecteur en neutronique et methodes d`optimisation appliquees aux plans de rechargement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argaud, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    I Physical description of P.W.R nuclear core can be handled by multigroup neutronic diffusion model. We are interested in two problems, using the same approach for the optimization aspect. To deal with some differences between calculations and measurements, the question of their reduction is then introduced. A reflector parameters identification from core measurements is then purposed, the reflector being at the present time the less known part of core diffusion model. This approach conducts to study the reflector model, in particular by an analysis of its transport origin. It leads finally to a new model of reflector described by boundary operators using an integral formulation on the core/reflector interface. That is on this new model that a parameter identification formulation of calculations-measurements differences reduction is given, using an adjoint state formulation to minimize errors by a gradient method. Furthermore, nuclear fuel reload of P.W.R core needs an optimal distribution of fuel assemblies, namely a loading pattern. This combinatorial optimization problem is then expressed as a cost function minimization, the cost function describing the power spatial distribution. Various methods (linear programming, simulated annealing,...), used to solve this problem, are detailed, given in particular a practical search example. A new approach is then proposed, using the gradient of the cost function to direct the search in the patterns discrete space. Final results of complete patterns search trials are presented, and compared to those obtained by other methods. In particular the results are obtained very quickly. (author). 81 refs., 55 figs., 5 appends.

  5. Modelisation statistique de formes en imagerie cerebrale

    OpenAIRE

    Corouge, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    Cette these traite de la modelisation statistique de formes en imageriecerebrale.Dans une premiere partie, nous proposons un modele statistique de la forme des sillons corticaux. Le modele est bati par apprentissage a partir de sillons extraits d'images IRM et dotes d'une representation parametrique. La definition d'un repere intrinseque a la forme sillon permet d'aligner l'ensemble des formes extraites et de construire une population d'apprentissage coherente sur laquelle appliquer une analy...

  6. Applied Systems Analysis: A Genetic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Majone, G.

    1980-01-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis is preparing a "Handbook of Systems Analysis," which will appear in three volumes: Volume 1, "Overview," is aimed at a widely varied audience of producers and users of systems analysis; Volume 2, "Methods," is aimed at systems analysts who need basic knowledge of methods in which they are not expert; the volume contains introductory overviews of such methods; Volume 3, "Cases," contains descriptions of actual systems analyses that illus...

  7. Experimental approach and micro-mechanical modeling of the mechanical behavior of irradiated zirconium alloys; Approche experimentale et modelisation micromecanique du comportement des alliages de zirconium irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onimus, F

    2003-12-01

    Zirconium alloys cladding tubes containing nuclear fuel of the Pressurized Water Reactors constitute the first safety barrier against the dissemination of radioactive elements. Thus, it is essential to predict the mechanical behavior of the material in-reactor conditions. This study aims, on the one hand, to identify and characterize the mechanisms of the plastic deformation of irradiated zirconium alloys and, on the other hand, to propose a micro-mechanical modeling based on these mechanisms. The experimental analysis shows that, for the irradiated material, the plastic deformation occurs by dislocation channeling. For transverse tensile test and internal pressure test this channeling occurs in the basal planes. However, for axial tensile test, the study revealed that the plastic deformation also occurs by channeling but in the prismatic and pyramidal planes. In addition, the study of the macroscopic mechanical behavior, compared to the deformation mechanisms observed by TEM, suggested that the internal stress is higher in the case of irradiated material than in the case of non-irradiated material, because of the very heterogeneous character of the plastic deformation. This analysis led to a coherent interpretation of the mechanical behavior of irradiated materials, in terms of deformation mechanisms. The mechanical behavior of irradiated materials was finally modeled by applying homogenization methods for heterogeneous materials. This model is able to reproduce adequately the mechanical behavior of the irradiated material, in agreement with the TEM observations. (author)

  8. Applying a gaming approach to IP strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasnier, Arnaud; Vandamme, Luc

    2010-02-01

    Adopting an appropriate IP strategy is an important but complex area, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors, in which aspects such as regulatory submissions, high competitive activity, and public health and safety information requirements limit the amount of information that can be protected effectively through secrecy. As a result, and considering the existing time limits for patent protection, decisions on how to approach IP in these sectors must be made with knowledge of the options and consequences of IP positioning. Because of the specialized nature of IP, it is necessary to impart knowledge regarding the options and impact of IP to decision-makers, whether at the level of inventors, marketers or strategic business managers. This feature review provides some insight on IP strategy, with a focus on the use of a new 'gaming' approach for transferring the skills and understanding needed to make informed IP-related decisions; the game Patentopolis is discussed as an example of such an approach. Patentopolis involves interactive activities with IP-related business decisions, including the exploitation and enforcement of IP rights, and can be used to gain knowledge on the impact of adopting different IP strategies. PMID:20127561

  9. Applied Regression Modeling A Business Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pardoe, Iain

    2012-01-01

    An applied and concise treatment of statistical regression techniques for business students and professionals who have little or no background in calculusRegression analysis is an invaluable statistical methodology in business settings and is vital to model the relationship between a response variable and one or more predictor variables, as well as the prediction of a response value given values of the predictors. In view of the inherent uncertainty of business processes, such as the volatility of consumer spending and the presence of market uncertainty, business professionals use regression a

  10. Perturbation approach applied to modal diffraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Joerg; Hehl, Karl

    2011-05-01

    Eigenvalue computation is an important part of many modal diffraction methods, including the rigorous coupled wave approach (RCWA) and the Chandezon method. This procedure is known to be computationally intensive, accounting for a large proportion of the overall run time. However, in many cases, eigenvalue information is already available from previous calculations. Some of the examples include adjacent slices in the RCWA, spectral- or angle-resolved scans in optical scatterometry and parameter derivatives in optimization. In this paper, we present a new technique that provides accurate and highly reliable solutions with significant improvements in computational time. The proposed method takes advantage of known eigensolution information and is based on perturbation method. PMID:21532698

  11. Critical Applied Linguistics: An Evaluative Interdisciplinary Approach in Criticism and Evaluation of Applied Linguistics’ Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    H Davari

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of some significant critical approaches and directions in the field of applied linguistics from the mid-1980s onwards has met with various positive and opposite reactions. On the basis of their strength and significance, such approaches and directions have challenged some of the mainstream approaches’ claims, principles and assumptions. Among them, critical applied linguistics can be highlighted as a new approach, developed by the Australian applied linguist, Alastair Pennycook....

  12. Critical Applied Linguistics: An Evaluative Interdisciplinary Approach in Criticism and Evaluation of Applied Linguistics’ Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Davari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of some significant critical approaches and directions in the field of applied linguistics from the mid-1980s onwards has met with various positive and opposite reactions. On the basis of their strength and significance, such approaches and directions have challenged some of the mainstream approaches’ claims, principles and assumptions. Among them, critical applied linguistics can be highlighted as a new approach, developed by the Australian applied linguist, Alastair Pennycook. The aspects, domains and concerns of this new approach were introduced in his book in 2001. Due to the undeniable importance of this approach, as well as partial negligence regarding it in Iranian academic setting, this paper first intends to introduce this approach, as an approach that evaluates various disciplines of applied linguistics through its own specific principles and interests. Then, in order to show its step-by-step application in the evaluation of different disciplines of applied linguistics, with a glance at its significance and appropriateness in Iranian society, two domains, namely English language education and language policy and planning, are introduced and evaluated in order to provide readers with a visible and practical picture of its interdisciplinary nature and evaluative functions. The findings indicate the efficacy of applying this interdisciplinary framework in any language-in-education policy and planning in accordance with the political, social and cultural context of the target society.

  13. Critical Applied Linguistics: An Evaluative Interdisciplinary Approach in Criticism and Evaluation of Applied Linguistics’ Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Davari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of some significant critical approaches and directions in the field of applied linguistics from the mid-1980s onwards has met with various positive and opposite reactions. On the basis of their strength and significance, such approaches and directions have challenged some of the mainstream approaches’ claims, principles and assumptions. Among them, critical applied linguistics can be highlighted as a new approach, developed by the Australian applied linguist, Alastair Pennycook. The aspects, domains and concerns of this new approach were introduced in his book in 2001. Due to the undeniable importance of this approach, as well as partial negligence regarding it in Iranian academic setting, this paper first intends to introduce this approach, as an approach that evaluates various disciplines of applied linguistics through its own specific principles and interests. Then, in order to show its step-by-step application in the evaluation of different disciplines of applied linguistics, with a glance at its significance and appropriateness in Iranian society, two domains, namely English language education and language policy and planning, are introduced and evaluated in order to provide readers with a visible and practical picture of its interdisciplinary nature and evaluative functions. The findings indicate the efficacy of applying this interdisciplinary framework in any language-in-education policy and planning in accordance with the political, social and cultural context of the target society.

  14. Type II supernovae modelisation: neutrinos transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modelisation of neutrino transport in type II supernovae is presented. The first part is a description of hydrodynamics and radiative processes responsible of supernovae explosions. Macroscopic aspects of these are displayed in part two. Neutrino transport theory and usual numerical methods are also developed. A new technic of coherent scattering of neutrinos on nuclei or free nucleons is proposed in the frame work of the Lorentz bifluid approximation. This method deals with all numerical artifices (flux limiting schemes, closure relationship of Eddington moments) and allows a complete and consistent determination of the time-dependent neutrino distribution function for any value of the opacity, gradient of opacity and for all (relativistic) velocity fields of the diffusive medium. Part three is dedicated to microscopic phenomena (electronic capture, chimical composition, etc) which rule neutrinos emission-absorption mechanisms. The numerical treatments of those are presented, and some applications are useful for their parametrization. Finally, an extension of the method to inelastic scattering on light particules (electrons) is described in view to study neutrinos thermalization mechanism

  15. Guiding Mobile Robot by Applying Fuzzy Approach on Sonar Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Rahman Jasim; Nabeel K. Abid Al- Sahib

    2010-01-01

    This study describes how fuzzy logic control FLC can be applied to sonars of mobile robot. The fuzzy logic approach has effects on the navigation of mobile robots in a partially known environment that are used in different industrial and society applications. The fuzzy logic provides a mechanism for combining sensor data from all sonar sensors which present different information. The FLC approach is achieved by means of Fuzzy Decision Making method type of fuzzy logic controller. The proposed...

  16. Focus Groups: A Practical and Applied Research Approach for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2007-01-01

    Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…

  17. Modelisation et prevision des indices de prix sectoriels.

    OpenAIRE

    Jondeau, E.; Le Bihan, H.; Sedillot, F.

    1999-01-01

    Ce papier presente une modelisation de l'indice des prix francais. L'objectif est de permettre une analyse rapide et detaillee des tendances de court terme de l'inflation ainsi que de realiser des previsions a intervalles rapproches. Les caracteristiques de cet outil sont les suivantes: un petit nombre d'equations, une frequence mensuelle, un detail sectoriel assez fin et la publication d'intervalles de confiance relatifs a la prevision.

  18. An interacting replica approach applied to the traveling salesman problem

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bo; Leonard, Blake; Ronhovde, Peter; Nussinov, Zohar

    2014-01-01

    We present a physics inspired heuristic method for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Our approach is specifically motivated by the desire to avoid trapping in metastable local minima- a common occurrence in hard problems with multiple extrema. Our method involves (i) coupling otherwise independent simulations of a system ("replicas") via geometrical distances as well as (ii) probabilistic inference applied to the solutions found by individual replicas. The {\\it ensemble} of replica...

  19. Applying a weed risk assessment approach to GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keese, Paul K; Robold, Andrea V; Myers, Ruth C; Weisman, Sarah; Smith, Joe

    2014-12-01

    Current approaches to environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants are modelled on chemical risk assessment methods, which have a strong focus on toxicity. There are additional types of harms posed by plants that have been extensively studied by weed scientists and incorporated into weed risk assessment methods. Weed risk assessment uses robust, validated methods that are widely applied to regulatory decision-making about potentially problematic plants. They are designed to encompass a broad variety of plant forms and traits in different environments, and can provide reliable conclusions even with limited data. The knowledge and experience that underpin weed risk assessment can be harnessed for environmental risk assessment of GM plants. A case study illustrates the application of the Australian post-border weed risk assessment approach to a representative GM plant. This approach is a valuable tool to identify potential risks from GM plants. PMID:24046097

  20. Modelling and numerical simulation of two-phase flows using the two-fluid two-pressure approach; Modelisation et simulation numerique des ecoulements diphasiques par une approche bifluide a deux pressions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemaud, V

    2007-03-15

    This thesis is devoted to the modelling and numerical simulation of liquid-vapor flows. In order to describe these phase transition flows, a two-fluid two-pressure approach is considered. This description of the liquid-vapor mixing is associated to the seven-equation model introduced by Baer and Nunziato. This work investigates the properties of this model in order to simulate the phase transition flows occurring in nuclear engineering. First, a theoretical thermodynamic framework is constructed to describe the liquid-vapor mixing. Provided with this framework, various modelling choices are suggested for the interaction terms between the phases. These closure laws comply with an entropy inequality. The mathematical properties of this model are thereafter examined. The convective part is associated to a nonconservative hyperbolic system. First, we focus on the definition of its weak solutions. Several flow regimes for the two-phase mixing derive from this analysis. Such regimes for the two-phase flows are analogous to the torrential and fluvial regimes for the shallow-water equations. Furthermore, we establish the linear and nonlinear stabilities of the liquid-vapor equilibrium. Finally, the implementation of a turbulence model and the introduction of a reconstruction process for the interfacial area are investigated in order to refine the description of the interfacial transfers. Using a fractional step approach, a Finite Volume method is at last constructed to simulate this model. First, various nonconservative adaptations of standard Riemann solvers are developed to approach the convective part. Unlike the classic nonconservative framework, these schemes converge towards the same solution. Furthermore, a new relaxation scheme is proposed to approach the interfacial transfers. Provided with these schemes, the whole numerical method preserves the liquid-vapor equilibria. Using this numerical method, a careful comparison between the one- and two-pressure two

  1. Guiding Mobile Robot by Applying Fuzzy Approach on Sonar Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rahman Jasim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes how fuzzy logic control FLC can be applied to sonars of mobile robot. The fuzzy logic approach has effects on the navigation of mobile robots in a partially known environment that are used in different industrial and society applications. The fuzzy logic provides a mechanism for combining sensor data from all sonar sensors which present different information. The FLC approach is achieved by means of Fuzzy Decision Making method type of fuzzy logic controller. The proposed controller is responsible for the obstacle avoidance of the mobile robot while traveling through a map from a home point to a goal point. The FLC is built as a subprogram based on the intelligent architecture (IA. The software program uses the Advanced Robotics Interface for Applications (ARIA, it is programmed with C++ package ( Visual C++.Net , and Networking software is used for setup Wireless TCP/IP Ethernet-to-Serial connection between robot and PC. The results show that the developed mobile robot travels successfully from one location to another and reaches its goal after avoiding all obstacles that are located in its way. The platform mobile robot is a Pioneer 3 DX that is equipped with Sonar sensors.

  2. Experimental approach and micro-mechanical modeling of the creep behavior of irradiated zirconium alloys; Approche experimentale et modelisation micromecanique du comportement en fluage des alliages de zircomium irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribis, J

    2007-12-15

    The fuel rod cladding, strongly affected by microstructural changes due to irradiation such as high density of dislocation loops, is strained by the end-of-life fuel rod internal pressure and the potential release of fission gases and helium during dry storage. Within the temperature range that is expected during dry interim storage, cladding undergoes long term creep under over-pressure. So, in order to have a predictive approach of the behavior of zirconium alloys cladding in dry storage conditions it is essential to take into account: initial dislocation loops, thermal annealing of loops and creep straining due to over pressure. Specific experiments and modelling for irradiated samples have been developed to improve our knowledge in that field. A Zr-1%Nb-O alloy was studied using fine microstructural investigations and mechanical testing. The observations conducted by transmission electron microscopy show that the high density of loops disappears during a heat treatment. The loop size becomes higher and higher while their density falls. The microhardness tests reveal that the fall of loop density leads to the softening of the irradiated material. During a creep test, both temperature and applied stress are responsible of the disappearance of loops. The loops could be swept by the activation of the basal slip system while the prism slip system is inhibited. Once deprived of loops, the creep properties of the irradiated materials are closed to the non irradiated state, a result whose consequence is a sudden acceleration of the creep rate. Finally, a micro-mechanical modeling based on microscopic deformation mechanisms taking into account experimental dislocation loop analyses and creep test, was used for a predictive approach by constructing a deformation mechanism map of the creep behavior of the irradiated material. (author)

  3. MTF performance: measurements, modelisation, and optimization for Sofradir II-VI IR photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoz, Jocelyn; Rubaldo, Laurent; Maillard, Magalie; Taalat, Rachid; Grille, Romain; Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Kerlain, Alexandre; Ferron, Alexandre; Gravrand, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    SOFRADIR is widely present on the IR detector market for high-performance space, military and security applications thanks to a well mastered Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) technology, and to the recent acquisition of the III-V InSb, InGaAs, and QWIP technologies. As a result, strong and continuous development efforts are deployed to deliver cutting edge products with improved performances in terms of sensitivity, spatial and thermal resolution. The actual trend in quantum IR detector development is the design of very small pixel, with high operating temperature. The selfconfinement of neighboring diodes may not be efficient enough to maintain optimal modulation transfert function (MTF). This paper presents the recent developments achieved in Sofradir in terms of MTF measurements protocol challenged by the pitch reduction. An overview of state of the art MTF results with optimized measurement technic will be shown, from SWIR to VLWIR MCT focal plane. In order to optimize device performances and reduce development cycle time, this experimental approach has been coupled with finite elements modelisation (FEM). Optimized MTF results for 10μm pitch and HOT MCT technology will be exposed.

  4. Modelisation of Nitrification under Inhibited Environment by Moving Bed Bio-Film Reactor Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham T.H. Duc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nitrification by Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR involves physical, chemical and biological processes to remove toxic ammonia for aquaculture that are governed by a variety of parameters, like substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations, organic matters, temperature, pH, alkalinity and turbulence level, which impact negatively or positively on nitrification kinetics. Approach: The situation becomes more serious as the reaction rate is inhibited by low ammonium concentration and high salinity. That problems usually occur in treatment systems of aquatic breeding hatcheries. Results: In this study, experiments have been conducted to evaluate the impact of salinity on nitrification rate through kinetic constant (k and reaction order (n based on general equation v = kCn. Moving bed biofilm reactor was operated continuously at same initial amounts of nitrogen and Phosphorus very low (oligotrophic conditions. Firstly, over view the impact of salinity on kinetic rate to modeling that effect k and n to modelisation that affects and obtained the impact of salinity content in the reaction medium (X and the acclimatization phase (Y on the kinetic constant (k = 0.097 e (-0.0003Yƒ{0.0346X and on the kinetic order (n = (0.0002Y-0.0195 X-0.009Y + 1.2382. Conclusion/Recommendations: Results from kinetic analysis allowed the prediction of the reaction rate and reaction yield with rather high accuracy, helping the design and operation of a biofilter under practical conditions.

  5. Modular Modelling and Simulation Approach - Applied to Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modelling and simulation of the thermal dynamics of a refrigeration system, specifically a reefer container. A modular approach is used and the objective is to increase the speed and flexibility of the developed simulation environment. The refrigeration system is...

  6. Numerical modelling in building thermo-aeraulics: from CFD modelling to an hybrid finite volume / zonal approach; Modelisation numerique de la thermoaeraulique du batiment: des modeles CFD a une approche hybride volumes finis / zonale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellivier, A.

    2004-05-15

    For 3D modelling of thermo-aeraulics in building using field codes, it is necessary to reduce the computing time in order to model increasingly larger volumes. The solution suggested in this study is to couple two modelling: a zonal approach and a CFD approach. The first part of the work that was carried out is the setting of a simplified CFD modelling. We propose rules for use of coarse grids, a constant effective viscosity law and adapted coefficients for heat exchange in the framework of building thermo-aeraulics. The second part of this work concerns the creation of fluid Macro-Elements and their coupling with a calculation of CFD finite volume type. Depending on the boundary conditions of the problem, a local description of the driving flow is proposed via the installation and use of semi-empirical evolution laws. The Macro-Elements is then inserted in CFD computation: the values of velocity calculated by the evolution laws are imposed on the CFD cells corresponding to the Macro-Element. We use these two approaches on five cases representative of thermo-aeraulics in buildings. The results are compared with experimental data and with traditional RANS simulations. We highlight the significant gain of time that our approach allows while preserving a good quality of numerical results. (author)

  7. Applying Digital Sensor Technology: A Problem-Solving Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedhouse, Paul; Knight, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an explosion in the number and range of new devices coming onto the technology market that use digital sensor technology to track aspects of human behaviour. In this article, we present and exemplify a three-stage model for the application of digital sensor technology in applied linguistics that we have developed, namely,…

  8. Laser therapy applying the differential approaches and biophotometrical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedova, F. M.; Akbarova, Ju. A.; Umarova, D. A.; Yudin, G. A.

    1995-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is the presentation of biophotometrical data obtained from various anatomic-topographical mouth areas to be used for the development of differential approaches to laser therapy in dentistry. Biophotometrical measurements were carried out using a portative biophotometer, as a portion of a multifunctional equipping system of laser therapy, acupuncture and biophotometry referred to as 'Aura-laser'. The results of biophotometrical measurements allow the implementation of differential approaches to laser therapy of parodontitis and mucous mouth tissue taking their clinic form and rate of disease into account.

  9. Numerical modeling of the thermomechanical behavior of networks of underground galleries for the storage of the radioactive waste: approach by homogenization; Modelisation numerique du comportement thermomecanique de reseaux de galeries souterraines pour le stockage des dechets radioactifs: Approche par homogeneisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zokimila, P

    2005-10-15

    Deep geological disposal is one of the privileged options for the storage of High Level radioactive waste. A good knowledge of the behavior and properties of the potential geological formations as well as theirs evolution in time under the effect of the stress change induced by a possible installation of storage is required. The geological formation host will be subjected to mechanical and thermal solicitations due respectively to the excavation of the disposal tunnels and the release of heat of the canisters of radioactive waste. These thermomechanical solicitations will generate a stress relief in the host layer and disposal tunnels deformations as well as the extension of the damaged zones (EDZ) could cause local and global instabilities. This work aims to develop calculation methods to optimize numerical modeling of the thermoelastic behavior of the disposal at a large scale and to evaluate thermomechanical disturbance induced by storage on the geological formation host. Accordingly, after a presentation of the state of knowledge on the thermomechanical aspects of the rocks related to deep storage, of numerical modeling 2D and 3D of the thermoelastic behavior of individual disposal tunnel and a network of tunnels were carried out by a discrete approach. However, this classical approach is penalizing to study the global behavior of disposal storage. To mitigate that, an approach of numerical modeling, based on homogenization of periodic structures, was proposed. Formulations as numerical procedures were worked out to calculate the effective thermoelastic behavior of an equivalent heterogeneous structure. The model, obtained by this method, was validated with existing methods of homogenization such as the self-consistent model, as well as the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The comparison between the effective thermoelastic behavior and current thermoelastic behavior of reference showed a good coherence of the results. For an application to deep geological storage, the

  10. Quantitative characterization of initiation and propagation in stress corrosion cracking. An approach of a phenomenological model; Caracterisation quantitative de l`amorcage et de la propagation en corrosion sous contrainte. Approche d`une modelisation phenomenologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raquet, O.

    1994-11-25

    A purely phenomenological study of stress corrosion cracking was performed using the couple Z2CN 18.10 (304L) austenitic stainless steel/boiling MgCl{sub 2} aqueous solution. The exploitation of the morphological information (shape of the cracks and size distribution) available after constant elongation rate tests led to the proposal of an analytical expression of the crack initiation and growth rates. This representation allowed to quantitatively characterize the influence of the applied strain rate as well as the effect of corrosion inhibitors on the crack initiation and propagation phases. It can be used in the search for the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms as a `riddle` for the determination of the rate controlling steps. As a matter of fact, no mechanistic hypothesis has been used for its development. (author).

  11. A new kinetic biphasic approach applied to biodiesel process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, V.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Many different papers have been published on the kinetics of the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, in the presence of alkaline catalysts to produce biodiesel. All the proposed approaches are based on the assumption of a pseudo-monophasic system. The consequence of these approaches is that some experimental aspects cannot be described. For the reaction performed in batch conditions, for example, the monophasic approach is not able to reproduce the different plateau obtained by using different amount of catalyst or the induction time observed at low stirring rates. Moreover, it has been observed by operating in continuous reactors that micromixing has a dramatic effect on the reaction rate. At this purpose, we have recently observed that is possible to obtain a complete conversion to biodiesel in less than 10 seconds of reaction time. This observation is confirmed also by other authors using different types of reactors like: static mixers, micro-reactors, oscillatory flow reactors, cavitational reactors, microwave reactors or centrifugal contactors. In this work we will show that a recently proposed biphasic kinetic approach is able to describe all the aspects before mentioned that cannot be described by the monophasic kinetic model. In particular, we will show that the biphasic kinetic model can describe both the induction time observed in the batch reactors, at low stirring rate, and the very high conversions obtainable in a micro-channel reactor. The adopted biphasic kinetic model is based on a reliable reaction mechanism that will be validated by the experimental evidences reported in this work. (orig.)

  12. Applying a business communication approach in a non profit organisation

    OpenAIRE

    John, Josiah

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This thesis aim to explore the loopholes in the communication strategy of the association, which tends to be the major issue at hand. The thesis would focus on how to provide an effective approach, ideas and suggestions, for reaching key audiences. The thesis will endeavor to provide a way for nonprofit organization to navigate through the communication effort from branding organization, building a public recognition through community engagement, developing communication plan, to ...

  13. Image-Based Learning Approach Applied to Time Series Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Chimal-Eguía; K. Ramírez-Amáro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new learning approach based on time-series image information is presented. In order to implementthis new learning technique, a novel time-series input data representation is also defined. This input data representation is based on information obtained by image axis division into boxes. The difference between this new input data representation and the classical is that this technique is not time-dependent. This new information is implemented in the new Image-Based Learning A...

  14. Applied Ethnobotany: Participatory Approach for Community Development and Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Applied ethnobotany is a nev subject in ethnobiological sciences referring to the transferring, reviving and cultivating ethnobotanical knowledge among different social groups within intra-and-inter-communities. Much research related to biodiversity in many countries is largely devoted to the gathering of more academic information, rather than to more incise studies focusing on finding answers to pressing challenges related to the use of plants by communities. China is a country possessing rich biodiversity and cultural diversity. The long history of Chinese traditional medicine, diversity of cultivated crops and utilization of wild plant species are great cultural traditions to the country. Today, many societies of the country are still intricately linked to the natural environment economically as well as societies and groups within China. However, China is facing major changes in modernization of the country's economy, and globalization to form part of the world exchange system. Increasingly high levels of consumptions of natural plants, as well as national and international trades on plant products have resulted, space in over-harvesting of wild resources and accelerated environmental degradation. Local social structures and cultural traditions have also changed in order to cope with policy changes. In this background, over the last decade, applied ethnobotany for rural community development and conservation has been employed in different field projects and ethnic minority communities in Yunnan province of China. The applied ethnobotany has focused on work at community level to achieve sustainable use of natural resources and conservation. This presentation discusses findings and lessons learned from the projects on alternatives and innovations to shifting cultivation in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China.

  15. Validation of models with constant bias: an applied approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Medina-Peralta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper presents extensions to the statistical validation method based on the procedure of Freese when a model shows constant bias (CB in its predictions and illustrate the method with data from a new mechanistic model that predict weight gain in cattle. Materials and methods. The extensions were the hypothesis tests and maximum anticipated error for the alternative approach, and the confidence interval for a quantile of the distribution of errors. Results. The model evaluated showed CB, once the CB is removed and with a confidence level of 95%, the magnitude of the error does not exceed 0.575 kg. Therefore, the validated model can be used to predict the daily weight gain of cattle, although it will require an adjustment in its structure based on the presence of CB to increase the accuracy of its forecasts. Conclusions. The confidence interval for the 1-α quantile of the distribution of errors after correcting the constant bias, allows determining the top limit for the magnitude of the error of prediction and use it to evaluate the evolution of the model in the forecasting of the system. The confidence interval approach to validate a model is more informative than the hypothesis tests for the same purpose.

  16. Modeling in applied sciences a kinetic theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pulvirenti, Mario

    2000-01-01

    Modeling complex biological, chemical, and physical systems, in the context of spatially heterogeneous mediums, is a challenging task for scientists and engineers using traditional methods of analysis Modeling in Applied Sciences is a comprehensive survey of modeling large systems using kinetic equations, and in particular the Boltzmann equation and its generalizations An interdisciplinary group of leading authorities carefully develop the foundations of kinetic models and discuss the connections and interactions between model theories, qualitative and computational analysis and real-world applications This book provides a thoroughly accessible and lucid overview of the different aspects, models, computations, and methodology for the kinetic-theory modeling process Topics and Features * Integrated modeling perspective utilized in all chapters * Fluid dynamics of reacting gases * Self-contained introduction to kinetic models * Becker–Doring equations * Nonlinear kinetic models with chemical reactions * Kinet...

  17. A Model Driven Engineering Approach Applied to Master Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menet, Ludovic; Lamolle, Myriam

    The federation of data sources and the definition of pivot models are strongly interrelated topics. This paper explores a mediation solution based on XML architecture and the concept of Master Data Management. In this solution, pivot models use the standard XML Schema allowing the definition of complex data structures. The introduction of a MDE approach is a means to make modeling easier. We use UML as an abstract modeling layer. UML is a modeling object language, which is more and more used and recognized as a standard in the software engineering field, which makes it an ideal candidate for the modeling of XML Schema models. In this purpose we introduce features of the UML formalism, through profiles, to facilitate the definition and the exchange of models.

  18. New Approach to Ultrasonic Spectroscopy Applied to Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Laura M.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage devices comprising multilayered composite rotor systems are being studied extensively for use in the International Space Station. A flywheel system includes the components necessary to store and discharge energy in a rotating mass. The rotor is the complete rotating assembly portion of the flywheel, which is composed primarily of a metallic hub and a composite rim. The rim may contain several concentric composite rings. This article summarizes current ultrasonic spectroscopy research of such composite rings and rims and a flat coupon, which was manufactured to mimic the manufacturing of the rings. Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method for material characterization and defect detection. In the past, a wide bandwidth frequency spectrum created from a narrow ultrasonic signal was analyzed for amplitude and frequency changes. Tucker developed and patented a new approach to ultrasonic spectroscopy. The ultrasonic system employs a continuous swept-sine waveform and performs a fast Fourier transform on the frequency spectrum to create the spectrum resonance spacing domain, or fundamental resonant frequency. Ultrasonic responses from composite flywheel components were analyzed at Glenn to assess this NDE technique for the quality assurance of flywheel applications.

  19. Applying a cloud computing approach to storage architectures for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldor, Sue A.; Quiroz, Carlos; Wood, Paul

    As sensor technologies, processor speeds, and memory densities increase, spacecraft command, control, processing, and data storage systems have grown in complexity to take advantage of these improvements and expand the possible missions of spacecraft. Spacecraft systems engineers are increasingly looking for novel ways to address this growth in complexity and mitigate associated risks. Looking to conventional computing, many solutions have been executed to solve both the problem of complexity and heterogeneity in systems. In particular, the cloud-based paradigm provides a solution for distributing applications and storage capabilities across multiple platforms. In this paper, we propose utilizing a cloud-like architecture to provide a scalable mechanism for providing mass storage in spacecraft networks that can be reused on multiple spacecraft systems. By presenting a consistent interface to applications and devices that request data to be stored, complex systems designed by multiple organizations may be more readily integrated. Behind the abstraction, the cloud storage capability would manage wear-leveling, power consumption, and other attributes related to the physical memory devices, critical components in any mass storage solution for spacecraft. Our approach employs SpaceWire networks and SpaceWire-capable devices, although the concept could easily be extended to non-heterogeneous networks consisting of multiple spacecraft and potentially the ground segment.

  20. Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

    1994-09-01

    Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

  1. Some modelisation aspects of the instrumental transformation of neutron kinetic energy into electrical impulse amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential energy characterisation of neutron emission or fluxes may be called difficult especially when an approach to metrological standards is required. The use of somewhat complex computing programmes is unavoidable here since the process of selective detection and interpretation of measurement results involves: - Firstly of need to simulate by so-called MONTE CARLO techniques the responses of the various kinds of detector used (the detector responses are so dependent on changes in the environment that experimental calibration -too expensive to be easily repeated from one situation to the next- cannot be recommended); - secondly the need to answer pratically (in a discretized situation by matrix manipulations) to the problem, theoretically without a unique analytical solution, of resolving a Fredholm equation of the first kind. For the understanding, use and as necessary modification of the appropriate codes it is most important to have a very precise conceptual view of the mechanisms involved (in the sequence of direct instrumental transformations). For didactic purposes the present article attempts in a very simple case to give an idea, at increasing levels of complexity: stylisation, schematisation, modelisation, simulation, of the successive stage (neutron-proton energy transfer, analog conversion of ionising particle energy into electric impulse signal size) involved in the formation and understanding of an energy spectrum of recoil nuclei. All these instrumental distortions are made explicit in a kind of underlying two-dimensional ''density''; in its discretized form this is called the instrumental transfer matrix and its understanding and treatment are the ''keys'' to the deconvolution of the recorded spectrum, giving access to the differental distribution of the emitted neutron energies

  2. On the Modelisation of a Cognitive Process: A Viability Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin, J.-P.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamical description of an abstract cognitive system which should be closer to some cognitive considerations than pure automata or networks of automata is proposed. The system operates "sensory-motor" states, whose components are the state of the environment, its variation and the cerebral motor activity. The main addition is the introduction of a "conceptual control" that is postulated in order to define a "learning process", which is a set-valued map associating conceptual controls ...

  3. Seismic rupture modelling, strong motion prediction and seismic hazard assessment: fundamental and applied approaches; Modelisation de la rupture sismique, prediction du mouvement fort, et evaluation de l'alea sismique: approches fondamentale et appliquee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge-Thierry, C

    2007-05-15

    The defence to obtain the 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches' is a synthesis of the research work performed since the end of my Ph D. thesis in 1997. This synthesis covers the two years as post doctoral researcher at the Bureau d'Evaluation des Risques Sismiques at the Institut de Protection (BERSSIN), and the seven consecutive years as seismologist and head of the BERSSIN team. This work and the research project are presented in the framework of the seismic risk topic, and particularly with respect to the seismic hazard assessment. Seismic risk combines seismic hazard and vulnerability. Vulnerability combines the strength of building structures and the human and economical consequences in case of structural failure. Seismic hazard is usually defined in terms of plausible seismic motion (soil acceleration or velocity) in a site for a given time period. Either for the regulatory context or the structural specificity (conventional structure or high risk construction), seismic hazard assessment needs: to identify and locate the seismic sources (zones or faults), to characterize their activity, to evaluate the seismic motion to which the structure has to resist (including the site effects). I specialized in the field of numerical strong-motion prediction using high frequency seismic sources modelling and forming part of the IRSN allowed me to rapidly working on the different tasks of seismic hazard assessment. Thanks to the expertise practice and the participation to the regulation evolution (nuclear power plants, conventional and chemical structures), I have been able to work on empirical strong-motion prediction, including site effects. Specific questions related to the interface between seismologists and structural engineers are also presented, especially the quantification of uncertainties. This is part of the research work initiated to improve the selection of the input ground motion in designing or verifying the stability of structures. (author)

  4. Chemical, spectroscopic, and ab initio modelling approach to interfacial reactivity applied to anion retention by siderite; Approche couplee chimique, spectroscopique et de modelisation ab initio a la reactivite de surface: application a la retention des anions par la siderite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badaut, V.

    2010-07-15

    Among the many radionuclides contained in high-level nuclear waste, {sup 79}Se was identified as a potential threat to the safety of long term underground storage. However, siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) is known to form upon corrosion of the waste container, and the impact of this mineral on the fate of selenium was not accounted for. In this work, the interactions between selenium oxyanions - selenate and selenite - and siderite were investigated. To this end, both experimental characterizations (solution chemistry, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy - XAS) and theoretical studies (ab initio modelling using Density Functional Theory - DFT) were performed. Selenite and selenate ({<=} 10{sup 3} M) retention experiments by siderite suspensions (75 g/L) at neutral pH in reducing glovebox (5 % H{sub 2}) showed that selenite is quantitatively immobilized by siderite after 48 h of reaction time, when selenate is only partly immobilized after 10 days. In the selenite case, XAS showed that immobilized selenium is initially present as Se(IV) probably sorbed on siderite surface. After 10 days of reaction, selenite ions are quantitatively reduced and form poorly crystalline elementary selenium. Selenite retention and reduction kinetics are therefore distinct. On the other hand, the fraction of immobilized selenate retained in the solid fraction does not appear to be significantly reduced over the probed timescale (10 days). For a better understanding of the reduction mechanism of selenite ions by siderite, the properties of bulk and perfect surfaces of siderite were modelled using DFT. We suggest that the properties of the valence electrons can be correctly described only if the symmetry of the fundamental state electronic density is lower than the experimental crystallographic symmetry. We then show that the retention of simple molecules as O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O on siderite and magnesite (10{sup -14}) perfect surfaces (perfect cleavage plane, whose surface energy is the lowest according to DFT) can be modelled with good agreement with the literature. Finally, the modelling of selenite surface complexes on magnesite is performed with and without hydration. These results confirm that selenite should be quantitatively reduced as elementary selenium in presence of siderite, and therefore should not contribute to the overall radiotoxicity of the storage. On the contrary, selenate is seems not to be significantly immobilized nor reduced in presence of siderite. (author)

  5. Modelisation et resolution de problemes d'optimisation combinatoire issus d'applications spatiales

    OpenAIRE

    Mancel, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Nos travaux portent sur la modelisation et la resolution de problemes d'optimisation combinatoire emergeant dans le cadre de la planification de missions spatiales. Ces problemes de grande taille presentent des caracteristiques communes en termes de types de donnees, de contraintes et de criteres a optimiser. Nous nous focalisons sur l'apport de la programmation lineaire pour ces problemes, associee a des methodes de simplification de l'espace de recherche, par decomposition ou grace a des te...

  6. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and validate prerequisites for applying a cognitive (judgement) bias approach to assessing welfare in farmed mink (Neovison vison). We investigated discrimination ability and associative learning ability using auditory cues. The mink (n = 15 females) were...... farmed mink in a judgement bias approach would thus appear to be feasible. However several specific issues are to be considered in order to successfully adapt a cognitive bias approach to mink, and these are discussed....

  7. Flow and heat transfer thermohydraulic modelisation during the reflooding phase of a P.W.R.'s core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some generalities about L.O.C.A. are first recalled. The French experimental studies about Emergency Core Cooling System are briefly described. The different heat transfer mechanisms to take into account, according to the flow pattern in the dry zone, and the correlations or methods to calculate them, are defined. Then the Thermohydraulic code computer: FLIRA, which describe the reflooding phase, and a modelisation taking into account the different flow patterns are setted. A first interpretation of ERSEC experiments with a tubular test section shows that it is possible, with this modelisation and some classical heat transfer correlations, to describe the reflooding phase.

  8. Uncharted territory: A complex systems approach as an emerging paradigm in applied linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Albert J Weideman

    2011-01-01

    Developing a theory of applied linguistics is a top priority for the discipline today. The emergence of a new paradigm - a complex systems approach - in applied linguistics presents us with a unique opportunity to give prominence to the development of a foundational framework for this design discipline. Far from being a mere philosophical exercise, such a framework will find application in the training and induction of new entrants into the discipline within the developing context of South Af...

  9. Applying an Organizational Approach to the Sociology of Leisure: A Study of Clog Dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Hollandsworth, Danita

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance understanding of leisure experiences by applying an organizational approach to the sociology of leisure. This organizational approach, used mainly to study work and occupations, consists of a conceptual framework derived from social systems theory and structural functionalism. The sensitizing concepts used from this framework were recruitment, socialization, and identity. In this study, I focused on the leisure group of clog dancers. My resear...

  10. Multimodal Approach for Automatic Emotion Recognition Applied to the Tension Levels Study in TV Newscasts

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Henrique Ramos Pereira; Flávio Luis Cardeal Pádua; Giani David Silva

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses a multimodal approach to automatic emotion recognition in participants of TV newscasts (presenters, reporters, commentators and others) able to assist the tension levels study in narratives of events in this television genre. The methodology applies state-of-the-art computational methods to process and analyze facial expressions, as well as speech signals. The proposed approach contributes to semiodiscoursive study of TV newscasts and their enunciative praxis, assisting...

  11. Multimodal Approach for Automatic Emotion Recognition Applied to the Tension Levels Study in TV Newscasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Henrique Ramos Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses a multimodal approach to automatic emotion recognition in participants of TV newscasts (presenters, reporters, commentators and others able to assist the tension levels study in narratives of events in this television genre. The methodology applies state-of-the-art computational methods to process and analyze facial expressions, as well as speech signals. The proposed approach contributes to semiodiscoursive study of TV newscasts and their enunciative praxis, assisting, for example, the identification of the communication strategy of these programs. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach was applied it in a video related to a report displayed on a Brazilian TV newscast great popularity in the state of Minas Gerais. The experimental results are promising on the recognition of emotions on the facial expressions of tele journalists and are in accordance with the distribution of audiovisual indicators extracted over a TV newscast, demonstrating the potential of the approach to support the TV journalistic discourse analysis.This article addresses a multimodal approach to automatic emotion recognition in participants of TV newscasts (presenters, reporters, commentators and others able to assist the tension levels study in narratives of events in this television genre. The methodology applies state-of-the-art computational methods to process and analyze facial expressions, as well as speech signals. The proposed approach contributes to semiodiscoursive study of TV newscasts and their enunciative praxis, assisting, for example, the identification of the communication strategy of these programs. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach was applied it in a video related to a report displayed on a Brazilian TV newscast great popularity in the state of Minas Gerais. The experimental results are promising on the recognition of emotions on the facial expressions of tele journalists and are in accordance

  12. Iterative approach to the Schwinger variational principle applied to electron—molecular-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Lucchese, Robert R.; McKoy, Vincent

    1981-01-01

    We present a study of electron—molecular-ion collisions. The scattering equations are solved using an iterative approach to the Schwinger variational principle. These equations are formulated using the Coulomb Green's function to properly treat the long-range Coulomb tail of the molecular-ion potential. We apply this approach to electron—hydrogen-molecular-ion collisions in the static-exchange approximation. We obtain elastic differential cross sections, and also use the continuum states from...

  13. Contribution to the modelisation of liquid-liquid extraction systems. Application to metallic nitrate extraction by TBP in nitric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modelisation of liquid-liquid extraction systems used in nuclear industry allows the forecasting of chemical repartition in organic and aqueous phase and also adaptation of known processes to new conditions. After a brief review of the PUREX process extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate and palladium nitrate are examined

  14. Blended Risk Approach in Applying PSA Models to Risk-Based Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors will discuss a modern approach in applying PSA models in risk-based regulation. The Blended Risk Approach is a combination of traditional and probabilistic processes. It is receiving increased attention in different industries in the U. S. and abroad. The use of the deterministic regulations and standards provides a proven and well understood basis on which to assess and communicate the impact of change to plant design and operation. Incorporation of traditional values into risk evaluation is working very well in the blended approach. This approach is very application specific. It includes multiple risk attributes, qualitative risk analysis, and basic deterministic principles. In blending deterministic and probabilistic principles, this approach ensures that the objectives of the traditional defense-in-depth concept are not compromised and the design basis of the plant is explicitly considered. (author)

  15. A suggested approach toward measuring sorption and applying sorption data to repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of radionuclide migration for the purpose of assessing the safety of a nuclear waste repository will be based on a collective knowledge of hydrologic and geochemical properties of the surrounding rock and groundwater. This knowledge along with assumption about the interactions of radionuclides with groundwater and minerals form the scientific basis for a model capable of accurately predicting the repository's performance. Because the interaction of radionuclides in geochemical systems is known to be complicated, several fundamental and empirical approaches to measuring the interaction between radionuclides and the geologic barrier have been developed. The approaches applied to the measurement of sorption involve the use of pure minerals, intact, or crushed rock in dynamic and static experiments. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. There is no single best method for providing sorption data for performance assessment models which can be applied without invoking information derived from multiple experiments. 53 refs., 12 figs

  16. Uncharted territory: A complex systems approach as an emerging paradigm in applied linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert J Weideman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing a theory of applied linguistics is a top priority for the discipline today. The emergence of a new paradigm - a complex systems approach - in applied linguistics presents us with a unique opportunity to give prominence to the development of a foundational framework for this design discipline. Far from being a mere philosophical exercise, such a framework will find application in the training and induction of new entrants into the discipline within the developing context of South Africa, as well as internationally.

  17. Maximum Caliber: A variational approach applied to two-state dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, Gerhard; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Dill, Ken A.

    2008-01-01

    We show how to apply a general theoretical approach to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, called Maximum Caliber, originally suggested by E. T. Jaynes [Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31, 579 (1980)], to a problem of two-state dynamics. Maximum Caliber is a variational principle for dynamics in the same spirit that Maximum Entropy is a variational principle for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The central idea is to compute a dynamical partition function, a sum of weights over all microscopic pat...

  18. From data-flow task to multitasking: applying the synchronous approach to active vision in robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Eric; Rutten, E.; Chaumette, F.

    1997-01-01

    International audience We apply the synchronous approach to real time active visual three dimensional (3D) reconstruction using a camera mounted on a robot end effector. It illustrates the adequateness of SIGNAL, a synchronous data flow programming language and environment, for the specification of a system dealing with various domains in central theory and computer vision. More precisely, our application consists in the 3D structure estimation of a set of geometrical primitives using an a...

  19. Effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems: a general approach and examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blekhman, I. I.; Sorokin, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    A general approach to study effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems is developed. It implies a transition from initial governing equations of motion to much more simple equations describing only the main slow component of motions (the vibro-transformed dynamics...... equations). The approach is named as the oscillatory strobodynamics, since motions are perceived as under a stroboscopic light. The vibro-transformed dynamics equations comprise terms that capture the averaged effect of oscillations. The method of direct separation of motions appears to be an efficient and...... requirement for the involved nonlinearities to be weak. The approach is illustrated by several relevant examples from various fields of science, e.g., mechanics, physics, chemistry and biophysics....

  20. Addressing dependability by applying an approach for model-based risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how an approach for model-based risk assessment (MBRA) can be applied for addressing different dependability factors in a critical application. Dependability factors, such as availability, reliability, safety and security, are important when assessing the dependability degree of total systems involving digital instrumentation and control (I and C) sub-systems. In order to identify risk sources their roles with regard to intentional system aspects such as system functions, component behaviours and intercommunications must be clarified. Traditional risk assessment is based on fault or risk models of the system. In contrast to this, MBRA utilizes success-oriented models describing all intended system aspects, including functional, operational and organizational aspects of the target. The EU-funded CORAS project developed a tool-supported methodology for the application of MBRA in security-critical systems. The methodology has been tried out within the telemedicine and e-commerce areas, and provided through a series of seven trials a sound basis for risk assessments. In this paper the results from the CORAS project are presented, and it is discussed how the approach for applying MBRA meets the needs of a risk-informed Man-Technology-Organization (MTO) model, and how methodology can be applied as a part of a trust case development

  1. Addressing dependability by applying an approach for model-based risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gran, Bjorn Axel [Institutt for energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project, NO-1751 Halden (Norway)]. E-mail: bjorn.axel.gran@hrp.no; Fredriksen, Rune [Institutt for energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project, NO-1751 Halden (Norway)]. E-mail: rune.fredriksen@hrp.no; Thunem, Atoosa P.-J. [Institutt for energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project, NO-1751 Halden (Norway)]. E-mail: atoosa.p-j.thunem@hrp.no

    2007-11-15

    This paper describes how an approach for model-based risk assessment (MBRA) can be applied for addressing different dependability factors in a critical application. Dependability factors, such as availability, reliability, safety and security, are important when assessing the dependability degree of total systems involving digital instrumentation and control (I and C) sub-systems. In order to identify risk sources their roles with regard to intentional system aspects such as system functions, component behaviours and intercommunications must be clarified. Traditional risk assessment is based on fault or risk models of the system. In contrast to this, MBRA utilizes success-oriented models describing all intended system aspects, including functional, operational and organizational aspects of the target. The EU-funded CORAS project developed a tool-supported methodology for the application of MBRA in security-critical systems. The methodology has been tried out within the telemedicine and e-commerce areas, and provided through a series of seven trials a sound basis for risk assessments. In this paper the results from the CORAS project are presented, and it is discussed how the approach for applying MBRA meets the needs of a risk-informed Man-Technology-Organization (MTO) model, and how methodology can be applied as a part of a trust case development.

  2. A new approach for structural health monitoring by applying anomaly detection on strain sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichias, Konstantinos; Pijpers, Richard; Meeuwissen, Erik

    2014-03-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems help to monitor critical infrastructures (bridges, tunnels, etc.) remotely and provide up-to-date information about their physical condition. In addition, it helps to predict the structure's life and required maintenance in a cost-efficient way. Typically, inspection data gives insight in the structural health. The global structural behavior, and predominantly the structural loading, is generally measured with vibration and strain sensors. Acoustic emission sensors are more and more used for measuring global crack activity near critical locations. In this paper, we present a procedure for local structural health monitoring by applying Anomaly Detection (AD) on strain sensor data for sensors that are applied in expected crack path. Sensor data is analyzed by automatic anomaly detection in order to find crack activity at an early stage. This approach targets the monitoring of critical structural locations, such as welds, near which strain sensors can be applied during construction and/or locations with limited inspection possibilities during structural operation. We investigate several anomaly detection techniques to detect changes in statistical properties, indicating structural degradation. The most effective one is a novel polynomial fitting technique, which tracks slow changes in sensor data. Our approach has been tested on a representative test structure (bridge deck) in a lab environment, under constant and variable amplitude fatigue loading. In both cases, the evolving cracks at the monitored locations were successfully detected, autonomously, by our AD monitoring tool.

  3. Solution of the neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback effects applying the polynomial approach method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumelero, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.tumelero@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana, E-mail: claudiopeteren@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gleniogoncalves@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luana-lazzari@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (DME/UFPEL), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Matematica

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)

  4. Solution of the neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback effects applying the polynomial approach method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)

  5. Challenges and Limitations of Applying an Emotion-driven Design Approach on Elderly Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper L.; Gudmundsson, Hjalte P.; Achiche, Sofiane;

    2011-01-01

    Population ageing is without parallel in human history and the twenty-first century will witness even more rapid ageing than did the century just past. Understanding the user needs of the elderly and how to design better products for this segment of the population is crucial, as it can offer a...... measure the emotional responses of the elderly, a questionnaire was designed and adapted from P.M.A. Desmet’s product-emotion measurement instrument: PrEmo. During the case study it was observed that there were several challenges when carrying out the user survey, and that those challenges particularly...... competitive advantage for companies. In this paper, challenges of applying an emotion-driven design approach applied on elderly people, in order to identify their user needs towards walking frames, are discussed. The discussion will be based on the experiences and results obtained from the case study. To...

  6. Challenges and Limitations of Applying an Emotion-driven Design Approach on Elderly Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper L.; Gudmundsson, Hjalte P.; Achiche, Sofiane; Boelskifte, Per

    Population ageing is without parallel in human history and the twenty-first century will witness even more rapid ageing than did the century just past. Understanding the user needs of the elderly and how to design better products for this segment of the population is crucial, as it can offer a...... measure the emotional responses of the elderly, a questionnaire was designed and adapted from P.M.A. Desmet’s product-emotion measurement instrument: PrEmo. During the case study it was observed that there were several challenges when carrying out the user survey, and that those challenges particularly...... competitive advantage for companies. In this paper, challenges of applying an emotion-driven design approach applied on elderly people, in order to identify their user needs towards walking frames, are discussed. The discussion will be based on the experiences and results obtained from the case study. To...

  7. Learning About Dying and Living: An Applied Approach to End-of-Life Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to expand on prior research in end-of-life communication and death and dying communication apprehension, by developing a unique course that utilizes a hospice setting and an applied, service-learning approach. Therefore, this essay describes and discusses both students' and my experiences over a 7-year period from 2008 through 2014. The courses taught during this time frame provided an opportunity to analyze students' responses, experiences, and discoveries across semesters/years and cocultures. This unique, 3-credit, 14-week, service-learning, end-of-life communication course was developed to provide an opportunity for students to learn the theories related to this field of study and to apply that knowledge through volunteer experiences via interactions with dying patients and their families. The 7 years of author's notes, plus the 91 students' electronically submitted three reflection essays each (273 total documents) across four courses/years, served as the data for this study. According to the students, verbally in class discussions and in numerous writing assignments, this course helped lower their death and dying communication apprehension and increased their willingness to interact with hospice patients and their families. Furthermore, the students' final research papers clearly demonstrated how utilizing a service-learning approach allowed them to apply classroom learnings and interactions with dying patients and their families at the hospice, to their analyses of end-of-life communication theories and behaviors. The results of these classes suggest that other, difficult topic courses (e.g., domestic violence, addiction, etc.) might benefit from a similar pedagogical approach. PMID:26789660

  8. Simulated Annealing Approach Applied to the Energy Resource Management Considering Demand Response for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation and management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) by an Virtual Power Players (VPP) is an important task in a smart grid context. The Energy Resource Management (ERM) of theses DERs can become a hard and complex optimization problem. The large integration of several DERs...... Simulated Annealing (SA) approach to determine the ERM considering an intensive use of DERs, mainly EVs. In this paper, the possibility to apply Demand Response (DR) programs to the EVs is considered. Moreover, a trip reduce DR program is implemented. The SA methodology is tested on a 32-bus distribution...

  9. Applying the health action process approach (HAPA) to the choice of health products: An exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim;

    role of the behavioural intention predictors such as risk perception, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. The model has been proved to be a useful framework for understanding consumer choosing health food and is substantial in the further application of dietary choice issues.......This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to uncovering Danish consumers' motives for choosing health food. Schwarzer's (1992) health action process approach (HAPA) was applied to understand the process by which people chose health products. The research focused on the...

  10. An algebraic approach applied to the determination of the polarizability in CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A local algebraic approach to describe vibrational excitations of molecules presenting both local and normal mode behaviors is presented. This approach allows the connection with configuration space to be established. The model consists in expanding the kinetic energy as well as the potential in terms of coordinates and momenta. An algebraic representation is obtained by introducing creation and destruction bosonic operators associated with the harmonic oscillators. From the resulting Hamiltonian a local algebraic representation is obtained through a canonical transformation to local bosonic operators. Finally an anharmonization is carried out by changing the local bosonic operators to ladder operators associated with the Morse or Pöschl-Teller functions. Since the model is connected with configuration space, non linear curvilinear coordinates are contemplated. Our model is applied to the vibrational spectroscopic description of the 12C16O2 molecule. The eigenstates are tested by calculating the derivatives for the polarizability for this molecule

  11. Optimal control theory (OWEM) applied to a helicopter in the hover and approach phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, G. J.; Kai, T.

    1975-01-01

    A major difficulty in the practical application of linear-quadratic regulator theory is how to choose the weighting matrices in quadratic cost functions. The control system design with optimal weighting matrices was applied to a helicopter in the hover and approach phase. The weighting matrices were calculated to extremize the closed loop total system damping subject to constraints on the determinants. The extremization is really a minimization of the effects of disturbances, and interpreted as a compromise between the generalized system accuracy and the generalized system response speed. The trade-off between the accuracy and the response speed is adjusted by a single parameter, the ratio of determinants. By this approach an objective measure can be obtained for the design of a control system. The measure is to be determined by the system requirements.

  12. Optical scatterometry with analytic approaches applied to periodic nano-arrays including anisotropic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhalim, I.

    2007-06-01

    Optical scatterometry is being used as a powerful technique for measurement of sub-wavelength periodic structures. It is based on measuring the scattered signal and solving the inverse scattering problem. For periodic nano-arrays with feature size less than 100nm, it is possible to simplify the electromagnetic simulations using the Rytov near quasi-static approximation valid for feature periods only few times less than the wavelength. This is shown to be adequate for the determination of the structure parameters from the zero order reflected or transmitted waves and their polarization or ellipsometric properties. The validity of this approach is applied to lamellar nano-scale grating photo-resist lines on Si substrate. Formulation for structures containing anisotropic multilayers is presented using the 4x4 matrix approach.

  13. A novel optical calorimetry dosimetry approach applied to an HDR Brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) is applied to the measurement of radiation absorbed dose distribution in water. An optical interferometer has been developed that captures the small variations in the refractive index of water due to the radiation induced temperature increase ΔT. The absorbed dose D is then determined with high temporal and spatial resolution using the calorimetric relation D=cΔT (where c is the specific heat capacity of water). The method is capable of time resolving 3D spatial calorimetry. As a proof-of-principle of the approach, a prototype DHI dosimeter was applied to the measurement of absorbed dose from a High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy source. Initial results are in agreement with modelled doses from the Brachyvision treatment planning system, demonstrating the viability of the system for high dose rate applications. Future work will focus on applying corrections for heat diffusion and geometric effects. The method has potential to contribute to the dosimetry of diverse high dose rate applications which require high spatial resolution such as microbeam radiotherapy (MRT) or small field proton beam dosimetry but may potentially also be useful for interface dosimetry.

  14. Applying a Bayesian Approach to Identification of Orthotropic Elastic Constants from Full Field Displacement Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Riche R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in the identification of material properties is handling different sources of uncertainty in the experiment and the modelling of the experiment for estimating the resulting uncertainty in the identified properties. Numerous improvements in identification methods have provided increasingly accurate estimates of various material properties. However, characterizing the uncertainty in the identified properties is still relatively crude. Different material properties obtained from a single test are not obtained with the same confidence. Typically the highest uncertainty is associated with respect to properties to which the experiment is the most insensitive. In addition, the uncertainty in different properties can be strongly correlated, so that obtaining only variance estimates may be misleading. A possible approach for handling the different sources of uncertainty and estimating the uncertainty in the identified properties is the Bayesian method. This method was introduced in the late 1970s in the context of identification [1] and has been applied since to different problems, notably identification of elastic constants from plate vibration experiments [2]-[4]. The applications of the method to these classical pointwise tests involved only a small number of measurements (typically ten natural frequencies in the previously cited vibration test which facilitated the application of the Bayesian approach. For identifying elastic constants, full field strain or displacement measurements provide a high number of measured quantities (one measurement per image pixel and hence a promise of smaller uncertainties in the properties. However, the high number of measurements represents also a major computational challenge in applying the Bayesian approach to full field measurements. To address this challenge we propose an approach based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD of the full fields in order to drastically reduce their

  15. Current experience with applying the GRADE approach to public health interventions: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehfuess Eva A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach has been adopted by many national and international organisations as a systematic and transparent framework for evidence-based guideline development. With reference to an ongoing debate in the literature and within public health organisations, this study reviews current experience with the GRADE approach in rating the quality of evidence in the field of public health and identifies challenges encountered. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with individuals/groups that have applied the GRADE approach in the context of systematic reviews or guidelines in the field of public health, as well as with representatives of groups or organisations that actively decided against its use. We initially contacted potential participants by email. Responses were obtained by telephone interview or email, and written interview summaries were validated with participants. We analysed data across individual interviews to distil common themes and challenges. Results Based on 25 responses, we undertook 18 interviews and obtained 15 in-depth responses relating to specific systematic reviews or guideline projects; a majority of the latter were contributed by groups within the World Health Organization. All respondents that have used the GRADE approach appreciated the systematic and transparent process of assessing the quality of the evidence. However, respondents reported a range of minor and major challenges relating to complexity of public health interventions, choice of outcomes and outcome measures, ability to discriminate between different types of observational studies, use of non-epidemiological evidence, GRADE terminology and the GRADE and guideline development process. Respondents’ suggestions to make the approach more applicable to public health interventions included revisiting terminology, offering better guidance on how to apply GRADE to

  16. An extended master-equation approach applied to aggregation in freeway traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun-Wei; Lin Bo-Liang; Huang Yong-Chang

    2008-01-01

    We restudy the master-equation approach applied to aggregation in a one-dimensional freeway,where the decay transition probabilities for the jump processes are reconstructed based on a car-following model. According to the reconstructed transition probabilities,the clustering behaviours and the stochastic properties of the master equation in a one-lane freeway traffic model are investigated in detail.The numerical results show that the size of the clusters initially below the critical size of the unstable cluster and initially above that of the unstable cluster all enter the same stable state,which also accords with the nucleation theory and is known from the result in earlier work.Moreover,we have obtained more reasonable parameters of the master equation based on some results of cellular automata models.

  17. Positive Mathematical Programming Approaches – Recent Developments in Literature and Applied Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heckelei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and discusses the more recent literature and application of Positive Mathematical Programming in the context of agricultural supply models. Specifically, advances in the empirical foundation of parameter specifications as well as the economic rationalisation of PMP models – both criticized in earlier reviews – are investigated. Moreover, the paper provides an overview on a larger set of models with regular/repeated policy application that apply variants of PMP. Results show that most applications today avoid arbitrary parameter specifications and rely on exogenous information on supply responses to calibrate model parameters. However, only few approaches use multiple observations to estimate parameters, which is likely due to the still considerable technical challenges associated with it. Equally, we found only limited reflection on the behavioral or technological assumptions that could rationalise the PMP model structure while still keeping the model’s advantages.

  18. Software engineering techniques applied to agricultural systems an object-oriented and UML approach

    CERN Document Server

    Papajorgji, Petraq J

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering Techniques Applied to Agricultural Systems presents cutting-edge software engineering techniques for designing and implementing better agricultural software systems based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The focus is on the presentation of  rigorous step-by-step approaches for modeling flexible agricultural and environmental systems, starting with a conceptual diagram representing elements of the system and their relationships. Furthermore, diagrams such as sequential and collaboration diagrams are used to explain the dynamic and static aspects of the software system.    This second edition includes: a new chapter on Object Constraint Language (OCL), a new section dedicated to the Model-VIEW-Controller (MVC) design pattern, new chapters presenting details of two MDA-based tools – the Virtual Enterprise and Olivia Nova, and a new chapter with exercises on conceptual modeling.  It may be highly useful to undergraduate and graduate students as t...

  19. The systems approach for applying artificial intelligence to space station automation (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Vernon L.

    1985-12-01

    The progress of technology is marked by fragmentation -- dividing research and development into ever narrower fields of specialization. Ultimately, specialists know everything about nothing. And hope for integrating those slender slivers of specialty into a whole fades. Without an integrated, all-encompassing perspective, technology becomes applied in a lopsided and often inefficient manner. A decisionary model, developed and applied for NASA's Chief Engineer toward establishment of commercial space operations, can be adapted to the identification, evaluation, and selection of optimum application of artificial intelligence for space station automation -- restoring wholeness to a situation that is otherwise chaotic due to increasing subdivision of effort. Issues such as functional assignments for space station task, domain, and symptom modules can be resolved in a manner understood by all parties rather than just the person with assigned responsibility -- and ranked by overall significance to mission accomplishment. Ranking is based on the three basic parameters of cost, performance, and schedule. This approach has successfully integrated many diverse specialties in situations like worldwide terrorism control, coal mining safety, medical malpractice risk, grain elevator explosion prevention, offshore drilling hazards, and criminal justice resource allocation -- all of which would have otherwise been subject to "squeaky wheel" emphasis and support of decision-makers.

  20. Next-Generation Mitogenomics: A Comparison of Approaches Applied to Caecilian Amphibian Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Simon T.; Briscoe, Andrew G.; Wilkinson, Mark; Waeschenbach, Andrea; San Mauro, Diego; Day, Julia J.; Littlewood, D. Tim J.; Foster, Peter G.; Nussbaum, Ronald A.; Gower, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences are being generated with increasing speed due to the advances of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and associated analytical tools. However, detailed comparisons to explore the utility of alternative NGS approaches applied to the same taxa have not been undertaken. We compared a ‘traditional’ Sanger sequencing method with two NGS approaches (shotgun sequencing and non-indexed, multiplex amplicon sequencing) on four different sequencing platforms (Illumina’s HiSeq and MiSeq, Roche’s 454 GS FLX, and Life Technologies’ Ion Torrent) to produce seven (near-) complete mitogenomes from six species that form a small radiation of caecilian amphibians from the Seychelles. The fastest, most accurate method of obtaining mitogenome sequences that we tested was direct sequencing of genomic DNA (shotgun sequencing) using the MiSeq platform. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses using seven different partitioning strategies were unable to resolve compellingly all phylogenetic relationships among the Seychelles caecilian species, indicating the need for additional data in this case. PMID:27280454

  1. Next-Generation Mitogenomics: A Comparison of Approaches Applied to Caecilian Amphibian Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Simon T; Briscoe, Andrew G; Wilkinson, Mark; Waeschenbach, Andrea; San Mauro, Diego; Day, Julia J; Littlewood, D Tim J; Foster, Peter G; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Gower, David J

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences are being generated with increasing speed due to the advances of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and associated analytical tools. However, detailed comparisons to explore the utility of alternative NGS approaches applied to the same taxa have not been undertaken. We compared a 'traditional' Sanger sequencing method with two NGS approaches (shotgun sequencing and non-indexed, multiplex amplicon sequencing) on four different sequencing platforms (Illumina's HiSeq and MiSeq, Roche's 454 GS FLX, and Life Technologies' Ion Torrent) to produce seven (near-) complete mitogenomes from six species that form a small radiation of caecilian amphibians from the Seychelles. The fastest, most accurate method of obtaining mitogenome sequences that we tested was direct sequencing of genomic DNA (shotgun sequencing) using the MiSeq platform. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses using seven different partitioning strategies were unable to resolve compellingly all phylogenetic relationships among the Seychelles caecilian species, indicating the need for additional data in this case. PMID:27280454

  2. Modelisation of the growth of extended defects created by electron irradiation in CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the experimental features of dislocation loops created in cadmium telluride by high energy electron irradiation, we present a theoretical modelisation of the growth of extended defects. The basic method of the Chemical Reaction Rate Theory has been modified in order to take into account: the instability of small clusters, the effects of surfaces, the fact that CdTe is a binary compound. The comparison between theoretical and experimental results leads us to conclude that the vacancy-interstitial recombination energy (Ev) is different from the diinterstitial formation energy (Ei). The values of these energies have been determined: Ei=.35eV, Ev=.25eV, Ed=1.1eV (small clusters dissociation energy). This work has also shown that the lake of dislocation loops at high irradiation temperature (T>480K) is not only a thin film effect but is due to clusters instability

  3. Maximum Caliber: A variational approach applied to two-state dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Gerhard; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Dill, Ken A.

    2008-05-01

    We show how to apply a general theoretical approach to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, called Maximum Caliber, originally suggested by E. T. Jaynes [Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31, 579 (1980)], to a problem of two-state dynamics. Maximum Caliber is a variational principle for dynamics in the same spirit that Maximum Entropy is a variational principle for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The central idea is to compute a dynamical partition function, a sum of weights over all microscopic paths, rather than over microstates. We illustrate the method on the simple problem of two-state dynamics, A ↔B, first for a single particle, then for M particles. Maximum Caliber gives a unified framework for deriving all the relevant dynamical properties, including the microtrajectories and all the moments of the time-dependent probability density. While it can readily be used to derive the traditional master equation and the Langevin results, it goes beyond them in also giving trajectory information. For example, we derive the Langevin noise distribution rather than assuming it. As a general approach to solving nonequilibrium statistical mechanics dynamical problems, Maximum Caliber has some advantages: (1) It is partition-function-based, so we can draw insights from similarities to equilibrium statistical mechanics. (2) It is trajectory-based, so it gives more dynamical information than population-based approaches like master equations; this is particularly important for few-particle and single-molecule systems. (3) It gives an unambiguous way to relate flows to forces, which has traditionally posed challenges. (4) Like Maximum Entropy, it may be useful for data analysis, specifically for time-dependent phenomena.

  4. A multi-label, semi-supervised classification approach applied to personality prediction in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Carolina E S; de Castro, Leandro Nunes

    2014-10-01

    Social media allow web users to create and share content pertaining to different subjects, exposing their activities, opinions, feelings and thoughts. In this context, online social media has attracted the interest of data scientists seeking to understand behaviours and trends, whilst collecting statistics for social sites. One potential application for these data is personality prediction, which aims to understand a user's behaviour within social media. Traditional personality prediction relies on users' profiles, their status updates, the messages they post, etc. Here, a personality prediction system for social media data is introduced that differs from most approaches in the literature, in that it works with groups of texts, instead of single texts, and does not take users' profiles into account. Also, the proposed approach extracts meta-attributes from texts and does not work directly with the content of the messages. The set of possible personality traits is taken from the Big Five model and allows the problem to be characterised as a multi-label classification task. The problem is then transformed into a set of five binary classification problems and solved by means of a semi-supervised learning approach, due to the difficulty in annotating the massive amounts of data generated in social media. In our implementation, the proposed system was trained with three well-known machine-learning algorithms, namely a Naïve Bayes classifier, a Support Vector Machine, and a Multilayer Perceptron neural network. The system was applied to predict the personality of Tweets taken from three datasets available in the literature, and resulted in an approximately 83% accurate prediction, with some of the personality traits presenting better individual classification rates than others. PMID:24969690

  5. A generalised chemical precipitation modelling approach in wastewater treatment applied to calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbamba, Christian Kazadi; Batstone, Damien J; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Tait, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Process simulation models used across the wastewater industry have inherent limitations due to over-simplistic descriptions of important physico–chemical reactions, especially for mineral solids precipitation. As part of the efforts towards a larger Generalized Physicochemical Modelling Framework, the present study aims to identify a broadly applicable precipitation modelling approach. The study uses two experimental platforms applied to calcite precipitating from synthetic aqueous solutions to identify and validate the model approach. Firstly, dynamic pH titration tests are performed to define the baseline model approach. Constant Composition Method (CCM) experiments are then used to examine influence of environmental factors on the baseline approach. Results show that the baseline model should include precipitation kinetics (not be quasi-equilibrium), should include a 1st order effect of the mineral particulate state (Xcryst) and, for calcite, have a 2nd order dependency (exponent n = 2.05 ± 0.29) on thermodynamic supersaturation (σ). Parameter analysis indicated that the model was more tolerant to a fast kinetic coefficient (kcryst) and so, in general, it is recommended that a large kcryst value be nominally selected where insufficient process data is available. Zero seed (self nucleating) conditions were effectively represented by including arbitrarily small amounts of mineral phase in the initial conditions. Both of these aspects are important for wastewater modelling, where knowledge of kinetic coefficients is usually not available, and it is typically uncertain which precipitates are actually present. The CCM experiments confirmed the baseline model, particularly the dependency on supersaturation. Temperature was also identified as an influential factor that should be corrected for via an Arrhenius-style correction of kcryst. The influence of magnesium (a common and representative added impurity) on kcryst was found to be significant but was considered

  6. An approach to applying quality assurance to nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to developing and applying a quality assurance program for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility is described. The proposed program would be based on N286-series standards used for quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, and would cover all aspects of work across all stages of the project, from initial feasibility studies to final closure of the vault. A quality assurance manual describing the overall quality assurance program and its elements would be prepared at the outset. Planning requirements of the quality assurance program would be addressed in a comprehensive plan for the project. Like the QA manual, this plan would be prepared at the outset of the project and updated at each stage. Particular attention would be given to incorporating the observational approach in procedures for underground engineering, where the ability to adapt designs and mining techniques to changing ground conditions would be essential. Quality verification requirements would be addressed through design reviews, peer reviews, inspections and surveillance, equipment calibration and laboratory analysis checks, and testing programs. Regular audits and program reviews would help to assess the state of implementation, degree of conformance to standards, and effectiveness of the quality assurance program. Audits would be particularly useful in assessing the quality systems of contractors and suppliers, and in verifying the completion of work at the end of stages. Since a nuclear fuel waste disposal project would span a period of about 90 years, a key function of the quality assurance program would be to ensure the continuity of knowledge and the transfer of experience from one stage to another This would be achieved by maintaining a records management system throughout the life of the project, by ensuring that work procedures were documented and kept current with new technologies and practices, and by instituting training programs that made use of experience gained

  7. Text Classification: A Sequential Reading Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dulac-Arnold, Gabriel; Gallinari, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We propose to model the text classification process as a sequential decision process. In this process, an agent learns to classify documents into topics while reading the document sentences sequentially and learns to stop as soon as enough information was read for deciding. The proposed algorithm is based on a modelisation of Text Classification as a Markov Decision Process and learns by using Reinforcement Learning. Experiments on four different classical mono-label corpora show that the proposed approach performs comparably to classical SVM approaches for large training sets, and better for small training sets. In addition, the model automatically adapts its reading process to the quantity of training information provided.

  8. An interdisciplinary and experimental approach applied to an analysis of the communication of influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte JUANALS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the added value of an interdisciplinary and experimental approach applied to an analysis of the inter-organizational communication of influence. The field analyzed is the international industrial standardization of societal security. A communicational problem has been investigated with an experimental method based on natural language processing and knowledge management tools. The purpose of the methodological framework is to clarify the way international standards are designed and the policies that are supported by these standards. Furthermore, strategies of influence of public and private stakeholders involved in the NGOs which produce these texts have also been studied. The means of inter-organizational communication between organizations (companies or governmental authorities and NGOs can be compared to the lobbying developed in the context of the construction of Europe and globalization. Understanding the prescriptive process has become a crucial issue for States, organizations and citizens. This research contributes to the critical assessment of the new industrial policies currently being developed from the point of view of their characteristics and the way they have been designed.

  9. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part V: perturbation theory applied to dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Okumura, Teppei [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, S. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Desjacques, Vincent, E-mail: zvlah@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: seljak@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teppei@ewha.ac.kr, E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP) Université de Genéve, Genéve (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations show that redshift space distortions (RSD) introduce strong scale dependence in the power spectra of halos, with ten percent deviations relative to linear theory predictions even on relatively large scales (k < 0.1h/Mpc) and even in the absence of satellites (which induce Fingers-of-God, FoG, effects). If unmodeled these effects prevent one from extracting cosmological information from RSD surveys. In this paper we use Eulerian perturbation theory (PT) and Eulerian halo biasing model and apply it to the distribution function approach to RSD, in which RSD is decomposed into several correlators of density weighted velocity moments. We model each of these correlators using PT and compare the results to simulations over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. We find that with an introduction of a physically motivated halo biasing, and using dark matter power spectra from simulations, we can reproduce the simulation results at a percent level on scales up to k ∼ 0.15h/Mpc at z = 0, without the need to have free FoG parameters in the model.

  10. A new approach for investigating venom function applied to venom calreticulin in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Aisha L; Wheeler, David; Werren, John H

    2015-12-01

    A new method is developed to investigate functions of venom components, using venom gene RNA interference knockdown in the venomous animal coupled with RNA sequencing in the envenomated host animal. The vRNAi/eRNA-Seq approach is applied to the venom calreticulin component (v-crc) of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Parasitoids are common, venomous animals that inject venom proteins into host insects, where they modulate physiology and metabolism to produce a better food resource for the parasitoid larvae. vRNAi/eRNA-Seq indicates that v-crc acts to suppress expression of innate immune cell response, enhance expression of clotting genes in the host, and up-regulate cuticle genes. V-crc KD also results in an increased melanization reaction immediately following envenomation. We propose that v-crc inhibits innate immune response to parasitoid venom and reduces host bleeding during adult and larval parasitoid feeding. Experiments do not support the hypothesis that v-crc is required for the developmental arrest phenotype observed in envenomated hosts. We propose that an important role for some venom components is to reduce (modulate) the exaggerated effects of other venom components on target host gene expression, physiology, and survival, and term this venom mitigation. A model is developed that uses vRNAi/eRNA-Seq to quantify the contribution of individual venom components to total venom phenotypes, and to define different categories of mitigation by individual venoms on host gene expression. Mitigating functions likely contribute to the diversity of venom proteins in parasitoids and other venomous organisms. PMID:26359852

  11. An approach for evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important issues in the study of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems is evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems. An approach for evaluating the integrity of the fuel is discussed here based on the procedure currently used in the integrity evaluation of fast reactor fuel. The fuel failure modes determining fuel life time were reviewed and fuel integrity was analyzed and compared with the failure criteria. Metal and nitride fuels with austenitic and ferritic stainless steel (SS) cladding tubes were examined in this study. For the purpose of representative irradiation behavior analyses of the fuel for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems, the correlations of the cladding characteristics were modeled based on well-known characteristics of austenitic modified 316 SS (PNC316), ferritic–martensitic steel (PNC–FMS) and oxide dispersion strengthened steel (PNC–ODS). The analysis showed that the fuel lifetime is limited by channel fracture which is a nonductile type (brittle) failure associated with a high level of irradiation-induced swelling in the case of austenitic steel cladding. In case of ferritic steel, on the other hand, the fuel lifetime is controlled by cladding creep rupture. The lifetime evaluated here is limited to 200 GW d/t, which is lower than the target burnup value of 500 GW d/t. One of the possible measures to extend the lifetime may be reducing the fuel smeared density and ventilating fission gas in the plenum for metal fuel and by reducing the maximum cladding temperature from 650 to 600 °C for both metal and nitride fuel

  12. Considerations in Applying the General Equilibrium Approach to Environmental Health Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE WAN; HONG-WEI YANG; TOSHIHIKO MASUI

    2005-01-01

    There are currently two commonly used approaches to assessing economic impacts of health damage resulting from environmental pollution: human capital approach (HCA) and willingness-to-pay (WTP). WTP can be further divided into averted expenditure approach (AEA), hedonic wage approach (HWA), contingent valuation approach (CVA) and hedonic price approach (HPA). A general review of the principles behind these approaches by the authors indicates that these methods are incapable of unveiling the mechanism of health impact from the point of view of national economy. On a basis of economic system, the shocks brought about by health effects of environmental pollution change the labor supply and medical expenditure, which in turn affects the level of production activity in each sector and the total final consumption pattern of the society. The general equilibrium approach within the framework of macroeconomic theory is able to estimate the health impact on national economy comprehensively and objectively. Its mechanism and applicability are discussed in detail by the authors.

  13. A new multi criteria classification approach in a multi agent system applied to SEEG analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinie, Abel; Ndiaye, Mamadou Lamine,; Montois, Jean-Jacques; Jacquelet, Yann

    2007-01-01

    This work is focused on the study of the organization of the SEEG signals during epileptic seizures with multi-agent system approach. This approach is based on cooperative mechanisms of auto-organization at the micro level and of emergence of a global function at the macro level. In order to evaluate this approach we propose a distributed collaborative approach for the classification of the interesting signals. This new multi-criteria classification method is able to provide a relevant brain ...

  14. Taxonomy of Non-Disciplinary Approaches, Applied Implications for Designing Curriculums in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paighami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, philosophy of education and curriculum designing focused on specialization and single disciplinarity approach .But since the turn of the 20th century, by a vast literature of realizing real and new educational needs and competencies beyond a single discipline, and criticizing the limits of that narrow approach to the reality, defining integrated curriculum or non-disciplinarity approaches has been a topic of discussion .Over the last decades, theorists offered six basic categories for non-disciplinary works :Parallel Disciplinary Approach, Interdisciplinary Approach, Multi-Disciplinary Approach, Cross-Disciplinary Approach, Plural-Disciplinary Approach and Supra/Trans-Disciplinary Approach. Through these approaches, integration seemed to be a matter of degree and method from fundamentally different starting points. Economics also is essentially an integrated discipline from different social sciences, mathematics, economic subjects, knowledge and ideas, and even methodology of natural sciences, and inevitably, its curriculum, educational programs and courses can not be designed unless benefited from these literature and approaches in the curriculum designing subject area. The present article briefly defines the non-disciplinarity approaches and shows their implications, applications and theoretical capacity in designing different possible curriculum and graduate educational courses in Economics.

  15. Method developments approaches in supercritical fluid chromatography applied to the analysis of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesellier, E; Mith, D; Dubrulle, I

    2015-12-01

    Analyses of complex samples of cosmetics, such as creams or lotions, are generally achieved by HPLC. These analyses are often multistep gradients, due to the presence of compounds with a large range of polarity. For instance, the bioactive compounds may be polar, while the matrix contains lipid components that are rather non-polar, thus cosmetic formulations are usually oil-water emulsions. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) uses mobile phases composed of carbon dioxide and organic co-solvents, allowing for good solubility of both the active compounds and the matrix excipients. Moreover, the classical and well-known properties of these mobile phases yield fast analyses and ensure rapid method development. However, due to the large number of stationary phases available for SFC and to the varied additional parameters acting both on retention and separation factors (co-solvent nature and percentage, temperature, backpressure, flow rate, column dimensions and particle size), a simplified approach can be followed to ensure a fast method development. First, suited stationary phases should be carefully selected for an initial screening, and then the other operating parameters can be limited to the co-solvent nature and percentage, maintaining the oven temperature and back-pressure constant. To describe simple method development guidelines in SFC, three sample applications are discussed in this paper: UV-filters (sunscreens) in sunscreen cream, glyceryl caprylate in eye liner and caffeine in eye serum. Firstly, five stationary phases (ACQUITY UPC(2)) are screened with isocratic elution conditions (10% methanol in carbon dioxide). Complementary of the stationary phases is assessed based on our spider diagram classification which compares a large number of stationary phases based on five molecular interactions. Secondly, the one or two best stationary phases are retained for further optimization of mobile phase composition, with isocratic elution conditions or, when

  16. Book review: Statistics and Data with R: An Applied Approach Through Examples by Yosef Cohen and Jeremiah Y. Cohen

    OpenAIRE

    Fricker, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Statistics and Data with R: An Applied Approach Through Examples is a well-written and nicely organized book that, as the title clearly states, uses applied examples done in R to illustrate and motivate statistical methods and ideas. The book is divided into three main parts. Part I: Data in Statistics and R is a brief (90 pages) introduction to R; Part II: Probability, Densities and Distributions covers the usual probability topics contained in introductory probability and statistics texts; ...

  17. A Computer-Assisted Approach for Conducting Information Technology Applied Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Pei Jin; Yang, Tzu-Chi

    2009-01-01

    The growing popularity of computer and network technologies has attracted researchers to investigate the strategies and the effects of information technology applied instructions. Previous research has not only demonstrated the benefits of applying information technologies to the learning process, but has also revealed the difficulty of applying…

  18. Book review: The Applied Linguistic Individual: Sociocultural Approaches to Identity, Agency and Autonomy. Edited by Phil Benson and Lucy Cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Balçıkanlı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Applied Linguistic Individual: Sociocultural Approaches to Identity, Agency and Autonomy, edited by Phil Benson and Lucy Cooker, maps the parameters of the concepts “identity, agency and autonomy” in relation to sociocultural approaches and illustrates how a range of different areas, as well as research studies, shape the concepts. This edited book offers a representation of voices through its 13 chapters contributed by researchers in various countries.

  19. An Optimisation Approach Applied to Design the Hydraulic Power Supply for a Forklift Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2004-01-01

    -level optimisation approach, and is in the current paper exemplified through the design of the hydraulic power supply for a forklift truck. The paper first describes the prerequisites for the method and then explains the different steps in the approach to design the hydraulic system. Finally the results of the...

  20. Applying Rawlsian Approaches to Resolve Ethical Issues: Inventory and Setting of a Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, N.

    2009-01-01

    Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapping consensus in the field of applied ethics. Instead of focussing on one single comprehensive ethical doctrine to provide adequate guidance for resolving moral dilemmas, these Rawlsian methods see...

  1. Characteristics of Computational Thinking about the Estimation of the Students in Mathematics Classroom Applying Lesson Study and Open Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promraksa, Siwarak; Sangaroon, Kiat; Inprasitha, Maitree

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study and analyze the characteristics of computational thinking about the estimation of the students in mathematics classroom applying lesson study and open approach. Members of target group included 4th grade students of 2011 academic year of Choomchon Banchonnabot School. The Lesson plan used for data…

  2. Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuschner, R. G. K.; Robinson, T. P.; Hugas, M.; Cocconcelli, P. S.; Richard-Forget, F.; Klein, G.; Licht, Tine Rask; Nguyen-The, C.; Querol, A.; Richardson, M.; Suarez, J.E.; Thrane, Ulf; Vlak, J. M.; von Wright, A.

    2010-01-01

    Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to notified biological agents aiming at simplifying risk assessments across different scientific Panels and Units. The aim of this review is to outline the implementation...

  3. A Structured Approach to Teaching Applied Problem Solving through Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Fritz A.; Sell, Nancy J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an approach to problem solving based on real-world problems. Discusses problem analysis and definitions, preparation of briefing documents, solution finding techniques (brainstorming and synectics), solution evaluation and judgment, and implementation. (JM)

  4. Applying the payment card approach to estimate the WTP for green food in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xu; Yu, Xiaohua; Holst, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a payment card approach to reveal consumers' willingness to pay for green food in China. We first present a brief introduction of the payment card approach and introduce several methods to estimate the WTP with payment cards, which we subsequently use to estimate WTP values regarding green vegetables, green meat and green eggs in China. Our results indicate that consumers in big cities are willing to pay a higher premium for green food and that WTP values are relatively higher...

  5. Applying Agile Requirements Engineering Approach for Re-engineering & Changes in existing Brownfield Adaptive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Abdullah; Ali, M. Asim

    2014-01-01

    Requirements Engineering (RE) is a key activity in the development of software systems and is concerned with the identification of the goals of stakeholders and their elaboration into precise statements of desired services and behavior. The research describes an Agile Requirements Engineering approach for re-engineering & changes in existing Brownfield adaptive system. The approach has few modifications that can be used as a part of SCRUM development process for re-engineering & changes. The ...

  6. Getting it Right: Lessons Learned in Applying a Critical Artefact Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    “Critical artefacts”, the products of critical design (Dunne 1999), prompt reflection rather than satisfy obvious user needs. The author is developing an instrumental use of critical artefacts as part of a human-centred design process. Earlier work showed the effectiveness of this approach in allowing stakeholders to engage with novel product ideas. This paper describes a project, Living Rooms, developing the approach with a broader group of stakeholders and devising the critical artefacts wi...

  7. Applying a Contest to Improve Learning in the Information Systems Development - An Interdisciplinary and Extracurricular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo FANTINATO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Contests are usually applied in the academic environment to simulate real professional situations that require from the participants a more pro-active attitude than the one shown in conventional coursework. Although they are commonly applied in the scope of a unique course, the contest described here was an extracurricular experience applied in an Information System undergraduate program. The evaluation of the contest is also presented; the objective was to assess the role of the contest as a tool to bring together interdisciplinary subjects, complementary to the traditional disciplinary structure of the program curriculum. The results indicate that a significant portion of the participants noticed increase in their knowledge after the contest, which is verified by statistical tests. However, students from the first stages received more benefits, probably because such students were more motivated and had more available time to be involved in the contest activities.

  8. Biological Rhythms Modelisation of Vigilance and Sleep in Microgravity State with COSINOR and Volterra's Kernels Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudeua de Gerlicz, C.; Golding, J. G.; Bobola, Ph.; Moutarde, C.; Naji, S.

    2008-06-01

    The spaceflight under microgravity cause basically biological and physiological imbalance in human being. Lot of study has been yet release on this topic especially about sleep disturbances and on the circadian rhythms (alternation vigilance-sleep, body, temperature...). Factors like space motion sickness, noise, or excitement can cause severe sleep disturbances. For a stay of longer than four months in space, gradual increases in the planned duration of sleep were reported. [1] The average sleep in orbit was more than 1.5 hours shorter than the during control periods on earth, where sleep averaged 7.9 hours. [2] Alertness and calmness were unregistered yield clear circadian pattern of 24h but with a phase delay of 4h.The calmness showed a biphasic component (12h) mean sleep duration was 6.4 structured by 3-5 non REM/REM cycles. Modelisations of neurophysiologic mechanisms of stress and interactions between various physiological and psychological variables of rhythms have can be yet release with the COSINOR method. [3

  9. Chaotic artificial immune approach applied to economic dispatch of electric energy using thermal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic dispatch problem (EDP) is an optimization problem useful in power systems operation. The objective of the EDP of electric power generation, whose characteristics are complex and highly non-linear, is to schedule the committed generating unit outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost while satisfying system constraints. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern heuristic optimization techniques have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. As special mechanism to avoid being trapped in local minimum, the ergodicity property of chaotic sequences has been used as optimization technique in EDPs. Based on the chaos theory, this paper discusses the design and validation of an optimization procedure based on a chaotic artificial immune network approach based on Zaslavsky's map. The optimization approach based on chaotic artificial immune network is validated for a test system consisting of 13 thermal units whose incremental fuel cost function takes into account the valve-point loading effects. Simulation results and comparisons show that the chaotic artificial immune network approach is competitive in performance with other optimization approaches presented in literature and is also an attractive tool to be used on applications in the power systems field.

  10. The flux-coordinate independent approach applied to X-point geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Flux-Coordinate Independent (FCI) approach for anisotropic systems, not based on magnetic flux coordinates, has been introduced in Hariri and Ottaviani [Comput. Phys. Commun. 184, 2419 (2013)]. In this paper, we show that the approach can tackle magnetic configurations including X-points. Using the code FENICIA, an equilibrium with a magnetic island has been used to show the robustness of the FCI approach to cases in which a magnetic separatrix is present in the system, either by design or as a consequence of instabilities. Numerical results are in good agreement with the analytic solutions of the sound-wave propagation problem. Conservation properties are verified. Finally, the critical gain of the FCI approach in situations including the magnetic separatrix with an X-point is demonstrated by a fast convergence of the code with the numerical resolution in the direction of symmetry. The results highlighted in this paper show that the FCI approach can efficiently deal with X-point geometries

  11. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications applied mechanics, vibration control, and numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest applications of nonlinear approaches in different disciplines of engineering. For each selected topic, detailed concept development, derivations, and relevant knowledge are provided for the convenience of the readers. The topics range from dynamic systems and control to optimal approaches in nonlinear dynamics. The volume includes invited chapters from world class experts in the field. The selected topics are of great interest in the fields of engineering and physics and this book is ideal for engineers and researchers working in a broad range of practical topics and approaches. This book also: ·         Explores the most up-to-date applications and underlying principles of nonlinear approaches to problems in engineering and physics, including sections on analytic nonlinearity and practical nonlinearity ·         Enlightens readers to the conceptual significance of nonlinear approaches with examples of applications in scientific and engineering problems from v...

  12. A Transfer Learning Approach for Applying Matrix Factorization to Small ITS Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, Lydia; Schatten, Carlotta; Mazziotti, Claudia; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Machine Learning methods for Performance Prediction in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) have proven their efficacy; specific methods, e.g. Matrix Factorization (MF), however suffer from the lack of available information about new tasks or new students. In this paper we show how this problem could be solved by applying Transfer Learning (TL),…

  13. Applying Rawlsian Approaches to Resolve Ethical Issues: Inventory and Setting of a Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.

    2009-01-01

    Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapp

  14. Applying the whole-system settings approach to food within universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Sharon; Cawood, Jennie; Dooris, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Universities represent an important setting for promoting health and well-being--and specifically for developing systems that support healthy and sustainable food procurement and provision. By drawing on the whole-system settings approach and working within the framework offered by Healthy Universities, higher education institutions are in a strong position to address the full range of issues that make up the university 'foodscape', thereby promoting health in an integrated and far-reaching way that takes account of the relationships between environments and behaviours, and between staff, students and the wider community. Informed particularly by work in England, this paper uses a healthy settings model to explore and discuss how the Healthy Universities approach can help to ensure a holistic and integrated approach to addressing issues relating to food. PMID:21999026

  15. A systematic approach for fine-tuning of fuzzy controllers applied to WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruano, M.V.; Ribes, J.; Sin, Gürkan; Seco, A.; Ferrer, J.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic approach for fine-tuning fuzzy controllers has been developed and evaluated for an aeration control system implemented in a WWTR The challenge with the application of fuzzy controllers to WWTPs is simply that they contain many parameters, which need to be adjusted for different WWTP...... of 33, which improved the quality of the optimization of the control system by a minimization algorithm. Overall the systematic approach considerably improved the performance of the control system as measured by the Integral Absolute Error (deviation between the set-point and the controlled variable...... fine-tune the identifiable parameter subset of the controller. Indeed, the initial location found by Monte-Carlo simulations provided better results than using trial and error approach when identifying parameters of the fuzzy controller. The identifiable subset was reduced to 4 parameters from a total...

  16. FAILURES AND DEFECTS IN THE BUILDING PROCESS – APPLYING THE BOW-TIE APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    site was observed from the very start to the very end and all failures and defects of a certain size were recorded and analysed. The methodological approach used in this analysis was the bow-tie model from the area of safety research. It combines critical-event analysis for both causes and effects with...... event-tree analysis. The paper describes this analytical approach as an introduction to a new concept for understanding failures and defects in construction. Analysing the many critical events in the building process with the bow-tie model visualises the complexity of causes. This visualisation offers...

  17. Approach of Separately Applying Unit Testing to AspectJ Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Hai-bo; LU Yan-sheng

    2008-01-01

    A unit testing approach for AspectJ programs is proposed to separately test aspect units which have their own states. In the approach, aspects under test are converted to classes before execution of unit testing. In the conversion process, the context information passed through pointcut is transformed into advices, then the advices are converted to class member methods, and conflicts in the conversion result, if any, are resolved finally. The unit testing process consists of generating test cases, executing test cases and checking results.

  18. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    emphasize one flood typology or one flood dynamic (for example flash floods are often over-represented than slow dynamic floods in existing databases). Thus, the selected criteria have to introduce a general overview of flooding risk in France by integrating all typologies: storm surges, torrential floods, rising groundwater level and resulting to flood, etc. The methodology developed for the evaluation grid is inspired by several scientific works related to historical hydrology (Bradzil, 2006; Benito et al., 2004) or extreme floods classification (Kundzewics et al. 2013; Garnier E., 2005). The referenced information are mainly issued from investigations realized for the PFRA (archives, local data),from internet databases on flooding disasters, and from a complementary bibliography (some scientists such as Maurice Pardé a geographer who largely documented French floods during the 20th century). The proposed classification relies on three main axes. Each axis is associated to a set of criteria, each one related to a score (from 0.5 to 4 points), and pointing out a final remarkability score. • The flood intensity characterizing the flood's hazard level. It is composed of the submersion duration, important to valorize floods with slow dynamics as flooding from groundwater, the event peak discharge's return period, and the presence of factors increasing significantly the hazard level (dykes breaks, log jam, sediment transport…) • The flood severity focuses on economic damages, social and political repercussions, media coverage of the event, fatalities number or eventual flood warning failures. Analyzing the flood consequences is essential in order to evaluate the vulnerability of society at disaster date. • The spatial extension of the flood, which contributes complementary information to the two first axes. The evaluation grid was tested and applied on the sample of 176 remarkable events. Around twenty events (from 1856 to 2010) come out with a high remarkability rate

  19. Applying Hybrid Heuristic Approach to Identify Contaminant Source Information in Transient Groundwater Flow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hund-Der Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous identification of the source location and release history in aquifers is complicated and time-consuming if the release of groundwater contaminant source varies in time. This paper presents an approach called SATSO-GWT to solve complicated source release problems which contain the unknowns of three location coordinates and several irregular release periods and concentrations. The SATSO-GWT combines with ordinal optimization algorithm (OOA, roulette wheel approach, and a source identification algorithm called SATS-GWT. The SATS-GWT was developed based on simulated annealing, tabu search, and three-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport model MD2K-GWT. The OOA and roulette wheel method are utilized mainly to reduce the size of feasible solution domain and accelerate the identification of the source information. A hypothetic site with one contaminant source location and two release periods is designed to assess the applicability of the present approach. The results indicate that the performance of SATSO-GWT is superior to that of SATS-GWT. In addition, the present approach works very effectively in dealing with the cases which have different initial guesses of source location and measurement errors in the monitoring points as well as problems with large suspicious areas and several source release periods and concentrations.

  20. Applying the Recovery Approach to the Interface between Mental Health and Child Protection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…

  1. Applying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to support Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA workshop report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or alread...

  2. A Controllability Approach for Resonant Compliant Systems: Applied to a Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies a controllability approach for general resonant compliant systems. These systems exploit resonance to obtain a specific dynamic response at relatively low actuation power. This type of systems is often lightweight, is scalable and minimizes frictional losses through the use of co

  3. Vulvar cancer: initial management and systematic review of literature on currently applied treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznurkowski, Jacek Jan

    2016-07-01

    This review provides guidelines and aims to estimate utilisation rates of treatment modalities applied in vulvar cancer. Current standards of treatment are as follows: wide local excision instead of radical vulvectomy in the case of small tumour (T cancer', 'treatment' identified seven full-text manuscripts, including data on 1114 patients. Utilisation rates of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, chemotherapy alone, surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant radiochemotherapy were 5.9%, 0.3%, 89.3%, 22.6% and 0.2% respectively. An evidence-based estimation of appropriate rates of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for vulvar cancer is needed to compare management reflecting guidelines with presented here real frequency of applied modalities. PMID:26880231

  4. An approach using quantum ant colony optimization applied to the problem of nuclear reactors reload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio H.; Lima, Alan M.M. de; Schirru, Roberto; Medeiros, J.A.C.C., E-mail: marciohenrique@lmp.ufrj.b, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.b, E-mail: canedo@lmp.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Monitoramento de Processos

    2009-07-01

    The basic concept behind the nuclear reactor fuel reloading problem is to find a configuration of new and used fuel elements, to keep the plant working at full power by the largest possible duration, within the safety restrictions. The main restriction is the power peaking factor, which is the limit value for the preservation of the fuel assembly. The QACO{sub A}lfa algorithm is a modified version of Quantum Ant Colony Optimization (QACO) proposed by Wang et al, which uses a new actualization method and a pseudo evaporation step. We examined the QACO{sub A}lfa behavior associated to physics of reactors code RECNOD when applied to this problem. Although the QACO have been developed for continuous functions, the binary model used in this work allows applying it to discrete problems, such as the mentioned above. (author)

  5. An approach using quantum ant colony optimization applied to the problem of nuclear reactors reload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic concept behind the nuclear reactor fuel reloading problem is to find a configuration of new and used fuel elements, to keep the plant working at full power by the largest possible duration, within the safety restrictions. The main restriction is the power peaking factor, which is the limit value for the preservation of the fuel assembly. The QACOAlfa algorithm is a modified version of Quantum Ant Colony Optimization (QACO) proposed by Wang et al, which uses a new actualization method and a pseudo evaporation step. We examined the QACOAlfa behavior associated to physics of reactors code RECNOD when applied to this problem. Although the QACO have been developed for continuous functions, the binary model used in this work allows applying it to discrete problems, such as the mentioned above. (author)

  6. Applying Theory-Driven Approaches to Understanding and Modifying Clinicians' Behavior: What Do We Know?

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Matthew B.; Peter S Jensen; JACCARD, James; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Oettingen, Gabriele; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite major recent research advances, large gaps exist between accepted mental health knowledge and clinicians' real-world practices. Although hundreds of studies have successfully utilized basic behavioral science theories to understand, predict, and change patients' health behaviors, the extent to which these theories most notably the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and its extension, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) have been applied to understand and change clinician beha...

  7. PhysioSoft – An Approach in Applying Computer Technology in Biofeedback Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Havelka, Mladen; HAVELKA, Juraj; Delimar, Marko

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents description of original biofeedback computer program called PhysioSoft. It has been designed on the basis of the experience in development of biofeedback techniques of interdisciplinary team of experts of the Department of Health Psychology of the University of Applied Health Studies, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, and »Mens Sana«, Private Biofeedback Practice in Zagreb. The interest in the possibility of producing direct and voluntar...

  8. The Process of Laying Concrete and Analysis of Operations Applying the Lean Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vidmantas Gramauskas

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers Lean philosophy ‘Just in Time’, a value stream map and total quality management principles applying them to the construction. In order to follow these principles, a case study was performed, thus observing and recording the process of laying concrete in three houses where a lower ground floor was casted employing fiber concrete. The collected data were required to fragment the process of laying concrete into smaller operations and examine each operation independently. The ...

  9. SOFTWARE TESTING STRATEGY APPROACH ON SOURCE CODE APPLYING CONDITIONAL COVERAGE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya Srivastaval; Twinkle Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Software testing is an important activity of the software development process. Software testing is most efforts consuming phase in software development. One would like to minimize the effort and maximize the number of faults detected and automated test case generation contributes to reduce cost and time effort.Hence test case generation may be treated as an optimization problem In this paper we have used genetic algorithm to optimize the test case that are generated applying conditional cover...

  10. Heterogeneous aquifer system modelisation under semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drias, Tarek; Toubal, Ahmed Cherif

    2010-05-01

    The studied zone is a part of the Mellegne's (North-East of Algeria) under pound, this zone is characterised by its semi-arid climate. The water bearing system is formed by the plio-quaternairy alluviums resting on a marley substratuim of age Eocene. The geostatiscitcs approach of the hydrodynamics parameters (Hydrolic load, transmisivity) allowed the study of their spatial distrubution (casting) by the method of Krigeage by blocks and the identification of zones with water-bearing potentialities. In this respect, the zone of Ain Chabro which, is situated in the South of the plain shows the best values of the transmisivity...... The use of a bidimensinnel model in the differences ended in the permanent regime allowed us to establish the global balence sheet (overall assessment) of the tablecloth and to refine the transmisivity field. These would vary more exactley between 10-4 to 10-2 m²/s. The method associating the probability appraoch of Krigeage to that determining the model has facilited the wedging of the model and clarified the inflitration value. Keys words: hydrodynamics, geostatiscitcs, Modeling, Chabro, Tébessa.

  11. Applying a learning design methodology in the flipped classroom approach – empowering teachers to reflect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Kofoed, Lise; Purwins, Hendrik;

    2016-01-01

    One of the recent developments in teaching that heavily relies on current technology is the “flipped classroom” approach. In a flipped classroom the traditional lecture and homework sessions are inverted. Students are provided with online material in order to gain necessary knowledge before class...... through flipped classroom designs. In order to discuss the opportunities arising by this approach, the different components of the Learning Design – Conceptual Map (LD-CM) are presented and examined in the context of the flipped classroom. It is shown that viewing the flipped classroom through the lens......, tools and resources used in specific flipped classroom models, and it can make educators more aware of the decisions that have to be taken and people who have to be involved when designing a flipped classroom. By using the LD-CM, this paper also draws attention to the importance of characteristics...

  12. Experimental implementation and assessment of two polarimetric calibration approaches applied for a fully polarimetric borehole radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully polarimetric borehole radar system with four combinations of dipole and cylindrical slot antennas was developed to acquire fully polarimetric datasets in drilled boreholes. This system in conjunction with several radar polarimetry techniques has proved to be a good alternative to physical subsurface fracture characterization. Furthermore, such polarimetry techniques, namely Pauli decomposition, eigenvector-based decomposition, Durden–Freeman decomposition and polarimetric anisotropy parameter methods, can provide comparable performances in terms of fracture characterization and classification. Polarimetric calibration to determine a scattering matrix (Sinclare matrix) is the foremost procedure in the radar polarimetry processing chain. In this paper, we experimentally implement and evaluate two polarimetric calibration approaches, namely (1) cross-hole polarimetric calibration and (2) single-hole polarimetric calibration, utilizing fully polarimetric datasets acquired at a specific borehole test site. Both polarimetric calibration approaches can guarantee the further implementation of radar polarimetry techniques, and especially, the single-hole polarimetric calibration will be very meaningful to practical applications

  13. Approaches for the Validation of the Testing Methods in General Applied to NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper (a series of slides) presents an overview of the approaches for the validation of the non-destructive testing methods. After an introduction to the problem of validation of test methods (characterization, comparison, confirmation; proposals for the 'Quality Characteristics' of NDE methods), the paper examines what has been done so far in NDE (Standards for established methods, performance demonstration) and presents the five approaches for validation of testing methods in general (systematic examination of the influence quantities; calibration with examination of the influence quantities; comparison with other test methods; interlaboratory comparison tests; controlled assessment). Requirements for NDE validation rules from the DGZfP point of view are then summarized, leading to the final question of the adoption of 'controlled assessment' for NDE (in terms of modular validation)

  14. Impact analysis of cotton subsidies on poverty: A CGE macro-accounting approach applied to Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothée Boccanfuso; Luc Savard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the first country specific CGE model for Mali with a micro-simulation component to analyze the poverty and inequality changes of removing cotton subsidies in developed countries. We used the macro-accounting approach proposed by Chen and Ravallion (2004). This issue has attracted significant attention as is has contributed to stall the broader trade agenda. Research on the issue has been mainly done with partial equilibrium analysis with a few exceptions. We use th...

  15. Applying Systemic Project Management Approaches for the UK National Health Service

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Simon; Christina, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets out some observations arising from on-going research into the use of systemic methods in the planning of complex projects within the National Health Service (NHS) in Staffordshire and Shropshire in the UK. This brief paper sets out the main reasons for the application of systemic approaches, the nature of the methodologies put in place and some of the outcomes and reflections of those involved in the various workshops. Whilst not attempting to be definitive in our conclusions,...

  16. Applying attachment theory to effective practice with hard-to-reach youth: the AMBIT approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bevington, D.; Fuggle, P.; Fonagy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent Mentalization-Based Integrative Treatment (AMBIT) is a developing approach to working with "hard-to-reach" youth burdened with multiple co-occurring morbidities. This article reviews the core features of AMBIT, exploring applications of attachment theory to understand what makes young people "hard to reach," and provide routes toward increased security in their attachment to a worker. Using the theory of the pedagogical stance and epistemic ("pertaining to knowledge") trust, we sho...

  17. User-centred system design approach applied on a robotic flexible endoscope

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiter, J.G.; Voort, van der, R.; Bonnema, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems, like surgical robots, are designed by engineers. It is very difficult for them to determine the different needs and desires of all stakeholders. Especially when designed from scratch, end user input is essential in creating a system that has added value, is user friendly, and can be easily integrated into practice. For the development of a robotic flexible endoscope we have involved physicians, nurses, and equipment suppliers in our design approach. Seven steps are executed t...

  18. Stakeholder Theory As an Ethical Approach to Effective Management: applying the theory to multiple contexts

    OpenAIRE

    JEFFREY S. HARRISON; R. Edward Freeman; Mônica Cavalcanti Sá de Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Objective – This article provides a brief overview of stakeholder theory, clears up some widely held misconceptions, explains the importance of examining stakeholder theory from a variety of international perspectives and how this type of research will advance management theory, and introduces the other articles in the special issue. Design/methodology/approach – Some of the foundational ideas of stakeholder theory are discussed, leading to arguments about the importance of the theory ...

  19. Unintegrated parton densities applied to heavy quark production in the CCFM approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, H

    2001-01-01

    The application of k_t - factorization supplemented with the CCFM small-x evolution equation to heavy quark production is discussed. The b-b_bar production cross sections at the TEVATRON can be consistently described using the k_t-factorization formalism together with the unintegrated gluon density obtained within the CCFM evolution approach from a fit to HERA F_2 data. Special attention is drawn to the comparison with measured visible cross sections. The visible measured cross sections at HE...

  20. Applying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to support Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Scholz, Stefan; Cronin, Mark; Edwards, Stephen; DE KNECHT Joop; Crofton, Kevin; GARCIA-REYERO Natália; Hartung T.; Worth, Andrew; Patlewicz Grace

    2014-01-01

    Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or already on the market. The need for timely and robust decision making demands that regulatory toxicity testing becomes more cost-effective and efficient. One way to realize this goal is by being more strategic in directing ...

  1. Failures and Defects in the Building Process:Applying the Bow-Tie Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Function failures, defects, mistakes and poor communication are major problems for the construction sector. A Danish research project focusing on failures and defects in building processes has been carried out over the last 2 years. As the empirical element in the research, a large construction site was observed from the very start to the very end and all failures and defects of a certain size were recorded and analysed. The methodological approach used in this analysis was the bow-tie model ...

  2. The invariant manifold approach applied to nonlinear dynamics of a rotor-bearing system

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Cristiano; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    The invariant manifold approach is used to explore the dynamics of a nonlinear rotor, by determining the nonlinear normal modes, constructing a reduced order model and evaluating its performance in the case of response to an initial condition. The procedure to determine the approximation of the invariant manifolds is discussed and a strategy to retain the speed dependent effects on the manifolds without solving the eigenvalue problem for each spin speed is presented. The performance of the re...

  3. Applying sequential Monte Carlo methods into a distributed hydrologic model: lagged particle filtering approach with regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Noh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Data assimilation techniques have received growing attention due to their capability to improve prediction. Among various data assimilation techniques, sequential Monte Carlo (SMC methods, known as "particle filters", are a Bayesian learning process that has the capability to handle non-linear and non-Gaussian state-space models. In this paper, we propose an improved particle filtering approach to consider different response times of internal state variables in a hydrologic model. The proposed method adopts a lagged filtering approach to aggregate model response until the uncertainty of each hydrologic process is propagated. The regularization with an additional move step based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods is also implemented to preserve sample diversity under the lagged filtering approach. A distributed hydrologic model, water and energy transfer processes (WEP, is implemented for the sequential data assimilation through the updating of state variables. The lagged regularized particle filter (LRPF and the sequential importance resampling (SIR particle filter are implemented for hindcasting of streamflow at the Katsura catchment, Japan. Control state variables for filtering are soil moisture content and overland flow. Streamflow measurements are used for data assimilation. LRPF shows consistent forecasts regardless of the process noise assumption, while SIR has different values of optimal process noise and shows sensitive variation of confidential intervals, depending on the process noise. Improvement of LRPF forecasts compared to SIR is particularly found for rapidly varied high flows due to preservation of sample diversity from the kernel, even if particle impoverishment takes place.

  4. Applying sequential Monte Carlo methods into a distributed hydrologic model: lagged particle filtering approach with regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Noh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of data assimilation techniques have been widely used to improve hydrologic prediction. Among various data assimilation techniques, sequential Monte Carlo (SMC methods, known as "particle filters", provide the capability to handle non-linear and non-Gaussian state-space models. In this paper, we propose an improved particle filtering approach to consider different response time of internal state variables in a hydrologic model. The proposed method adopts a lagged filtering approach to aggregate model response until uncertainty of each hydrologic process is propagated. The regularization with an additional move step based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC is also implemented to preserve sample diversity under the lagged filtering approach. A distributed hydrologic model, WEP is implemented for the sequential data assimilation through the updating of state variables. Particle filtering is parallelized and implemented in the multi-core computing environment via open message passing interface (MPI. We compare performance results of particle filters in terms of model efficiency, predictive QQ plots and particle diversity. The improvement of model efficiency and the preservation of particle diversity are found in the lagged regularized particle filter.

  5. The GRADE approach for assessing new technologies as applied to apheresis devices in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabriada-Nuño Jose

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years, a new non-pharmacological treatment, termed apheresis, has been developed to lessen the burden of ulcerative colitis (UC. Several methods can be used to establish treatment recommendations, but over the last decade an informal collaboration group of guideline developers, methodologists, and clinicians has developed a more sensible and transparent approach known as the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE. GRADE has mainly been used in clinical practice guidelines and systematic reviews. The aim of the present study is to describe the use of this approach in the development of recommendations for a new health technology, and to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats found when doing so. Methods A systematic review of the use of apheresis for UC treatment was performed in June 2004 and updated in May 2008. Two related clinical questions were selected, the outcomes of interest defined, and the quality of the evidence assessed. Finally, the overall quality of each question was taken into account to formulate recommendations following the GRADE approach. To evaluate this experience, a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis was performed to enable a comparison with our previous experience with the SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network method. Results Application of the GRADE approach allowed recommendations to be formulated and the method to be clarified and made more explicit and transparent. Two weak recommendations were proposed to answer to the formulated questions. Some challenges, such as the limited number of studies found for the new technology and the difficulties encountered when searching for the results for the selected outcomes, none of which are specific to GRADE, were identified. GRADE was considered to be a more time-consuming method, although it has the advantage of taking into account patient

  6. SOFTWARE TESTING STRATEGY APPROACH ON SOURCE CODE APPLYING CONDITIONAL COVERAGE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Srivastaval

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an important activity of the software development process. Software testing is most efforts consuming phase in software development. One would like to minimize the effort and maximize the number of faults detected and automated test case generation contributes to reduce cost and time effort.Hence test case generation may be treated as an optimization problem In this paper we have used genetic algorithm to optimize the test case that are generated applying conditional coverage on source code. Test case data is generated automatically using genetic algorithm are optimized and outperforms the test cases generated by random testing.

  7. Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes based approach applied to an offshore oil production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is keeping with the topic of two papers which treated dynamic reliability problems and were presented in previous conferences. Its aim is to confirm the potentialities of a method which combines the high modeling ability of the piecewise deterministic processes and the great computing power inherent to the Monte Carlo simulation. This method is now applied to a simplified but realistic offshore oil production system which is a hybrid system combining continuous-time and discrete-time dynamics. The results thus obtained have been compared with those given by an ad hoc Petri net model for comparison and validation purposes

  8. A new applied approach for executing computations with infinite and infinitesimal quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Sergeyev, Yaroslav D

    2012-01-01

    A new computational methodology for executing calculations with infinite and infinitesimal quantities is described in this paper. It is based on the principle `The part is less than the whole' introduced by Ancient Greeks and applied to all numbers (finite, infinite, and infinitesimal) and to all sets and processes (finite and infinite). It is shown that it becomes possible to write down finite, infinite, and infinitesimal numbers by a finite number of symbols as particular cases of a unique framework. The new methodology has allowed us to introduce the Infinity Computer working with such numbers (its simulator has already been realized). Examples dealing with divergent series, infinite sets, and limits are given.

  9. Optical waveguiding and applied photonics technological aspects, experimental issue approaches and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronics--technology based on applications light such as micro/nano quantum electronics, photonic devices, laser for measurements and detection--has become an important field of research. Many applications and physical problems concerning optoelectronics are analyzed in Optical Waveguiding and Applied Photonics.The book is organized in order to explain how to implement innovative sensors starting from basic physical principles. Applications such as cavity resonance, filtering, tactile sensors, robotic sensor, oil spill detection, small antennas and experimental setups using lasers are a

  10. Essays on environmental policy analysis: Computable general equilibrium approaches applied to Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis consists of three essays within the field of applied environmental economics, with the common basic aim of analyzing effects of Swedish environmental policy. Starting out from Swedish environmental goals, the thesis assesses a range of policy-related questions. The objective is to quantify policy outcomes by constructing and applying numerical models especially designed for environmental policy analysis. Static and dynamic multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium models are developed in order to analyze the following issues. The costs and benefits of a domestic carbon dioxide (CO2) tax reform. Special attention is given to how these costs and benefits depend on the structure of the tax system and, furthermore, how they depend on policy-induced changes in 'secondary' pollutants. The effects of allowing for emission permit trading through time when the domestic long-term domestic environmental goal is specified in CO2 stock terms. The effects on long-term projected economic growth and welfare that are due to damages from emission flow and accumulation of 'local' pollutants (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), as well as the outcome of environmental policy when costs and benefits are considered in an integrated environmental-economic framework

  11. The Process of Laying Concrete and Analysis of Operations Applying the Lean Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidmantas Gramauskas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers Lean philosophy ‘Just in Time’, a value stream map and total quality management principles applying them to the construction. In order to follow these principles, a case study was performed, thus observing and recording the process of laying concrete in three houses where a lower ground floor was casted employing fiber concrete. The collected data were required to fragment the process of laying concrete into smaller operations and examine each operation independently. The examination of operations was introduced in certain units of measurement – time, the number of workers, cubic meters of concrete used, space area, etc. This information helped with distinguishing useful operations from useless actions bringing no value to the product. The previously mentioned methods can be applied to useless operations to reduce their duration or even eliminate them. The main problem is the process of laying concrete splitting it into smaller operations, operation analysis and adaptation of Lean principles. The implementation of Lean system can reduce waste and increase the value of the final product.

  12. Skill-Based Approach Applied to Gifted Students, its Potential in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Alexi Almazán-Anaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, as a reflective essay, the current educational situation of gifted students (with more intelligence than the average in Latin America and the possibility of using skill-based education within differentiated programs (intended for gifted individuals, a sector where scarce scientific studies have been done and a consensus of an ideal educative model has not been reached yet. Currently these students, in general, lack of specialized educational assistance intended to identify and develop their cognitive abilities, so it is estimated that a high percentage (95% of such population is not detected in the traditional education system. Although there are differentiated education models, they are rarely applied. A student-centered education program is a solution proposed to apply this pedagogical model and cover such population. The characteristics of this program that do support differentiated instruction for gifted individuals compatible with experiences in the US, Europe and Latin America are analyzed. Finally, this paper concludes with an analysis of possible research areas that, if explored in the future, would help us to find answers about the feasibility and relation between skill-based programs and differentiated education for gifted students.

  13. Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of CFD Simulations Applied to Backward Facing Step-Application of CFD Uncertainty Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis E.; LLie, Marcel; Shallhorn, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow field and there is no standard method for evaluating uncertainty in the CFD community. This paper describes an approach to -validate the . uncertainty in using CFD. The method will use the state of the art uncertainty analysis applying different turbulence niodels and draw conclusions on which models provide the least uncertainty and which models most accurately predict the flow of a backward facing step.

  14. Applying adaptive management in resource use in South African National Parks: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Scheepers

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks has a history of formal and informal natural resource use that is characterised by polarised views on national conservation interests and benefits to communities. Current efforts aim to determine the sustainability of existing resource use in parks and to formalise these activities through the development of resource use protocols. The resource use policy of SANParks outlines principles for sustainable resource use, including greater involvement of local communities in management of protected areas and an adaptive management approach to determining sustainable use levels. This paper examines three case studies on plant use in national parks with regard to the development of criteria and indicators for monitoring resource use, and the role of thresholds of potential concern in measuring effectiveness of managing for sustainable use levels. Opportunities and challenges for resource use management are identified. Findings show that platforms for discussion and knowledge sharing, including research committees and community associations, are critical to building relationships, trust and a shared vision of sustainable resource use between stakeholders. However, additional capacity building is needed to enable local community structures to manage internal social conflicts and jealousy, and to participate fully in monitoring efforts. Long-term monitoring is essential for developing flexible harvest prescriptions for plant use, but this is a time-consuming and resource-intensive exercise. Flexible management strategies are difficult to implement and sometimes command-and-control measures are necessary to protect rare or endangered species. A holistic approach that considers resource use in national parks as a complement to broader community development initiatives offers a way forward.Conservation implications: There is no blueprint for the development of sustainable resource use systems and resource use is often

  15. Applying attachment theory to effective practice with hard-to-reach youth: the AMBIT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, Dickon; Fuggle, Peter; Fonagy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent Mentalization-Based Integrative Treatment (AMBIT) is a developing approach to working with "hard-to-reach" youth burdened with multiple co-occurring morbidities. This article reviews the core features of AMBIT, exploring applications of attachment theory to understand what makes young people "hard to reach," and provide routes toward increased security in their attachment to a worker. Using the theory of the pedagogical stance and epistemic ("pertaining to knowledge") trust, we show how it is the therapeutic worker's accurate mentalizing of the adolescent that creates conditions for new learning, including the establishment of alternative (more secure) internal working models of helping relationships. This justifies an individual keyworker model focused on maintaining a mentalizing stance toward the adolescent, but simultaneously emphasizing the critical need for such keyworkers to remain well connected to their wider team, avoiding activation of their own attachment behaviors. We consider the role of AMBIT in developing a shared team culture (shared experiences, shared language, shared meanings), toward creating systemic contexts supportive of such relationships. We describe how team training may enhance the team's ability to serve as a secure base for keyworkers, and describe an innovative approach to treatment manualization, using a wiki format as one way of supporting this process. PMID:25782529

  16. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  17. Multiobjective scatter search approach with new combination scheme applied to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ► Economic dispatch. ► We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ► Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability

  18. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, e-mail: silvaem@cdtn.br, e-mail: aclc@cdtn.br, e-mail: reissc@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  19. Applying quantitative structure–activity relationship approaches to nanotoxicology: Current status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential (eco)toxicological hazard posed by engineered nanoparticles is a major scientific and societal concern since several industrial sectors (e.g. electronics, biomedicine, and cosmetics) are exploiting the innovative properties of nanostructures resulting in their large-scale production. Many consumer products contain nanomaterials and, given their complex life-cycle, it is essential to anticipate their (eco)toxicological properties in a fast and inexpensive way in order to mitigate adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this context, the application of the structure–toxicity paradigm to nanomaterials represents a promising approach. Indeed, according to this paradigm, it is possible to predict toxicological effects induced by chemicals on the basis of their structural similarity with chemicals for which toxicological endpoints have been previously measured. These structure–toxicity relationships can be quantitative or qualitative in nature and they can predict toxicological effects directly from the physicochemical properties of the entities (e.g. nanoparticles) of interest. Therefore, this approach can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal testing. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent key advances in the field of QSAR modelling of nanomaterial toxicity, to identify the major gaps in research required to accelerate the use of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) methods, and to provide a roadmap for future research needed to achieve QSAR models useful for regulatory purposes

  20. Applying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to support Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Scholz, Stefan; Cronin, Mark T; Edwards, Stephen W; de Knecht, Joop; Crofton, Kevin; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Hartung, Thomas; Worth, Andrew; Patlewicz, Grace

    2014-12-01

    Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or already on the market. The need for timely and robust decision making demands that regulatory toxicity testing becomes more cost-effective and efficient. One way to realize this goal is by being more strategic in directing testing resources; focusing on chemicals of highest concern, limiting testing to the most probable hazards, or targeting the most vulnerable species. Hypothesis driven Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) have been proposed as practical solutions to such strategic testing. In parallel, the development of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework, which provides information on the causal links between a molecular initiating event (MIE), intermediate key events (KEs) and an adverse outcome (AO) of regulatory concern, offers the biological context to facilitate development of IATA for regulatory decision making. This manuscript summarizes discussions at the Workshop entitled "Advancing AOPs for Integrated Toxicology and Regulatory Applications" with particular focus on the role AOPs play in informing the development of IATA for different regulatory purposes. PMID:25261300

  1. Applying quantitative structure-activity relationship approaches to nanotoxicology: current status and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, David A; Mombelli, Enrico; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Tran, Lang; Worth, Andrew; Fadeel, Bengt; McCall, Maxine J

    2013-11-01

    The potential (eco)toxicological hazard posed by engineered nanoparticles is a major scientific and societal concern since several industrial sectors (e.g. electronics, biomedicine, and cosmetics) are exploiting the innovative properties of nanostructures resulting in their large-scale production. Many consumer products contain nanomaterials and, given their complex life-cycle, it is essential to anticipate their (eco)toxicological properties in a fast and inexpensive way in order to mitigate adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this context, the application of the structure-toxicity paradigm to nanomaterials represents a promising approach. Indeed, according to this paradigm, it is possible to predict toxicological effects induced by chemicals on the basis of their structural similarity with chemicals for which toxicological endpoints have been previously measured. These structure-toxicity relationships can be quantitative or qualitative in nature and they can predict toxicological effects directly from the physicochemical properties of the entities (e.g. nanoparticles) of interest. Therefore, this approach can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal testing. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent key advances in the field of QSAR modelling of nanomaterial toxicity, to identify the major gaps in research required to accelerate the use of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods, and to provide a roadmap for future research needed to achieve QSAR models useful for regulatory purposes. PMID:23165187

  2. Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range; Modelisation de l'essai Charpy par l'approche locale de la rupture. Application au cas de l'acier 16MND5 dans le domaine de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, B

    2001-07-15

    Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root

  3. The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

  4. Developing scenarios to assess future landslide risks: a model-based approach applied to mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In the last century, European mountain landscapes have experienced significant transformations. Natural and anthropogenic changes, climate changes, touristic and industrial development, socio-economic interactions, and their implications in terms of LUCC (land use and land cover changes) have directly influenced the spatial organization and vulnerability of mountain landscapes. This study is conducted as part of the SAMCO project founded by the French National Science Agency (ANR). It aims at developing a methodological approach, combining various tools, modelling platforms and methods, to identify vulnerable regions to landslide hazards accounting for futures LUCC. It presents an integrated approach combining participative scenarios and a LULC changes simulation models to assess the combined effects of LUCC and climate change on landslide risks in the Cauterets valley (French Pyrenees Mountains) up to 2100. Through vulnerability and risk mapping, the objective is to gather information to support landscape planning and implement land use strategies with local stakeholders for risk management. Four contrasting scenarios are developed and exhibit contrasting trajectories of socio-economic development. Prospective scenarios are based on national and international socio-economic contexts relying on existing assessment reports. The methodological approach integrates knowledge from local stakeholders to refine each scenario during their construction and to reinforce their plausibility and relevance by accounting for local specificities, e.g. logging and pastoral activities, touristic development, urban planning, etc. A process-based model, the Forecasting Scenarios for Mountains (ForeSceM) model, developed on the Dinamica Ego modelling platform is used to spatially allocate futures LUCC for each prospective scenario. Concurrently, a spatial decision support tool, i.e. the SYLVACCESS model, is used to identify accessible areas for forestry in scenario projecting logging

  5. Applying Business Process Oriented Learning in Industry: The PROLIX Solution Approach Based on a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Pappa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With human capital being critical to corporate success, aligning individual training with business priorities, emerges as a key challenge. Business process oriented learning unites corporate training and business process management. This entails integrating learning into daily working tasks and putting in place mechanisms for the effective management of business processes, organisational roles, competencies and learning processes, to reduce the time to fill competency gaps and to build proficiency according to evolving business needs. In this paper we outline the main characteristics of the PROLIX approach for business-driven training and provide a practical example of how this concept can help a typical vehicle manufacturer effectively resolve competency related business problems stemming from changes in supply chain management.

  6. The DPSIR approach applied to marine eutrophication in LCIA as a learning tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Olsen, Stig Irving

    : environmentally sustainable, technologically feasible, economically viable, socially desirable, legally permissible, and administratively achievable. Specific LCIA indicators may provide preliminary information to support a precautionary approach to act earlier on D-P and contribute to sustainability. Impacts...... eutrophication. The goal is to promote an educational example of environmental impacts assessment through science-based tools to predict the impacts, communicate knowledge and support decisions. The example builds on the (D) high demand for fixation of reactive nitrogen that supports several socio......-economic secondary drivers. The nitrogen exported to marine coastal ecosystems (P), after point and nonpoint source emissions, promote changes in the environmental conditions (S) such as low dissolved oxygen levels that cause the (I) effects on biota. These, stimulate society into designing actions ® to modify D...

  7. Reformulation linearization technique based branch-and-reduce approach applied to regional water supply system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Fujun; Bayraksan, Güzin; Lansey, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    A regional water supply system design problem that determines pipe and pump design parameters and water flows over a multi-year planning horizon is considered. A non-convex nonlinear model is formulated and solved by a branch-and-reduce global optimization approach. The lower bounding problem is constructed via a three-pronged effort that involves transforming the space of certain decision variables, polyhedral outer approximations, and the Reformulation Linearization Technique (RLT). Range reduction techniques are employed systematically to speed up convergence. Computational results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm; in particular, the critical role range reduction techniques could play in RLT based branch-and-bound methods. Results also indicate using reclaimed water not only saves freshwater sources but is also a cost-effective non-potable water source in arid regions. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305215X.2015.1016508.

  8. The integrative taxonomic approach applied to porifera: a case study of the homoscleromorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Lavrov, Dennis V; Ruiz, César A; Pérez, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    The two main scientific tasks of taxonomy are species' delineation and classification. These two tasks are often treated differently, with classification accomplished by newly-developed phylogenetic methods, often based on molecular sequences, while delimitation of species is conducted by what is often considered to be an "old-fashioned" typological approach based on morphological description. A new "integrative taxonomy" has been proposed which maintains that species delimitation should be a multidisciplinary undertaking combining several independent datasets. Here we argue that the same principle is relevant to the classification of species. In the past 20 years, we assembled various datasets based on the external morphology, anatomy, cytology, spicule shapes, geography, reproduction, genetic sequences, and metabolomics of homoscleromorph sponges. We show how we used these datasets to describe new species of homoscleromorph sponges and to elucidate their phylogenetic relationships and their phylogenetic position within the phylum Porifera. PMID:23670632

  9. Contemporary approaches to control system specification and design applied to KAON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large data acquisition and control systems have evolved from early centralized computer systems to become multi-processor, distributed systems. While the complexity of these systems has increased the ability to reliably manage their construction has not kept pace. Structured Analysis and Real-time Structured Analysis have been used successfully to specify systems but, from a project management viewpoint, both lead to different classes of problems during implementation and maintenance. The KAON Factory central control system study employed a uniform approach to requirements analysis and architectural design. The methodology was based on well established object-oriented principles and was free of the problems inherent in the older methodologies. The methodology is presently being used to implement two systems at TRIUMF

  10. A chaotic quantum-behaved particle swarm approach applied to optimization of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is a population-based optimization technique of swarm intelligence field in which each solution called “particle” flies around in a multidimensional problem search space. During the flight, every particle adjusts its position according to its own experience, as well as the experience of neighboring particles, using the best position encountered by itself and its neighbors. In this paper, a new quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO) approach combined with Zaslavskii chaotic map sequences (QPSOZ) to shell and tube heat exchanger optimization is presented based on the minimization from economic view point. The results obtained in this paper for two case studies using the proposed QPSOZ approach, are compared with those obtained by using genetic algorithm, PSO and classical QPSO showing the best performance of QPSOZ. In order to verify the capability of the proposed method, two case studies are also presented showing that significant cost reductions are feasible with respect to traditionally designed exchangers. Referring to the literature test cases, reduction of capital investment up to 20% and 6% for the first and second cases, respectively, were obtained. Therefore, the annual pumping cost decreased markedly 72% and 75%, with an overall decrease of total cost up to 30% and 27%, respectively, for the cases 1 and 2, respectively, showing the improvement potential of the proposed method, QPSOZ. - Highlights: ► Shell and tube heat exchanger is minimized from economic view point. ► A new quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO) combined with Zaslavskii chaotic map sequences (QPSOZ) is proposed. ► Reduction of capital investment up to 20% and 6% for the first and second cases was obtained. ► Annual pumping cost decreased 72% and 75%, with an overall decrease of total cost up to 30% and 27% using QPSOZ.

  11. Modeling temperature and moisture fields in conditioned spaces using zonal approach, including sorption phenomena in buildings materials; Modelisation thermo-hydro-aeraulique des locaux climatises selon l'approche zonale (prise en compte des phenomenes de sorption d'humidite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro Mendoca, K.

    2004-05-15

    Building simulation models represent in our days an important tool for building conception and performance analysis. Although moisture interacts in many ways with the whole building affecting therefore its behavior, frequently these models neglects the interactions between them. In addition, in most of them, indoor air conditions are considered uniform, which is a non-realistic assumption in conditioned spaces. In this work, a model to predict temperature and moisture fields in conditioned spaces, using zonal approach, is proposed. This method is based in dividing spatially a room in a relative small number of zones, typically on the order of tens to hundreds, where the state variables of air are considered uniform, with the exception of pressure that varies hydrostatically. While not as fine-grained as CFD simulation, zonal models do give useful information about temperature and moisture distributions that is important in comfort analysis. The proposed model was structured in three groups of sub-models representing the three building domains: indoor air, envelope and HVAC system. The indoor air sub-model is related to the indoor air space, where airflow speed can be considered weak. The envelope sub-model is related to the radiation exchanges between envelope and its neighborhood, and to the simultaneous heat and mass transfers across the envelope material. This latest can be represented by four sub-models of different complexity levels, with two of them taking into account moisture adsorption and desorption by building materials. Concerning to the HVAC system model, it refers to the whole system that means equipment, control and specific airflow from equipment. All sub-models were coupled into a modular simulation environment, SPARK, well-adapted to compare different models. The applicability of the proposed model is shown by two examples. The first one shows the importance of considering moisture sorption phenomena in the prediction of indoor air conditions

  12. Kinetics-based phase change approach for VOF method applied to boiling flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifani, Paolo; Geurts, Bernard; Kuerten, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of boiling flows are performed to better understand the interaction of boiling phenomena with turbulence. The multiphase flow is simulated by solving a single set of equations for the whole flow field according to the one-fluid formulation, using a VOF interface capturing method. Interface terms, related to surface tension, interphase mass transfer and latent heat, are added at the phase boundary. The mass transfer rate across the interface is derived from kinetic theory and subsequently coupled with the continuum representation of the flow field. The numerical model was implemented in OpenFOAM and validated against 3 cases: evaporation of a spherical uniformly heated droplet, growth of a spherical bubble in a superheated liquid and two dimensional film boiling. The computational model will be used to investigate the change in turbulence intensity in a fully developed channel flow due to interaction with boiling heat and mass transfer. In particular, we will focus on the influence of the vapor bubble volume fraction on enhancing heat and mass transfer. Furthermore, we will investigate kinetic energy spectra in order to identify the dynamics associated with the wakes of vapor bubbles. Department of Applied Mathematics, 7500 AE Enschede, NL.

  13. Substructuring FE-XFE approaches applied to three-dimensional crack propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyart, E.; Duflot, M.; Coulon, D.; Martiny, P.; Pardoen, T.; Remacle, J. F.; Lani, F.

    2008-06-01

    Two substructuring methods are investigated in order to allow for the use of the eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) within commercial finite element (FE) codes without need for modifying their kernel. The global FE problem is decomposed into two subdomains, the safe domain and the cracked domain based on the value of the level sets representing the crack. The safe domain is treated by the host FE software while the cracked domain is treated by an independent XFE code. The first substructuring method consists of calculating the Schur matrix of a cracked super-element with the XFE code. The second technique introduces the finite element tearing and interconnecting method (FETI) which ensures the compatibility of the displacements at the interface between the cracked and safe subdomains. The stiffness matrices and nodal forces are provided by the XFE and FE codes for the cracked and safe subdomains, respectively. The solutions obtained with these two techniques are rigorously equivalent to those computed with the stand-alone XFE code. First, the computational efficiency of the two approaches is demonstrated. Second, a validation is proposed towards comparison with reference values of the stress intensity factors in simple 3D cracked geometries. Finally, this contribution presents an application of the FE-XFE-FETI method to the computation of the stress intensity factor induced by a crack inside a hydraulic cylinder under internal pressure.

  14. Applying of an Ontology based Modeling Approach to Cultural Heritage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPOVICI, D.-M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Any virtual environment (VE built in a classical way is dedicated to a very specific domain. Its modification or even adaptation to another domain requires an expensive human intervention measured in time and money. This way, the product, that means the VE, returns at the first phases of the development process. In a previous work we proposed an approach that combines domain ontologies and conceptual modeling to construct more accurate VEs. Our method is based on the description of the domain knowledge in a standard format and the assisted creation (using these pieces of knowledge of the VE. This permits the explanation within the virtual reality (VR simulation of the semantic of the whole context and of each object. This knowledge may be then transferred to the public users. In this paper we prove the effectiveness of our method on the construction process of an VE that simulates the organization of a Greek-Roman colony situated on the Black Sea coast and the economic and social activities of its people.

  15. Applying insights from biofilm biology to drug development - can a new approach be developed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Ciofu, Oana; Molin, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Most of the research on bacterial pathogenesis has focused on acute infections, but much less is known about the pathogenesis of infections caused by bacteria that grow as aggregates in biofilms. These infections tend to be chronic as they resist innate and adaptive immune defence mechanisms as w...... pathology, and discuss how a deep insight into the physical and biological characteristics of biofilms can inform therapeutic strategies and molecular targets for the development of anti-biofilm drugs.......Most of the research on bacterial pathogenesis has focused on acute infections, but much less is known about the pathogenesis of infections caused by bacteria that grow as aggregates in biofilms. These infections tend to be chronic as they resist innate and adaptive immune defence mechanisms as...... well as antibiotics, and the treatment of biofilm infections presents a considerable unmet clinical need. To date, there are no drugs that specifically target bacteria in biofilms; however, several approaches are in early-stage development. Here, we review current insights into biofilm physiology and...

  16. Applying an information transmission approach to extract valence electron information from reconstructed exit waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiang, E-mail: q.xu@tudelft.nl [EMAT, University of Antwerp, 2020 Antwerp Groenenborgerlaan, 171, U316 (Belgium); National Centre for HREM, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Lorentzweg 1, Delft (Netherlands); Zandbergen, Henny W. [National Centre for HREM, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Lorentzweg 1, Delft (Netherlands); Van Dyck, Dirk [EMAT, University of Antwerp, 2020 Antwerp Groenenborgerlaan, 171, U316 (Belgium); Vison Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, 2020 Antwerp Groenenborgerlaan, 171, U316 (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    The knowledge of the valence electron distribution is essential for understanding the properties of materials. However this information is difficult to obtain from HREM images because it is easily obscured by the large scattering contribution of core electrons and by the strong dynamical scattering process. In order to develop a sensitive method to extract the information of valence electrons, we have used an information transmission approach to describe the electron interaction with the object. The scattered electron wave is decomposed in a set of basic functions, which are the eigen functions of the Hamiltonian of the projected electrostatic object potential. Each basic function behaves as a communication channel that transfers the information of the object with its own transmission characteristic. By properly combining the components of the different channels, it is possible to design a scheme to extract the information of valence electron distribution from a series of exit waves. The method is described theoretically and demonstrated by means of computer simulations. -- Research highlights: {yields} Dynamic scattering and image formation processes limit interpretation of HREM images. {yields} Electron distribution (ED) can be obtained by solving two inverse problems. {yields} These two are: Exit wave reconstruction and retrieval of ED from exit waves. {yields} The two inverse problems are inherently same in view of information transmission. {yields} The method to solve one of the problems can also be used for the other.

  17. A NURBS-based finite element model applied to geometrically nonlinear elastodynamics using a corotational approach

    KAUST Repository

    Espath, L. F R

    2015-02-03

    A numerical model to deal with nonlinear elastodynamics involving large rotations within the framework of the finite element based on NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) basis is presented. A comprehensive kinematical description using a corotational approach and an orthogonal tensor given by the exact polar decomposition is adopted. The state equation is written in terms of corotational variables according to the hypoelastic theory, relating the Jaumann derivative of the Cauchy stress to the Eulerian strain rate.The generalized-α method (Gα) method and Generalized Energy-Momentum Method with an additional parameter (GEMM+ξ) are employed in order to obtain a stable and controllable dissipative time-stepping scheme with algorithmic conservative properties for nonlinear dynamic analyses.The main contribution is to show that the energy-momentum conservation properties and numerical stability may be improved once a NURBS-based FEM in the spatial discretization is used. Also it is shown that high continuity can postpone the numerical instability when GEMM+ξ with consistent mass is employed; likewise, increasing the continuity class yields a decrease in the numerical dissipation. A parametric study is carried out in order to show the stability and energy budget in terms of several properties such as continuity class, spectral radius and lumped as well as consistent mass matrices.

  18. Applying a participatory approach to the promotion of a culture of respect during childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Sando, David; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Chalamilla, Guerino; Langer, Ana; McDonald, Kathleen P

    2016-01-01

    Disrespect and abuse (D&A) during facility-based childbirth is a topic of growing concern and attention globally. Several recent studies have sought to quantify the prevalence of D&A, however little evidence exists about effective interventions to mitigate disrespect and abuse, and promote respectful maternity care. In an accompanying article, we describe the process of selecting, implementing, and evaluating a package of interventions designed to prevent and reduce disrespect and abuse in a large urban hospital in Tanzania. Though that study was not powered to detect a definitive impact on reducing D&A, the results showed important changes in intermediate outcomes associated with this goal. In this commentary, we describe the factors that enabled this effect, especially the participatory approach we adopted to engage key stakeholders throughout the planning and implementation of the program. Based on our experience and findings, we conclude that a visible, sustained, and participatory intervention process; committed facility leadership; management support; and staff engagement throughout the project contributed to a marked change in the culture of the hospital to one that values and promotes respectful maternity care. For these changes to translate into dignified care during childbirth for all women in a sustainable fashion, institutional commitment to providing the necessary resources and staff will be needed. PMID:27424514

  19. Probabilistic approaches applied to damage and embrittlement of structural materials in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the long-term mechanical behaviour and damage of structural materials in nuclear power plants. An experimental way is first followed to study the thermal fatigue of austenitic stainless steels with a focus on the effects of mean stress and bi-axiality. Furthermore, the measurement of displacement fields by Digital Image Correlation techniques has been successfully used to detect early crack initiation during high cycle fatigue tests. A probabilistic model based on the shielding zones surrounding existing cracks is proposed to describe the development of crack networks. A more numeric way is then followed to study the embrittlement consequences of the irradiation hardening of the bainitic steel constitutive of nuclear pressure vessels. A crystalline plasticity law, developed in agreement with lower scale results (Dislocation Dynamics), is introduced in a Finite Element code in order to run simulations on aggregates and obtain the distributions of the maximum principal stress inside a Representative Volume Element. These distributions are then used to improve the classical Local Approach to Fracture which estimates the probability for a microstructural defect to be loaded up to a critical level. (author)

  20. Classification by a neural network approach applied to non destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography is used by EDF for pipe inspection in nuclear power plants in order to detect defects. The radiographs obtained are then digitized in a well-defined protocol. The aim of EDF consists of developing a non destructive testing system for recognizing defects. In this paper, we describe the recognition procedure of areas with defects. We first present the digitization protocol, specifies the poor quality of images under study and propose a procedure to enhance defects. We then examine the problem raised by the choice of good features for classification. After having proved that statistical or standard textural features such as homogeneity, entropy or contrast are not relevant, we develop a geometrical-statistical approach based on the cooperation between signal correlations study and regional extrema analysis. The principle consists of analysing and comparing for areas with defects and without any defect, the evolution of conditional probabilities matrices for increasing neighborhood sizes, the shape of variograms and the location of regional minima. We demonstrate that anisotropy and surface of series of 'comet tails' associated with probability matrices, variograms slope and statistical indices, regional extrema location, are features able to discriminate areas with defects from areas without any. The classification is then realized by a neural network, which structure, properties and learning mechanisms are detailed. Finally we discuss the results. (authors). 21 refs., 5 figs

  1. Exposure limit values for nanomaterials--capacity and willingness of users to apply a precautionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter; Dorbeck-Jung, Bärbel

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union, the legal obligation for employers to provide a safe workplace for processing manufactured nanomaterials is a challenge when there is a lack of hazard information. The attitude of key stakeholders in industry, trade unions, branch and employers' organizations, and government policy advisors toward nano reference values (NRVs) has been investigated in a pilot study that was initiated by a coalition of Dutch employers' organizations and Dutch trade unions. NRVs are developed as provisional substitutes for health-based occupational exposure limits or derived no-effect levels and are based on a precautionary approach. NRVs have been introduced as a voluntary risk management instrument for airborne nanomaterials at the workplace. A measurement strategy to deal with simultaneously emitting process-generated nanoparticles was developed, allowing employers to use the NRVs for risk assessment. The motivational posture of most companies involved in the pilot study appears to be pro-active regarding worker protection and acquiescent to NRVs. An important driver to use NRVs seems to be a temporary certainty employers experience with regard to their legal obligation to take preventive action. Many interviewees welcome the voluntary character of NRVs, though trade unions and a few companies advocate a more binding status. PMID:23216200

  2. Equivalent electrical network model approach applied to a double acting low temperature differential Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An equivalent electrical network modeling of Stirling engine is proposed. • This model is applied to a membrane low temperate double acting Stirling engine. • The operating conditions (self-startup and steady state behavior) are defined. • An experimental engine is presented and tested. • The model is validated against experimental results. - Abstract: This work presents a network model to simulate the periodic behavior of a double acting free piston type Stirling engine. Each component of the engine is considered independently and its equivalent electrical circuit derived. When assembled in a global electrical network, a global model of the engine is established. Its steady behavior can be obtained by the analysis of the transfer function for one phase from the piston to the expansion chamber. It is then possible to simulate the dynamic (steady state stroke and operation frequency) as well as the thermodynamic performances (output power and efficiency) for given mean pressure, heat source and heat sink temperatures. The motion amplitude especially can be determined by the spring-mass properties of the moving parts and the main nonlinear effects which are taken into account in the model. The thermodynamic features of the model have then been validated using the classical isothermal Schmidt analysis for a given stroke. A three-phase low temperature differential double acting free membrane architecture has been built and tested. The experimental results are compared with the model and a satisfactory agreement is obtained. The stroke and operating frequency are predicted with less than 2% error whereas the output power discrepancy is of about 30%. Finally, some optimization routes are suggested to improve the design and maximize the performances aiming at waste heat recovery applications

  3. A local influence approach applied to binary data from a psychiatric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ivy; Molenberghs, Geert; Aerts, Marc; Thijs, Herbert; Van Steen, Kristel

    2003-06-01

    Recently, a lot of concern has been raised about assumptions needed in order to fit statistical models to incomplete multivariate and longitudinal data. In response, research efforts are being devoted to the development of tools that assess the sensitivity of such models to often strong but always, at least in part, unverifiable assumptions. Many efforts have been devoted to longitudinal data, primarily in the selection model context, although some researchers have expressed interest in the pattern-mixture setting as well. A promising tool, proposed by Verbeke et al. (2001, Biometrics 57, 43-50), is based on local influence (Cook, 1986, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 48, 133-169). These authors considered the Diggle and Kenward (1994, Applied Statistics 43, 49-93) model, which is based on a selection model, integrating a linear mixed model for continuous outcomes with logistic regression for dropout. In this article, we show that a similar idea can be developed for multivariate and longitudinal binary data, subject to nonmonotone missingness. We focus on the model proposed by Baker, Rosenberger, and DerSimonian (1992, Statistics in Medicine 11, 643-657). The original model is first extended to allow for (possibly continuous) covariates, whereafter a local influence strategy is developed to support the model-building process. The model is able to deal with nonmonotone missingness but has some limitations as well, stemming from the conditional nature of the model parameters. Some analytical insight is provided into the behavior of the local influence graphs. PMID:12926726

  4. Bioremediation Approaches in a Laboratory Activity for the Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology (IBAM Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Raiger Iustman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology is an optional 128h-course for Chemistry and Biology students at the Faculty of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This course is usually attended by 25 students, working in teams of two. The curriculum, with 8 lab exercises, includes an oil bioremediation practice covering an insight of bioremediation processes: the influence of pollutants on autochthonous microbiota, biodegrader isolation and biosurfactant production for bioavailability understanding. The experimental steps are: (A evaluation of microbial tolerance to pollutants by constructing pristine soil microcosms contaminated with diesel or xylene and (B isolation of degraders and biosurfactant production analysis. To check microbial tolerance, microcosms are incubated during one week at 25-28ºC. Samples are collected at 0, 4 and every 48 h for CFU/g soil testing. An initial decrease of total CFU/g related to toxicity is noticed. At the end of the experiment, a recovery of the CFU number is observed, evidencing enrichment in biodegraders. Some colonies from the CFU counting plates are streaked in M9-agar with diesel as sole carbon source. After a week, isolates are inoculated on M9-Broth supplemented with diesel to induce biosurfactant production. Surface tension and Emulsification Index are measured in culture supernatants to visualize tensioactive effect of bacterial products. Besides the improvement in the good microbiological practices, the students show enthusiasm in different aspects, depending on their own interests. While biology students explore and learn new concepts on solubility, emulsions and bioavailability, chemistry students show curiosity in bacterial behavior and manipulation of microorganisms for environmental benefits.

  5. Increasing oral absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors: a prodrug transporter approach applied to oseltamivir analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-02-01

    Poor oral absorption is one of the limiting factors in utilizing the full potential of polar antiviral agents. The neuraminidase target site requires a polar chemical structure for high affinity binding, thus limiting oral efficacy of many high affinity ligands. The aim of this study was to overcome this poor oral absorption barrier, utilizing prodrug to target the apical brush border peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOCarb) is a highly active polar antiviral agent with insufficient oral bioavailability (4%) to be an effective therapeutic agent. In this report we utilize a carrier-mediated targeted prodrug approach to improve the oral absorption of GOCarb. Acyloxy(alkyl) ester based amino acid linked prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated as potential substrates of mucosal transporters, e.g., PEPT1. Prodrugs were also evaluated for their chemical and enzymatic stability. PEPT1 transport studies included [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake inhibition in Caco-2 cells and cellular uptake experiments using HeLa cells overexpressing PEPT1. The intestinal membrane permeabilities of the selected prodrugs and the parent drug were then evaluated for epithelial cell transport across Caco-2 monolayers, and in the in situ rat intestinal jejunal perfusion model. Prodrugs exhibited a pH dependent stability with higher stability at acidic pHs. Significant inhibition of uptake (IC(50) 30-fold increase in affinity compared to GOCarb. The l-valyl prodrug exhibited significant enhancement of uptake in PEPT1/HeLa cells and compared favorably with the well-absorbed valacyclovir. Transepithelial permeability across Caco-2 monolayers showed that these amino acid prodrugs have a 2-5-fold increase in permeability as compared to the parent drug and showed that the l-valyl prodrug (P(app) = 1.7 × 10(-6) cm/s) has the potential to be rapidly transported across the epithelial cell apical membrane. Significantly, only the parent drug (GOCarb) appeared in the basolateral

  6. Increasing Oral Absorption of Polar Neuraminidase Inhibitors: A Prodrug Transporter Approach Applied to Oseltamivir Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    Poor oral absorption is one of the limiting factors in utilizing the full potential of polar antiviral agents. The neuraminidase target site requires a polar chemical structure for high affinity binding, thus limiting oral efficacy of many high affinity ligands. The aim of this study was to overcome this poor oral absorption barrier, utilizing prodrug to target the apical brush border peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOCarb) is a highly active polar antiviral agent (prodrug) with insufficient oral bioavailability (4%) to be an effective therapeutic agent. In this report we utilize a carrier-mediated targeted prodrug approach to improve the oral absorption of GOCarb. Acyloxy(alkyl) ester based amino acid linked prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated as potential substrates of mucosal transporters e.g. PEPT1. Prodrugs were also evaluated for their chemical and enzymatic stability. PEPT1 transport studies included [3H]Gly-Sar uptake inhibition and cellular uptake experiments using HeLa cells over-expressing PEPT1. The intestinal membrane permeability of the selected prodrugs and the parent drug were then evaluated for epithelial cell transport across Caco-2 monolayers, and in the in-situ rat intestinal jejunal perfusion model. Prodrugs exhibited a pH dependent stability with higher stability at acidic pHs. Significant inhibition of uptake (IC50 30 fold increase in affinity compared to GOCarb. The L-valyl prodrug exhibited significant enhancement of uptake in PEPT1/HeLa cells, and compared favorably with the well absorbed valacyclovir. Transepithelial permeability across Caco-2 monolayers showed that these amino acid prodrugs have a 2–5 fold increase in permeability as compared to the parent drug and showed that the L-valyl prodrug (Papp = 1.7×10−6 cm/sec) has the potential to be a rapidly transported across the epithelial cell apical membrane. Significantly, only the parent drug (GOCarb) appeared in the basolateral compartment

  7. A full-spectral Bayesian reconstruction approach based on the material decomposition model applied in dual-energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, C. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France and CNRS, SUPELEC, UNIV PARIS SUD, L2S, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rodet, T.; Mohammad-Djafari, A. [CNRS, SUPELEC, UNIV PARIS SUD, L2S, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legoupil, S. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-11-15

    necessary to have the accurate spectrum information about the source-detector system. When dealing with experimental data, the spectrum can be predicted by a Monte Carlo simulator. For the materials between water and bone, less than 5% separation errors are observed on the estimated decomposition fractions.Conclusions: The proposed approach is a statistical reconstruction approach based on a nonlinear forward model counting the full beam polychromaticity and applied directly to the projections without taking negative-log. Compared to the approaches based on linear forward models and the BHA correction approaches, it has advantages in noise robustness and reconstruction accuracy.

  8. Applying radiation approaches to the control of public risks from chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IF a hazardous agent has a threshold, prevention is the obvious measure of success. To the eyes of this author, success is also achieveable for a hazardous agent that may have no threshold and that causes its effects in a probabilistic manner. First, the technical people responsible for protection must be given a reasonable, well defined risk objective by governmental authorities. To the extent that they meet that objective (1) without unnecessarily increasing operational costs, (2) without interfering unnecessarily with operational activities, and (3) without diverting resources away from greater risks, they are successful. Considering these three qualifications, radiation protection for members of the public can hardly be presented as the panacea for other hazardous agents. It would be an error to dismiss the improvement opportunities discussed above as being of acdemic interest only. Decades of experience with radiation have demonstrated that these problems are both real adn significant. In the US the axioms discussed above are accepted as scientific fact for radiation by many policy makers, the news media and the public. For any operation the collective dose is calculated using zero dose as the lower limit of integration, the results are converted to cancer deaths using the risk coefficients, and decisions are made as though these deaths would actually occur without governmental intervention. As a result, billions of dollars and a very large number of highly skilled persons are being expended to protect against radiation doses far smaller than geographical variations in the natural radiation background. These expenditures are demanded by, and required for well-meaning, nontechnical people who have been misled. It is often stated by knowledgeable people that if the degree of protection required for radiation were also to be requested for the other hazards, human progress would come to a halt. If the radiation approaches are to be used in the control of public

  9. Bell Polynomials Approach Applied to (2 + 1-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-guang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bilinear form, bilinear Bäcklund transformation, and Lax pair of a (2 + 1-dimensional variable-coefficient Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada equation are derived through Bell polynomials. The integrable constraint conditions on variable coefficients can be naturally obtained in the procedure of applying the Bell polynomials approach. Moreover, the N-soliton solutions of the equation are constructed with the help of the Hirota bilinear method. Finally, the infinite conservation laws of this equation are obtained by decoupling binary Bell polynomials. All conserved densities and fluxes are illustrated with explicit recursion formulae.

  10. Multivariate Statistical Approach Applied to Sediment Source Tracking Through Quantification and Mineral Identification, Cheyenne River, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, J.; Kenner, S.; Long, A.

    2008-12-01

    Portions of the Cheyenne River are characterized as impaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency because of water-quality exceedences. The Cheyenne River watershed includes the Black Hills National Forest and part of the Badlands National Park. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Badlands National Park is a major contributor to the exceedances of the water-quality constituents for total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Water-quality data have been collected continuously since 2007, and in the second year of collection (2008), monthly grab and passive sediment samplers are being used to collect total suspended sediment and total dissolved solids in both base-flow and runoff-event conditions. In addition, sediment samples from the river channel, including bed, bank, and floodplain, have been collected. These samples are being analyzed at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology's X-Ray Diffraction Lab to quantify the mineralogy of the sediments. A multivariate statistical approach (including principal components, least squares, and maximum likelihood techniques) is applied to the mineral percentages that were characterized for each site to identify the contributing source areas that are causing exceedances of sediment transport in the Cheyenne River watershed. Results of the multivariate analysis demonstrate the likely sources of solids found in the Cheyenne River samples. A further refinement of the methods is in progress that utilizes a conceptual model which, when applied with the multivariate statistical approach, provides a better estimate for sediment sources.

  11. Automatic spline-smoothing approach applied to denoise Moroccan resistivity data phosphate deposit “disturbances” map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Bakkali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on presenting a method which is able to filter out noise and suppress outliers of sampled real functions under fairly general conditions. The automatic optimal spline-smoothing approach automatically determi-nes how a cubic spline should be adjusted in a least-squares optimal sense from an a priori selection of the number of points defining an adjusting spline, but not their location on that curve. The method is fast and easily allowed for selecting several knots, thereby adding desirable flexibility to the procedure. As an illustration, we apply the AOSSA method to Moroccan resistivity data phosphate deposit “disturbances” map. The AOSSA smoothing method is an e-fficient tool in interpreting geophysical potential field data which is particularly suitable in denoising, filtering and a-nalysing resistivity data singularities. The AOSSA smoothing and filtering approach was found to be consistently use-ful when applied to modeling surface phosphate “disturbances.”.

  12. Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. PMID:24627990

  13. Exploring Flexible and Multidisciplinary Approaches to Applied Science Research Project Assessments: Case Studies from the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepps, G.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Favors, J. E.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Within the NASA DEVELOP National Program, teams conduct rapid prototype and feasibility projects, applying NASA Earth Observations to a broad range of problems in diverse focus areas, including water resources, agriculture, disaster management, and ecological forecasting, with the goal of assisting partner organizations in their decision making processes. Projects vary in scope, design, and satellite data utilized. As a result, there is no "fixed" set of indicators that encompasses all relevant impacts of all projects. Rather, a flexible toolkit of both shared indicators and individualized approaches is needed to capture the diverse outcomes of these projects, while still allowing for comparability of the projects. This has been done through the creation of pre- and post-project partner assessments that capture partner needs, capabilities, and expectations. This provides both baseline data and an overview of project impacts on partners. Selected projects are then individually assessed in greater detail through partner follow-ups and research into the quantification of project impacts utilizing interdisciplinary approaches to fit each project. This process is discussed through three examples of project impact assessments that draw from varied discipline approaches including cost benefit analysis and ecosystem services.

  14. A holistic approach combining factor analysis, positive matrix factorization, and chemical mass balance applied to receptor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, N; Pushpavanam, S; Anu, N

    2013-12-01

    Rapid urbanization and population growth resulted in severe deterioration of air quality in most of the major cities in India. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the contribution of various sources of air pollution to enable us to determine effective control policies. The present work focuses on the holistic approach of combining factor analysis (FA), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and chemical mass balance (CMB) for receptor modeling in order to identify the sources and their contributions in air quality studies. Insight from the emission inventory was used to remove subjectivity in source identification. Each approach has its own limitations. Factor analysis can identify qualitatively a minimal set of important factors which can account for the variations in the measured data. This step uses information from emission inventory to qualitatively match source profiles with factor loadings. This signifies the identification of dominant sources through factors. PMF gives source profiles and source contributions from the entire receptor data matrix. The data from FA is applied for rank reduction in PMF. Whenever multiple solutions exist, emission inventory identifies source profiles uniquely, so that they have a physical relevance. CMB identifies the source contributions obtained from FA and PMF. The novel approach proposed here overcomes the limitations of the individual methods in a synergistic way. The adopted methodology is found valid for a synthetic data and also the data of field study. PMID:23832184

  15. Computationally efficient approach for solving time dependent diffusion equation with discrete temporal convolution applied to granular particles of battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senegačnik, Jure; Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a computationally efficient method for solving the time dependent diffusion equation in a granule of the Li-ion battery's granular solid electrode. The method, called Discrete Temporal Convolution method (DTC), is based on a discrete temporal convolution of the analytical solution of the step function boundary value problem. This approach enables modelling concentration distribution in the granular particles for arbitrary time dependent exchange fluxes that do not need to be known a priori. It is demonstrated in the paper that the proposed method features faster computational times than finite volume/difference methods and Padé approximation at the same accuracy of the results. It is also demonstrated that all three addressed methods feature higher accuracy compared to the quasi-steady polynomial approaches when applied to simulate the current densities variations typical for mobile/automotive applications. The proposed approach can thus be considered as one of the key innovative methods enabling real-time capability of the multi particle electrochemical battery models featuring spatial and temporal resolved particle concentration profiles.

  16. An up-close look at Urban Regeneration. Cultural approaches and applied strategies for the rebirth of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cangelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The term Regeneration defines new approaches to the transformation of cities, designed in such a way to move beyond traditional urban-restoration efforts centred around large-scale plans by proposing minimal, non-invasive initiatives that stress listening to the citizenry while bringing to bear creative capabilities and a knowledge of the new-generation technology that has taken on strategic importance when it comes to the development of urban areas. Emphasising an ethical awareness that the city constitutes a shared resource, and that any transformations it undergoes must meet the needs of the public as a whole, endowing the local territory with a strong core structure but a light architecture, is one promising approach to actual renewal efforts. In examining the characteristics of Italian cities, the author focuses on the potential for establishing an environmental balance of the urban metabolism through work on outlying areas, describing the technical and scientific contribution made to date by Technological and Environmental Planning and Design while identifying project design and planning as the path to be taken to arrive at applied assessment and confirmation of the hypothetical approaches explored.

  17. Film Cooling Effectiveness Enhancement Applying another Jet in the Upstream Neighbor of the Main Jet-Using LES Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow hydrodynamic effects and film cooling effectiveness of placing a coolant port (upstream jet just upstream of the main cooling jet were numerically investigated. The upstream jet was added such that the total cooling cross section (cross sections of the main and upstream jets remains constant, in comparison to the case of ordinary cooling jet. The finite volume method and the unsteady SIMPLE algorithm on a multiblock non-uniform staggered grid arrangement were applied. The large eddy simulation (LES approach with the one equation subgrid scale model was used. The jet to cross flow velocity ratio (for both of the main and the upstream jets is 0.5 and the cross flow Reynolds number (based on the main jet parameters is equal to 4700. The obtained results showed a significant improvement in the flow control capability and both centerline and span-wise averaged film cooling effectiveness applying the new cooling configuration. Effects of the upstream jet dimensions are also studied here. The obtained results showed that the span-wise width of the upstream jet has more essential influence on the cooling performance than that of its stream-wise width. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the film cooling performance could be enhanced even by applying an upstream jet which its temperature is as same as the cross-flow temperature, i.e. applying a hot upstream jet. Finally, it is shown that presence of the upstream jet decreases the stream-wise component of the velocity near the wall, which decreases the wall shear stress and the skin friction drag coefficient significantly.

  18. Workspace design for crane cabins applying a combined traditional approach and the Taguchi method for design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Veljković, Zorica A; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar Dj; Kosić Šotić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Procedures in the development process of crane cabins are arbitrary and subjective. Since approximately 42% of incidents in the construction industry are linked to them, there is a need to collect fresh anthropometric data and provide additional recommendations for design. In this paper, dimensioning of the crane cabin interior space was carried out using a sample of 64 crane operators' anthropometric measurements, in the Republic of Serbia, by measuring workspace with 10 parameters using nine measured anthropometric data from each crane operator. This paper applies experiments run via full factorial designs using a combined traditional and Taguchi approach. The experiments indicated which design parameters are influenced by which anthropometric measurements and to what degree. The results are expected to be of use for crane cabin designers and should assist them to design a cabin that may lead to less strenuous sitting postures and fatigue for operators, thus improving safety and accident prevention. PMID:26652099

  19. Analysis of Heart Rate Variability by Applying Nonlinear Methods with Different Approaches for Graphical Representation of Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Gospodinova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an open discussion over nonlinear properties of the Heart Rate Variability (HRV which takes place in most scientific studies nowadays. The HRV analysis is a non-invasive and effective tool that manages to reflect the autonomic nervous system regulation of the heart. The current study presents the results of HRV analysis based on 24-hour Holter ECG signals of healthy and unhealthy subjects. Analysis of heart intervals is performed with the use of original algorithms and software, developed by the authors, to quantify the irregularity of the heart rate. The main aim is the formation of the parametric estimate of patients’ health status, based on mathematical methods that are applied on cardiac physiology. The obtained results show that the analysis of Holter recordings by nonlinear methods may be appropriate for diagnostic, forecast and prevention of the pathological cardiac statuses. Different approaches of graphical representation and visualization of these results are used in order to verify this.

  20. Evaluating and reducing the effect of data corruption when applying bag of words approaches to medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, P; Baud, R; Geissbühler, A

    2002-12-01

    Unlike journal corpora, which are supposed to be carefully reviewed before being published, the quality of documents in a patient record are often corrupted by mispelled words and conventional graphies or abbreviations. After a survey of the domain, the paper focuses on evaluating the effect of such corruption on an information retrieval (IR) engine. The IR system uses a classical bag of words approach, with stems as representation items and term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) as weighting schema; we pay special attention to the normalization factor. First results shows that even low corruption levels (3%) do affect retrieval effectiveness (4-7%), whereas higher corruption levels can affect retrieval effectiveness by 25%. Then, we show that the use of an improved automatic spelling correction system, applied on the corrupted collection, can almost restore the retrieval effectiveness of the engine. PMID:12460633

  1. Migrating from Process Automation to Process Management Support: A Holistic Approach to Software Engineering applied to Media Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Badii

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available  This paper presents the on-going research performed in order to migrate from process automation to process management support in the context of media production and more specifically 3D cinematographic immersive and interactive production. The endeavour has been addressed on the basis of a holistic approach to software engineering applied to media production modelling to ensure design correctness, completeness and effectiveness. The focus of the designed application is on information and metadata management throughout the process in a similar fashion to that achieved in Decision Support Systems (DSS to facilitate well-grounded business decisions. The paper sets out the aims and objectives and the methodology deployed. The proposed solution is then described in some detail including the workflow to be supported and the experimental scenario as planned. The paper concludes with some preliminary conclusions and sets out the planned future work.

  2. 3D Imaging of Buried Dielectric Targets with a Tomographic Microwave Approach Applied to GPR Synthetic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Galli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective diagnostics with ground penetrating radar (GPR is strongly dependent on the amount and quality of available data as well as on the efficiency of the adopted imaging procedure. In this frame, the aim of the present work is to investigate the capability of a typical GPR system placed at a ground interface to derive three-dimensional (3D information on the features of buried dielectric targets (location, dimension, and shape. The scatterers can have size comparable to the resolution limits and can be placed in the shallow subsurface in the antenna near field. Referring to canonical multimonostatic configurations, the forward scattering problem is analyzed first, obtaining a variety of synthetic GPR traces and radargrams by means of a customized implementation of an electromagnetic CAD tool. By employing these numerical data, a full 3D frequency-domain microwave tomographic approach, specifically designed for the inversion problem at hand, is applied to tackle the imaging process. The method is tested here by considering various scatterers, with different shapes and dielectric contrasts. The selected tomographic results illustrate the aptitude of the proposed approach to recover the fundamental features of the targets even with critical GPR settings.

  3. Whole brain approaches for identification of microstructural abnormalities in individual patients: comparison of techniques applied to mild traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhee Kim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Group-wise analyses of DTI in mTBI have demonstrated evidence of traumatic axonal injury (TAI, associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although mTBI is likely to have a unique spatial pattern in each patient, group analyses implicitly assume that location of injury will be the same across patients. The purpose of this study was to optimize and validate a procedure for analysis of DTI images acquired in individual patients, which could detect inter-individual differences and be applied in the clinical setting, where patients must be assessed as individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After informed consent and in compliance with HIPAA, 34 mTBI patients and 42 normal subjects underwent 3.0 Tesla DTI. Four voxelwise assessment methods (standard Z-score, "one vs. many" t-test, Family-Wise Error Rate control using pseudo t-distribution, EZ-MAP for use in individual patients, were applied to each patient's fractional anisotropy (FA maps and tested for its ability to discriminate patients from controls. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were used to define optimal thresholds (voxel-level significance and spatial extent for reliable and robust detection of mTBI pathology. RESULTS: ROC analyses showed EZ-MAP (specificity 71%, sensitivity 71%, "one vs. many" t-test and standard Z-score (sensitivity 65%, specificity 76% for both methods resulted in a significant area under the curve (AUC score for discriminating mTBI patients from controls in terms of the total number of abnormal white matter voxels detected while the FWER test was not significant. EZ-MAP is demonstrated to be robust to assumptions of Gaussian behavior and may serve as an alternative to methods that require strict Gaussian assumptions. CONCLUSION: EZ-MAP provides a robust approach for delineation of regional abnormal anisotropy in individual mTBI patients.

  4. The multimethod palaeointensity approach applied to volcanics from Terceira: full-vector geomagnetic data for the past 50 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Lennart V.; Pimentel, Adriano; Di Chiara, Anita

    2016-07-01

    The island of Terceira (38.5°N, 27.2°W) in the Azores Archipelago boasts a wealth of well-dated recent volcanic products; it is therefore the ideal location to improve the resolution of the full-vector geomagnetic field record for the Mid-Atlantic Ocean. We investigated 21 (sub-)sites sampled from 10 different cooling units; six of these cooling units are from the Holocene, the other four are approximately coeval with the age of known geomagnetic excursions. After successfully determining the palaeodirections from all but one site, we applied the multimethod palaeointensity approach to all sites. Here, we used three different palaeointensity methods: the IZZI-Thellier protocol, the Multispecimen technique, and the calibrated pseudo-Thellier method. For the Holocene sites four robust palaeointensity estimates were obtained, they mostly agree with data from the nearby island of São Miguel and data from the Iberian Peninsula and West Africa. Two older sites, dated at 25.7 and 46.3 ka, produced low palaeointensities: 24.4 and 24.1 μT, respectively. As both the IZZI-Thellier and pseudo-Thellier methods yielded technically acceptable results for these sites we used them to improve the pseudo-Thellier calibration relation and establish its applicability to lower palaeointensities. Sixty per cent of all sampled cooling units/ages in our study yielded a technically successful palaeointensity estimate; this unusually high success rate is attributed both to our sampling strategy and the implementation of the multimethod approach.

  5. Applying a Markov approach as a Lean Thinking analysis of waste elimination in a Rice Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Glen Caldwell Marin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Markov Chains Model was proposed to analyze stochastic events when recursive cycles occur; for example, when rework in a continuous flow production affects the overall performance. Typically, the analysis of rework and scrap is done through a wasted material cost perspective and not from the perspective of waste capacity that reduces throughput and economic value added (EVA. Also, we can not find many cases of this application in agro-industrial production in Latin America, given the complexity of the calculations and the need for robust applications. This scientific work presents the results of a quasi-experimental research approach in order to explain how to apply DOE methods and Markov analysis in a rice production process located in Central America, evaluating the global effects of a single reduction in rework and scrap in a part of the whole line. The results show that in this case it is possible to evaluate benefits from Global Throughput and EVA perspective and not only from the saving costs perspective, finding a relationship between operational indicators and corporate performance. However, it was found that it is necessary to analyze the markov chains configuration with many rework points, also it is still relevant to take into account the effects on takt time and not only scrap´s costs.

  6. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  7. Applying a Contest to Improve Learning in the Information Systems Development--An Interdisciplinary and Extracurricular Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinato, Marcelo; Chaim, Marcos Lordello; Morandini, Marcelo; Peres, Sarajane Marques; Tuesta, Esteban Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    Contests are usually applied in the academic environment to simulate real professional situations that require from the participants a more pro-active attitude than the one shown in conventional coursework. Although they are commonly applied in the scope of a unique course, the contest described here was an extracurricular experience applied in an…

  8. The Rock Engineering System (RES) applied to landslide susceptibility zonation of the northeastern flank of Etna: methodological approach and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuani, Tiziana; Corazzato, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    instability-related numerical ratings are assigned to classes. An instability index map is then produced by assigning, to each areal elementary cell (in our case a 10 m pixel), the sum of the products of each weight factor to the normalized parameter rating coming from each input zonation map. This map is then opportunely classified in landslide susceptibility classes (expressed as a percentage), enabling to discriminate areas prone to instability. Overall, the study area is characterized by a low propensity to slope instability. Few areas have an instability index of more than 45% of the theoretical maximum imposed by the matrix. These are located in the few steep slopes associated with active faults, and strongly depending on the seismic activity. Some other areas correspond to limited outcrops characterized by significantly reduced lithotechnical properties (low shear strength). The produced susceptibility map combines the application of the RES with the parameter zonation, following methodology which had never been applied up to now in in active volcanic environments. The comparison of the results with the ground deformation evidence coming from monitoring networks suggests the validity of the approach.

  9. Advanced Behavioral Applications in Schools: A Review of R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies: An Applied Behavior Analysis Systems Approach"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies" is an important book directed to advanced students in applied behavior analysis for classrooms. This review presents some of the striking features of the Comprehensive Applied Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS[R]) program and the individualized instruction that the book advances. These include…

  10. Advanced behavioral applications in schools: A review of R. Douglas Greer's designing teaching strategies: An applied behavior analysis systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    R. Douglas Greer1s Designing Teaching Strategies is an important book directed to advanced students in applied behavior analysis for classrooms. This review presents some of the striking features of the Comprehensive Applied Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS®) program and the individualized instruction that the book advances. These include its instruction in literacy, its use of graphing, and its flexibility in systematic organization. Although its readability could be improved, this book...

  11. A Comparison of Seventh Grade Thai Students' Reading Comprehension and Motivation to Read English through Applied Instruction Based on the Genre-Based Approach and the Teacher's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawangsamutchai, Yutthasak; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compare the English reading comprehension and motivation to read of seventh grade Thai students taught with applied instruction through the genre-based approach and teachers' manual. A randomized pre-test post-test control group design was used through the cluster random sampling technique. The data were…

  12. Theoretical and applied aspects of signal and information approach to the action of ionizing radiation on the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information hypothesis concerning the effects of radiation on the human body allows us to define new approaches and prospects for development of the antiradiation technologies based on certain properties of the signal information. (authors)

  13. Towards a Capability Approach to Careers: Applying Amartya Sen's Thinking to Career Guidance and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Amartya Sen's capability approach characterizes an individual's well-being in terms of what they are able to be, and what they are able to do. This framework for thinking has many commonalities with the core ideas in career guidance. Sen's approach is abstract and not in itself a complete or explanatory theory, but a case can be…

  14. Towards a Design Framework for Legitimate Public Private Partnerships: A General Approach Applied to Innovative Renewable Energy Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, M.A.; Sanders, M.P.T.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a framework to guide the choice and design of a fitting Public Private Partnerships (PPP), which is applied to a Dutch example of biogas/sustainable energy projects. The framework focuses on ‘legitimate public governance’, merging Beetham’s dimensions of legitimacy (legality, s

  15. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  16. Promotion of Social and Emotional Competence: Experiences from a Mental Health Intervention Applying a Whole School Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Nelausen, Malene Kubstrup; Koushede, Vibeke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Within the framework of Health Promoting Schools "Up" is an intervention using a whole school approach aimed at promoting mental health by strengthening social and emotional competence among schoolchildren. Social and emotional competence is an integral part of many school-based mental health interventions but only a minority of…

  17. The Nicolas Bourriaud Approach Applied to Remida : The Center for Creative Recycling within the Discourses of Contemporary Aesthetics and Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I will apply the aesthetic theories of Nicholas Bourriaud, a French artist, curator, and art critic, to a case study of Remida, a creative recycling center in Trondheim, Norway. In 1998, Nicolas Bourriaud published a book entitled Esthétique relationnelle in which he introduced a theory relating to certain, very visible trends in contemporary art. Bourriaud suggested that interhuman relationships and artistic processes had become equally important as artistic products (wha...

  18. Assessment of the applied orientation of a researcher's production: An informetric approach based on a content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Ivana; Vedovotto, N.; Hörlesberger, Marianne; François, Claire; Besagni, Dominique; Schiebel, Edgar L.; Holste, Dirk; Cuxac, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    One way of making the distinction between pure and applied research was introduced by Donald Stokes (Stokes, 1997) who defined a two dimensions chart, "the Pasteur's Quadrant". It is a label given to a class of scientific research developments that both seek fundamental understanding of scientific problems, and, at the same time, seek to be eventually beneficial to society. The works of Louis Pasteur, a French chemist and physicist, pioneer of the microbiology, are thought to exempl...

  19. A holistic integrated dynamic design and modelling approach applied to the development of ultraprecision micro-milling machines

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, D.; Cheng, K.; Wardle, F

    2009-01-01

    Ultraprecision machines with small footprints or micro-machines are highly desirable for micro-manufacturing high-precision micro-mechanical components. However, the development of the machines is still at the nascent stage by working on an individual machine basis and hence lacks generic scientific approach and design guidelines. Using computer models to predict the dynamic performance of ultraprecision machine tools can help manufacturers substantially reduce the lead time and cost of devel...

  20. A new marketing segmentation approach based on marginal individual utilities: applying CRM is not a chimera anymore

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Más; Juan Luis Nicolau

    2006-01-01

    In the advent of Customer Relationship Management, a more accurate profile of the consumer is needed. The objective of this paper is to show the usefulness of knowing consumer¿s complete utility function through his/her marginal utilities. This approach allows one to form groups of individuals with similar preferences (as traditional segmentation methods do) and to treat them individually (which represents an advance). The empirical application is carried out, on a sample of 2,127 individuals...

  1. Gaining ethical approvals to undertake sexual health research with young people in the UK: Applying a 'Children's Rights Based Approach'

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Michelle; Lohan, Maria; Kelly, Carmel; Lundy, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This paper (co-written with Dr Maria Lohan, Dr Carmel Kelly & Professor Laura Lundy) will describe the ethical review process to undertake health research in the UK, and explain an approach that can help researchers deal with ethical and methodological dilemmas in their research. Ethical review is necessary to ensure researchers and participants are protected, yet the requirement to ‘pass’ numerous committees may be challenging particularly for health researchers who work with vulnerable ...

  2. A multibody approach applied to the study of driver injuries due to a narrow-track wheeled tractor rollover

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of the multibody approach to evaluate the severity of the injuries to the driver associated with rollover of an agricultural tractor. A simple rollover accident of a narrow-track wheeled tractor was simulated in the multibody-FEM Madymo environment and the biomechanical damage to the operator with and without 2-point pelvic restraint was analysed. The structure of the tractor was considered to be unbendable, whereas i) infinitely rigid, ii) clay-based and iii) sand...

  3. Optimization approach to unified AC/DC power flow applied to traction systems with catenary voltage constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Coto García, Manuel; Arboleya Arboleya, Pablo; González Morán, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents two innovative contributions related to the combined AC/DC power ow in railway power supply systems (RPSS). First, most of the power ow equations (the linear ones) are expressed in a compact matrix form by using graph theory based protocol. Such approach simpli- es the statement of the uni ed power ow problem and allows the train motion to be modeled without varying the system topology. Second, the problem is formulated as an Optimization Pro...

  4. A Continuing Approach, from Financial Economics to Financial Econometrics or the Econometric Thinking Applied to Financial Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Săvoiu; Constantin Manea

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to attempt a theoretical delineation of a new econoscience now known as financial econometrics, which is as a result of a dual approach, one originally from economics to econometrics, followed by another one, articulate, from financial economics to financial econometrics, both purely theoretical, simultaneously stressing the importance of economic and financial modelling, historically detailing the emergence and development of this new econoscience, outlining its...

  5. Mean-field approach in the multi-component gas of interacting particles applied to relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Anchishkin, D

    2014-01-01

    Generalized mean-field approach for thermodynamic description of relativistic single- and multi-component gas in the grand canonical ensemble is formulated. In the framework of the proposed approach different phenomenological excluded-volume procedures are presented and compared to the existing ones. The mean-field approach is then used to effectively include hard-core repulsion in hadron-resonance gas model for description of chemical freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions. We calculate the collision energy dependence of several quantities for different values of hard-core hadron radius and for different excluded-volume procedures such as van der Waals and Carnahan-Starling models. It is shown that a choice of the excluded-volume model becomes important for large particle densities, and for large enough values of hadron radii ($r\\gtrsim0.9$ fm) there can be a sizable difference between different excluded-volume procedures used to describe the chemical freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions.

  6. Mean-field approach in the multi-component gas of interacting particles applied to relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchishkin, D.; Vovchenko, V.

    2015-10-01

    A generalized mean-field approach for the thermodynamic description of relativistic single- and multi-component gas in the grand canonical ensemble is formulated. In the framework of the proposed approach, different phenomenological excluded-volume procedures are presented and compared to the existing ones. The mean-field approach is then used to effectively include hard-core repulsion in hadron-resonance gas model for description of chemical freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions. We calculate the collision energy dependence of several quantities for different values of hard-core hadron radius and for different excluded-volume procedures such as the van der Waals and Carnahan-Starling models. It is shown that a choice of the excluded-volume model becomes important for large particle densities. For large enough values of hadron radii (r≳ 0.9 fm) there can be a sizable difference between different excluded-volume procedures used to describe the chemical freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions. At the same time, for the smaller and more commonly used values of hard-core hadron radii (r≲ 0.5 fm), the precision of the van der Waals excluded-volume procedure is shown to be sufficient.

  7. A model invalidation-based approach for elucidating biological signalling pathways, applied to the chemotaxis pathway in R. sphaeroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamadeh Abdullah

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing methods for understanding the connectivity of signalling pathways is a major challenge in biological research. For this purpose, mathematical models are routinely developed based on experimental observations, which also allow the prediction of the system behaviour under different experimental conditions. Often, however, the same experimental data can be represented by several competing network models. Results In this paper, we developed a novel mathematical model/experiment design cycle to help determine the probable network connectivity by iteratively invalidating models corresponding to competing signalling pathways. To do this, we systematically design experiments in silico that discriminate best between models of the competing signalling pathways. The method determines the inputs and parameter perturbations that will differentiate best between model outputs, corresponding to what can be measured/observed experimentally. We applied our method to the unknown connectivities in the chemotaxis pathway of the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We first developed several models of R. sphaeroides chemotaxis corresponding to different signalling networks, all of which are biologically plausible. Parameters in these models were fitted so that they all represented wild type data equally well. The models were then compared to current mutant data and some were invalidated. To discriminate between the remaining models we used ideas from control systems theory to determine efficiently in silico an input profile that would result in the biggest difference in model outputs. However, when we applied this input to the models, we found it to be insufficient for discrimination in silico. Thus, to achieve better discrimination, we determined the best change in initial conditions (total protein concentrations as well as the best change in the input profile. The designed experiments were then performed on live cells and the resulting

  8. Optimal control of open quantum systems: A combined surrogate Hamiltonian optimal control theory approach applied to photochemistry on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate Hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate Hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., (ℎ/2π)=me=e=a0= 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.

  9. A comparison of image restoration approaches applied to three-dimensional confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verveer, P. J; Gemkow, M. J; Jovin, T. M

    1999-01-01

    We have compared different image restoration approaches for fluorescence microscopy. The most widely used algorithms were classified with a Bayesian theory according to the assumed noise model and the type of regularization imposed. We considered both Gaussian and Poisson models for the noise in combination with Tikhonov regularization, entropy regularization, Good's roughness and without regularization (maximum likelihood estimation). Simulations of fluorescence confocal imaging were used to examine the different noise models and regularization approaches using the mean squared error criterion. The assumption of a Gaussian noise model yielded only slightly higher errors than the Poisson model. Good's roughness was the best choice for the regularization. Furthermore, we compared simulated confocal and wide-field data. In general, restored confocal data are superior to restored wide-field data, but given sufficient higher signal level for the wide-field data the restoration result may rival confocal data in quality. Finally, a visual comparison of experimental confocal and wide-field data is presented. PMID:12558687

  10. Gathering the Voices: Disseminating the Message of the Holocaust for the Digital Generation by Applying an Interdisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Shapiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Gathering the Voices project is to gather testimonies from Holocaust survivors who have made their home in Scotland and to make these testimonies available on the World Wide Web. The project commenced in 2012, and a key outcome of the project is to educate current and future generations about the resilience of these survivors. Volunteers from the Jewish community are collaborating with staff and undergraduate students in Glasgow Caledonian University in developing innovative approaches to engage with school children. These multimedia approaches are essential, as future generations will be unable to interact in person with Holocaust survivors. By students being active participants in the project, they will learn more about the Holocaust and recognize the relevance of these testimonies in today’s society. Although some of the survivors have been interviewed about their journeys in fleeing from the Nazi atrocities, for all of the interviewees, this is the first time that they have been asked about their lives once they arrived in the United Kingdom. The interviews have also focused on citizenship and integration into society. The project is not yet completed, and an evaluation will be taking place to measure the effectiveness of the project in communicating its message to the public.

  11. High-temperature and melting behaviour of nanocrystalline refractory compounds: an experimental approach applied to thorium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour from 1500 K up to melting of nanocrystalline (nc) thorium dioxide, the refractory binary oxide with the highest melting point (3651 K), was explored here for the first time using fast laser heating, multi-wavelength pyrometry and Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of samples quenched to room temperature. Nc-ThO2 was melted at temperatures hundreds of K below the melting temperature assessed for bulk thorium dioxide. A particular behaviour has been observed in the formed liquid and its co-existence with a partially restructured solid, possibly due to the metastable nature of the liquid itself. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the thermal-induced structural evolution of nc-ThO2. Assessment of a semi-empirical relation between the Raman active T2g mode peak characteristics (peak width and frequency) and crystallites size provided a powerful, fast and non-destructive tool to determine local crystallites growth within the nc-ThO2 samples before and after melting. This semi-quantitative analysis, partly based on a phonon-confinement model, constitutes an advantageous, more flexible, complementary approach to electron microscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) for the crystallite size determination. The adopted experimental approach (laser heating coupled with Raman spectroscopy) is therefore proven to be a promising methodology for the high temperature investigation of nanostructured refractory oxides. (papers)

  12. Applying machine learning approaches to improving the accuracy of breast-tumour diagnosis via fine needle aspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Qian-fei; CAI Cong-zhong; XIAO Han-guang; LIU Xing-hua

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer have been improved during the last decade; however, breast cancer is still a leading cause of death among women in the whole world. Early detection and accurate diagnosis of this disease has been demonstrated an approach to long survival of the patients. As an attempt to develop a reliable diagnosing method for breast cancer, we integrated support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor and probabilistic neural network into a complex machine learning approach to detect malignant breast tumour through a set of indicators consisting of age and ten cellular features of fine-needle aspiration of breast which were ranked according to signal-to-noise ratio to identify determinants distinguishing benign breast tumours from malignant ones. The method turned out to significantly improve the diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 94.04%, a specificity of 97.37%, and an overall accuracy up to 96.24% when SVM was adopted with the sigmoid kernel function under 5-fold cross validation. The results suggest that SVM is a promising methodology to be further developed into a practical adjunct implement to help discerning benign and malignant breast tumours and thus reduce the incidence of misdiagnosis.

  13. An approach using quantum ant colony optimization applied to the problem of identification of nuclear power plant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using concepts and principles of the quantum computation, as the quantum bit and superposition of states, coupled with the biological metaphor of a colony of ants, used in the Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (ACO), Wang et al developed the Quantum Ant Colony Optimization (QACO). In this paper we present a modification of the algorithm proposed by Wang et al. While the original QACO was used just for simple benchmarks functions with, at the most, two dimensions, QACOAlfa was developed for application where the original QACO, due to its tendency to converge prematurely, does not obtain good results, as in complex multidimensional functions. Furthermore, to evaluate its behavior, both algorithms are applied to the real problem of identification of accidents in PWR nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. An approach using quantum ant colony optimization applied to the problem of identification of nuclear power plant transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio H.; Schirru, Roberto; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C., E-mail: marciohenrique@lmp.ufrj.b, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.b, E-mail: canedo@lmp.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Monitoramento de Processos

    2009-07-01

    Using concepts and principles of the quantum computation, as the quantum bit and superposition of states, coupled with the biological metaphor of a colony of ants, used in the Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (ACO), Wang et al developed the Quantum Ant Colony Optimization (QACO). In this paper we present a modification of the algorithm proposed by Wang et al. While the original QACO was used just for simple benchmarks functions with, at the most, two dimensions, QACO{sub A}lfa was developed for application where the original QACO, due to its tendency to converge prematurely, does not obtain good results, as in complex multidimensional functions. Furthermore, to evaluate its behavior, both algorithms are applied to the real problem of identification of accidents in PWR nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. A non-statistical regularization approach and a tensor product decomposition method applied to complex flow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Larcher, Thomas; Blome, Therese; Klein, Rupert; Schneider, Reinhold; Wolf, Sebastian; Huber, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Handling high-dimensional data sets like they occur e.g. in turbulent flows or in multiscale behaviour of certain types in Geosciences are one of the big challenges in numerical analysis and scientific computing. A suitable solution is to represent those large data sets in an appropriate compact form. In this context, tensor product decomposition methods currently emerge as an important tool. One reason is that these methods often enable one to attack high-dimensional problems successfully, another that they allow for very compact representations of large data sets. We follow the novel Tensor-Train (TT) decomposition method to support the development of improved understanding of the multiscale behavior and the development of compact storage schemes for solutions of such problems. One long-term goal of the project is the construction of a self-consistent closure for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of turbulent flows that explicitly exploits the tensor product approach's capability of capturing self-similar structures. Secondly, we focus on a mixed deterministic-stochastic subgrid scale modelling strategy currently under development for application in Finite Volume Large Eddy Simulation (LES) codes. Advanced methods of time series analysis for the databased construction of stochastic models with inherently non-stationary statistical properties and concepts of information theory based on a modified Akaike information criterion and on the Bayesian information criterion for the model discrimination are used to construct surrogate models for the non-resolved flux fluctuations. Vector-valued auto-regressive models with external influences form the basis for the modelling approach [1], [2], [4]. Here, we present the reconstruction capabilities of the two modeling approaches tested against 3D turbulent channel flow data computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) for an incompressible, isothermal fluid at Reynolds number Reτ = 590 (computed by [3]). References [1] I

  16. Upgrading of the Ukrainian NPPs and the ''2+2'' approach applied for the licensing of the major modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatchev, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/DES/SERS, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Goetsch, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany); Redko, V. [Ukrainian National Regulatory Authorities (Ukraine); Madonna, A. [National Agency for Environmental Protection (ANPA), Rome (Italy)

    2003-01-01

    Many of the planned upgrading measures of Ukrainian VVER plants and of the unique Armenian power plant (Medzanor) are financed by the European Union (EU) through the TACIS program. The ''2+2'' approach implies a deep collaboration between Ukrainian or Armenian regulatory authorities, local operating organizations and EU organizations. This approach allows: - a smooth adaptation of western technologies to VVERs, - a comprehensive checking of Ukrainian, Armenian and western regulatory requirements, and - the transfer of know-how to the Ukrainian and Armenian organizations. This report presents the principles applied for ''2+2'' approach as well as a summary of the main recommendations given in the framework of the licensing process.

  17. Local approach of cleavage fracture applied to a vessel with subclad flaw. A benchmark on computational simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A benchmark on the computational simulation of a cladded vessel with a 6.2 mm sub-clad flaw submitted to a thermal transient has been conducted. Two-dimensional elastic and elastic-plastic finite element computations of the vessel have been performed by the different partners with respective finite element codes ASTER (EDF), CASTEM 2000 (CEA), SYSTUS (Framatome) and ABAQUS (AEA Technology). Main results have been compared: temperature field in the vessel, crack opening, opening stress at crack tips, stress intensity factor in cladding and base metal, Weibull stress σw and probability of failure in base metal, void growth rate R/R0 in cladding. This comparison shows an excellent agreement on main results, in particular on results obtained with local approach. (K.A.)

  18. Gradient-Driven Molecule Construction: An Inverse Approach Applied to the Design of Small-Molecule Fixating Catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Weymuth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rational design of molecules and materials usually requires extensive screening of molecular structures for the desired property. The inverse approach to deduce a structure for a predefined property would be highly desirable, but is, unfortunately, not well-defined. However, feasible strategies for such an inverse design process may be successfully developed for specific purposes. We discuss options for calculating 'jacket' potentials that fulfill a predefined target requirement - a concept that we recently introduced [T. Weymuth, M. Reiher, MRS Proceediungs, 2013, 1524, DOI:10.1557/opl.2012.1764]. We consider the case of small-molecule activating transition metal catalysts. As a target requirement we choose the vanishing geometry gradients on all atoms of a subsystem consisting of a metal center binding the small molecule to be activated. The jacket potential can be represented within a full quantum model or by a sequence of approximations of which a field of electrostatic point charges is the simplest. In a...

  19. A Continuing Approach, from Financial Economics to Financial Econometrics or the Econometric Thinking Applied to Financial Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to attempt a theoretical delineation of a new econoscience now known as financial econometrics, which is as a result of a dual approach, one originally from economics to econometrics, followed by another one, articulate, from financial economics to financial econometrics, both purely theoretical, simultaneously stressing the importance of economic and financial modelling, historically detailing the emergence and development of this new econoscience, outlining its subject and objectives, and describing some of the most commonly used methods and models, while noting the presence of increasingly sharp competition of econophysics, sociophysics and economy quantum, in the universe of modelling the processes and phenomena in classical economics and financial economics.

  20. Applied Laplace transforms and z-transforms for scientists and engineers a computational approach using a Mathematica package

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Urs

    2004-01-01

    The theory of Laplace transformation is an important part of the mathematical background required for engineers, physicists and mathematicians. Laplace transformation methods provide easy and effective techniques for solving many problems arising in various fields of science and engineering, especially for solving differential equations. What the Laplace transformation does in the field of differential equations, the z-transformation achieves for difference equations. The two theories are parallel and have many analogies. Laplace and z­ transformations are also referred to as operational calculus, but this notion is also used in a more restricted sense to denote the operational calculus of Mikusinski. This book does not use the operational calculus of Mikusinski, whose approach is based on abstract algebra and is not readily accessible to engineers and scientists. The symbolic computation capability of Mathematica can now be used in favor of the Laplace and z-transformations. The first version of the Mathema...

  1. Great improvements in quality and safety: a structured approach in procedure automation applied to Severe Accident Management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many efforts are made to develop methodologies and tools that can give a great improvement in quality and safety, which are especially important in critical fields like the Severe Accident Management. This paper presents the study to verify the feasibility of the application of a structured approach in procedure automation, as the one offered by DIAM package, to a sample of SAMG procedures, with the final goal to assess the possibility to automate the SAMG procedure management. This study has been carried out using, as input, generic SAMGs recommended by a reactor vendor and, as a computerized tool, DIAM. DIAM is a methodology and tool to represent procedures, that offers many automatisms during the editing phase, allowing to generate procedures always aligned to the standard. For the operation phase, it offers operator guide support and allows procedure automation, when the detail level to which procedures are represented is appropriate and DIAM is properly connected to the field or to a simulator. In this feasibility study the possibility to utilize structured approaches to represent and use SAMGs has been verified. The two guidelines, object of the study, have been formally restructured and reformatted and then, implemented according to DIAM methodology. They can be, now, used either with the guidance of DIAM Mate (operator guide module of DIAM) or in a traditional way using the output of DIAM Doc (contained in a separate document). After a description of DIAM (Development and Implementation of Accident Management procedures) metaldehyde and graphical representation, this paper illustrates how DIAM has been successfully used in this sample application, describing the analyses and work required for the transition to the original version of the SAMGs to the restructured one. The paper contains only some meaningful samples of the original SAMGs and of their new format, as much as needed to understand the methodology and to perform comparisons. The main results are

  2. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602

  3. Applying System Dynamics Approach to the Fast Fashion Supply Chain: Case Study of an SME in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariany W Lidia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fashion industry is the biggest contributor among the 14 creative industries in Indonesia. Nowadays many apparel companies are shifting toward the vertical integration. Since speed is everything to be successful in the apparel industry, fast fashion retailers must quickly respond to the market demand. This papers aims to develop a model of the supply chain of a small and medium scale enterprise (SME of an apparel company in Indonesia and to propose a decision support system using System Dynamics (SD and helps the management to identify the best business strategy. Simulated scenarios can help the management to identify the most appropriate policy to be applied in the future. Case study method was used in this research where data were collected from a typical fast fashion firm in Indonesia that produces its own wares ranging from raw materials to be ready-to-wear clothes, has three stores, a warehouse and is running online sales system. We analyses the result of many simulations in a fashion company from an operational point of view and from them we derive suggestions about the future business strategy in a small and medium fashion company in Indonesia. Keywords: system dynamics, fast fashion, supply chain management, SME, Indonesia

  4. Hydrocarbons prospecting using an integrated approach of petrography, geochemistry and modeling of organic matter transformation. Analysis and reconstitution of the thermal history of the central carboniferous basins of Asturias (Spain) and of the Sabinas - Piedras Negras basin (Coahuila, Mexico); Prospection des hydrocarbures par une approche integree de petrographie, geochimie et modelisation de la transformation de la matiere organique. Analyse et reconstitution de l'histoire thermique des Bassins Carbonifere Central des Asturies (Espagne) et Sabinas - Piedras Negras (Coahuila, Mexique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, N.

    2004-09-01

    Solid knowledge of the transformation and evolution of organic matter during hydrocarbon generation in sedimentary basins serves to improve natural gas exploration. With this geological problem in mind, the thermal influence on organic matter was analyzed in two basins containing different characteristics (age, composition of organic matter, litho-stratigraphy, depth, thickness of the layers of rock, the maturation of organic matter, etc.) in order to understand the natural processes in generating oil and natural gas. With a view to studying this geological phenomenon, this work outlines the study of the chemical and macerals composition, the coal rank and geochemical characteristics of organic matter in these two sedimentary basins for the first time: The Asturian Central Carboniferous Basin (Spain) and Sabinas - Piedras Negras Basin (Mexico). Moreover, an approach to shed light on the thermal history and evolution of organic matter through 1D modeling in the two basins is developed. The Central Carboniferous Basin in Asturias is an important coal mining area where coal types range from bituminous carbons with high content in volatile matter to anthracite. The petrographical and geochemical study in this region has shown that at the moment of oil and gas exploration, the coals correspond to an efficient expulsion of oil and have been formed in an environment of swamp with a facies rich in vitrinite, low in sulfur and ash and varying in mineral content. As regards the paleo-environmental reconstruction, the bio-markers suggest a swamp with a relatively high water table and a humid climate. The coal type, the vitrinite reflectance and the volatile matter content in the basin show a N-S trend which could be correlated to the paleo-temperatures calculated in this study. These data point to the influence of two thermal gradients in the region: A normal thermal gradient of long duration and an oblique thermal gradient of short duration due to a pluton. The evolution of

  5. Applying a System Dynamics Approach for Modeling Groundwater Dynamics to Depletion under Different Economical and Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Balali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, due to many different factors, including climate change effects towards be warming and lower precipitation, as well as some structural policies such as more intensive harvesting of groundwater and low price of irrigation water, the level of groundwater has decreased in most plains of Iran. The objective of this study is to model groundwater dynamics to depletion under different economic policies and climate change by using a system dynamics approach. For this purpose a dynamic hydro-economic model which simultaneously simulates the farmer’s economic behavior, groundwater aquifer dynamics, studied area climatology factors and government economical policies related to groundwater, is developed using STELLA 10.0.6. The vulnerability of groundwater balance is forecasted under three scenarios of climate including the Dry, Nor and Wet and also, different scenarios of irrigation water and energy pricing policies. Results show that implementation of some economic policies on irrigation water and energy pricing can significantly affect on groundwater exploitation and its volume balance. By increasing of irrigation water price along with energy price, exploitation of groundwater will improve, in so far as in scenarios S15 and S16, studied area’s aquifer groundwater balance is positive at the end of planning horizon, even in Dry condition of precipitation. Also, results indicate that climate change can affect groundwater recharge. It can generally be expected that increases in precipitation would produce greater aquifer recharge rates.

  6. Tracking the genealogy of CO2 emissions in the electricity sector: An intersectoral approach applied to the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the factors leading to CO2 emissions in the Spanish electricity generation sector in order to propose effective mitigation policies aimed at tackling those emissions. Traditionally, two broad categories of those factors have been considered in the literature: those related to the supply of electricity (technological features of the sector) and those related to the level of economic activity (demand factors). This paper focuses on an additional element, which has usually been neglected, the structural factor, which refers to the set of intersectoral transactions (related to the technologies used in other productive sectors) which connect, in either a direct or an indirect way, the general economic activity with the supply of electricity and, thus, with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. This analysis allows us to identify the so-called 'sectors structurally responsible for emissions' (SSER), whose production functions involve transactions which connect the demand for goods and services with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. The methodology is based on an input-output approach and a sensitivity analysis. The paper shows that there are structural rigidities, deeply ingrained within the economic system, which lead to emissions from the electricity generation sector for which this sector cannot be held responsible. These rigidities limit the effectiveness of policies aimed at emissions mitigation in this sector

  7. Tracking the genealogy of CO2 emissions in the electricity sector: An intersectoral approach applied to the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the factors leading to CO2 emissions in the Spanish electricity generation sector in order to propose effective mitigation policies aimed at tackling those emissions. Traditionally, two broad categories of those factors have been considered in the literature: those related to the supply of electricity (technological features of the sector) and those related to the level of economic activity (demand factors). This paper focuses on an additional element, which has usually been neglected, the structural factor, which refers to the set of intersectoral transactions (related to the technologies used in other productive sectors) which connect, in either a direct or an indirect way, the general economic activity with the supply of electricity and, thus, with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. This analysis allows us to identify the so-called 'sectors structurally responsible for emissions' (SSER), whose production functions involve transactions which connect the demand for goods and services with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. The methodology is based on an input-output approach and a sensitivity analysis. The paper shows that there are structural rigidities, deeply ingrained within the economic system, which lead to emissions from the electricity generation sector for which this sector cannot be held responsible. These rigidities limit the effectiveness of policies aimed at emissions mitigation in this sector. (author)

  8. Issues and approaches for ensuring effective communication on acceptable daily exposure (ADE) values applied to pharmaceutical cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael J; Faria, Ellen C; Hayes, Eileen P; Jolly, Robert A; Barle, Ester Lovsin; Molnar, Lance R; Naumann, Bruce D; Pecquet, Alison M; Shipp, Bryan K; Sussman, Robert G; Weideman, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    This manuscript centers on communication with key stakeholders of the concepts and program goals involved in the application of health-based pharmaceutical cleaning limits. Implementation of health-based cleaning limits, as distinct from other standards such as 1/1000th of the lowest clinical dose, is a concept recently introduced into regulatory domains. While there is a great deal of technical detail in the written framework underpinning the use of Acceptable Daily Exposures (ADEs) in cleaning (for example ISPE, 2010; Sargent et al., 2013), little is available to explain how to practically create a program which meets regulatory needs while also fulfilling good manufacturing practice (GMP) and other expectations. The lack of a harmonized approach for program implementation and communication across stakeholders can ultimately foster inappropriate application of these concepts. Thus, this period in time (2014-2017) could be considered transitional with respect to influencing best practice related to establishing health-based cleaning limits. Suggestions offered in this manuscript are intended to encourage full and accurate communication regarding both scientific and administrative elements of health-based ADE values used in pharmaceutical cleaning practice. This is a large and complex effort that requires: 1) clearly explaining key terms and definitions, 2) identification of stakeholders, 3) assessment of stakeholders' subject matter knowledge, 4) formulation of key messages fit to stakeholder needs, 5) identification of effective and timely means for communication, and 6) allocation of time, energy, and motivation for initiating and carrying through with communications. PMID:27233923

  9. A generic sample preparation approach for LC–MS/MS bioanalysis of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in serum applied to Infliximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J. Kleinnijenhuis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a generic bioanalytical workflow providing sensitive, specific, and accurate absolute quantification of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in serum. The workflow involves magnetic beads coated with protein A to pull-down therapeutic monoclonal antibodies with affinity for protein A from the biological matrix, followed by tryptic digestion and LC-MS/MS quantification of a unique signature peptide, considering of course the matrix of interest and other present mAbs, if applicable. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated for Infliximab (trade name Remicade in rat serum. The assigned signature peptide was monitored in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM mode. Assay variability was determined to be below 20%, except at the QC low level, which was provided through optimization of the sample preparation and monitoring of the LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope labeled signature peptide as internal standard. The 100 ng/ml lower limit of quantification using only 25 μl sample volume, is generally considered as sufficient for pharmaceutical development purposes for monoclonal antibodies.

  10. A multibody approach applied to the study of driver injuries due to a narrow-track wheeled tractor rollover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of the multibody approach to evaluate the severity of the injuries to the driver associated with rollover of an agricultural tractor. A simple rollover accident of a narrow-track wheeled tractor was simulated in the multibody-FEM Madymo environment and the biomechanical damage to the operator with and without 2-point pelvic restraint was analysed. The structure of the tractor was considered to be unbendable, whereas i infinitely rigid, ii clay-based and iii sand-based soils have been studied. The obtained results highlight the important role played by the seat belt in confining the farm operator within the safety volume maintained by the rollover protective structure (ROPS of the tractor so that the injuries are reduced. The deformation of the soil produces lower acceleration and velocity values than those obtained with a rigid soil. On the other hand, as soil plastic deformations increase, the penetration of ROPS into the soil also increases, thus reducing the safety volume of the tractor and increasing the probability of interactions between the operator and the soil.

  11. Goal Setting and Treatment Adherence among Patients with Chronic Illness and Depressive Symptoms: Applying a Patient-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Eric; Tatum, Alexander K.; Guy, Arryn; Mikrut, Cassandra; Yoder, Wren

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Poor treatment adherence is a major problem among individuals with chronic illness. Research indicates that adherence is worsened when accompanied by depressive symptoms. In this preliminary study, we aimed to describe how a patient-centered approach could be employed to aid patients with depressive symptoms in following their treatment regimens. Methods: The sample consisted of 14 patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV who reported clinically-significant depressive symptoms. Participant ratings of 23 treatment-related statements were examined using two assessment and analytic techniques. Interviews were conducted with participants to determine their views of information based on the technique. Results: Results indicate that while participants with optimal adherence focused on views of treatment associated with side effects to a greater extent than participants with poor adherence, they tended to relate these side effects to sources of intrinsic motivation. Conclusion: The study provides examples of how practitioners could employ the assessment techniques outlined to better understand how patients think about treatment and aid them in effectively framing their health-related goals. PMID:26755463

  12. Classification by a neural network approach applied to non destructive testing; Classification par approches connexionnistes appliquee au controle non destructif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, M.; Preteux, F.; Lavayssiere, B.

    1995-12-31

    Radiography is used by EDF for pipe inspection in nuclear power plants in order to detect defects. The radiographs obtained are then digitized in a well-defined protocol. The aim of EDF consists of developing a non destructive testing system for recognizing defects. In this paper, we describe the recognition procedure of areas with defects. We first present the digitization protocol, specifies the poor quality of images under study and propose a procedure to enhance defects. We then examine the problem raised by the choice of good features for classification. After having proved that statistical or standard textural features such as homogeneity, entropy or contrast are not relevant, we develop a geometrical-statistical approach based on the cooperation between signal correlations study and regional extrema analysis. The principle consists of analysing and comparing for areas with defects and without any defect, the evolution of conditional probabilities matrices for increasing neighborhood sizes, the shape of variograms and the location of regional minima. We demonstrate that anisotropy and surface of series of `comet tails` associated with probability matrices, variograms slope and statistical indices, regional extrema location, are features able to discriminate areas with defects from areas without any. The classification is then realized by a neural network, which structure, properties and learning mechanisms are detailed. Finally we discuss the results. (authors). 21 refs., 5 figs.

  13. ASSESSING THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF INCORPORATING ROMANIAN'S AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SECTORS INTO EU'S CUSTOMS UNION: AN APPLIED GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu S. Scrieciu

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Joining the European Union club implies, among many other policy changes, full integration of Romania’s economy into EU’s customs union. This is expected to have significant implications for domestic farmers and food processors. The paper constructs a single-country Applied General Equilibrium (AGE model to investigate the impact of tariff border adjustments on changes in relative prices, production and trade patterns associated with fifteen local agro-food activities. Moreover, the modelling work identifies those agro-food sectors that have the potential to benefit the most from EU enlargement in terms of output effects given that Romanian producers are capable of fully responding to the incentives provided with integration. These mainly include (bovine live animals and meat products, sugar, and cereal grains. Agro-food trade with EU intensifies in particular for those commodities for which trade restrictions are still substantial prior to accession. However, the magnitude of changes is relatively small due to the weak integration of domestic agro-food sectors into international trade structures. The AGE model also predicts static welfare gains of 0.65 percent of GDP equivalent variation. These seem to be more associated with better access to EU markets and increased export prices, and less with the preferential unilateral elimination of tariffs or their adjustment to EU’s external levels. The model assumptions are highly theoretical and the model structure does not reflect with fidelity the workings of an economy in transition. Nonetheless, it does represent a solid base upon which further improvements could be added and structural transitional issues could be attached to more accurately predict potential outcomes.

  14. Applying data envelopment analysis approach to improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emission of wheat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, DEA (data envelopment analysis) was applied to analyze the energy efficiency of wheat farms in order to separate efficient and inefficient growers and to calculate the wasteful uses of energy. Additionally, the degrees of TE (technical efficiency), PTE (pure technical efficiency) and SE (scale efficiency) were determined. Furthermore, the effect of energy optimization on GHG (greenhouse gas) emission was investigated and the total amount of GHG emission of efficient farms was compared with inefficient ones. Based on the results it was revealed that 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was calculated as 0.82. Based on the BCC (Banker–Charnes–Cooper) model 154 growers (59%) were identified efficient and the mean PTE of these farmers was found to be 0.99. Also, it was concluded that 2075.8 MJ ha−1 of energy inputs can be saved if the performance of inefficient farms rises to a high level. Additionally, it was observed that the total GHG emission from efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO2eq. ha−1, respectively. By energy optimization the total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO2eq. ha−1. - Highlights: • 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was 0.82. • An average 2075.8 MJ ha−1 from energy input could be saved without reducing the yield. • GHG emission of efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO2eq. ha−1. • Total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO2eq. ha−1

  15. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    Full Text Available Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR, rhodamine B (RB, and magnetic powder (MP were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85 and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY. Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm. And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm. All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  16. Fabric phase sorptive extraction: An innovative sample preparation approach applied to the analysis of specific migration from food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M; Alfaro, P; Nerin, C; Kabir, A; Furton, K G

    2016-09-14

    Additives added to food packaging materials can migrate to food in contact with them during storage and shelf life. A novel simple, fast and sensitive analyte extraction method based on fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), followed by analysis using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-MS) was applied to the analysis of 18 common non-volatile plastic additives. Three FPSE media coated with different sol-gel sorbents characterized with different polarities including sol-gel poly(dimethylsiloxane), sol-gel poly(ethylene glycol) and sol-gel poly(tetrahydrofuran) were studied. All three FPSE media showed very satisfactory results. In general, compounds with low logP values seemed to have higher enrichment factors (EFs), especially with poly(tetrahydrofuran) and poly(ethylene glycol) media. For compounds with high logP values, the use of sol-gel poly(dimethylsiloxane) improved the enrichment capacity. Sample preparation time was optimized at 20 min for sample extraction and 10 min for solvent desorption. Acetonitrile was selected as desorption solvent since recoveries were over 70% for 13 out of 18 selected compounds in all FPSE media. The best extraction recovery values were obtained when compounds were dissolved in aqueous acetic acid solution (3%), where 17 out of 18 compounds showed improvement in their signal intensity after FPSE extraction and 10 obtained enrichment factors above 3 for all the tested FPSE media. When FPSE extracts were concentrated under nitrogen, 11 out of 18 compounds reached EFs values above 100. PMID:27566344

  17. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vouillamoz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements.

    We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m−2 of surface area (± 50%. We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  18. Applying the system engineering approach to devise a master’s degree program in space technology in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazebizadeh, Hooman; Tabeshian, Maryam; Taheran Vernoosfaderani, Mahsa

    2010-11-01

    Although more than half a century is passed since space technology was first developed, developing countries are just beginning to enter the arena, focusing mainly on educating professionals. Space technology by itself is an interdisciplinary science, is costly, and developing at a fast pace. Moreover, a fruitful education system needs to remain dynamic if the quality of education is the main concern, making it a complicated system. This paper makes use of the System Engineering Approach and the experiences of developed countries in this area while incorporating the needs of the developing countries to devise a comprehensive program in space engineering at the Master's level. The needs of the developing countries as regards space technology education may broadly be put into two categories: to raise their knowledge of space technology which requires hard work and teamwork skills, and to transfer and domesticate space technology while minimizing the costs and maximizing its effectiveness. The requirements of such space education system, which include research facilities, courses, and student projects are then defined using a model drawn from the space education systems in universities in North America and Europe that has been modified to include the above-mentioned needs. Three design concepts have been considered and synthesized through functional analysis. The first one is Modular and Detail Study which helps students specialize in a particular area in space technology. Second is referred to as Integrated and Interdisciplinary Study which focuses on understanding and development of space systems. Finally, the third concept which has been chosen for the purpose of this study, is a combination of the other two, categorizing the required curriculum into seven modules, setting aside space applications. This helps students to not only specialize in one of these modules but also to get hands-on experience in a real space project through participation in summer group

  19. Temperature predictions for geothermal exploration - a lithospheric-scale 3D approach applied to the northern Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias; Stiller, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben and its prolongation, the Hessian depression, were formed as part of the European Cenozoic Rift System in a complex extensional to transtensional setting. At present-day, the Upper Rhine Graben is one of the regions in Germany that are well suitable for deep geothermal exploitation. In the framework of the EU-funded project "IMAGE" (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration) we aim to contribute to the development of an integrated and multidisciplinary approach for the exploration of geothermal reservoirs by understanding the processes and properties controlling the spatial distribution of key parameters such as the underground temperature. Typically, reservoir-scale numerical models are developed for predictions on the subsurface hydrothermal conditions and for reducing the risk of drilling non-productive geothermal wells. One major problem related to such models is setting appropriate boundary conditions that define, for instance, how much heat enters the reservoir from greater depths. To understand the deep thermal field of the northern Upper Rhine Graben in the federal state of Hessen, we first develop a 3D structural model that differentiates the main geological units of the lithosphere including the shallow sedimentary fill. This model allows to solve the steady-state conductive heat equation and understand the first-order controlling factors of the regional thermal field. We present the database (e.g. seismic reflection data) and the methodological workflow (involving, e.g., 3D gravity modelling) that were used to develop the lithospheric-scale 3D structural model. Furthermore, we show how certain features of the structural model such as thickness variations of the radiogenic-heat-producing crystalline crust control the temperature distribution in the subsurface.

  20. Identification of specificity determining residues in peptide recognition domains using an information theoretic approach applied to large-scale binding maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhu Sachdev S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptide Recognition Domains (PRDs are commonly found in signaling proteins. They mediate protein-protein interactions by recognizing and binding short motifs in their ligands. Although a great deal is known about PRDs and their interactions, prediction of PRD specificities remains largely an unsolved problem. Results We present a novel approach to identifying these Specificity Determining Residues (SDRs. Our algorithm generalizes earlier information theoretic approaches to coevolution analysis, to become applicable to this problem. It leverages the growing wealth of binding data between PRDs and large numbers of random peptides, and searches for PRD residues that exhibit strong evolutionary covariation with some positions of the statistical profiles of bound peptides. The calculations involve only information from sequences, and thus can be applied to PRDs without crystal structures. We applied the approach to PDZ, SH3 and kinase domains, and evaluated the results using both residue proximity in co-crystal structures and verified binding specificity maps from mutagenesis studies. Discussion Our predictions were found to be strongly correlated with the physical proximity of residues, demonstrating the ability of our approach to detect physical interactions of the binding partners. Some high-scoring pairs were further confirmed to affect binding specificity using previous experimental results. Combining the covariation results also allowed us to predict binding profiles with higher reliability than two other methods that do not explicitly take residue covariation into account. Conclusions The general applicability of our approach to the three different domain families demonstrated in this paper suggests its potential in predicting binding targets and assisting the exploration of binding mechanisms.

  1. Applying an Inverse Model to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Three Different Observation-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Nash, C.

    2014-12-01

    from the inverse model (FIDES) using all three datasets will be compared to emissions from the bLS model (WindTrax) using only high speed data (laser; CRDS). Results may lend further validity to the conditional sampler approach for more easily and accurately monitoring NH3 fluxes from CAFOs and other strong areal sources.

  2. Ground observations and remote sensing data for integrated modelisation of water budget in the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougenot, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is affected by water scarcity. Some countries as Tunisia reached the limit of 550 m3/year/capita due overexploitation of low water resources for irrigation, domestic uses and industry. A lot of programs aim to evaluate strategies to improve water consumption at regional level. In central Tunisia, on the Merguellil catchment, we develop integrated water resources modelisations based on social investigations, ground observations and remote sensing data. The main objective is to close the water budget at regional level and to estimate irrigation and water pumping to test scenarios with endusers. Our works benefit from French, bilateral and European projects (ANR, MISTRALS/SICMed, FP6, FP7…), GMES/GEOLAND-ESA) and also network projects as JECAM and AERONET, where the Merguellil site is a reference. This site has specific characteristics associating irrigated and rainfed crops mixing cereals, market gardening and orchards and will be proposed as a new environmental observing system connected to the OMERE, TENSIFT and OSR systems respectively in Tunisia, Morocco and France. We show here an original and large set of ground and remote sensing data mainly acquired from 2008 to present to be used for calibration/validation of water budget processes and integrated models for present and scenarios: - Ground data: meteorological stations, water budget at local scale: fluxes tower, soil fluxes, soil and surface temperature, soil moisture, drainage, flow, water level in lakes, aquifer, vegetation parameters on selected fieds/month (LAI, height, biomass, yield), land cover: 3 times/year, bare soil roughness, irrigation and pumping estimations, soil texture. - Remote sensing data: remote sensing products from multi-platform (MODIS, SPOT, LANDSAT, ASTER, PLEIADES, ASAR, COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR X…), multi-wavelength (solar, micro-wave and thermal) and multi-resolution (0.5 meters to 1 km). Ground observations are used (1) to calibrate soil

  3. Les mousses adaptatives pour l'amelioration de l'absorption acoustique: Modelisation, mise en oeuvre, mecanismes de controle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Pierre

    The objective of this thesis is to conduct a thorough numerical and experimental analysis of the smart foam concept, in order to highlight the physical mechanisms and the technological limitations for the control of acoustic absorption. A smart foam is made of an absorbing material with an embedded actuator able to complete the lack of effectiveness of this material in the low frequencies (microphone. Three control cases were tested: off line control with a sum of pure tones, adaptive control with the nFX-LMS algorithm for a pure tone and for a random broad band noise. The results reveal the possibility of absorbing a pressure of 1.Pa at 1.00Hz with 100V and a broad band noise of 94dB with a hundred Vrms starting from 250Hz. These results have been obtained with a mean foam thickness of 4cm. The control ability of the prototypes is directly connected to the acoustic flow. An important limitation for the broad band control comes from the high distortion level through the system in the low and high frequency range ( 1500Hz). The use of the numerical model, supplemented by an analytical study made it possible to clarify the action mode and the dissipation mechanisms in smart foams. The PVDF moves with the same phase and amplitude of the residual incidental pressure which is not dissipated in the foam. Viscous effect dissipation is then very weak in the low frequencies and becomes more important in the high frequencies. The wave which was not been dissipated in the porous material is transmitted by the PVDF in the back cavity. The outlooks of this study are on the one hand, the improvement of the model and the prototypes and on the other hand, the widening of the field of research to the control of the acoustic transmission and the acoustic radiation of surfaces. The model could be improved by integrating viscoelastic elements able to account for the behavior of the adhesive layer between the PVDF and foam. A modelisation of electro-elastomers materials would also have

  4. A study on the Abruzzo 6 April 2009 earthquake by applying the RST approach to 15 years of AVHRR TIR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lisi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A self adaptive approach (RST, Robust Satellite Technique has been proposed as a suitable tool for satellite TIR surveys in seismically active regions devoted to detect and monitor thermal anomalies possibly related to earthquake occurrence. In this work, RST approach has been applied to 15 years of AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer thermal infrared observations in order to study the 6 April 2009 Abruzzo earthquake. Preliminary results show clear differences in TIR anomalies occurrence during the periods used for validation (15 March–15 April 2009 and the one (15 March–15 April 2008 without earthquakes with ML≥4.5, used for confutation purposes. Quite clear TIR anomalies appears also to mark main tectonic lineaments during the preparatory phases of others, low magnitude(3.9<ML<4.6 earthquakes, occurred in the area in the same period.

  5. User-centered Development of Video telephony for Servicing Mainly Older Users: Review and Evaluation of an Approach Applied for 10 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Väyrynen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and development (R&D approach has been applied to video telephony (VT in northern Finland since 1994 by broad consortia. The focus has been on the considerable involvement of ergonomics within the engineering and implementation of VT. This multidisciplinary participatory ergonomic R&D approach (PERDA is described briefly, in general and through two cases. The user-centeredness should be discernible in this sociotechnical systemic entity. A consortium—comprising mainly manufacturers, individual and organizational users of technological products, and R&D organizations—serves as a natural context for product development. VT has been considered to have much potential for enhancing (multimedia interaction and effective multimodal communication, thereby facilitating many activities of everyday life and work. An assessment of the VT system, called HomeHelper, involved older citizens, as clients or customers, and the staff of social, health, and other services.

  6. Security planning an applied approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lincke, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book guides readers through building an IT security plan. Offering a template, it helps readers to prioritize risks, conform to regulation, plan their defense and secure proprietary/confidential information. The process is documented in the supplemental online security workbook. Security Planning is designed for the busy IT practitioner, who does not have time to become a security expert, but needs a security plan now. It also serves to educate the reader of a broader set of concepts related to the security environment through the Introductory Concepts and Advanced sections. The book serv

  7. Technical approach to resolving issues on rock mechanics as applied to development of a nuclear waste repository in a crystalline rock formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the technical efforts for resolving issues on rock mechanics as applied to development of a nuclear waste repository in a crystalline rock formation. This section provides background information and definitions pertinent to rock mechanics. Section 2.0 presents the rock mechanics issues related to licensing, design, and construction of a waste repository. Section 3.0 presents the technical approach to the resolution of issues and concludes that a multi-faceted approach involving principally site characterization, laboratory testing, numerical modeling and analysis, and in situ testing and monitoring is required. While this technical approach is directed to further scientific understanding and quantification of the phenomena involved accompanying the thermal heating of rock from nuclear waste, it is emphasized that formulation of a design basis for an engineered rock structure will precede the development of a large waste repository. Section 4.0 summarizes the status of resolution activities in the areas of thermomechanical effects, coupled thermal, mechanical, and hydrological phenomena, mine-induced fracturing, mine stability, and seismicity. Section 5.0 gives a concluding statement. Under the present project plans, technical activities are proceeding on multiple fronts involving field, laboratory, and numerical modeling and analysis studies of the important phenomena related to the disposal of radioactive waste in crystalline rock. The advancement of the state of the art in rock mechanics from these activities will culminate in the risk analysis and the formulation of a design basis for repositories

  8. A Hybrid Approach Using an Artificial Bee Algorithm with Mixed Integer Programming Applied to a Large-Scale Capacitated Facility Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Cabrera G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a hybridization of two different approaches applied to the well-known Capacitated Facility Location Problem (CFLP. The Artificial Bee algorithm (BA is used to select a promising subset of locations (warehouses which are solely included in the Mixed Integer Programming (MIP model. Next, the algorithm solves the subproblem by considering the entire set of customers. The hybrid implementation allows us to bypass certain inherited weaknesses of each algorithm, which means that we are able to find an optimal solution in an acceptable computational time. In this paper we demonstrate that BA can be significantly improved by use of the MIP algorithm. At the same time, our hybrid implementation allows the MIP algorithm to reach the optimal solution in a considerably shorter time than is needed to solve the model using the entire dataset directly within the model. Our hybrid approach outperforms the results obtained by each technique separately. It is able to find the optimal solution in a shorter time than each technique on its own, and the results are highly competitive with the state-of-the-art in large-scale optimization. Furthermore, according to our results, combining the BA with a mathematical programming approach appears to be an interesting research area in combinatorial optimization.

  9. A variational Bayesian approach for unsupervised super-resolution using mixture models of point and smooth sources applied to astrophysical map-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present, in this paper, a new unsupervised method for joint image super-resolution and separation between smooth and point sources. For this purpose, we propose a Bayesian approach with a Markovian model for the smooth part and Student’s t-distribution for point sources. All model and noise parameters are considered unknown and should be estimated jointly with images. However, joint estimators (joint MAP or posterior mean) are intractable and an approximation is needed. Therefore, a new gradient-like variational Bayesian method is applied to approximate the true posterior by a free-form separable distribution. A parametric form is obtained by approximating marginals but with form parameters that are mutually dependent. Their optimal values are achieved by iterating them till convergence. The method was tested by the model-generated data and a real dataset from the Herschel space observatory. (paper)

  10. A Novel Approach for Image Recognition to Enhance the Quality of Decision Making by Applying Degree of Correlation Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Dara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many diversified applications do exist in science & technology, which make use of the primary theory of a recognition phenomenon as one of its solutions. Recognition scenario is incorporated with a set of decisions and the action according to the decision purely relies on the quality of extracted information on utmost applications. Thus, the quality decision making absolutely reckons on processing momentum and precision which are entirely coupled with recognition methodology. In this article, a latest rule is formulated based on the degree of correlation to characterize the generalized recognition constraint and the application is explored with respect to image based information extraction. Machine learning based perception called feed forward architecture of Artificial Neural Network has been applied to attain the expected eminence of elucidation. The proposed method furnishes extraordinary advantages such as less memory requirements, extremely high level security for storing data, exceptional speed and gentle implementation approach.

  11. Integrated approach to the plant location and optimal plant dimension problem applied to the collection and transportation of solid waste to an energy recovery plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a methodology to determine the optimal location and dimensions of the transfer stations for the Municipal Solid Waste. The proposed approach has been applied to the county of Palermo, which consists of 82 cities. The optimization process consists of two different phases. In the first one a fuzzy clustering procedure is used to determine the optimal hypothetical location of transfer stations. In the second phase a Linear Programming Model, involving real, integer and boolean variables, is generated, in which the possible locations of the stations are the ones determined in the previous phase. The proposed methodology aims to the determination of the plant locations, the plant typology, the groups of cities, and the number of vectors that minimize the total costs of transport to the energy recovery plant

  12. Etude de la transmission sonore a travers un protecteur de type "coquilles" : modelisation numerique et validation experimentale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Sylvain

    methode des seuils auditifs REAT (Real Ear Attenuation Threshold) aussi vu comme un "golden standard" est utilise pour quantifier la reduction du bruit mais surestime generalement la performance des protecteurs. Les techniques de mesure terrains, telles que la F-MIRE (Field Measurement in Real Ear) peuvent etre a l'avenir de meilleurs outils pour evaluer l'attenuation individuelle. Si ces techniques existent pour des bouchons d'oreilles, elles doivent etre adaptees et ameliorees pour le cas des coquilles, en determinant l'emplacement optimal des capteurs acoustiques et les facteurs de compensation individuels qui lient la mesure microphonique a la mesure qui aurait ete prise au tympan. La troisieme problematique specifique est l'optimisation de l'attenuation des coquilles pour les adapter a l'individu et a son environnement de travail. En effet, le design des coquilles est generalement base sur des concepts empiriques et des methodes essais/erreurs sur des prototypes. La piste des outils predictifs a ete tres peu etudiee jusqu'a present et meriterait d'etre approfondie. L'utilisation du prototypage virtuel, permettrait a la fois d'optimiser le design avant production, d'accelerer la phase de developpement produit et d'en reduire les couts. L'objectif general de cette these est de repondre a ces differentes problematiques par le developpement d'un modele de l'attenuation sonore d'un protecteur auditif de type coquille. A cause de la complexite de la geometrie de ces protecteurs, la methode principale de modelisation retenue a priori est la methode des elements finis (FEM). Pour atteindre cet objectif general, trois objectifs specifiques ont ete etablis et sont presentes dans les trois paragraphes suivants. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. Mod\\'elisation multidomaine du comportement magn\\'eto-m\\'ecanique des aciers dual-phases

    OpenAIRE

    Mballa, Frederick Mballa; Hubert, Olivier; Lazreg, Said; Meilland, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical behavior of dual-phase steels are highly sensitive to the variation of the process (heat treatments). Online control by magnetic method is relevant. A measurement under applied stress must be considered. The dual-phase is a two-phase medium (ferrite / martensite). Each phase can be considered as a sphere embedded in a homogeneous equivalent medium. The model used for each phase is based on a magneto-mechanical coupled model. This is an explicit single crystal...

  14. Modelisation Numerique De L'Interaction Sol-Structure Lors Du Phenomene De Fontis

    CERN Document Server

    Caudron, Matthieu; Heib, Marwan Al

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the simulation of soil-structure interaction during a sinkhole development by the use of a coupling numerical modelling approach. The 2D model uses a Finite Difference computer code associated with a Distinct Elements code to optimize the performances of both softwares. This allows an important decrease of computation time and the results computed are close of the experimental observations made before.

  15. Mod\\'elisation multidomaine du comportement magn\\'eto-m\\'ecanique des aciers dual-phases

    CERN Document Server

    Mballa, Frederick Mballa; Lazreg, Said; Meilland, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical behavior of dual-phase steels are highly sensitive to the variation of the process (heat treatments). Online control by magnetic method is relevant. A measurement under applied stress must be considered. The dual-phase is a two-phase medium (ferrite / martensite). Each phase can be considered as a sphere embedded in a homogeneous equivalent medium. The model used for each phase is based on a magneto-mechanical coupled model. This is an explicit single crystalline model representative of the behavior of the corresponding phase. Localization rules allow the simulation of the two-phases medium. Experiments and modeling are compared.

  16. Modelisation et commande des redresseurs triphases fonctionnant a haut rendement et a faible taux de distorsion harmonique: Application au redresseur triphase de vienne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj Youssef, Nesrine

    Les problemes de la qualite de l'onde electrique constituent l'une des preoccupations majeures des fournisseurs de l'energie et des organismes specialises en qualite d'energie. Ce sujet a gagne davantage d'ampleur avec l'utilisation ascendante des convertisseurs de l'energie electrique dans la majorite des applications industrielles et domestiques. Dans le cadre de cette these, on s'interesse plus particulierement au type des convertisseurs alternatif/continu, dont le fonctionnement adequat implique la parfaite regulation du bus DC de tension, l'attenuation des harmoniques de courants, la compensation de l'energie reactive et la maximisation du rendement energetique. Ces differents criteres doivent etre maintenus pour diverses conditions de fonctionnement, c'est-a-dire independamment des variations parametriques auxquelles le systeme peut etre sujet. Il s'avere donc indispensable d'adopter des techniques de commande efficaces, ce qui passe par une modelisation correcte du convertisseur. L'optimisation du nombre de capteurs dans le circuit est egalement un facteur cle a prendre en consideration.

  17. Thermal modeling. Application to lithium batteries; Modelisation thermique. Application aux accumulateurs lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Flament, P. [SAFT, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Marolleau, T. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Guiot, T.; Lefriec, C. [TSR Futuropolis, 86 - Chasseneuil du Poitou (France)

    1996-12-31

    The thermal modeling of electrochemical batteries is today an integral part of the design and validation operations of new products. The Li-ion pair allows to increase the power density of batteries but leads to higher heat fluxes during charging-output cycles. Thus, the thermal control has become more crucial and requires the use of modeling. SAFT and TSR companies are involved in this approach and use the ESACAP software. This paper presents this software which uses a nodal method for the modeling of the coupled thermal and electrical processes that take place inside elementary cells and batteries. (J.S.)

  18. Short term forecasting of petroleum product demand in France; Modelisation a court terme des consommations de produits petroliers en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadren, M

    1998-06-23

    The analysis of petroleum product demand became a privileged thrust of research following the modifications in terms of structure and level of the petroleum markets since eighties. The greatest importance to econometrics models of Energy demand, joint works about nonstationary data, explained the development of error-correction models and the co-integration. In this context, the short term econometrics modelling of petroleum product demand does not only focus on forecasts but also on the measure of the gain acquired from using error-correction techniques and co-integration. It`s filling to take the influence of technical improvement and environment pressures into account in econometrics modelling of petroleum products demand. The first part presents the evolution of Energy Demand in France and more particularly the petroleum product demand since 1986. The objective is to determine the main characteristics of each product, which will help us to analyse and validate the econometrics models. The second part focus on the recent developments in times series modelling. We study the problem of nonstationary data and expose different unit root tests. We examine the main approaches to univariate and multivariate modelling with nonstationary data and distinguish the forecasts of the latter`s. The third part is intended to applications; its objective is to illustrate the theoretic developments of the second part with a comparison between the performances of different approaches (approach Box and Jenkins, Johansen approach`s and structural approach). The models will be applied to the main French petroleum market. The observed asymmetrical demand behaviour is also considered. (author) 153 refs.

  19. The multi-method paleointensity approach applied to volcanics from Terceira: full-vector geomagnetic data for the past 50 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Lennart V.; Pimentel, Adriano; Di Chiara, Anita

    2016-03-01

    The island of Terceira (38.5° N, 27.2° W) in the Azores Archipelago boasts a wealth of well-dated recent volcanic products; it is therefore the ideal location to improve the resolution of the full-vector geomagnetic field record for the Mid-Atlantic Ocean. We investigated 21 (sub-)sites sampled from ten different cooling units; six of these cooling units are from the Holocene, the other four are approximately coeval with the age of known geomagnetic excursions. After successfully determining the paleodirections from all but one site, we applied the multi-method paleointensity approach to all sites. Here, we used three different paleointensity methods: the IZZI-Thellier protocol, the Multispecimen technique, and the calibrated pseudo-Thellier method. For the Holocene sites four robust paleointensity estimates were obtained, they mostly agree with data from the nearby island of São Miguel and data from the Iberian Peninsula and West Africa. Two older sites, dated at 25.7 and 46.3 ka, produced low paleointensities: 24.4 and 24.1 μT, respectively. As both the IZZI-Thellier and pseudo-Thellier methods yielded technically acceptable results for these sites we used them to improve the pseudo-Thellier calibration relation and establish its applicability to lower paleointensities. Sixty percent of all sampled cooling units/ages in our study yielded a technically successful paleointensity estimate; this unusually high success rate is attributed both to our sampling strategy and the implementation of the Multi-method approach.

  20. Motor fuel demand analysis - applied modelling in the European union; Modelisation de la demande de carburant appliquee a l`europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorazewiez, S

    1998-01-19

    Motor fuel demand in Europe amounts to almost half of petroleum products consumption and to thirty percent of total final energy consumption. This study considers, Firstly, the energy policies of different European countries and the ways in which the consumption of motor gasoline and automotive gas oil has developed. Secondly it provides an abstract of demand models in the energy sector, illustrating their specific characteristics. Then it proposes an economic model of automotive fuel consumption, showing motor gasoline and automotive gas oil separately over a period of thirty years (1960-1993) for five main countries in the European Union. Finally, forecasts of consumption of gasoline and diesel up to the year 2020 are given for different scenarios. (author) 330 refs.

  1. Modelling and control of an electric vehicle; Modelisation et controle d`un vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwartnik, J.

    1995-11-28

    The work described in this report provides to engineers or researchers a tool for electric vehicle simulation. The different components included in the system are described with in particular the choppers, the pedal accelerator and the vehicle dynamic represented by the different constraints applied to the vehicle (efforts of drag, of lift, of rolling and slope resistance). This study has been realized by considering nonlinear phenomenons such as the armature magnetic reaction or the resistance change due to temperature increasing. The complexity of the system leads to use several of control. The theory of linear systems made possible the synthesis of PID controllers after few hypothesis. An on line adaptation technique completed this synthesis by considering nonlinear effects. For the cruise control we have used a control based on fuzzy set theory. We showed through two examples, the cruise control and the motor control using a strategy which minimize the Joule effect looses, the interest and the possibilities of the model evolution. (author) 21 refs.

  2. An homogeneization method applied to the seismic analysis of LMFBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important structures like nuclear reactor cores, steam generator bundle, are schematically composed by a great number of beams, immersed in a fluid. The fluid structure interaction is an important phenomenon influencing the dynamical response of bundle. The study of this interaction through classical methods would need a refined modelisation at the scale of the beams and lead to important size of problems. The homogeneization method constitutes an alternative approach if we are mainly interested by the global behaviour of the bundle. Similar approaches have been already used for other types of industrial structures (Sanchez-Palencia 1980, Bergman and al. 1985, Theodory 1984, Benner and al. 1981). This method consists in replacing the physical heterogeneous medium by an homogeneous medium, which characteristics are determined from the resolution of a set problems on the elementary cell. In the first part of this paper the main assumptions of the method will be summarized. Moreover, other important phenomena may contribute to the dynamical behaviour of the industrial above mentioned structures: those are the impacts between the beams. These impacts could be due to supports limiting the displacements of the beams or to differences in the vibratory characteristics of the various beams. The second part of the paper will concern the way of taking into account the impacts in the linear hemogeneous formalism. Finally an application to the seismic analysis of the FBR core mock-up RAPSODIE will be presented

  3. European oil product supply modelling; Modelisation de l`offre de produits petroliers en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Antonin, V

    1998-12-11

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author) 102 refs.

  4. Physical modelling of interactions between interfaces and turbulence; Modelisation physique des interactions entre interfaces et turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutant, A

    2006-12-15

    The complex interactions between interfaces and turbulence strongly impact the flow properties. Unfortunately, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) have to entail a number of degrees of freedom proportional to the third power of the Reynolds number to correctly describe the flow behaviour. This extremely hard constraint makes it impossible to use DNS for industrial applications. Our strategy consists in using and improving DNS method in order to develop the Interfaces and Sub-grid Scales concept. ISS is a two-phase equivalent to the single-phase Large Eddy Simulation (LES) concept. The challenge of ISS is to integrate the two-way coupling phenomenon into sub-grid models. Applying a space filter, we have exhibited correlations or sub-grid terms that require closures. We have shown that, in two-phase flows, the presence of a discontinuity leads to specific sub-grid terms. Comparing the maximum of the norm of the sub-grid terms with the maximum of the norm of the advection tensor, we have found that sub-grid terms related to interfacial forces and viscous effect are negligible. Consequently, in the momentum balance, only the sub-grid terms related to inertia have to be closed. Thanks to a priori tests performed on several DNS data, we demonstrate that the scale similarity hypothesis, reinterpreted near discontinuity, provides sub-grid models that take into account the two-way coupling phenomenon. These models correspond to the first step of our work. Indeed, in this step, interfaces are smooth and, interactions between interfaces and turbulence occur in a transition zone where each physical variable varies sharply but continuously. The next challenge has been to determine the jump conditions across the sharp equivalent interface corresponding to the sub-grid models of the transition zone. We have used the matched asymptotic expansion method to obtain the jump conditions. The first tests on the velocity of the sharp equivalent interface are very promising (author)

  5. Evaluating Tidal Marsh Sustainability in the Face of Sea-Level Rise: A Hybrid Modeling Approach Applied to San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stralberg, Diana; Brennan, Matthew; Callaway, John C.; Wood, Julian K.; Schile, Lisa M.; Jongsomjit, Dennis; Kelly, Maggi; Parker, V. Thomas; Crooks, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Tidal marshes will be threatened by increasing rates of sea-level rise (SLR) over the next century. Managers seek guidance on whether existing and restored marshes will be resilient under a range of potential future conditions, and on prioritizing marsh restoration and conservation activities. Methodology Building upon established models, we developed a hybrid approach that involves a mechanistic treatment of marsh accretion dynamics and incorporates spatial variation at a scale relevant for conservation and restoration decision-making. We applied this model to San Francisco Bay, using best-available elevation data and estimates of sediment supply and organic matter accumulation developed for 15 Bay subregions. Accretion models were run over 100 years for 70 combinations of starting elevation, mineral sediment, organic matter, and SLR assumptions. Results were applied spatially to evaluate eight Bay-wide climate change scenarios. Principal Findings Model results indicated that under a high rate of SLR (1.65 m/century), short-term restoration of diked subtidal baylands to mid marsh elevations (−0.2 m MHHW) could be achieved over the next century with sediment concentrations greater than 200 mg/L. However, suspended sediment concentrations greater than 300 mg/L would be required for 100-year mid marsh sustainability (i.e., no elevation loss). Organic matter accumulation had minimal impacts on this threshold. Bay-wide projections of marsh habitat area varied substantially, depending primarily on SLR and sediment assumptions. Across all scenarios, however, the model projected a shift in the mix of intertidal habitats, with a loss of high marsh and gains in low marsh and mudflats. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest a bleak prognosis for long-term natural tidal marsh sustainability under a high-SLR scenario. To minimize marsh loss, we recommend conserving adjacent uplands for marsh migration, redistributing dredged sediment to raise elevations, and

  6. Optical excitation and electron relaxation dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: a combined approach of density functional and density matrix theory applied to the silicon (001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecking, N.

    2007-11-05

    In this work a new theoretical formalism is introduced in order to simulate the phononinduced relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium at a semiconductor surface numerically. The non-equilibrium distribution is effected by an optical excitation. The approach in this thesis is to link two conventional, but approved methods to a new, more global description: while semiconductor surfaces can be investigated accurately by density-functional theory, the dynamical processes in semiconductor heterostructures are successfully described by density matrix theory. In this work, the parameters for density-matrix theory are determined from the results of density-functional calculations. This work is organized in two parts. In Part I, the general fundamentals of the theory are elaborated, covering the fundamentals of canonical quantizations as well as the theory of density-functional and density-matrix theory in 2{sup nd} order Born approximation. While the formalism of density functional theory for structure investigation has been established for a long time and many different codes exist, the requirements for density matrix formalism concerning the geometry and the number of implemented bands exceed the usual possibilities of the existing code in this field. A special attention is therefore attributed to the development of extensions to existing formulations of this theory, where geometrical and fundamental symmetries of the structure and the equations are used. In Part II, the newly developed formalism is applied to a silicon (001)surface in a 2 x 1 reconstruction. As first step, density-functional calculations using the LDA functional are completed, from which the Kohn-Sham-wave functions and eigenvalues are used to calculate interaction matrix elements for the electron-phonon-coupling an the optical excitation. These matrix elements are determined for the optical transitions from valence to conduction bands and for electron-phonon processes inside the

  7. The hydro-mechanical modeling of the fractured media; Modelisation hydromecanique des milieux fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadiri, I

    2002-10-15

    The hydro-mechanical modeling of the fractured media is quite complex. Simplifications are necessary for the modeling of such media, but, not always justified, Only permeable fractures are often considered. The rest of the network is approximated by an equivalent continuous medium. Even if we suppose that this approach is validated, the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the fractures and of the continuous medium are seldom known. Calibrations are necessary for the determination of these properties. Until now, one does not know very well the nature of measurements which must be carried out in order to carry on a modeling in discontinuous medium, nor elements of enough robust validation for this kind of modeling. For a better understanding of the hydro-mechanical phenomena in fractured media, two different sites have been selected for the work. The first is the site of Grimsel in Switzerland in which an underground laboratory is located at approximately 400 m of depth. The FEBEX experiment aims at the in-situ study of the consecutive phenomena due to the installation of a heat source representative of radioactive waste in the last 17 meters of the FEBEX tunnel in the laboratory of Grimsel. Only, the modeling of the hydro-mechanical of the excavation was model. The modeling of the Febex enabled us to establish a methodology of calibration of the hydraulic properties in the discontinuous media. However, this kind of study on such complex sites does not make possible to answer all the questions which arise on the hydro-mechanical behavior of the fractured media. We thus carried out modeling on an other site, smaller than the fist one and more accessible. The experimental site of Coaraze, in the Maritime Alps, is mainly constituted of limestone and fractures. Then the variation of water pressure along fractures is governed by the opening/closure sequence of a water gate. Normal displacement as well as the pore pressure along these fractures are recorded, and then

  8. Modelisation et simulation de pyrolyse de pneus usages dans des reacteurs de laboratoire et industriel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Jean-Remi

    The present thesis covers an applied study on tire pyrolysis. The main objective is to develop tools to allow predicting the production and the quality of oil from tire pyrolysis. The first research objective consisted in modelling the kinetics of tires pyrolysis in a reactor, namely an industrial rotary drum operating in batch mode. A literature review performed later demonstrated that almost all kinetics models developed to represent tire pyrolysis could not represent the actual industrial process with enough accuracy. Among the families of kinetics models for pyrolysis, three have been identified: models with one single global reaction, models with multiple combined parallel reactions, and models with multiple parallel and series reactions. It was observed that these models show limitations. In the models with one single global reaction and with multiple parallels reactions, the production of each individual pyrolytic product cannot be predicted, but only for combined volatiles. Morevoer, the mass term in the kinetics refers to the final char weight (Winfinity) that varies with pyrolysis conditions, which yields less robust models. Also, despite the fact that models with multiple parallels and series reactions can predict the rate of production for each pyrolysis product, the selectivities are determined for operating temperatures instead of real mass temperatures, giving models for which parameters tuning is not adequate when used at the industrial scale. A new kinetics model has been developed, allowing predicting the rate of production of noncondensable gas, oil, and char from tire pyrolysis. The novelty of this model is the consideration of intrinsic selectivities for each product as a function of temperature. This hypothesis has been assumed valid considering that in the industrial pyrolysis process, pyrolysis kinetics is limiting. The developed model considers individual kinetics for each of the three pyrolytic products proportional to the global

  9. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  10. Thermodynamical modeling of nuclear glasses: coexistence of amorphous phases; Modelisation thermodynamique des verres nucleaires: coexistence entre phases amorphes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adjanor, G

    2007-11-15

    Investigating the stability of borosilicate glasses used in the nuclear industry with respect to phase separation requires to estimate the Gibbs free energies of the various phases appearing in the material. In simulation, using current computational resources, a direct state-sampling of a glassy system with respect to its ensemble statistics is not ergodic and the estimated ensemble averages are not reliable. Our approach consists in generating, at a given cooling rate, a series of quenches, or paths connecting states of the liquid to states of the glass, and then in taking into account the probability to generate the paths leading to the different glassy states in ensembles averages. In this way, we introduce a path ensemble formalism and calculate a Landau free energy associated to a glassy meta-basin. This method was validated by accurately mapping the free energy landscape of a 38-atom glassy cluster. We then applied this approach to the calculation of the Gibbs free energies of binary amorphous Lennard-Jones alloys, and checked the correlation between the observed tendencies to order or to phase separate and the computed Gibbs free energies. We finally computed the driving force to phase separation in a simplified three-oxide nuclear glass modeled by a Born-Mayer-Huggins potential that includes a three-body term, and we compared the estimated quantities to the available experimental data. (author)

  11. Metaphor in applied linguistics: four cognitive approaches A metáfora na lingüística aplicada: quatro abordagens cognitivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Steen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some considerations into metaphor in language and thought- 'the topic and title of the first conference of its kind in Brazil'. The paper focuses on the discussions presented in the round table, which were mostly directed to the empirical research on metaphor in Applied Linguistics. This integrative and retrospective reflection on the papers presented will be conducted from the perspective of the debate into the relationship between metaphor in language and in thought. This central issue is at the core of my proposal for four different approaches to metaphor, based on the interdependence between language and thought as system and as use:1 metaphor in language as system; 2 metaphor in thought as system; 3 metaphor in language as use and 4 metaphor in thought as use. It is within the framework of these categories that metaphors should be studied, with a certain degree of autonomy, so that their interdependence can be better understood.Este artigo apresenta algumas considerações sobre a metáfora na língua e no pensamento - "o tópico e título da primeira conferência desse tipo no Brasil". Focaliza as discussões apresentadas nas falas da plenária, que são principalmente direcionadas para a pesquisa empírica sobre metáfora na Lingüística Aplicada. Esta reflexão retrospectiva que integra os trabalhos apresentados é conduzida a partir da perspectiva do debate sobre a relação entre metáfora na língua e no pensamento. Esta questão é central na minha proposta de quatro diferentes abordagens da metáfora, com base na interdependência entre língua e pensamento como sistema e como uso: 1 metáfora na língua como sistema; 2 metáfora no pensamento como sistema; 3 metáfora na língua em uso; 4 metáfora no pensamento em uso. A metáfora deveria ser estudada a partir dessas categorias, com um certo grau de autonomia, de modo que as sua interdependência possa ser melhor entendida.

  12. Combating desertification - fuel oil from jatropha plants in Africa: a systematic approach applied by a GTZ-supported project in Mali, West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of plant oil as an engine fuel has a long and eventful history, and technical developments have largely been completed. The economic conditions, however, do not yet suffice to produce a breakthrough for plant oil use as fuel in most industrialized and developing countries. The approach applied by a pilot project in Mali and described in this paper tries to overcome these economic drawbacks. The primary aim of the project is not the use of plant oil from Jatropha as a fuel per se, but rather to make that fuel use into an incentive that would activate a system combining ecologic, economic and income-generating effects, the latter specifically for women. These effects could materialize only if the non-edible oil of the jatropha plant can find an economically viable use. Since jatropha trees (Jatropha curcas L.) not only bear oil-rich seed, but can also be planted in the form of hedges to protect gardens and fields from foraging animals while warding off soil erosion, this would seem to be a case of positive correlation between energy production and agricultural production: the more energy that is produced by the hedgerows of jatropha, the more food production is strengthened. Of particular importance here is the recycling of the oil cake as organic fertilizer. The technologies used in the jatropha system are the well-known hand-driven or mechanically driven oil presses and with precombustion chambers diesel engines. While various makes, the latter are already available on the local market, the presses can be produced locally at affordable prices. The project's activities focus, accordingly, on training and disseminating the relevant know-how. They do this by using local, often non-governmental institutions and by offering advice to farmers and rural communities interested in the jatropha system. The economic analysis using the UNIDO COMFAR III program shows very positive impacts if both direct and indirect effects are considered. Even in a completely non

  13. Applying the concept of the ecological niche and a macroecological approach to understand how climate influences zooplankton: Advantages, assumptions, limitations and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugrand, Gregory; Mackas, Dave; Goberville, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Ecosystem effects of climate change have been detected in all components of the Earth System. In the marine biosphere, climate-change responses have caused large and well-documented biogeographical and phenological shifts, which have in turn altered local dominance hierarchies, and also the structure, diversity and functional linkages within regional marine ecosystems. There is an urgent need to improve both our knowledge of the global-scale effects of climate change on marine biodiversity and our capacity to project future impacts. But extrapolation of previously estimated changes to additional places and to future conditions is complicated by non-linear responses to environmental variables, and also by complexities of multivariate interaction that can lead to tipping-points. In this paper, we show how observations from widely-spaced locations can be combined to characterise the ecological niche of a species, and how the concept of the niche can be used to understand and project how climate-induced changes in temperatures will alter marine zooplankton both locally and globally. As an example to illustrate our view, we apply this framework to the relatively well-known copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Our results suggest that climate change will strongly affect the local abundance of this species in the North Atlantic Ocean by the end of this century. Predicted changes are large (e.g. increase by ±6-10-fold of the temporal changes in the abundance of C. finmarchicus) and vary as a function of the magnitude of warming and the local sign and steepness of the thermal niche. Substantial rates of change hold even under optimistic climatic scenarii. After reviewing the main limitations of the niche concept in bioclimatological research, we argue that the application of this concept in ecology and bioclimatology might nevertheless represent the best tool currently available to scientists to discern and anticipate the effect of global climate change on species and ecosystems

  14. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  15. The applied Anatomy research of Anterolateral approach to the cervical spine%颈前外侧入路的应用解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾红林; 张烽; 金国华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide basis of the applied anatomy basis for the anterolateral approach to cervical spine. Methods Ten cadavers were dissected, observed and measured through mimicing the right anterolateml approach to the cervical spine. Results The common carotid artery bifurcation was mostly found at the level of C4 (70%). The facial vein drained into the internal jugular vein mostly at the level of C3/4 (70%). Cervical sympathetic trunk was located posteromedial to carotid sheath and just anterior to the longus muscles. It extended longitudinally from the longus capitis to the longus colli over the muscles and under the prevertebral fascia. The average distance between the cervical sympathetic trunk and medial border of the longus colli muscle at C6 was (14.5±4.8) mm. The average diameter of the cervical sympathetic trunk at C6 was (2.6±1.2)mm. Superior ganglion of cervical sympathetic trunk in all dissections was located at the level of C2 vertebra. The length and width of the superior cervical ganglion were (ll.9±2.5)mm and (7.4±4.2)mm,respectively. Forty percent of the middle ganglion was at the C5 level, and 60% was at C6 level,; The the length and width of the middle cervical ganglion were (8.9±5.9)mm and ( 5.1 ±3.2)mm. All of the vertebral artery arteries entered the transverse foramen of C6. The height and width of C5 uncinate process was were smallest but had the greatest distance from the medial edge of the uncinate process to the anterior tubercle (P<0.05). Conclusions Choosing anterolateral approach to the cervical spine approach could reach the lesion directly,causing less damage to the anterolateral transverse processes. This technique also allows through decompression, and preservation of cervical motion and spinal stability to the full extent.%目的 为颈前外侧入路手术提供应用解剖学基础.方法 对10具标本模拟右侧颈前外侧入路进行解剖观测.结果 颈总动脉的分叉在C4水平为70%.丽静脉70%

  16. Applied Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Spencer G.

    Stratigraphy is a cornerstone of the Earth sciences. The study of layered rocks, especially their age determination and correlation, which are integral parts of stratigraphy, are key to fields as diverse as geoarchaeology and tectonics. In the Anglophile history of geology, in the early 1800s, the untutored English surveyor William Smith was the first practical stratigrapher, constructing a geological map of England based on his own applied stratigraphy. Smith has, thus, been seen as the first “industrial stratigrapher,” and practical applications of stratigraphy have since been essential to most of the extractive industries from mining to petroleum. Indeed, gasoline is in your automobile because of a tremendous use of applied stratigraphy in oil exploration, especially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Applied stratigraphy, thus, is a subject of broad interest to Earth scientists.

  17. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  18. Applied mineralogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.C.; Hausen, D.M.; Hagni, R.D. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    A conference on applied mineralogy was held and figures were presented under the following headings: methodology (including image analysis); ore genesis; exploration; beneficiations (including precious metals); process mineralogy - low and high temperatures; and medical science applications. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  19. Catch-quota balancing in mixed-fisheries: a bio-economic modelling approach applied to the New Zealand hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Paul; Francis, Chris; Lallemand, Philippe; Lehuta, Sigrid; Mahevas, Stephanie; Stokes, Kevin; Vermard, Youen

    2009-01-01

    Managing adequately the exploitation of commercial species subject to technical interactions is a key step towards the ecosystem approach to fisheries. We evaluate here, using a bio-economic modelling approach building on the ISIS-Fish simulation platform, the relative impact of total allowable commercial catches (TACC) and of taxes applicable to over-quota landings (deemed value) on the sustainability of a selection of species exploited by the New Zealand hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) fis...

  20. Modeling of columnar and equiaxed solidification of binary mixtures; Modelisation de la solidification colonnaire et equiaxe de melanges binaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, P

    2005-12-15

    This work deals with the modelling of dendritic solidification in binary mixtures. Large scale phenomena are represented by volume averaging of the local conservation equations. This method allows to rigorously derive the partial differential equations of averaged fields and the closure problems associated to the deviations. Such problems can be resolved numerically on periodic cells, representative of dendritic structures, in order to give a precise evaluation of macroscopic transfer coefficients (Drag coefficients, exchange coefficients, diffusion-dispersion tensors...). The method had already been applied for a model of columnar dendritic mushy zone and it is extended to the case of equiaxed dendritic solidification, where solid grains can move. The two-phase flow is modelled with an Eulerian-Eulerian approach and the novelty is to account for the dispersion of solid velocity through the kinetic agitation of the particles. A coupling of the two models is proposed thanks to an original adaptation of the columnar model, allowing for undercooling calculation: a solid-liquid interfacial area density is introduced and calculated. At last, direct numerical simulations of crystal growth are proposed with a diffuse interface method for a representation of local phenomena. (author)

  1. Different approaches in Partial Least Squares and Artificial Neural Network models applied for the analysis of a ternary mixture of Amlodipine, Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2014-03-01

    Different chemometric models were applied for the quantitative analysis of Amlodipine (AML), Valsartan (VAL) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in ternary mixture, namely, Partial Least Squares (PLS) as traditional chemometric model and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as advanced model. PLS and ANN were applied with and without variable selection procedure (Genetic Algorithm GA) and data compression procedure (Principal Component Analysis PCA). The chemometric methods applied are PLS-1, GA-PLS, ANN, GA-ANN and PCA-ANN. The methods were used for the quantitative analysis of the drugs in raw materials and pharmaceutical dosage form via handling the UV spectral data. A 3-factor 5-level experimental design was established resulting in 25 mixtures containing different ratios of the drugs. Fifteen mixtures were used as a calibration set and the other ten mixtures were used as validation set to validate the prediction ability of the suggested methods. The validity of the proposed methods was assessed using the standard addition technique.

  2. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  3. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed

  4. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change; Modelisation stochastique d'ecoulements diphasiques avec changement de phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P. [EDF RD, departement MFEE, 6, quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France)

    2011-06-15

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  5. Participatory tools working with crops, varieties and seeds. A guide for professionals applying participatory approaches in agrobiodiversity management, crop improvement and seed sector development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boef, de W.S.; Thijssen, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in fie

  6. Consideraciones sobre la investigacion hermeneutica en la educacion en lenguas y culturas extranjeras (Aspects of Applying a Hermeneutic Approach to Foreign Language and Culture Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    Drawing on writings by recent post-modernist thinkers and semioticians, this paper focuses on a combination of hermeneutic and semiotic viewpoints and applies them to defining the nature of interpretation in an educational setting (e.g., text interpretation), the interpreter, and the essence of the act of comprehension and interpretation. The main…

  7. Frequency and damping ratio assessment of high-rise buildings using an Automatic Model-Based Approach applied to real-world ambient vibration recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Fatima; Li, Zhongyang; Gueguen, Philippe; Martin, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the application of the Automatic Model-Based Approach (AMBA) over actual buildings subjected to real-world ambient vibrations. In a previous paper, AMBA was developed with the aim of automating the estimation process of the modal parameters and minimizing the estimation error, especially that of the damping ratio. It is applicable over a single-channel record, has no parameters to be set, and no manual initialization phase. The results presented in this paper should be regarded as further documentation of the approach over real-world ambient vibration signals.

  8. A Study With Special Emphasis On Applying Motivational Interviewing As a Clinical Approach to Change Addictive Behavior of Drug Abusers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghorbani

    2002-10-01

    The goals of present article are three – fold: In the first step, it introduces a brief form of motivational Interviewing for addictive behaviors. Its primary basis is the idea that most substance abusers seek medical treatment without being ready to change addictive behaviors. As a result, attempts the addicts to change often lead to their resistance. Therefore, the use of motivational interviewing (MI in which clients are directed towards realizing their own reasons and arguments for changing their behavior, seems to be most oppropriate to motivate and prepare them for change. In the second step, the article tries to discuss advantages of motivational interviewing approach to often opproaches (e.g, skills training approach, Indirect approach and confrontational – denial approach and suggests that (MI is the most appropriate strategy for the substance abusers, according to their degree of readiness for change. Finally in the third step, the article attempts to indicate the current dominant strategies of addiction treatment in Iran and concludes that due to dominance and commonality of medicine – based treatment strategies of addictive behaviors, (MI could be introduced as an alternative and appropriate treatment strategy for drug addicts in Iran.

  9. State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems Part II: a linear graph approach applied to a Brayton cycle–based power conversion unit

    OpenAIRE

    Uren, Kenneth Richard; Schoor, George van

    2013-01-01

    This second paper in a two part series presents the application of a developed state space model extraction methodology applied to a Brayton cycle-based PCU (power conversion unit) of a PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor). The goal is to investigate if the state space extraction methodology can cope with larger and more complex thermohydraulic systems. In Part I the state space model extraction methodology for the purpose of control was described in detail and a state space represen...

  10. Proceedings of the international conference on radiation biology and clinical applications: a molecular approach towards innovations in applied radiobiology and a workshop on strategies in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovations in radiotherapy approaches to cancer and radiation biology research is of growing interest in radiation researchers to conduct preclinical studies at their centers and translating the results as soon as possible to clinical radiotherapy practice. Recent papers have greatly enriched the current knowledge of radiation oncology, especially radiobiology and molecular oncology, and this has radically changed the oncology practice in radiation therapy in just a few years. The conference theme highlights the molecular and cellular responses within tissue and higher levels of mammalian biological organization. New experimental radiobiology research to underpin current and future regulatory decisions setting workplace exposure limits. To develop rapid, high-precision analytical methods that assess radiation exposure doses from clinical samples and thus aid in the triage and medical management of radiological casualties. Innovative approaches to improve the accuracy, dose range, ease of use, and speed of classical biodosimetry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  12. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  13. Abordagem adaptativa aplicada ao planejamento agregado da produção sob incertezas Adaptive approach applied to aggregate production planning under uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Salviano Silva Filho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Um problema de planejamento agregado da produção, com incertezas sobre a flutuação da demanda, é formulado através de um modelo de otimização estocástica, com critério quadrático e restrições lineares. Dificuldades para encontrar uma solução ótima global para o problema levam à proposição de uma abordagem adaptativa de fácil implementação computacional que é baseada na formulação de um problema determinístico equivalente e que tem sua solução periodicamente revisada por meio de um procedimento clássico da literatura. Um exemplo, em que o sistema de balanço de estoque está sujeito à forte e fraca variabilidade da demanda real, é empregado para analisar o comportamento da abordagem proposta. Por fim, os resultados obtidos são comparados com outra abordagem subótima, cuja principal característica é não permitir revisões periódicas.A problem of aggregate production planning, with uncertainty about the fluctuation in demand, is formulated by a stochastic optimization model, with quadratic criterion and linear constraints. Difficulties in finding a global optimum solution to the problem lead to the proposal of an adaptive approach which is easy to implement computationally and which is based on the formulation of a deterministic equivalent problem, the solution for which is periodically reviewed through a classical procedure of literature. An example, where the inventory balance system is subject to weak and strong variability in actual demand, is employed to analyze the behavior of the proposed approach. Finally, the results provided by the proposed approach are compared with another suboptimal approach, the main characteristic of which is not allowing periodic reviews.

  14. Efficient approach for the detection and identification of new androgenic metabolites by applying SRM GC-CI-MS/MS: a methandienone case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-07-01

    Identification of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is a vital issue in doping control and toxicology, and searching for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task. Recently, a gas chromatography chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CI-MS/MS) method was introduced, and CI, in comparison with electron ionization (EI), proved to be capable of increasing the sensitivity significantly. In addition, correlations between AAS structure and fragmentation behavior could be revealed. This enables the search for previously unknown but expected metabolites by selection of their predicted transitions. The combination of both factors allows the setup of an efficient approach to search for new metabolites. The approach uses selected reaction monitoring which is inherently more sensitive than full scan or precursor ion scan. Additionally, structural information obtained from the structure specific CI fragmentation pattern facilitates metabolite identification. The procedure was demonstrated by a methandienone case study. Its metabolites have been studied extensively in the past, and this allowed an adequate evaluation of the efficiency of the approach. Thirty three metabolites were detected, including all relevant previously discovered metabolites. In our study, the previously reported long-term metabolite (18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl,17α-methyl-androst-1,4,13-trien-3-one) could be detected up to 26 days by using GC-CI-MS/MS. The study proves the validity of the approach to search for metabolites of new synthetic AAS and new long-term metabolites of less studied AAS and illustrates the increase in sensitivity by using CI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27434811

  15. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  16. Two birds with one stone: Improving the quality of market information and inter-functional integration during product development by applying a means-end-chain approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Harmsen, Hanne

    The need for better links to the market as well as improved internal sharing and use of market information have been stressed as central for market oriented product development. In this paper we suggest a conseptual model for the identification of relevant market information (based on the...... understanding of consumers' vertical and horizontal decision structure) combined with considerations on effective internal use of the information. The suggested model is applied in case studies in an action research project, and experiences with the application are discussed....

  17. Two birds with one stone: Improving the quality of market information and inter-functional integration during product development by applying a means-end-chain approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2005-01-01

    The need for better links to the market as well as improved internal sharing and use of market information have been stressed as central for market oriented product development. In this paper we suggest a conceptual model for the identification of relevant market information (based on the...... understanding of consumers' vertical and horizontal decision structure) combined with considerations on effective internal use of the information. The suggested model is applied in case studies in an action research project, and experiences with the application are discussed....

  18. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  19. Fuzzy sets, rough sets, and modeling evidence: Theory and Application. A Dempster-Shafer based approach to compromise decision making with multiattributes applied to product selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekorvin, Andre

    1992-01-01

    The Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is applied to a multiattribute decision making problem whereby the decision maker (DM) must compromise with available alternatives, none of which exactly satisfies his ideal. The decision mechanism is constrained by the uncertainty inherent in the determination of the relative importance of each attribute element and the classification of existing alternatives. The classification of alternatives is addressed through expert evaluation of the degree to which each element is contained in each available alternative. The relative importance of each attribute element is determined through pairwise comparisons of the elements by the decision maker and implementation of a ratio scale quantification method. Then the 'belief' and 'plausibility' that an alternative will satisfy the decision maker's ideal are calculated and combined to rank order the available alternatives. Application to the problem of selecting computer software is given.

  20. Two-dimensional low resolution Raman spectroscopy applied to fast discrimination of microorganisms that cause pharyngitis: A whole-organism fingerprinting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Cesar; Severi, Eza; Coelho, Lucinda; Marangoni, Antônio; Dezuane, Christiane; Ricci, Emiliane; Ribeiro, Diórginis; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2008-07-01

    The discrimination of the bacteria that cause pharyngitis through classical-microbiological methods is very efficient in the great majority of the cases. However, the high cost of chemicals and the time spent for such identifications, about four days, could generate serious consequences for the patients. Thus, the search for low cost spectroscopic methods which would allow a fast and reagentless discrimination of these microorganisms is extremely relevant. In this work, the main microorganisms that cause pharyngitis: S. aureus, S. pyogenes and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were studied. For each of the microorganisms 60 different dispersions were prepared using physiological solution as solvent and its Raman spectra were recorded. The 1D spectra obtained were similar, making it very difficult to differentiate the microorganisms. However, applying the 2D correlation method, it was possible to identify the microorganisms evaluated using the synchronous spectrum as "whole-organism fingerprinting" in a reduced time interval (˜10 h).

  1. Collaborative Approaches to Increase the Utility of Spatial Data for the Wildfire Management Community Through NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Blevins, B.; Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Prados, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The utility of spatial data products and tools to assess risk and effectively manage wildfires has increased, highlighting the need for communicating information about these new capabilities to decision makers, resource managers, and community leaders. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program works directly with agencies and policy makers to develop in-person and online training courses that teach end users how to access, visualize, and apply NASA Earth Science data in their profession. The expansion of ARSET into wildfire applications began in 2015 with a webinar and subsequent in-person training hosted in collaboration with Idaho State University's (ISU) GIS Training and Research Center (TReC). These trainings featured presentations from the USDA Forest Service's Remote Sensing Training and Applications Center, the Land Processes DAAC, Northwest Nazarene University, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and ISU's GIS TReC. The webinar focused on providing land managers, non-governmental organizations, and international management agencies with an overview of 1) remote sensing platforms for wildfire applications, 2) products for pre- and post-fire planning and assessment, 3) the use of terrain data, 4) new techniques and technologies such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP), and 5) the RECOVER Decision Support System. This training highlighted online tools that engage the wildfire community through collaborative monitoring and assessment efforts. Webinar attendance included 278 participants from 178 organizations in 42 countries and 33 US states. The majority of respondents (93%) from a post-webinar survey indicated they displayed improvement in their understanding of specific remote-sensing data products appropriate for their work needs. With collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local agencies and academic institutions, increased use of NASA Earth Observations may lead to improved near real

  2. Applying a Targeted Label-free Approach using LC-MS AMT Tags to Evaluate Changes in Protein Phosphorylation Following Phosphatase Inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Feng; Jaitly, Navdeep; Jayachandran, Hemalatha; Lou, Quanzhou; Monroe, Matthew E.; Du, Xiuxia; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Zhang, Rui; Anderson, David J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Moore, Ronald J.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Ding, Shi-Jian; Lipton, Mary S.; Camp, David G.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.; Rossie, Sandra S.

    2007-10-12

    To identify phosphoproteins regulated by the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family of S/T phosphatases, we performed a large-scale characterization of changes in protein phosphorylation on extracts from HeLa cells treated with or without calyculin A, a potent PPP enzyme inhibitor. A label-free comparative Phosphoproteomics approach using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and targeted tandem mass spectrometry was employed to discover and identify signatures based upon distinctive changes in abundance. Overall, 232 proteins were identified as either direct or indirect targets for PPP enzyme regulation. Most of the present identifications represent novel PPP enzyme targets at the level of both phosphorylation site and protein. These include phosphorylation sites within signaling proteins such as p120 Catenin, A Kinase Anchoring Protein 8, JunB, and Type II Phosphatidyl Inositol 4 Kinase. These data can be used to define underlying signaling pathways and events regulated by the PPP family of S/T phosphatases.

  3. Superspace approach applied to a neutron-diffraction study of the holographic data storage material Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the incommensurately modulated structure of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 by means of single-crystal neutron diffraction. With the measured 620 satellite reflections we could verify the two modulation vectors Q1,2=(0.3075,±0.3075,0.5)known from X-ray-diffraction experiments. As neutrons are much more sensitive to oxygen atoms than X-rays, we performed structural refinement of the oxygen atoms using the superspace approach. The largest amplitude for positional modulation was found for those oxygen atoms lying in the same plane (z=const.) as the Sr and Ba atoms. The final R values for main and satellite reflections are 0.063 and 0.153, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Dual-domain mass-transfer parameters from electrical hysteresis: theory and analytical approach applied to laboratory, synthetic streambed, and groundwater experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B.; Harvey, Judson W.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2014-01-01

    Models of dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) are used to explain anomalous aquifer transport behavior such as the slow release of contamination and solute tracer tailing. Traditional tracer experiments to characterize DDMT are performed at the flow path scale (meters), which inherently incorporates heterogeneous exchange processes; hence, estimated “effective” parameters are sensitive to experimental design (i.e., duration and injection velocity). Recently, electrical geophysical methods have been used to aid in the inference of DDMT parameters because, unlike traditional fluid sampling, electrical methods can directly sense less-mobile solute dynamics and can target specific points along subsurface flow paths. Here we propose an analytical framework for graphical parameter inference based on a simple petrophysical model explaining the hysteretic relation between measurements of bulk and fluid conductivity arising in the presence of DDMT at the local scale. Analysis is graphical and involves visual inspection of hysteresis patterns to (1) determine the size of paired mobile and less-mobile porosities and (2) identify the exchange rate coefficient through simple curve fitting. We demonstrate the approach using laboratory column experimental data, synthetic streambed experimental data, and field tracer-test data. Results from the analytical approach compare favorably with results from calibration of numerical models and also independent measurements of mobile and less-mobile porosity. We show that localized electrical hysteresis patterns resulting from diffusive exchange are independent of injection velocity, indicating that repeatable parameters can be extracted under varied experimental designs, and these parameters represent the true intrinsic properties of specific volumes of porous media of aquifers and hyporheic zones.

  5. [Approach to easing occupational stress for high-stress workers: applying the brief job stress questionnaire to workplace mental health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Yoko; Hori, Hiroko; Nakayasu, Ikuyo; Matsushita, Yuko; Inagaki, Michiko; Unno, Aiko; Nishigaya, Eri; Nishijima, Chiharu; Enta, Kazuhiko; Sashihara, Shunsuke

    2008-07-01

    We investigated job stress among 442 employees from 19 divisions in a Japanese company using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Job stress of the employees was estimated by the score for total health risk. Among the 19 divisions, two divisions showed over 120 points of mean total health risk score. Intervention with a stress-reduction program was carried out in these 2 divisions. First, to assess the job stress, health care staff interviewed all workers in the 2 divisions. Second, the results of the interviews were reported to the divisions' managers. Third, the managers applied the best remedy for job stress in their workplaces. In addition, occupational health staff conducted mental health education as well as individual interviews for the workers from the 2 divisions. At reevaluation one year later, both divisions showed a decreased general health risk (under 120 points). No sick leaves for depression occurred within the 2 divisions during the intervention. The results of the present study suggest that the intervention was effective in easing occupational stress for high-stress workers. The stress reduction program also seemed to have helped managers to change their recognition of occupational mental health and enabled close cooperation with occupational health staff, which may improve mental health in the workplace. PMID:18566525

  6. (Applied Conversation Analysis as an approach for the study of language and gender: The case of services for female victims of violence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ostermann

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I show how (Applied Conversation Analysis might help us understand human actions in everyday situations. In order to do so, I make use of the results of an investigation of services provided to female victims of domestic violence. I comparatively analyze the discursive practices of professionals in two parallel institutions created to address violence against women in Brazil: a unit of an all-female police station (DDM and a feminist center of intervention on violence against women (CIV-Mulher or CIV in their interactions with female victims of domestic violence. The analysis of the interactional data shows that the police officers tend behave with more distance from and control over the victims. The feminists, on the other hand, seem to prioritize more cooperation with and closeness towards the women they serve. I also discuss how studies of this kind might help us broaden our understanding of the relationship between language and gender as well as of power relations.

  7. CBL teaching approach applied in respiratory medicine: Practice and introspection%CBL教学法应用于呼吸内科的实践与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谊; 王振伟; 曾雪萍; 杨佩兰; 汤杰

    2013-01-01

    针对现阶段医学专业学生运用和实践医学知识机会较少,无法真正理解与体会理论知识在临床中运用的实际,提出并在呼吸内科教学中进行CBL教学的尝试与探索.教学实践表明,CBL教学法在经过精心设计、组织后能使教学直观化,开拓了学生临床思维,加强了学生人际交往能力和语言表达能力,使医学生理论知识掌握更牢固,提高了临床实践能力,为临床教学改革提供了新的思路.%At present medical students are given few opportunities to utilize and practice what they have learned. As a result, they do not know how to apply theoretical knowledge to clinical practice. Therefore, this paper proposes introducing case-based learning (CBL) in respiratory medicine teaching. Practice shows that well-designed and well-organized CBL can make the instruction process visualized, broaden students' clinical thinking, strengthen their interpersonal communication ability and language competence, consolidate theoretical knowledge and enhance clinical skills, providing new ideas for clinical teaching reform.

  8. An efficiency comparison of numerical methods for determining Weibull parameters for wind energy applications: A new approach applied to the northeast region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a new approach for the methods used to calculate the Weibull parameters. • In this evaluation, power is as key issue, in spite of the wind velocity. • Wind speed and wind power data were collected in two coastal cities in Brazil. • The use of power as the main parameter indicates that methods can change the ranking. - Abstract: This work introduces a new approach for the evaluation of numerical methods used in calculating the Weibull parameters for the prediction of wind resource. In this evaluation, power is a key issue since it proves to be quite relevant in predicting the feasibility of a given site for efficient use of wind energy. Previous knowledge of such information is important for the decision process on the technical feasibility of installing industrial wind farms. The paper performed a statistical analysis of seven mathematical methods to estimate the shape parameter k and the scaling parameter c of the Weibull distribution. Wind speed and wind power data collected in two coastal cities (Icapuí and Camocim), State of Ceará, in the northeast region of Brazil were used. The methods used in the development of this research are the graphical method, maximum likelihood method, modified maximum likelihood method, empirical method, moment method, energy pattern factor method and the equivalent energy method. Comparative analysis of efficiency and accuracy involves the application of the following statistical tests: analysis of variance (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and chi-square (X2). The use of power as a parameter to be evaluated in this study by analyzing the Weibull distribution, is something different from what has been discussed in the literature, and indicates that methods which are well evaluated when the wind speed is used as a comparison factor can change position when ranked by power. It is important to emphasize that the values of k and c were calculated directly from the values of wind power (not the wind

  9. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  10. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  11. An Integrated Flexible Self-calibration Approach for 2D Laser Scanning Range Finders Applied to the Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, D.; Westfeld, P.; Maas, H.-G.

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents a flexible approach for the geometric calibration of a 2D infrared laser scanning range finder. It does not require spatial object data, thus avoiding the time-consuming determination of reference distances or coordinates with superior accuracy. The core contribution is the development of an integrated bundle adjustment, based on the flexible principle of a self-calibration. This method facilitates the precise definition of the geometry of the scanning device, including the estimation of range-measurement-specific correction parameters. The integrated calibration routine jointly adjusts distance and angular data from the laser scanning range finder as well as image data from a supporting DSLR camera, and automatically estimates optimum observation weights. The validation process carried out using a Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW confirms the correctness of the proposed functional and stochastic contexts and allows detailed accuracy analyses. The level of accuracy of the observations is computed by variance component estimation. For the Hokuyo scanner, we obtained 0.2% of the measured distance in range measurement and 0.2 deg for the angle precision. The RMS error of a 3D coordinate after the calibration becomes 5 mm in lateral and 9 mm in depth direction. Particular challenges have arisen due to a very large elliptical laser beam cross-section of the scanning device used.

  12. Tracking the genealogy of CO{sub 2} emissions in the electricity sector: An intersectoral approach applied to the Spanish case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarancon Moran, Miguel Angel; Albinana, Fernando Callejas [Faculty of Law and Business, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Facultad of Social Sciences and Law, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo 45071 (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    This paper analyses the factors leading to CO{sub 2} emissions in the Spanish electricity generation sector in order to propose effective mitigation policies aimed at tackling those emissions. Traditionally, two broad categories of those factors have been considered in the literature: those related to the supply of electricity (technological features of the sector) and those related to the level of economic activity (demand factors). This paper focuses on an additional element, which has usually been neglected, the structural factor, which refers to the set of intersectoral transactions (related to the technologies used in other productive sectors) which connect, in either a direct or an indirect way, the general economic activity with the supply of electricity and, thus, with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. This analysis allows us to identify the so-called 'sectors structurally responsible for emissions' (SSER), whose production functions involve transactions which connect the demand for goods and services with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. The methodology is based on an input-output approach and a sensitivity analysis. The paper shows that there are structural rigidities, deeply ingrained within the economic system, which lead to emissions from the electricity generation sector for which this sector cannot be held responsible. These rigidities limit the effectiveness of policies aimed at emissions mitigation in this sector. (author)

  13. Using an object-based grid system to evaluate a newly developed EP approach to formulate SVMs as applied to the classification of organophosphate nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Walker H., Jr.; Lewis, Michael; Sadik, Omowunmi; Wong, Lut; Wanekaya, Adam; Gonzalez, Richard J.; Balan, Arun

    2004-04-01

    This paper extends the classification approaches described in reference [1] in the following way: (1.) developing and evaluating a new method for evolving organophosphate nerve agent Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers using Evolutionary Programming, (2.) conducting research experiments using a larger database of organophosphate nerve agents, and (3.) upgrading the architecture to an object-based grid system for evaluating the classification of EP derived SVMs. Due to the increased threats of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by international terrorist organizations, a significant effort is underway to develop tools that can be used to detect and effectively combat biochemical warfare. This paper reports the integration of multi-array sensors with Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for the detection of organophosphates nerve agents using a grid computing system called Legion. Grid computing is the use of large collections of heterogeneous, distributed resources (including machines, databases, devices, and users) to support large-scale computations and wide-area data access. Finally, preliminary results using EP derived support vector machines designed to operate on distributed systems have provided accurate classification results. In addition, distributed training time architectures are 50 times faster when compared to standard iterative training time methods.

  14. State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems – Part II: A linear graph approach applied to a Brayton cycle-based power conversion unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second paper in a two part series presents the application of a developed state space model extraction methodology applied to a Brayton cycle-based PCU (power conversion unit) of a PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor). The goal is to investigate if the state space extraction methodology can cope with larger and more complex thermohydraulic systems. In Part I the state space model extraction methodology for the purpose of control was described in detail and a state space representation was extracted for a U-tube system to illustrate the concept. In this paper a 25th order nonlinear state space representation in terms of the different energy domains is extracted. This state space representation is solved and the responses of a number of important states are compared with results obtained from a PBMR PCU Flownex® model. Flownex® is a validated thermo fluid simulation software package. The results show that the state space model closely resembles the dynamics of the PBMR PCU. This kind of model may be used for nonlinear MIMO (multi-input, multi-output) type of control strategies. However, there is still a need for linear state space models since many control system design and analysis techniques require a linear state space model. This issue is also addressed in this paper by showing how a linear state space model can be derived from the extracted nonlinear state space model. The linearised state space model is also validated by comparing the state space model to an existing linear Simulink® model of the PBMR PCU system. - Highlights: • State space model extraction of a pebble bed modular reactor PCU (power conversion unit). • A 25th order nonlinear time varying state space model is obtained. • Linearisation of a nonlinear state space model for use in power output control. • Non-minimum phase characteristic that is challenging in terms of control. • Models derived are useful for MIMO control strategies

  15. SIFT applied to CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA, J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is a challenging task. Common approaches use only low-level features. Notwithstanding, such CBIR solutions fail on capturing some local features representing the details and nuances of scenes. Many techniques in image processing and computer vision can capture these scene semantics. Among them, the Scale Invariant Features Transform~(SIFT has been widely used in a lot of applications. This approach relies on the choice of several parameters which directly impact its effectiveness when applied to retrieve images. In this paper, we discuss the results obtained in several experiments proposed to evaluate the application of the SIFT in CBIR tasks.

  16. DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 ± 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  17. DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balokovic, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolcic, V. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ivezic, Z. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zamorani, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 {+-} 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  18. The benchmark approach applied to a 28-day toxicity study with Rhodorsil Silane in rats. the impact of increasing the number of dose groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, R A; Jonker, D; Stevenson, H; te Biesebeek, J D; Slob, W

    2001-07-01

    The OECD study design, aimed at obtaining a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), may be suboptimal for deriving a benchmark dose. Therefore the present subacute (28-day) study was carried out to evaluate a multiple dose study design and to compare the results with the common OECD design. Seven groups of 10 female rats each were intragastrically administered corn oil without (controls) or with 50, 150, 300, 450, 600 or 750 mg Rhodorsil Silane/kg body weight/day, once daily (7 days/week) for 4 weeks. From the complete dataset, two subsets were selected, one representing a study design with seven dose groups of five animals (7 x 5 design), the other representing a study design with four dose groups of 10 animals (4 x 10 design). Under the conditions of the present study, the NOAEL for Rhodorsil Silane 198 was assessed at 50 mg/kg body weight/day, based on the data of the 4 x 10 design. The benchmark approach resulted in a benchmark dose of 19 mg/kg body weight/day, based on the data of the 7 x 5 design. Comparison of the results demonstrated that the multiple dose (7 x 5) design led to a more reliable result than the OECD (4 x 10) design, despite the smaller total number of animals. The dose-response analysis showed that at "the NOAEL" the effect on relative spleen weight was larger than 10%, illustrating that at the NOAEL, adverse effects may occur. PMID:11397516

  19. A multi-tracer approach for the exploration of deep geothermal energy potential and fault zone characterisation, applied in the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundt, Florian; Najem, Sami Al; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Isenbeck-Schröter, Margot; Schmidt, Gerhard; Grobe, René; Kraml, Michael

    2014-05-01

    precisely. Water-rock interactions and mixtures of different fluids in the reservoir and during the ascent are estimated and simulated using geochemical and hydraulic models. Thus, the geometry of the aquifer, the temperature, the quantity and the quality of the ascending deep fluid in the reservoir is estimated. The retention time is a good indicator for the deep fluid being part of a fossil reservoir or being recharged naturally. The Upper Rhine Graben was chosen to test the multi-tracer method due to its well-studied geology and some significant preexisting geophysical data to allow for comparison and validation of the study's findings. The aim is to identify the most useful tracers of deep geothermal fluid circulation, which consecutively can be applied to other regions with less prior information.

  20. Sensitivity of spectral reflectance values to different burn and vegetation ratios: A multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleniou, Magdalini; Koutsias, Nikos

    2013-05-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the spectral properties of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetation) areas, as well as areas with different burn/vegetation ratios, using a multisource multiresolution satellite data set. A case study was undertaken following a very destructive wildfire that occurred in Parnitha, Greece, July 2007, for which we acquired satellite images from LANDSAT, ASTER, and IKONOS. Additionally, we created spatially degraded satellite data over a range of coarser resolutions using resampling techniques. The panchromatic (1 m) and multispectral component (4 m) of IKONOS were merged using the Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening method. This very high-resolution imagery served as the basis to estimate the cover percentage of burned areas, bare land and vegetation at pixel level, by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Finally, multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate each land-cover fraction as a function of surface reflectance values of the original and the spatially degraded satellite images. The main findings of our research were: (a) the Near Infrared (NIR) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) are the most important channels to estimate the percentage of burned area, whereas the NIR and red channels are the most important to estimate the percentage of vegetation in fire-affected areas; (b) when the bi-spectral space consists only of NIR and SWIR, then the NIR ground reflectance value plays a more significant role in estimating the percent of burned areas, and the SWIR appears to be more important in estimating the percent of vegetation; and (c) semi-burned areas comprising 45-55% burned area and 45-55% vegetation are spectrally closer to burned areas in the NIR channel, whereas those areas are spectrally closer to vegetation in the SWIR channel. These findings, at least partially, are attributed to the fact that: (i) completely burned pixels present low variance in the NIR and high variance in the

  1. Construction of predictive models for radionuclide diffusion in sedimentary rocks applied to radioactive waste deep storage: approach and overview of the CEA research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Deep geological storage is studied in France as one of the three potential options for managing long lived nuclear waste in the framework of the 1991 Law. One of the key topics of research deals with the behaviour of radionuclides in the geological environment, focusing in particular on the diffusion process within the rock. The final aim is to develop validated and reliable long-term predictive migration models. These researches are mainly coping with Jurassic-age Callovo-Oxfordian argilites. They include first some characterizations performed on core samples (diffusion tests, characterisation of porosity properties, chemical retention measurements). In fact, tests on small samples in diffusion cells under laboratory conditions are essential to obtain diffusion parameters used in safety calculations because they allow selection and control of experimental physical and chemical conditions and therefore constitute the principal tools for understanding and quantifying the underlying phenomena such as the effect of temperature, water composition, and lithological properties of the rocks. As a consequence, CEA performed for more than ten years several hundredths of through diffusion tests involving inert, anionic and cationic radioactive tracers on argilites and limestone samples. Tests conducted in diffusion cells do however have limitations because they apply to small samples. In addition, tests performed in surface laboratories are confronted with uncertainties relating to the determination of the in-situ water composition. Moreover, samples used in the surface laboratory may have been subjected to mechanical and chemical disturbances before the actual performance of the tests. It is therefore necessary to validate the extrapolation of the characterisation results of transport properties to larger scales. In-situ experiments help then in analysing the representativeness of physical models and associated parameters and support the

  2. Assessing land degradation and acknowledging adaptive policy options to face with changes: an integrated approach applied to a semiarid agropastoral system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrasón, D.; Ravera, F.; Reed, M.; Dougill, A.

    2009-04-01

    The complexity of assessing land degradation on semiarid systems deals with challenges that have rarely been addressed. Land degradation is a human-induced and permanent reduction of key ecosystem functions and services at different temporal and spatial scale. Initial attempts to assess land degradation at a broader scale were based on expert opinion, however the empirical bases to sustain these estimations are weak and the ecological data are still scarce. In addition, such approaches are essentially subjective and they reflect the objectives and assumptions of those making the assessment, who are rarely land users themselves. Currently, the concept of "land degradation" is debated, and in the last years have emerged a growing number of efforts to develop land degradation participatory assessment methods that could capture a more complex understanding of human-environment interactions. This study proposes an interdisciplinary and hybrid methodology, combining local and scientific knowledge, to assess land degradation in mixed farming systems. Specifically, i) it describes and analyses the mixed farming system and it explores how historically political, social and institutional local factors have interacted with ecological process, ii) it identifies key ecosystem processes and services needed to support the agropastoral systems that are perceived to be under threat from land degradation; iii) it assesses the status and trends of these key ecosystem services; and iv) it identifies and evaluates potential management alternatives to prevent land degradation and cope with changes (e.g. climate change). We show how to achieve, through a co-construction of hybrid knowledge between scientific and farmers, a more accurate and reliable appraisal of land degradation, since farmer's perception is contextualized, dynamic and complex and involves simultaneously multiple temporal and spatial scales and multiple dimensions of analysis that could help the scientific exploration

  3. Studying uranium migration in natural environment: experimental approach and geochemical modeling; Etude de la migration de l'uranium en milieu naturel: approche experimentale et modelisation geochimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phrommavanh, V.

    2008-10-15

    The present study deals with characterizing uranium migration in a limited zone of Le Bouchet site, a former uranium ore treatment facility, which is dismantled and the rehabilitation of which is under process. Some wastes are packed in a rehabilitated disposal nearby, called the Itteville site. In the framework of the monitoring of the deposit environment (air, water, sediment) set by prefectorial decrees, a piezometer (PZPK) located downstream to the latter, has shown total dissolved uranium peaks each winter since the 1990's. PZPK collects both the interstitial water of a calcareous peat formation, between the surface and 3 m, and an alluvial aquifer near 6 m of depth. Firstly, a hydrogeochemical characterization of the site has evidenced the uranium source term, which is present in the peat soil near 0.8 m, hence excluding any leaching from the waste disposal. Actually, a few microparticles of uranium oxide and mixed uranium-thorium oxide have been detected, but they do not represent the major part of the source term. Secondly, water chemistry of the peat soil water and PZPK has been monitored every two months from 2004 to 2007 in order to understand the reasons of the seasonal fluctuations of [U]tot.diss.. Completed with geochemical modeling and a bacterial identification by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, water chemistry data showed an important sulfate-reducing bacterial activity in summertime, leading to reducing conditions and therefore, a total dissolved uranium content limited by the low solubility of uraninite U{sup IV}O{sub 2}(s). In wintertime, the latter bacterial activity being minimal and the effective pluviometry more important, conditions are more oxidant, which favors U(VI), more soluble, notably as the Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) complex, evidenced by TRLFS. Finally, bacterial activity has been reproduced in laboratory in order to better characterize its impact on uranium solubility in the peat soil. Various parameters were tested (C sources, temperature, nutrients) to recreate conditions close and also different to those in situ. 16S rDNA sequence bacterial identifications, throughout the incubation time, have confirmed an increase of sulfate-reducing bacteria proportion. At the same time, water chemistry, as well as geochemical calculations and SEM observations and XANES analyses, have evidenced an decrease of [U]tot.diss., owing to its reduction as UO{sub 2}(s) (certainly as nano-particles). Even though the reaction mechanism could not be determined, that is to say biotic (direct uranium reduction by bacteria) or abiotic (indirect reduction), these experiments have showed that sulfate-reducing bacteria can prevail among a varied indigenous population in conditions close to those in situ. Moreover, the studied calcareous peat contains a significant amount of weddellite (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O(s)), accounting for a permanent input of oxalate ions C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} which can be used as C source in the course of sulfate and/or uranium reduction in the summer. (author)

  4. Valuing ecosystems : a methodological applying approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the ecosystem’s valuation framework is described and discussed at a conceptual and formal level. Following utilitarianism and the capital asset analogy, one defines the concept of ecosystem value and how to quantify it by using individual preference based techniques rooted in welfare economics, namely stated individual preference techniques like Contingent Valuation. Several controversial questions arise when one tries to compute ecosystem’s value by using utilitarianism and the...

  5. Applying the Cultural Approach to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Beebe, Heidi; Zhao, Shuheng

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive development is a cultural process. More experienced cultural members and the practices, institutions, and artifacts of the culture provide support and guidance for children as they develop knowledge and thinking skills. In this article, the authors describe the value that is added to our understanding of cognitive development when…

  6. Modelling and inversion of 3D complex kinematic data; Modelisation et inversion de donnees cinematiques complexes en 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.

    1997-10-27

    Reflection tomography can determine velocity models containing lateral velocity variations and reflectors of arbitrary shapes; in order to access the kinematic data, a 3D zero offset approach to the SMART (Sequential Migration Aided Reflection Tomography) method, an original method of migration velocity analysis, is adopted. The approach involves interpreting kinematic data in the post-stack depth migrated cube and then de-migrating the horizons by two-point ray-tracing. A fast and robust two-point ray-tracer is developed, which can recover multi-valued kinematic data from complex geological structures. An original formulation for 3D reflection tomography is proposed, which can reliably take into account multivalued travel times

  7. Modelling of the hydrodynamic behaviour of a decontamination foam; Modelisation du comportement hydrodynamique d'une mousse de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faury, M.; Fournel, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    Decontamination of large components of nuclear power plants (refrigerants, vapor generators, effluents storage tanks...) produces an important volume of secondary effluents. The use of decontamination foams is an alternative allowing a significant diminution of this volume (about of a factor ten). The aim of this work is to propose models which could be applied by an industrialist in order to anticipate the behaviour of a foam flowing out in a component of any geometry and simplifying then the pre-study steps. (O.M.)

  8. SEM in applied marketing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    In this paper we discuss two SEM approaches: an exploratory structural equation modelling based on a more liberalised and inductive philosophy versus the classical SEM based on the traditional hypothetical-deductive approach. We apply these two modelling techniques to data from a consumer survey ...

  9. Modeling and numerical study of transfers in fissured environments; Modelisation et etude numerique des transferts en milieux fissures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granet, S.

    2000-01-28

    Oil recovery from fractured reservoirs plays a very important role in the petroleum industry. Some of the world most productive oil fields are located in naturally fractured reservoirs. Modelling flow in such a fracture network is a very complex problem. This is conventionally done using a specific idealized model. This model is based on the Warren and Root representation and on a dual porosity, dual permeability approach. A simplified formulation of matrix-fracture fluid transfers uses a pseudo-steady-state transfer equation involving a constant exchange coefficient. Such a choice is one of the main difficulties of this approach. To get a better understanding of the simplifications involved in the dual porosity approach a reference model must be available. To obtain such a fine description, we have developed a new methodology. This technique called 'the fissure element methodology' is based on a specific gridding of the fractured medium. The fissure network is gridded with linear elements coupled with an unstructured triangular grid of matrix. An appropriate finite volume scheme has been developed to provide a good description of the flow. The numerical development of is precisely described. A simulator has been developed using this method. Several simulations have been realised. Comparisons have been done with different dual-porosity dual-permeability models. A reflexion concerning the choice of the exchange coefficient used in the dual porosity model is then proposed. This new tool has permit to have a better understanding of the production mechanisms of a complex fractured reservoir. (author)

  10. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  11. Modelling of the generation phase of an absorption cooling cycle operating intermittently; Modelisation de la phase generation d'un cycle de refrigeration par absorption solaire a fonctionnement intermittent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukhchana, Yasmina; Fellah, Ali; Ben Brahim, Ammar [Unite de Recherche, Thermodynamique Appliquee (99/UR/11-21), Universite de Gabes, Ecole Nationale d' ingenieurs, 6072 Gabes (Tunisia)

    2011-01-15

    No abstract prepared. [French] La modelisation en regime dynamique de la phase generation d'une installation frigorifique a absorption solaire a fonctionnement intermittent utilisant le couple ammoniac/eau a ete elaboree. L'etude basee sur l'intermittence du fonctionnement a permis d'elaborer, a travers les bilans matieres et thermiques, un modele thermodynamique reliant les temperatures, les debits et les fractions massiques dans les differents compartiments. Des journees ensoleillees representatives des quatre saisons de l'annee ont ete considerees. Les variations du taux d'ensoleillement, des temperatures et des concentrations ont ete explorees. Les resultats ont montre, moyennant les hypotheses adoptees en particulier a pression de fonctionnement constante, que la demarche proposee a permis d'avoir une temperature de generation autour de 135 C et une temperature de condensation de 60 C. Ces temperatures sont atteinte par l'adaptation de la convection naturelle a l'air pour le fonctionnement du condenseur. (orig.)

  12. Modelling of GMA welding in short-arc mode; Modelisation du soudage MIG/MAG en mode short-arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planckaert, J.P

    2008-07-15

    Nowadays there is a lot of welding processes giving an answer to the great diversity of joints to realize and to the characteristics of the metals employed. The first chapter describes the different power sources used in welding. After that, a more detailed explanation of arc welding is given. Finally we present the design of a welding test bed. One can, of course, use an empirical approach to optimize a process. Nevertheless there are advantages in choosing an analytical approach since we can expect significant progress in the understanding of the dynamical interactions in the arc. That's why we present in the second chapter the theoretical knowledge concerning the behaviour of the molten metal transferred during Gas Metal Arc Welding. This work involves as well an experimental aspect required for the elaboration of the databases used to build the model. The recordings were made at CTAS on a test bed equipped with an acquisition system for measuring voltage, current, wire feed speed and high speed videos. The third chapter presents our research of a segmentation method to measure some relevant quantities. We propose a software sensor based on the active contour theory and we show good results on experimental movies. An adjustment step of the model is needed and described in the fourth chapter. The created simulator allows us to interpret some important phenomena in welding, to make a sensitive study 'without risk' and to give theoretical defect signatures. (author)

  13. Analysis and modelling of the fuels european market; Analyse et modelisation des prix des produits petroliers combustibles en europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, V

    1999-04-01

    The research focus on the European fuel market prices referring to the Rotterdam and Genoa spot markets as well the German, Italian and French domestic markets. The thesis try to explain the impact of the London IPE future market on spot prices too. The mainstream research has demonstrated that co-integration seems to be the best theoretical approach to investigate the long run equilibrium relations. A particular attention will be devoted to the structural change in the econometric modelling on these equilibriums. A deep analysis of the main European petroleum products markets permit a better model specification concerning each of these markets. Further, we will test if any evidence of relations between spot and domestic prices could be confirmed. Finally, alternative scenarios will be depicted to forecast prices in the petroleum products markets. The objective is to observe the model reaction to changes crude oil prices. (author)

  14. Applying Psychological Theories to Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Two approaches to the application of psychological theories to education might be referred to as domain-general and domain-specific. The domain-general approach seeks a general theory of cognitive and other skills that apply across subject-matter areas. The domain-specific approach seeks to apply specific theories within given domains, such as…

  15. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethics, business ethics etc. Classification-JEL: A23

  16. Analytical approaches to image orientation and stereo digitization applied in the Budnlab software. (Polish Title: Rozwiazania analityczne zwiazane z obsluga procesu orientacji zdjec oraz wykonywaniem opracowan wektorowych w programie Bundlab)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecki, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Bundlab software has been developed mainly for academic and research application. This work can be treated as a kind of a report describing the current state of the development of this computer program, focusing especially on the analytical solutions. Firstly, the overall characteristics of the software are provided. Then the description of the image orientation procedure starting from the relative orientation is addressed. The applied solution is based on the coplanarity equation parametrized with the essential matrix. The problem is reformulated in order to solve it using methods of algebraic geometry. The solution is followed by the optimization involving the least square criterion. The formation of the image block from the oriented models as well as the absolute orientation procedure were implemented using the Horn approach as a base algorithm. The second part of the paper is devoted to the tools and methods applied in the stereo digitization module. The solutions that support the user and improve the accuracy are given. Within the paper a few exemplary applications and products are mentioned. The work finishes with the concepts of development and improvements of existing functions.

  17. Bayesian analysis of zero inflated spatiotemporal HIV/TB child mortality data through the INLA and SPDE approaches: Applied to data observed between 1992 and 2010 in rural North East South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musenge, Eustasius; Chirwa, Tobias Freeman; Kahn, Kathleen; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-06-01

    Longitudinal mortality data with few deaths usually have problems of zero-inflation. This paper presents and applies two Bayesian models which cater for zero-inflation, spatial and temporal random effects. To reduce the computational burden experienced when a large number of geo-locations are treated as a Gaussian field (GF) we transformed the field to a Gaussian Markov Random Fields (GMRF) by triangulation. We then modelled the spatial random effects using the Stochastic Partial Differential Equations (SPDEs). Inference was done using a computationally efficient alternative to Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) called Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) suited for GMRF. The models were applied to data from 71,057 children aged 0 to under 10 years from rural north-east South Africa living in 15,703 households over the years 1992-2010. We found protective effects on HIV/TB mortality due to greater birth weight, older age and more antenatal clinic visits during pregnancy (adjusted RR (95% CI)): 0.73(0.53;0.99), 0.18(0.14;0.22) and 0.96(0.94;0.97) respectively. Therefore childhood HIV/TB mortality could be reduced if mothers are better catered for during pregnancy as this can reduce mother-to-child transmissions and contribute to improved birth weights. The INLA and SPDE approaches are computationally good alternatives in modelling large multilevel spatiotemporal GMRF data structures.

  18. Modeling of pollution aerosols in Ile-de-France; Modelisation des aerosols de pollution en Ile-de-France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodzic, A

    2005-10-15

    The modeling of aerosols is a major stake in the understanding of the emission processes and evolution of particulates in the atmosphere. However, the parameterizations used in today's aerosol models still comprise many uncertainties. This work has been motivated by the need of better identifying the weaknesses of aerosols modeling tools and by the necessity of having new validation methods for a 3D evaluation of models. The studies have been carried out using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, which allows to simulate the concentrations and physico-chemical characteristics of pollution aerosols at the European scale and in Ile-de-France region. The validation approach used is based on the complementarity of the measurements performed on the ground by monitoring networks with those acquired during the ESQUIF campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France), with lidar and photometric measurements and with satellite observations. The comparison between the observations and the simulations has permitted to identify and reduce the modeling errors, and to characterize the aerosol properties in the vicinity of an urban area. (J.S.)

  19. Civil engineering: EDF needs for concrete modelling; Genie civile: analyse des besoins EDF en modelisation du comportement des betons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didry, O.; Gerard, B.; Bui, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    Concrete structures which are encountered at EDF, like all civil engineering structures, age. In order to adapt the maintenance conditions of these structures, particularly to extend their service life, and also to prepare constructions of future structures, tools for predicting the behaviour of these structures in their environment should be available. For EDF the technical risks are high and consequently very appropriate R and D actions are required. In this context the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) has developed a methodology for analysing concrete structure behaviour modelling. This approach has several aims: - making a distinction between the problems which refer to the existing models and those which require R and D; - displaying disciplinary links between different problems encountered on EDF structures (non-linear mechanical, chemical - hydraulic - mechanical coupling, etc); - listing of the existing tools and positioning the DER `Aster` finite element code among them. This document is a state of the art of scientific knowledge intended to shed light on the fields in which one should be involved when there is, on one part a strong requirement on the side of structure operators, and on the other one, the present tools do not allow this requirement to be satisfactorily met. The analysis has been done on 12 scientific subjects: 1) Hydration of concrete at early ages: exothermicity, hardening, autogenous shrinkage; 2) Drying and drying shrinkage; 3) Alkali-silica reaction and bulky stage formation; 4) Long term deterioration by leaching; 5) Ionic diffusion and associated attacks: the chlorides case; 6) Permeability / tightness of concrete; 7) Concretes -nonlinear behaviour and cracking (I): contribution of the plasticity models; 8) Concretes - nonlinear behaviour and cracking (II): contribution of the damage models; 9) Concretes - nonlinear behaviour and cracking (III): the contribution of the probabilistic analysis model; 10) Delayed behaviour of

  20. Immiscible displacements in vuggy carbonates: experiments and simulation; Deplacements immiscibles dans des carbonates vacuolaires: experimentation et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moctezuma Berthier, A.E.

    2003-07-01

    for the vuggy field even if it is not connected. On the core scale, we applied the reconstruction method to generate porosity fields by using the experimental charts obtained by X-Ray CT scanner. This method was satisfactory for an isotropic rock. Macroscopic conductivity is only slightly influenced by the porosity distribution; the empirical model on the pore scale is consistent with experimental measurements, and calculations on the reconstructed porosity field also lead to a very good agreement. (author)

  1. Modelisation 0D/1D des emissions de particules de suie dans les turbines a gaz aeronautiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jeremie

    Because of more stringent regulations of aircraft particle emissions as well as strong uncertainties about their formation and their effects on the atmosphere, a better understanding of particle microphysical mechanisms and their interactions with the engine components is required. This thesis focuses on the development of a 0D/1D combustion model with soot production in an aeronautical gas turbine. A major objective of this study is to assess the quality of soot particle emission predictions for different flight configurations. The model should eventually allow performing parametric studies on current or future engines with a minimal computation time. The model represents the combustor as well as turbines and nozzle with a chemical reactor network (CRN) that is coupled with a detailed combustion chemistry for kerosene (Jet A-1) and a soot particle dynamics model using the method of moments. The CRN was applied to the CFM56-2C1 engine during flight configurations of the LTO cycle (Landing-Take-Off) as in the APEX-1 study on aircraft particle emissions. The model was mainly validated on gas turbine thermodynamic data and pollutant concentrations (H2O, COX, NOx, SOX) which were measured in the same study. Once the first validation completed, the model was subsequently used for the computation of mass and number-based emissions indices of the soot particulate population and average diameter. Overall, the model is representative of the thermodynamic conditions and succeeds in predicting the emissions of major pollutants, particularly at high power. Concerning soot particulate emissions, the model's ability to predict simultaneously the emission indices as well as mean diameter has been partially validated. Indeed, the mass emission indices have remained higher than experimental results particularly at high power. These differences on particulate emission index may be the result of uncertainties on thermodynamic parameters of the CRN and mass air flow distribution in

  2. Nouvelles techniques pratiques pour la modelisation du comportement dynamique des systèmes eau-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Benjamin

    the dynamic behavior of fluid-structure systems. Spectral analyses ignore the transient and oscillatory nature of vibrations. When such dynamic analyses show that some areas of the studied structure undergo excessive stresses, time history analyses allow a better estimate of the extent of these zones as well as a time notion of these excessive stresses. Furthermore, the existing spectral analyses methods for fluid-structure systems account only for the static effect of higher modes. Thought this can generally be sufficient for dams, for flexible structures the dynamic effect of these modes should be accounted for. New methods have been developed for fluid-structure systems to account for these observations as well as the flexibility of foundations. A first method was developed to study structures in contact with one or two finite or infinite water domains. This new technique includes flexibility of structures and foundations as well as the dynamic effect of higher vibration modes and variations of the levels of the water domains. Extension of this method was performed to study beam structures in contact with fluids. These new developments have also allowed extending existing analytical formulations of the dynamic properties of a dry beam to a new formulation that includes effect of fluid-structure interaction. The method yields a very good estimate of the dynamic behavior of beam-fluid systems or beam like structures in contact with fluid. Finally, a Modified Accelerogram Method (MAM) has been developed to modify the design earthquake into a new accelerogram that directly accounts for the effect of fluid-structure interaction. This new accelerogram can therefore be applied directly to the dry structure (i.e. without water) in order to calculate the dynamic response of the fluid-structure system. This original technique can include numerous parameters that influence the dynamic response of such systems and allows to treat analytically the fluid-structure interaction

  3. Modelisation de l'instabilite fluidelastique d'un faisceau de tubes soumis a un ecoulement diphasique transverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadogo, Teguewinde

    . Stability tests were conducted in the second stage of the project to validate the theoretical model. The two phase damping, the added mass and the critical velocity for fluidelastic instability were measured in two-phase flow. A viscoelastic damper was designed to vary the damping of the flexible tube and thus measure the critical velocity for a certain range of the mass-damping parameter. A new formulation of the added mass as a function of the void fraction was proposed. This formulation has a better agreement with the experimental results because it takes into account the reduction of the void fraction in the vicinity of the tubes in a rotated triangular tube array. The experimental data were used to validate the theoretical results of the quasi-steady model. The validity of the quasi-steady model for two-phase flow was confirmed by the good agreement between its results and the experimental data. The time delay parameter determined in the first stage of the project has improved significantly the theoretical results, especially for high void fractions (90%). However, the model could not be verified for void fractions lower or equal to 50% because of the limitation of the water pump capability. Further studies are consequently required to clarify this point. However, this model can be used to simulate the flow induced vibrations in steam generators' tube bundles as their most critical parts operate at high void fractions (≥ 60%). Having verified the quasi-steady model for high void fractions in two-phase flow, the third and final stage of the project was devoted to the development of a computer code for simulating flow induced vibrations of a steam generator tube subjected to fluidelastic and turbulence forces. This code was based on the ABAQUS finite elements code for solving the equation of motion of the fluid-structure system, and a development of a subroutine in which the fluid forces are calculated and applied to the tube. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Applied statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The book guides the reader from the foundations of statisti- cal thermodynamics including the theory of intermolecular forces to modern computer-aided applications in chemical en- gineering and physical chemistry. The approach is new. The foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics are presen- ted in a simple way and their applications to the prediction of fluid phase behavior of real systems are demonstrated. A particular effort is made to introduce the reader to expli- cit formulations of intermolecular interaction models and to show how these models influence the properties of fluid sy- stems. The established methods of statistical mechanics - computer simulation, perturbation theory, and numerical in- tegration - are discussed in a style appropriate for newcom- ers and are extensively applied. Numerous worked examples illustrate how practical calculations should be carried out.

  5. El hipertexto en la Enseñanza Media en Chile: ¿Es pertinente aplicar los enfoques textuales tradicionales? Hypertext in Secondary School in Chile: ¿It is pertinent apply traditional textual approaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Ayala Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los textos digitales constituyen parte importante de la comunicación en la sociedad de la información y recientemente han sido incluidos en los programas de Lenguaje y Comunicación de E.M. en Chile. Ante esta situación, cabe preguntarse si los tradicionales enfoques textuales, elaborados a partir del texto impreso en los años 70 y 80 y utilizados actualmente en Enseñanza Media, resultan aplicables al hipertexto. En este trabajo se describen algunos rasgos de este tipo de texto y se reflexiona sobre la posibilidad de aplicar al hipertexto los conceptos de criterios de textualidad, competencia textual y tipología textual en el ámbito escolar.Digital texts are an important part of communication in the information society and they have been recently included as Language and Communication contents in Chile. In this situation, it is possible to wonder if traditional textual approaches made from the printed text at 70's and 80's and used now in secondary school, are pertinent in the case of hypertext. This paper describes some text features and attempt to raise the possibility of applying hypertext concepts like textuality, textual competence and text typology in secondary education.

  6. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)

  7. First principles simulation of the electrochemical behaviour of lithium battery materials; Modelisation du comportement electrochimique de materiaux pour batteries au lithium a partir de calculs de premiers principes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocquefelte, X.

    2001-10-01

    The functioning of a positive electrode in a lithium battery is based on the reversible intercalation of lithium. In some cases, such a reaction can lead to important structural modifications and therefore to an amorphization of the material. A theoretical approach is presented here that leads to structural predictions and simulations of electrochemical behaviour of positive electrode materials. In the first part, DFT (Density Functional Theory) formalisms and the respective advantages of FLAPW (Full potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves) and PP/PW (Pseudopotential / Plane Waves) methods are discussed. In the second part are given some fundamental electrochemistry considerations related to the intercalation process, thermodynamics aspects and relationships with electronic structure. Then, an approach combining experimental data and geometry optimisation of structural hypotheses is given. This approach was first applied to a model compound LiMoS{sub 2}, and has been then generalised to systems of industrial interest such as Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 {<=} x {<=} 3). The simulated X-ray diagrams of the optimised structures for LiMoS{sub 2} and {omega} - Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are in good agreement with experimental data. In the case of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the first discharge curves starting from {alpha} - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and {gamma}' - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were then successfully simulated. A chemical bond analysis was carried out to help understand the origin of the distortion in LiMoS{sub 2} and the voltage variations in the electrochemical curves of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This study clearly demonstrates that an approach combining first-principle calculations and available experimental data is invaluable in the structure determination of poorly crystallized compounds. Such a procedure contributes to the understanding of the phase transitions induced by the lithium intercalation in vanadium oxide compounds and can really be used in the research

  8. Contribution to the modeling and the identification of haptic interfaces; Contribution a la modelisation et a l'identification des interfaces haptiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot, A

    2007-12-15

    This thesis focuses on the modeling and the identification of haptic interfaces using cable drive. An haptic interface is a force feedback device, which enables its user to interact with a virtual world or a remote environment explored by a slave system. It aims at the matching between the forces and displacements given by the user and those applied to virtual world. Usually, haptic interfaces make use of a mechanical actuated structure whose distal link is equipped with a handle. When manipulating this handle to interact with explored world, the user feels the apparent mass, compliance and friction of the interface. This distortion introduced between the operator and the virtual world must be modeled and identified to enhance the design of the interface and develop appropriate control laws. The first approach has been to adapt the modeling and identification methods of rigid and localized flexibilities robots to haptic interfaces. The identification technique makes use of the inverse dynamic model and the linear least squares with the measurements of joint torques and positions. This approach is validated on a single degree of freedom and a three degree of freedom haptic devices. A new identification method needing only torque data is proposed. It is based on a closed loop simulation using the direct dynamic model. The optimal parameters minimize the 2 norms of the error between the actual torque and the simulated torque assuming the same control law and the same tracking trajectory. This non linear least squares problem dramatically is simplified using the inverse model to calculate the simulated torque. This method is validated on the single degree of freedom haptic device and the SCARA robot. (author)

  9. Applying the pre-intentional phase of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model to investigate factors associated with intention on consistent condom use with various types of female sex partners among males who inject drugs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Hi Yi; Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Gross, Danielle L; Wu, Anise M S; Cao, Wangnan; Gu, Jing; Li, Suning

    2016-09-01

    Both drug injection and sexual transmission are the primary drivers of the HIV epidemic in China. This study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of intention of consistent condom use during sexual intercourse with female regular partners (RP), non-regular partners (NRP) and sex workers (FSW) among male people who inject drugs (PWID)in China. A total of 529 male non-institutionalized PWID aged 18-45 years with negative/unknown HIV status were recruited by multiple methods in Dazhou and Hengyang, China. The constructs of the pre-intention phase of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model, including partner-specific HIV risk perception, condom use positive outcome expectancies, condom use negative outcome expectancies, and self-efficacy of condom use, were assessed. The prevalence of behavioral intention of consistent condom use with RP, NRP, and FSW was 32.1%, 49.1%, and 63.6%, respectively. In multivariate stepwise analysis, conditional risk perception of HIV transmission via unprotected sex with RP/NRP/FSW was associated with intention of consistent condom use with these types of female sex partners (multivariate odds ratio (ORm) = 3.25-7.06). Condom use negative outcome expectancies were associated with intention of consistent condom use with RP and NRP (ORm = 0.30-0.46), while condom use self-efficacy was associated with intention of consistent condom use with RP and FSW in the next six months (ORm = 2.24-3.81). Male PWID are at high risk of HIV transmission through sexual behaviors. The pre-intention phase of the HAPA model may be applied to plan interventions to increase behavioral intention of consistent condom use with various types of female partners. Such interventions are warranted. PMID:26882352

  10. Material characterization and non destructive testing by ultrasounds; modelling, simulation and experimental validation; Caracterisation des materiaux et controle non destructif par ultrasons; modelisation, simulation et validation experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noroy-Nadal, M.H

    2002-06-15

    This memory presents the research concerning the characterization of materials and the Non Destructive Testing (N.D.T) by ultrasonics. The different topics include three steps: modeling, computations and experimental validation. The studied materials concern mainly metals. The memory is divided in four parts. The first one concerns the characterization of materials versus temperature. The determination of the shear modulus G(T) is especially studied for a large temperature range, and around the melting point. The second part is devoted to studies by photothermal devices essentially focused on the modeling of the mechanical displacement and the stress field in coated materials. In this particular field of interest, applications concern either the mechanical characterization of the coating, the defect detection in the structure and finally the evaluation of the coating adhesion. The third section is dedicated to microstructural characterization using acoustic microscopy. The evaluation of crystallographic texture is especially approached, for metallic objects obtained by forming. Before concluding and pointing out some perspectives to this work, the last section concerns the introduction of optimization techniques, applied to the material characterization by acoustic microscopy. (author)

  11. Thermal design of horizontal tube boilers. Numerical and experimental investigation; Modelisation thermique de bouilleurs a tubes horizontaux. Etude numerique et validation experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R.

    1999-11-26

    This work concerns the thermal design of kettle reboilers. Current methods are highly inaccurate, regarded to the correlations for external heat transfer coefficient at one tube scale, as well as to two-phase flow modelling at boiler scale. The aim of this work is to improve these thermal design methods. It contains an experimental investigation with typical operating conditions of such equipment: an hydrocarbon (n-pentane) with low mass flux. This investigation has lead to characterize the local flow pattern through void fraction measurements and, from this, to develop correlations for void fraction, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. The approach is original, since the developed correlations are based on the liquid velocity at minimum cross section area between tubes, as variable characterizing the hydrodynamic effects on pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. These correlations are shown to give much better results than those suggested up to now in the literature, which are empirical transpositions from methods developed for inside tube flows. Furthermore, the numerical code MC3D has been applied using the correlations developed in this work, leading to a modeling of the two-phase flow in the boiler, which is a significant progress compared to current simplified methods. (author)

  12. Modern applied U-statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    A timely and applied approach to the newly discovered methods and applications of U-statisticsBuilt on years of collaborative research and academic experience, Modern Applied U-Statistics successfully presents a thorough introduction to the theory of U-statistics using in-depth examples and applications that address contemporary areas of study including biomedical and psychosocial research. Utilizing a "learn by example" approach, this book provides an accessible, yet in-depth, treatment of U-statistics, as well as addresses key concepts in asymptotic theory by integrating translational and cross-disciplinary research.The authors begin with an introduction of the essential and theoretical foundations of U-statistics such as the notion of convergence in probability and distribution, basic convergence results, stochastic Os, inference theory, generalized estimating equations, as well as the definition and asymptotic properties of U-statistics. With an emphasis on nonparametric applications when and where applic...

  13. Computing broadband accelerograms using kinematic rupture modeling; Generation d'accelerogrammes synthetiques large-bande par modelisation cinematique de la rupture sismique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Paredes, J.A

    2007-05-15

    In order to make the broadband kinematic rupture modeling more realistic with respect to dynamic modeling, physical constraints are added to the rupture parameters. To improve the slip velocity function (SVF) modeling, an evolution of the k{sup -2} source model is proposed, which consists to decompose the slip as a sum of sub-events by band of k. This model yields to SVF close to the solution proposed by Kostrov for a crack, while preserving the spectral characteristics of the radiated wave field, i.e. a w{sup 2} model with spectral amplitudes at high frequency scaled to the coefficient of directivity C{sub d}. To better control the directivity effects, a composite source description is combined with a scaling law defining the extent of the nucleation area for each sub-event. The resulting model allows to reduce the apparent coefficient of directivity to a fraction of C{sub d}, as well as to reproduce the standard deviation of the new empirical attenuation relationships proposed for Japan. To make source models more realistic, a variable rupture velocity in agreement with the physics of the rupture must be considered. The followed approach that is based on an analytical relation between the fracture energy, the slip and the rupture velocity, leads to higher values of the peak ground acceleration in the vicinity of the fault. Finally, to better account for the interaction of the wave field with the geological medium, a semi-empirical methodology is developed combining a composite source model with empirical Green functions, and is applied to the Yamaguchi, M{sub w} 5.9 earthquake. The modeled synthetics reproduce satisfactorily well the observed main characteristics of ground motions. (author)

  14. Modeling and numerical analysis of non-equilibrium two-phase flows; Modelisation et analyse numerique des ecoulements diphasiques en desequilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rascle, P.; El Amine, K. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    We are interested in the numerical approximation of two-fluid models of nonequilibrium two-phase flows described by six balance equations. We introduce an original splitting technique of the system of equations. This technique is derived in a way such that single phase Riemann solvers may be used: moreover, it allows a straightforward extension to various and detailed exchange source terms. The properties of the fluids are first approached by state equations of ideal gas type and then extended to real fluids. For the construction of numerical schemes , the hyperbolicity of the full system is not necessary. When based on suitable kinetic unwind schemes, the algorithm can compute flow regimes evolving from mixture to single phase flows and vice versa. The whole scheme preserves the physical features of all the variables which remain in the set of physical states. Several stiff numerical tests, such as phase separation and phase transition are displayed in order to highlight the efficiency of the proposed method. The document is a PhD thesis divided in 6 chapters and two annexes. They are entitled: 1. - Introduction (in French), 2. - Two-phase flow, modelling and hyperbolicity (in French), 3. - A numerical method using upwind schemes for the resolution of two-phase flows without exchange terms (in English), 4. - A numerical scheme for one-phase flow of real fluids (in English), 5. - An upwind numerical for non-equilibrium two-phase flows (in English), 6. - The treatment of boundary conditions (in English), A.1. The Perthame scheme (in English) and A.2. The Roe scheme (in English). 136 refs. This document represents a PhD thesis in the speciality Applied Mathematics presented par Khalid El Amine to the Universite Paris 6.

  15. Marine and fluvial facies modelling at petroleum reservoir scale; Modelisation des heterogeneites lithologiques a l'echelle du reservoir petrolier en milieu marin et fluviatile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leflon, B.

    2005-10-15

    When modelling a petroleum reservoir, well data are very useful to model properties at a sub-seismic scale. Petrophysical properties like porosity or permeability are linked to the rock-type. Two methods based on well data have been developed to model facies. The first one is used to model marine carbonates deposits. The geometry of sedimentary layers is modelled through a special parameterization of the reservoir similar to Wheeler space. The time parameter is defined along the well paths thanks to correlations. The layer thickness is then extrapolated between wells. A given relationship between facies and bathymetry of sedimentation makes it possible to compute bathymetry along the well paths. Bathymetry is then extrapolated from wells and a reference map using the concept of accommodation. The model created this way is stratigraphically consistent. Facies simulation can then be constrained by the computed bathymetry. The second method describes a novel approach to fluvial reservoirs modelling. The core of the method lies in the association of a fairway with the channels to be simulated. Fairways are positioned so that all data are taken in account; they can be stochastic if unknown or explicitly entered if identified on seismic data. A potential field is defined within the fairway. Specifying a transfer function to map this potential field to thickness results in generating a channel inside the fairway. A residual component is stochastically simulated and added to the potential field creating realistic channel geometries. Conditioning to well data is obtained by applying the inverse transfer function at the data location to derive thickness values that will constrain the simulation of residuals. (author)

  16. Using combined measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate parameters of a biochemical C3 photosynthesis model: a critical appraisal and a new integrated approach applied to leaves in a wheat (Triticum aestivum) canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.; Romero, P.; Harbinson, J.; Evers, J.B.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Vos, J.

    2009-01-01

    We appraised the literature and described an approach to estimate the parameters of the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry model using measured CO2 assimilation rate (A) and photosystem II (PSII) electron transport efficiency (F2). The approach uses curve fitting to data of A and F2 at various levels

  17. Advances in Applied Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  18. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  19. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  20. Applied Linguistics: Brazilian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Marilda C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present perspectives in Applied Linguistics (AL) against the background of a historical overview of the field in Brazil. I take the stance of looking at AL as a field of knowledge and as a professional area of research. This point of view directs my reflections towards research-based Applied Linguistics carried out from…

  1. Bologna Process: Apply or Not Apply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer ELMAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are lots of studies carried on education and training all over the world. U.S., Japan, Australia, East Asia and Europe continue this work in diff erent ways, but the main idea is the same. Here, the main idea is designing and sustaining educational systems based on learning outcomes, student centered approaches, system evaluation and quality cycles rather than inputs. Studies carried out in parallel with developments in the world are made under European Higher Education Area/Bologna Process. Th e aim here is to have graduates who are world citizens open to change. In recent years, in parallel with the changes in the world, especially based on Bologna Process reforms, comprehensive studies such as National Qualifications Framework, ECTS credits, student exchange programs and quality assurance systems are carried out in Turkey. Challenges, problems and bureaucracy make diff icult to sustain these important studies. Create a cycle in order to ensure the sustainability of the quality of this work is the most important step. A university management and evaluation scheme is consisting of corporate figures such as student, academic staff , physical infrastructure and financial parameters, and process qualities for student achievement, scientific research and community share, and their results shaped by managerial and behavioral capability of the system. Goals, objectives and performance in activities of individuals, departments and faculty of the universities are gett ing more important to identify and evaluate in certain periods. Th is challenging work having high bureaucracy strains university management and other stakeholders, and increases resistance to the quality processes. Establishing systems to ensure the sustainable quality gains importance as understanding and implementing the change in the world. Operating these quality processes with a systematic approach based on web technologies will result in reduced work load, increased

  2. Modeling of turbulent flows in porous media and at the interface with a free fluid medium; Modelisation des ecoulements turbulents dans les milieux poreux et a l'interface avec un milieu libre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandesris, M

    2006-12-15

    This work deals with the numerical simulation of turbulent flows in the whole nuclear reactor core, using multi-scale approaches. First, a macroscopic turbulence model is built, based on a porous media approach, to describe the flow in the fuel assemblies part of the nuclear core. Then, we study the jump conditions that have to be applied at a free fluid/porous interface. A thorough analytical study is carried out for laminar flows. This study allows to answer some fundamental questions about the physical meaning of the jump conditions, the values of the jump parameters and the location of the interface. Using these results, jump conditions for turbulent flows are proposed. The model is then applied to the simulation of a turbulent flow in a simplified model of a reactor core. (author)

  3. Improving Forest Operations Management through Applied Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brown

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge of applied research is translating results into industry innovation. Increasingly, forest managers do not have the capacity to interpret research results but prefer to be presented with tools based on the research results that can be readily implemented. The Cooperative Research Centre (CRC for Forestry, based in Australia, has focused on delivering research results to industry partners in novel ways that can be easily applied in the field. This paper discusses six approaches taken by the CRC to help transfer applied research results to industry, including basic benchmarking curves for feller-bunchers, a toolbox for operational machine evaluation, a productivity model, a method to predict productivity with existing data, a guide for effective use of onboard computers and an optimised transportation planning tool. For each approach the paper will discuss how these approaches were developed and applied with industry collaboration.

  4. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs Help us raise awareness and ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs © 2013 Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation, ...

  5. Applied Mathematics Seminar 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the abstracts of the lectures delivered at 1982 Applied Mathematics Seminar of the DPD/LCC/CNPq and Colloquy on Applied Mathematics of LCC/CNPq. The Seminar comprised 36 conferences. Among these, 30 were presented by researchers associated to brazilian institutions, 9 of them to the LCC/CNPq, and the other 6 were given by visiting lecturers according to the following distribution: 4 from the USA, 1 from England and 1 from Venezuela. The 1981 Applied Mathematics Seminar was organized by Leon R. Sinay and Nelson do Valle Silva. The Colloquy on Applied Mathematics was held from october 1982 on, being organized by Ricardo S. Kubrusly and Leon R. Sinay. (Author)

  6. Handbook of Applied Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.

  7. An Introduction to Applied Biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellerberg, Ian F.; Sawyer, John W. D.

    1999-03-01

    Biogeography is about the geographical distribution, both past and present, of plants, animals and other organisms. In this undergraduate textbook, Spellerberg and Sawyer bring a modern approach to a developing subject, writing in a lively and sometimes provocative manner. Throughout the text, the authors emphasize the applications of biogeography to conservation management, economic production, environmental assessment, sustainable use of resources, landscape planning, and public health. They discuss applications of island biogeography in conservation, the concept of wildlife corridors, the analysis of biogeographical data, and the role of humans and their cultures in biogeography. The applied approach of this textbook, along with its numerous illustrative examples and figures, make it a unique introduction to the field for many geography, biology and environmental science students.

  8. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  9. Micromechanical modelling of heterogeneous materials in transient conditions: contributions for the study of the ageing of structural components under service; Modelisation micromecanique des materiaux heterogenes en regimes transitoires: contributions en vue de l'etude du vieillissement des structures en service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson, R.

    2010-12-20

    considering the particular situation where regions of the representative volume element have ill-defined mechanical properties. In the linear elastic case, new bounds for the effective behaviour are derived by marrying the structural analysis and a variational approach. This last work opens on important prospects for further works: more tightened bounds, nonlinear behaviours,... Considering homogenisation methods, further works are precisely defined, in particular for polycrystalline materials. In that situation, the field of investigation widens clearly (Fatigue, Large strains,...) thanks to the internal variables formulation proposed. Lastly, the simulation of irradiation effects constitutes the third topic of interest for the years to come, the general objective being to better predict the effects of the swelling strains induced by irradiation on the behaviour of structural components under service. (author) [French] La modelisation du comportement mecanique des materiaux de structure se nourrit de plus en plus de parametres microstructuraux. Dans ce cadre, les methodes d'homogeneisation presentent l'avantage de fournir des methodes deductives qui, a partir des proprietes et de la repartition spatiale des heterogeneites, deduisent les proprietes effectives du materiau considere. Neanmoins de nombreuses applications soulevent encore des difficultes. C'est en particulier le cas des materiaux de structure presentant un comportement elasto-viscoplastique et soumis a un trajet de chargement non monotone et non isotherme. Progresser sur le traitement par homogeneisation de ces situations concretes constitue precisement le fil conducteur des differentes contributions presentees dans ce memoire d'HDR. Dans le cas elastique lineaire, de nouvelles expressions pour le calcul du tenseur d'Eshelby sont tout d'abord etablies afin d'ameliorer l'efficacite des methodes d'homogeneisation habituellement proposees. Toujours pour des comportements

  10. Approaching transdisciplinarity: some historical lines, foundations and applied principles to team work / Aproximações sobre a transdisciplinaridade: algumas linhas históricas, fundamentos e princípios aplicados ao trabalho de equipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Nikos Iribarry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting some conceptual and practical approaches on transdisciplinarity. At first, all the made approaches will be presented in an alterned way with the theorical presentation of themes related to transdisciplinarity. Some practical illustrations of those concepts will be presented as well. The concept of disciplinarity and its derivations – multidisciplinarity, pluridisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity – are examined in their differences, as well as in their consequences for establishing a relationship between different areas. Following that, some historical origins and foundations of transdisciplinarity will be presented. In the last part of this paper, the practical principles of team work in a case of transdisciplinarity will be discussed. Those principles are organized from the work carried out by the team work, the generation of new devices to foster familiarising of professionals from different areas, the readability and sharing of discourses, as well as horizontal decision making.

  11. High Throughput Approach Applied to VOC Oxidation at Low Temperature Approche haut débit appliquée à l’oxydation basse température des COV

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly J.; Pavageau B.; Tatibouët J.-M.

    2013-01-01

    A High Throughput (HT) approach is used to prepare and characterize the catalytic activity of materials for the destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) at low temperature. The interest of the Designs of Experiments (DoE) in the primary screening is demonstrated through modeling catalysts composition according to the light-off temperature detected by infrared thermography. The combination of the mass spectrometry and the infrared thermography appears very useful to confirm and inc...

  12. A practical approach for linearity assessment of calibration curves under the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) guidelines for an in-house validation of method of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagi, M Marsin; Nasir, Zalilah; Ling, Susie Lu; Hermawan, Dadan; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Naim, Ahmedy Abu

    2010-01-01

    Linearity assessment as required in method validation has always been subject to different interpretations and definitions by various guidelines and protocols. However, there are very limited applicable implementation procedures that can be followed by a laboratory chemist in assessing linearity. Thus, this work proposes a simple method for linearity assessment in method validation by a regression analysis that covers experimental design, estimation of the parameters, outlier treatment, and evaluation of the assumptions according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry guidelines. The suitability of this procedure was demonstrated by its application to an in-house validation for the determination of plasticizers in plastic food packaging by GC. PMID:20922968

  13. Applied Literature for Healing,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Marie Anderson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative research study interviews conducted with elite participants serve to reveal the underlying elements that unite the richly diverse emerging field of Applied Literature. The basic interpretative qualitative method included a thematic analysis of data from the interviews yielding numerous common elements that were then distilled into key themes that elucidated the beneficial effects of engaging consciously with literature. These themes included developing a stronger sense of self in balance with an increasing connection with community; providing a safe container to engage challenging and potentially overwhelming issues from a stance of empowered action; and fostering a healing space for creativity. The findings provide grounds for uniting the work being done in a range of helping professions into a cohesive field of Applied Literature, which offers effective tools for healing, transformation and empowerment.Keywords: Applied Literature, Bibliotherapy, Poetry Therapy, Arts in Corrections, Arts in Medicine

  14. PSYCHOANALYSIS AS APPLIED AESTHETICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed. PMID:27428582

  15. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  16. Quantification of the emissions of the ozone preceding by inverse modelization. Final report; Quantification des emissions des precurseurs de l'ozone par modelisation inverse. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, C.; Petron, G. [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Service d' Aeronomie, 75 - Paris (France); Ciais, Ph.; Bousquet, Ph. [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of this work, inverse methods have been developed and applied for two types of applications: climatological observations to optimize the monthly average of the observed compounds; the distribution of the carbon monoxide. The report presents the experimental methodologies, the used simulation and the results. (A.L.B.)

  17. Applied statistics with SPSS

    CERN Document Server

    Huizingh, Eelko K R E

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, Applied Statistics Using SPSS is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. Based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, the text's self-help style is designed to boost the skills and confidence of those that will need to use SPSS in the course of doing their research project. The book is pedagogically well developed and contains many screen dumps and exercises, glossary terms and worked examples. Divided into two parts, Applied Statistics Using SPSS covers :

  18. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  19. Retransmission Steganography Applied

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the implementation of network steganography method called RSTEG (Retransmission Steganography). The main idea of RSTEG is to not acknowledge a successfully received packet to intentionally invoke retransmission. The retransmitted packet carries a steganogram instead of user data in the payload field. RSTEG can be applied to many network protocols that utilize retransmissions. We present experimental results for RSTEG applied to TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) as TCP is the most popular network protocol which ensures reliable data transfer. The main aim of the performed experiments was to estimate RSTEG steganographic bandwidth and detectability by observing its influence on the network retransmission level.

  20. On the role of the J-E constitutive relationship in applied geoelectromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In current applications of the Induced Polarization (IP method, the Debye and Cole-Cole models are used to study relaxation and dispersion properties of rocks, though it is believed that this type of modelisation is confused and vague, because of the lack of a background physical description. In this paper, we show that the Debye model can physically be deduced as a consequence of the electrodynamic behaviour of a mixture of bound and unbound charged particles immersed in an external electric field. We also clarify that the Cole-Cole model is a synthetic model, which can physically be explained as a continuous distribution of Debye terms.

  1. Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

  2. Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  3. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Mantilla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of this dissertation studies a different question within the field of Applied Microeconomics. The first chapter examines the mid- and long-term effects of the 1998 Asian Crisis on the educational attainment of Indonesian children ages 6 to 18, at the time of the crisis. The effects are identified as deviations from a linear trend for…

  4. Applied singular integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, B N

    2011-01-01

    The book is devoted to varieties of linear singular integral equations, with special emphasis on their methods of solution. It introduces the singular integral equations and their applications to researchers as well as graduate students of this fascinating and growing branch of applied mathematics.

  5. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  6. Essays in Applied Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Michèle A. Weynandt

    2014-01-01

    This thesis includes three essays in applied econometrics. The first and third chapters focus on labor market outcomes of minority group members, while the second focuses on education. Chapter 1 deals with the relationship between sexual orientation, gender, partnership, and labor outcomes. I suggest that if there are compensating differentials and a gender gap in potential wages, an income effect can lead partnered gay men to jobs with lower wages and higher amenities than partnered straight...

  7. Applied Economics in Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红萍

    2009-01-01

    This paper explains some plain phenomena in teaching and class management with an economic view. Some basic economic principles mentioned therein are: everything has its opportunity cost; the marginal utility of consumption of any kind is diminishing; Game theory is everywhere. By applying the economic theories to teaching, it is of great help for teachers to understand the students' behavior and thus improve the teaching effectiveness and efficiency.

  8. Methods of applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Francis B

    1992-01-01

    This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.

  9. Applied Logic in Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Spichkova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Logic not only helps to solve complicated and safety-critical problems, but also disciplines the mind and helps to develop abstract thinking, which is very important for any area of Engineering. In this technical report, we present an overview of common challenges in teaching of formal methods and discuss our experiences from the course Applied Logic in Engineering. This course was taught at TU Munich, Germany, in Winter Semester 2012/2013.

  10. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  11. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hoan Soo

    2013-01-01

    Empirical and theoretical topics in applied microeconomics are discussed in this dissertation. The first essay identifies and measures managerial advantages from access to high-quality deals in venture capital investments. The underlying social network of Harvard Business School MBA venture capitalists and entrepreneurs is used to proxy availability of deal access. Random section assignment of HBS MBA graduates provides a key exogenous variation for identification. Being socially connected to...

  12. Applied statistics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

  13. Mod\\'elisation 1D-3Composantes de la r\\'eponse sismique d'une colonne de sol multicouche \\`a comportement non lin\\'eaire

    OpenAIRE

    D'Avila, Maria Paola Santisi; Lenti, Luca; Semblat, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    We propose a one-directional three-component (1D-3C) approach to model the unidirectional (1D) propagation of a three component (3C) earthquake for seismic response analyses of horizontal multilayer soils, considering a 3D nonlinear constitutive behaviour for soils. An elasto-plastic cyclic constitutive behaviour of the Masing-Prandtl-Iwan type, using just the shear modulus decay curve for soil characterization, is implemented in a finite element scheme. Seismic response of soil profiles appe...

  14. Transgenic approaches applied to the sterile insect technique of codling moth control%转基因在苹果蠹蛾不育昆虫释放技术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹昱; 徐婧; 张润志

    2012-01-01

    使用不育昆虫释放技术是一项新兴的苹果蠹蛾Cydia pomonella(L.)防治方法,使用转基因得到不育雄蛾具有比传统辐射方法更多的优点.转基因技术通过使用基于piggyBac等转座子的质粒载体,并插入显性条件致死基因以培育遗传性别品系,同时插入荧光蛋白等标记基因来显示转基因的效果;在人工控制的发育条件,建立成熟的稳定苹果蠹蛾品系,用以最终的田间释放以达到防治的目的.%The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a relatively new approach to controlling the codling moth. Compared with the traditional irradiation method, the application of transgenic techniques is much better at producing sterile males. In addition to manual control of developmental conditions this involves using plasmid vectors based on the piggyBac transposon, inserting a dominant conditional lethal gene to culture genetic sexing strains and inserting marker genes such as fluorescent proteins to elucidate the efficacy of gene transfer.

  15. An Investigation of the Communicative Approach Teaching in Primary English Textbooks in Hong Kong and Malaysia: A Search into Communicative Language Teaching (CLT Textbooks, And How CLT is Applied in Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, it will be shown how grammar activities in textbooks still retain the structural method of teaching grammar. The results found by previous scholars’ research will be covered, and illustrated by excerpts of textbooks, including comparison of Hong Kong and Malaysian textbooks. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT materialized in the West in the 1960s, and has extended to the Eastern countries over the last 20 years (Chung, 2005: 33. Since the introduction of CLT, many English textbooks have been published to incorporate communicative activities, authentic material and personalized contexts, however, most of the learning and teaching of grammar in textbooks do not fully reflect CLT principles (ibid.. The paper is written to show concerns over textbook designing issues and hence provide recommendations in changing the design of the modern English language textbooks. In the end of the paper, this research will suggest methods of designing more communicative grammar activities in English language textbooks for future textbook designers having guidelines in compiling the CLT English language textbooks. Besides, some approaches of communicative teaching with the CLT textbooks will be recommended to the pre- and in-service English language teachers in order to lead them to the current trend of CLT.

  16. Pest insect movement and dispersal as an example of applied movement ecology. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by Petrovskii, Petrovskaya and Bearup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, Edward A.

    2014-09-01

    Over the past decade there has been a revolution in the development of new affordable sensing and tracking technology, and this has led to the deployment of a vast array of location sensors and data loggers for monitoring and recording animal movement [1,2]. This revolution has led to an enormous amount of animal movement data being collected and much of this is now freely available [3]. Alongside the technological revolution, by necessity there has also been a rapid development of new mathematical and statistical tools and techniques for analysing the enormous data sets collected [4-6]. Movement ecology has subsequently been recognised as an important research field in its own right [7,8]. Nevertheless, there are still many open problems remaining. In particular, Petrovskii et al. [9] highlight an important question about how the movement and dispersal of pest insects relates to their population abundance, dynamics and spatial spread. Such a question can be considered an example of "applied movement ecology". As well as serving as an important case study to develop and test movement analysis and spatial modelling techniques, there are obvious direct economic, societal, and conservation benefits to be had from better understanding of pest insect dispersal and subsequent population dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Outbreaks of pest insect species (such as Tipula paludosa, as discussed in [9]) are known to cause serious damage to crops. Outbreaks can occur at a range of spatial scales: from a small localised outbreak affecting part of a field, through to a regional outbreak or invasion of a pest species [10,11]. Many millions of dollars are lost globally every year because of lost or reduced crop yields caused directly by pest insect damage [10]. Hence it is important that we can develop better knowledge of pest insect movement and dispersal in order to properly implement integrated pest management (IPM) [11].

  17. Two-dimensional modeling of sediments deposits in dam reservoirs in Algeria; Modelisation bidimensionnelle du depot de sediments dans un barrage en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessenasse, M. [Universite SAAD Dahleb (Blida), Lab. de Recherche des Sciences de l' Eau LRS EAU ENP, Alger (Algeria); Kettab, A. [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, LRS-EAU, Alger (Algeria); Paquier, A. [Cemagref de Lyon, Unite de Recherche Hydrologie-Hydraulique, 69 (France)

    2004-07-01

    The method to build a numerical model intended to predict the formation and the change of sediment deposits upstream from a dam is presented. From information about the inputs of water and sediments coming from the catchment supported by a QdF type hydrological analysis, a horizontal 2-D hydraulic model which couples shallow water equations and one equation for advection and diffusion of sediment concentration is used. Applying this model to Zardezas reservoir in Skikda (Algeria) region shows, on the one hand, the practical difficulties met on such case and, on the other hand, the potentialities of such a method for the management of Algerian reservoirs. (authors)

  18. Software Engineering applied to Manufacturing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimization approaches have traditionally been viewed as tools for solving manufacturing problems, the optimization approach is not suitable for many problems arising in modern manufacturing systems due to their complexity and involvement of qualitative factors. In this paper we use a tool of software engineering applied to manufacturing problems. We use the Heuristics Lab software to determine and analyze the solution obtained for Manufacturing Problems.

  19. Boosting Applied to Word Sense Disambiguation

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Gerard; Marquez, Lluis; Rigau, German

    2000-01-01

    In this paper Schapire and Singer's AdaBoost.MH boosting algorithm is applied to the Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) problem. Initial experiments on a set of 15 selected polysemous words show that the boosting approach surpasses Naive Bayes and Exemplar-based approaches, which represent state-of-the-art accuracy on supervised WSD. In order to make boosting practical for a real learning domain of thousands of words, several ways of accelerating the algorithm by reducing the feature space are s...

  20. Applied data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guandong

    2013-01-01

    Data mining has witnessed substantial advances in recent decades. New research questions and practical challenges have arisen from emerging areas and applications within the various fields closely related to human daily life, e.g. social media and social networking. This book aims to bridge the gap between traditional data mining and the latest advances in newly emerging information services. It explores the extension of well-studied algorithms and approaches into these new research arenas.

  1. Kinetics of catalytic reforming with Pt-Sn catalyst; Modelisation cinetique du reformage catalytique sur catalyseur Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochegrue, H.

    2001-04-01

    Catalytic Reforming is one of the key processes for petrol refining as it produces gasoline with a high octane number and it is a main source of hydrogen. Refiners are asking for more accurate models in order to optimise their plants. An innovative methodology called 'Single Events' is very different from the classical empirical models because it takes into account the various reaction intermediates and reaction pathways. Some hypotheses based on the relative stability of the carbo-cations allow to get a small number of parameters, which are independent of the composition of the feedstock used. The main target of this work was to apply this methodology to the Catalytic Reforming. The single event network had to be first reduced to a late lumped reaction scheme, which incorporates the detailed knowledge of the elementary network while the intermediates and the reaction pathways are reduced: it can be applied now to naphtha feedstock, although the detailed composition is not yet well known. A pilot unit of Catalytic Reforming, which is representative of the industrial processes, was first designed for the kinetic experiments. Experiments with technical heptane were conducted with a fresh catalyst, which was cocked first, and with a used catalyst from a refinery plant. This latter was difficult to use because of its fast deactivation. However, the results obtained allowed to study the influence of the experimental parameters and of the poisoning by iron, and to estimate some of the main kinetic parameters of the model. (author)

  2. Micro-mechanics based modeling of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite mechanical behavior; Modelisation micro-macro du comportement elastoplastique endommageable de l'argilite du Callovo-Oxfordien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Chakra Guery, A.; Cormery, F.; Shao, J.F.; Kondo, D. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille, UMR 8107, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Abou-Chakra Guery, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2007-05-15

    The present study is devoted to the development and validation of a non-linear homogenization approach of the mechanical behavior of Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. The material is modelled as an heterogeneous one composed of an elastoplastic clay matrix and of linear elastic or elastic damage inclusions. The macroscopic constitutive law is obtained by adapting the Hill-type incremental method [1]. The approach consists in formulating the macroscopic tangent operator of the material from the non-linear local behavior of its phases. Due to the matrix/inclusion morphology of the microstructure of the argillites, a Mori-Tanaka scheme is considered for the localization step. The developed model is first compared to Finite-Elements calculations and then validated and applied for the prediction of the macroscopic stress-strain responses of argillites. (authors)

  3. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  4. Micro-mechanical modeling of alpha/beta two-phased titanium alloy behaviour; Modelisation micromecanique du comportement d`un alliage de titane biphase {alpha}/{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feaugas, X.; Clavel, M. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, 60 (France); Pilvin, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 91 - Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux

    1996-12-31

    In order to better describe the mechanical behaviour of the Ti-6246 alloy, a two-phase material where the alpha phase inelastic behaviour is strongly anisotropic, a micro-mechanical approach has been developed to consider the various heterogeneity levels and the role of the various internal stresses induced by its heterogenous character. Among the simulation results, it is shown that the cyclic softening (or over-softening) is not only the consequence of a reduction of transgranular internal stresses (multiplication of the number of slip bands in the alpha phase) but is also related to the inter-cellular-type internal stress redistribution. (A.B.). 24 refs.

  5. Modeling of a tram power network: from the component to the system; Modelisation d'un reseau electrique de tramway: du composant au systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, E.

    2005-01-15

    The study and the modeling of tram power networks require a system analysis. The use of several power-electronic converters in these networks significantly modifies both their topology and their function. Therefore, modeling methods developed in this thesis differ from traditional approaches, since a global analysis of a system should be linked with the study of its components.To satisfy the demands of the tram domain, this thesis develops modeling methods for transmission lines and transformers. Two levels of analysis are considered. Firstly, the tram power network is evaluated in relation to time. Secondly, an Iterative Harmonic Analysis (IHA) program is developed to compute the spectra of the system accurately. (author)

  6. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2005-01-01

    Master linear regression techniques with a new edition of a classic text Reviews of the Second Edition: ""I found it enjoyable reading and so full of interesting material that even the well-informed reader will probably find something new . . . a necessity for all of those who do linear regression."" -Technometrics, February 1987 ""Overall, I feel that the book is a valuable addition to the now considerable list of texts on applied linear regression. It should be a strong contender as the leading text for a first serious course in regression analysis."" -American Scientist, May-June 1987

  7. Applied impulsive mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Stamova, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Using the theory of impulsive differential equations, this book focuses on mathematical models which reflect current research in biology, population dynamics, neural networks and economics. The authors provide the basic background from the fundamental theory and give a systematic exposition of recent results related to the qualitative analysis of impulsive mathematical models. Consisting of six chapters, the book presents many applicable techniques, making them available in a single source easily accessible to researchers interested in mathematical models and their applications. Serving as a valuable reference, this text is addressed to a wide audience of professionals, including mathematicians, applied researchers and practitioners.

  8. Applied logistic regression

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, David W; Sturdivant, Rodney X

    2013-01-01

     A new edition of the definitive guide to logistic regression modeling for health science and other applications This thoroughly expanded Third Edition provides an easily accessible introduction to the logistic regression (LR) model and highlights the power of this model by examining the relationship between a dichotomous outcome and a set of covariables. Applied Logistic Regression, Third Edition emphasizes applications in the health sciences and handpicks topics that best suit the use of modern statistical software. The book provides readers with state-of-

  9. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  10. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  11. Applied nonparametric statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sprent, Peter

    2007-01-01

    While preserving the clear, accessible style of previous editions, Applied Nonparametric Statistical Methods, Fourth Edition reflects the latest developments in computer-intensive methods that deal with intractable analytical problems and unwieldy data sets. Reorganized and with additional material, this edition begins with a brief summary of some relevant general statistical concepts and an introduction to basic ideas of nonparametric or distribution-free methods. Designed experiments, including those with factorial treatment structures, are now the focus of an entire chapter. The text also e

  12. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  13. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  14. Analisando a implementação de uma abordagem CTS na sala de aula de química Analysing a teaching sequence with STS approach applied in the chemistry classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth do Nascimento Firme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisamos como dois professores de química desenvolveram, em sala de aula, uma intervenção didática previamente planejada com enfoque CTS, buscando identificar obstáculos e dificuldades para o estabelecimento de uma prática docente pautada nessa perspectiva de ensino. As aulas foram filmadas, transcritas e os dados analisados a partir da dinâmica discursiva estabelecida entre professores e alunos. A análise apontou que dificuldades no desenvolvimento das atividades podem estar associadas não somente à prática docente, mas também a fatores tais como: ausência de informações técnicas e científicas sobre o tema; velocidade da inovação tecnológica; complexidade cientifica na abordagem de alguns temas; dificuldade em articular adequadamente conceitos científicos com questões tecnológicas, associadas a um tema social relevante; e dificuldade de material didático que suporte as discussões de temas específicos na sala de aula.In this work, we have analyzed how two Chemistry's teachers developed a planned teaching sequence starting from a STS perspective in their classrooms, trying to identify obstacles and difficulties in engaging this pedagogical practice and taking into account this perspective for science teaching. Lessons were video recorded, transcribed and data were analyzed considering the discursive dynamic established between the teacher and the students. Data analysis showed that possible obstacles to developing didactic activities cannot be associated only with the teacher's practice and experience, but also can be related to aspects, such as: the lack of technical information about the theme studied; continuous improvement related to the technological artifacts; themes requiring a more complex scientific understanding; difficulties in properly putting together scientific concepts and technology implicated with relevant social problems; and difficulty with appropriate didactical sources to approach

  15. High Throughput Approach Applied to VOC Oxidation at Low Temperature Approche haut débit appliquée à l’oxydation basse température des COV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A High Throughput (HT approach is used to prepare and characterize the catalytic activity of materials for the destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC at low temperature. The interest of the Designs of Experiments (DoE in the primary screening is demonstrated through modeling catalysts composition according to the light-off temperature detected by infrared thermography. The combination of the mass spectrometry and the infrared thermography appears very useful to confirm and increase information about catalytic properties of the catalysts extracted to the primary screening stage. Finally, in situ Raman spectroscopy with infrared thermography allows to better understand the origin of the catalytic properties in the case ofAu/CeO2 catalysts. A strong interaction between gold and Ce-O bonds leading to an improvement of the cerium oxide reducibility could explain its high reactivity for 2-propanol oxidation at lower temperature. Une approche haut debit (HD est utilisée de la préparation jusqu’à la caractérisation de l’activité catalytique des matériaux pour l’élimination des Composés Organiques Volatils (COV à basse température. L’intérêt des plans d’expériences (DoE, en anglais Designs of Experiments dans le screening primaire est démontré grâce à l’identification d’une composition optimale de catalyseur prédite à l’aide des différentes températures d’ignition des catalyseurs obtenues par thermographie infrarouge. La combinaison in situ de la spectrométrie de masse et de la thermographie infrarouge s’est avérée d’une grande utilité pour confirmer et augmenter le niveau d’information concernant les propriétés catalytiques des catalyseurs provenant du screening primaire. Enfin, la spectroscopie Raman in situ couplée à la thermographie infrarouge permet de mieux comprendre l’origine des propriétés catalytiques dans le cas du catalyseur Au/CeO2. Une forte interaction entre les particules d

  16. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  17. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiri, T.; Andrieu, B.; Anjos, J.; Argyriades, J.; Barouch, G.; Bernstein, A.; Bersillon, O.; Besida, O.; Bowden, N.; Cabrera, A.; Calmet, D.; Collar, J.; Cribier, M.; Kerret, H. de; Meijer, R. de; Dudziak, F.; Enomoto, S.; Fallot, M.; Fioni, G.; Fiorentini, G.; Gale, Ph.; Georgadze, A.; Giot, L.; Gonin, M.; Guillon, B.; Henson, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kanamaru, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Kornoukhov, V.; Lasserre, Th.; Learned, J.G.; Lefebvre, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lhillier, D.; Lindner, M.; Lund, J.; Mantovani, F.; Mcdonough, B.; Mention, G.; Monteith, A.; Motta, D.; Mueller, Th.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Odrzywolek, A.; Petcov, S.; Porta, A.; Queval, R.; Reinhold, B.; Reyna, D.; Ridikas, D.; Sadler, L.; Schoenert, St.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Suekane, F.; Suvorov, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Tang, A.; Tolich, N.; Tolich, K.; Vanka, S.; Vignaud, D.; Volpe, Ch.; Wong, H

    2007-07-01

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  18. Hybrid meshes and domain decomposition for the modeling of oil reservoirs; Maillages hybrides et decomposition de domaine pour la modelisation des reservoirs petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiffe, St.

    2000-03-23

    In this thesis, we are interested in the modeling of fluid flow through porous media with 2-D and 3-D unstructured meshes, and in the use of domain decomposition methods. The behavior of flow through porous media is strongly influenced by heterogeneities: either large-scale lithological discontinuities or quite localized phenomena such as fluid flow in the neighbourhood of wells. In these two typical cases, an accurate consideration of the singularities requires the use of adapted meshes. After having shown the limits of classic meshes we present the future prospects offered by hybrid and flexible meshes. Next, we consider the generalization possibilities of the numerical schemes traditionally used in reservoir simulation and we draw two available approaches: mixed finite elements and U-finite volumes. The investigated phenomena being also characterized by different time-scales, special treatments in terms of time discretization on various parts of the domain are required. We think that the combination of domain decomposition methods with operator splitting techniques may provide a promising approach to obtain high flexibility for a local tune-steps management. Consequently, we develop a new numerical scheme for linear parabolic equations which allows to get a higher flexibility in the local space and time steps management. To conclude, a priori estimates and error estimates on the two variables of interest, namely the pressure and the velocity are proposed. (author)

  19. Modelling and numerical simulation of liquid-vapor phase transitions; Modelisation et simulation numerique des transitions de phase liquide-vapeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, F

    2004-11-15

    This work deals with the modelling and numerical simulation of liquid-vapor phase transition phenomena. The study is divided into two part: first we investigate phase transition phenomena with a Van Der Waals equation of state (non monotonic equation of state), then we adopt an alternative approach with two equations of state. In the first part, we study the classical viscous criteria for selecting weak solutions of the system used when the equation of state is non monotonic. Those criteria do not select physical solutions and therefore we focus a more recent criterion: the visco-capillary criterion. We use this criterion to exactly solve the Riemann problem (which imposes solving an algebraic scalar non linear equation). Unfortunately, this step is quite costly in term of CPU which prevent from using this method as a ground for building Godunov solvers. That is why we propose an alternative approach two equations of state. Using the least action principle, we propose a phase changing two-phase flow model which is based on the second thermodynamic principle. We shall then describe two equilibrium submodels issued from the relaxations processes when instantaneous equilibrium is assumed. Despite the weak hyperbolicity of the last sub-model, we propose stable numerical schemes based on a two-step strategy involving a convective step followed by a relaxation step. We show the ability of the system to simulate vapor bubbles nucleation. (author)

  20. Modeling the accumulation of wet ice on guard wires during freezing rain. Modelisation des accumulations de glace humide sur les cables de garde sous la pluie verglacante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilder, K.; Farzaneh, M. (Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada)); Lozowski, E.P. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1999-01-01

    The accumulation of ice formed under a wet regime, beginning with freezing rain, on a cylindrical surface representing a guard wire was discussed. A three-dimensional model using the Random Walk approach was used to predict the morphology of ice and its accumulation. With this method, the displacement of each drop of water or ensemble of drops can be followed on an individual basis. The main advantage of this approach is the fact that it allows for realistic modeling and numeric efficiency of water flux on the ice surface. The model makes it possible to calculate the accumulation of ice on the side of an object which is exposed to droplets, and also on those sides which are under the object. The method also makes it possible to examine the stochastic variability in the form of ice accumulation, something which cannot be done with conventional models. The prediction, according to this model is analysed as a function of air temperature and the rate of precipitation. The model makes it possible to predict a variety of different forms of ice accumulation. The range of atmospheric parameters under which there is a maximum growth of the total mass of ice and of the length of the icicles was identified. Although the Random Walk model was used to simulate the accumulations of ice on guard wires in this study, it can also be used to simulate accumulations on other elements of power transmission lines.

  1. Modeling the accumulation of wet ice on guard wires during freezing rain; Modelisation des accumulations de glace humide sur les cables de garde sous la pluie verglacante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilder, K.; Farzaneh, M. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada); Lozowski, E.P. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    The accumulation of ice formed under a wet regime, beginning with freezing rain, on a cylindrical surface representing a guard wire was discussed. A three-dimensional model using the Random Walk approach was used to predict the morphology of ice and its accumulation. With this method, the displacement of each drop of water or ensemble of drops can be followed on an individual basis. The main advantage of this approach is the fact that it allows for realistic modeling and numeric efficiency of water flux on the ice surface. The model makes it possible to calculate the accumulation of ice on the side of an object which is exposed to droplets, and also on those sides which are under the object. The method also makes it possible to examine the stochastic variability in the form of ice accumulation, something which cannot be done with conventional models. The prediction, according to this model is analysed as a function of air temperature and the rate of precipitation. The model makes it possible to predict a variety of different forms of ice accumulation. The range of atmospheric parameters under which there is a maximum growth of the total mass of ice and of the length of the icicles was identified. Although the Random Walk model was used to simulate the accumulations of ice on guard wires in this study, it can also be used to simulate accumulations on other elements of power transmission lines.

  2. Adsorption of trace elements on a bentonite sample: experimental study and modelling; Retention d'elements trace sur une bentonite: etude experimentale et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurel, Ch

    2002-12-15

    Radioactive waste storage in deep underground is studied in France. The alteration of the radioactive waste can mobilize the elements that can migrate to the geosphere. Clays (bentonite) are investigated as major materials constituting the barriers because of their low permeability and high retention capacity. A thermodynamic surface complexation model, based on the component additivity principle was investigated, in order to predict the adsorption behaviour of pollutants in contact with clay. This principle allows an independent determination of each parameter of the model, limiting the fitting procedure of correlated data, and it allows the use of an adsorption thermodynamic database for a solid. The predictions obtained were in good accordance with experimental data. The model could then be applied successfully in performance assessment. (author)

  3. Modelling and estimating degradation processes with application in structural reliability; Modelisation et estimation des processus de degradation avec application en fiabilite des structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiquet, J

    2007-06-15

    The characteristic level of degradation of a given structure is modeled through a stochastic process called the degradation process. The random evolution of the degradation process is governed by a differential system with Markovian environment. We put the associated reliability framework by considering the failure of the structure once the degradation process reaches a critical threshold. A closed form solution of the reliability function is obtained thanks to Markov renewal theory. Then, we build an estimation methodology for the parameters of the stochastic processes involved. The estimation methods and the theoretical results, as well as the associated numerical algorithms, are validated on simulated data sets. Our method is applied to the modelling of a real degradation mechanism, known as crack growth, for which an experimental data set is considered. (authors)

  4. Thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass - long term behavior modeling; Etude de la stabilite thermique du verre nucleaire. Modelisation de son evolution a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlhac, X

    2000-07-01

    The thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass was investigated experimentally and by modeling to predict its long-term evolution at low temperature. The crystallization mechanisms were analyzed by studying devitrification in the supercooled liquid. Three main crystalline phases were characterized (CaMoO{sub 4}, CeCO{sub 2}, ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Their crystallisation was TO 4.24 wt%, due to the low concentration of the constituent elements. The nucleation and growth curves showed that platinoid elements catalysed nucleation but did not affect growth, which was governed by volume diffusion. The criteria of classic nucleation theory were applied to determine the thermodynamic and diffusional activation energies. Viscosity measurements illustrate the analogy between the activation energy of viscous flow and diffusion, indicating control of crystallization by viscous flow phenomena. The combined action of nucleation and growth was assessed by TTT plots, revealing a crystallization equilibrium line that enables the crystallized fractions to be predicted over the long term. The authors show that hetero-genetics catalyze the transformation without modifying the maximum crystallized fraction. A kinetic model was developed to describe devitrification in the glass based on the nucleation and growth curves alone. The authors show that the low-temperature growth exhibits scale behavior (between time and temperature) similar to thermo-rheological simplicity. The analogy between the resulting activation energy and that of the viscosity was used to model growth on the basis of viscosity. After validation with a simplified (BaO{sub 2}SiO{sub 2}) glass, the model was applied to the containment glass. The result indicated that the glass remained completely vitreous after a cooling scenario with the one measured at the glass core. Under isothermal conditions, several million years would be required to reach the maximum theoretical crystallization fraction. (author)

  5. Applied systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and not having a grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of syst

  6. Applied Bayesian modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Congdon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an accessible approach to Bayesian computing and data analysis, with an emphasis on the interpretation of real data sets. Following in the tradition of the successful first edition, this book aims to make a wide range of statistical modeling applications accessible using tested code that can be readily adapted to the reader's own applications. The second edition has been thoroughly reworked and updated to take account of advances in the field. A new set of worked examples is included. The novel aspect of the first edition was the coverage of statistical modeling using WinBU

  7. Informatics applied to cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.

  8. Caracterisation, modelisation et validation du transfert radiatif d'atmospheres non standard; impact sur les corrections atmospheriques d'images de teledetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidane, Shems

    This study is based on data acquired with an airborne multi-altitude sensor on July 2004 during a nonstandard atmospheric event in the region of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. By non-standard atmospheric event we mean an aerosol atmosphere that does not obey the typical monotonic, scale height variation employed in virtually all atmospheric correction codes. The surfaces imaged during this field campaign included a diverse variety of targets : agricultural land, water bodies, urban areas and forests. The multi-altitude approach employed in this campaign allowed us to better understand the altitude dependent influence of the atmosphere over the array of ground targets and thus to better characterize the perturbation induced by a non-standard (smoke) plume. The transformation of the apparent radiance at 3 different altitudes into apparent reflectance and the insertion of the plume optics into an atmospheric correction model permitted an atmospheric correction of the apparent reflectance at the two higher altitudes. The results showed consistency with the apparent validation reflectances derived from the lowest altitude radiances. This approach effectively confirmed the accuracy of our non-standard atmospheric correction approach. This test was particularly relevant at the highest altitude of 3.17 km : the apparent reflectances at this altitude were above most of the plume and therefore represented a good test of our ability to adequately correct for the influence of the perturbation. Standard atmospheric disturbances are obviously taken into account in most atmospheric correction models, but these are based on monotonically decreasing aerosol variations with increasing altitude. When the atmospheric radiation is affected by a plume or a local, non-standard pollution event, one must adapt the existing models to the radiative transfer constraints of the local perturbation and to the reality of the measurable parameters available for ingestion into the model. The

  9. Contribution to the modelling of induction machines by fractional order; Contribution a la modelisation dynamique d'ordre non entier de la machine asynchrone a cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canat, S.

    2005-07-15

    Induction machine is most widespread in industry. Its traditional modeling does not take into account the eddy current in the rotor bars which however induce strong variations as well of the resistance as of the resistance of the rotor. This diffusive phenomenon, called 'skin effect' could be modeled by a compact transfer function using fractional derivative (non integer order). This report theoretically analyzes the electromagnetic phenomenon on a single rotor bar before approaching the rotor as a whole. This analysis is confirmed by the results of finite elements calculations of the magnetic field, exploited to identify a fractional order model of the induction machine (identification method of Levenberg-Marquardt). Then, the model is confronted with an identification of experimental results. Finally, an automatic method is carried out to approximate the dynamic model by integer order transfer function on a frequency band. (author)

  10. Contribution to the modelling of gas-solid reactions and reactors; Contribution a la modelisation des reactions et des reacteurs gaz-solide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patisson, F

    2005-09-15

    Gas-solid reactions control a great number of major industrial processes involving matter transformation. This dissertation aims at showing that mathematical modelling is a useful tool for both understanding phenomena and optimising processes. First, the physical processes associated with a gas-solid reaction are presented in detail for a single particle, together with the corresponding available kinetic grain models. A second part is devoted to the modelling of multiparticle reactors. Different approaches, notably for coupling grain models and reactor models, are illustrated through various case studies: coal pyrolysis in a rotary kiln, production of uranium tetrafluoride in a moving bed furnace, on-grate incineration of municipal solid wastes, thermogravimetric apparatus, nuclear fuel making, steel-making electric arc furnace. (author)

  11. Modelisation Des Effets De la Rugosite Sur L'Etude De L'Humidite Des Sols Par Radiometrie Micro-Ondes. Application a la Mission Spatiale Smos

    CERN Document Server

    Demontoux, François; Wigneron, Jean Pierre

    2009-01-01

    As part of the SMOS mission (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) IMS and EPHYSE laboratories are involved in the study and validation of the inversion algorithm LMEB. In the framework of this study, we developed a model using the numerical modeling software-HFSS ANSOFT. It allows the computation of the emissivity of multilayer systems (soil-litter for example). We have improved our approach to incorporate new parameters that can have a significant effect on the measurements. Indeed, so far the effect of soil roughness associated with the litter has not been studied. Moreover, the thickness of litter is never constant and we must therefore introduce a realistic profile of litter thickness. This article presents our work to integrate these profiles in our numerical model. These profiles may be derived from measurements (litter thickness profiles or soil roughness profiles) or calculations (roughness profile). In both cases the input data of our model are files of XYZ points representing our profile.

  12. Mod\\'elisation 1D-3Composantes de la r\\'eponse sismique d'une colonne de sol multicouche \\`a comportement non lin\\'eaire

    CERN Document Server

    D'Avila, Maria Paola Santisi; Semblat, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    We propose a one-directional three-component (1D-3C) approach to model the unidirectional (1D) propagation of a three component (3C) earthquake for seismic response analyses of horizontal multilayer soils, considering a 3D nonlinear constitutive behaviour for soils. An elasto-plastic cyclic constitutive behaviour of the Masing-Prandtl-Iwan type, using just the shear modulus decay curve for soil characterization, is implemented in a finite element scheme. Seismic response of soil profiles appears dependent on incident wave polarization, elastic and dynamic properties of medium and seismic impedance contrast between soil layers. Propagating a 3C signal induces a multiaxial stress interaction decreasing soil strength and increasing nonlinear effects. Soil profiles in the Tohoku area (Japan) are loaded by seismic signals recorded at outcrops or downhole, during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The nonlinear seismic response of each soil profile, represented in terms of acceleration, hysteresis loops and stress and str...

  13. Kinetic modelling of hydrocracking catalytic reactions by the single events theory; Modelisation cinetique des reactions catalytiques d`hydrocraquage par la theorie des evenements constitutifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, J.M.

    1998-11-23

    Kinetic modelling of petroleum hydrocracking is particularly difficult given the complexity of the feedstocks. There are two distinct classes of kinetics models: lumped empirical models and detailed molecular models. The productivity of lumped empirical models is generally not very accurate, and the number of kinetic parameters increases rapidly with the number of lumps. A promising new methodology is the use of kinetic modelling based on the single events theory. Due to the molecular approach, a finite and limited number of kinetic parameters can describe the kinetic behaviour of the hydrocracking of heavy feedstock. The parameters are independent of the feedstock. However, the available analytical methods are not able to identify the products on the molecular level. This can be accounted for by means of an posteriori lamping technique, which incorporates the detailed knowledge of the elementary step network. Thus, the lumped kinetic parameters are directly calculated from the fundamental kinetic coefficients and the single event model is reduced to a re-lumped molecular model. Until now, the ability of the method to extrapolate to higher carbon numbers had not been demonstrated. In addition, no study had been published for three phase (gas-liquid-solid) systems and a complex feedstock. The objective of this work is to validate the `single events` method using a paraffinic feedstock. First of all, a series of experiments was conducted on a model compound (hexadecane) in order to estimate the fundamental kinetic parameters for acyclic molecules. To validate the single event approach, these estimated kinetic coefficients were used to simulate hydrocracking of a paraffinic mixture ranging from C11 to C18. The simulation results were then compared to the results obtained from the hydrocracking experiments. The comparison allowed to validate the model for acyclic molecules and to demonstrate that the model is applicable to compounds with higher carbon numbers. (author

  14. Discrete kinematic modeling of the 3-D deformation of sedimentary basins; Modelisation cinematique discrete de la deformation 3D des bassins sedimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, T.

    2001-01-01

    The present work deals with three-dimensional deformation of sedimentary basins. The main goal of the work was to propose new ways to study tectonic deformation and to insert it into basin-modeling environment for hydrocarbon migration applications. To handle the complexity of the deformation, the model uses kinematic laws, a discrete approach, and the construction of a code that allows the greatest diversity in the deformation mechanisms we can take into account. The 3-D-volume deformation is obtained through the calculation of the behavior of the neutral surface of each basin layer. The main idea is to deform the neutral surface of each layer with the help of geometrical laws and to use the result to rebuild the volume deformation of the basin. The constitutive algorithm includes three characteristic features. The first one deals with the mathematical operator we use to describe the flexural-slip mechanism which is a combination of the translation of the neutral surface nodes and the rotation of the vertical edges attached to these nodes. This performs the reversibility that was required for the basin modeling. The second one is about. the use of a discrete approach, which gives a better description of the global deformation and offers to locally control volume evolutions. The knowledge of volume variations can become a powerful tool in structural geology analysis and the perfect complement for a field study. The last one concerns the modularity of the developed code. Indeed, the proposed model uses three main mechanisms of deformation. But the architecture of the code allows the insertion of new mechanisms or a better interaction between them. The model has been validated first with 2-D cases, then with 3-D natural cases. They give good results from a qualitative point of view. They also show the capacity of the model to provide a deformation path that is geologically acceptable, and its ability to control the volume variations of the basin through the

  15. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  16. Contributions to Applied Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Pavić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the increasing awareness of the importance, advantagesand feasibility of representing/visualizing spatial relations and spatial content through corresponding cartography –maps are becoming increasingly more frequent and elaborate when one needs to represent some aspect of reality from various standpoints: economical, natural scientific or politological. Some contents practically impose the need for applied cartography which is especially true of international-political, military, geopolitical and transport issues. Therefore, mass communication media have been increasingly accepting and adopting specific cartography as significant content which successfully compete with the importance of the text itself – this is the case everywhere, including in Croatia. The French geographical-political-cartographic school is the model and exceptional accomplishment. It also has predecessors in the German/Nazi geopolitical school from the first half of the 20th century.

  17. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  18. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  19. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Porgram. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. Fusion Plasma Theory has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under Experimental Plasma Research, we are developing the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  20. Applied multivariate statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners.  It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added.  All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior.  All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...

  1. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

  2. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  3. Applied Biomechanics in an Instructional Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jackie L.

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics is the science of how people move better, meaning more skillfully and more safely. This article places more emphasis on skill rather than safety, though there are many parallels between them. It shares a few features of the author's paradigm of applied biomechanics and discusses an integrated approach toward a middle school football…

  4. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  5. Can ILP Be Applied to Large Datasets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroaki; Muggleton, Stephen

    There exist large data in science and business. Existing ILP systems cannot be applied effectively for data sets with 10000 data points. In this paper, we consider a technique which can be used to apply for more than 10000 data by simplifying it. Our approach is called Approximative Generalisation and can compress several data points into one example. In case that the original examples are mixture of positive and negative examples, the resulting example is ascribed in probability values representing proportion of positiveness. Our longer term aim is to apply on large Chess endgame database to allow well controlled evaluations of the technique. In this paper we start by choosing a simple game of Noughts and Crosses and we apply mini-max backup algorithm to obtain database of examples. These outcomes are compacted using our approach and empirical results show this has advantage both in accuracy and speed. In further work we hope to apply the approach to large database of both natural and artificial domains.

  6. Reduction of thermal models of buildings: improvement of techniques using meteorological influence models; Reduction de modeles thermiques de batiments: amelioration des techniques par modelisation des sollicitations meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautin, S.

    1997-04-01

    This work concerns the modeling of thermal phenomena inside buildings for the evaluation of energy exploitation costs of thermal installations and for the modeling of thermal and aeraulic transient phenomena. This thesis comprises 7 chapters dealing with: (1) the thermal phenomena inside buildings and the CLIM2000 calculation code, (2) the ETNA and GENEC experimental cells and their modeling, (3) the techniques of model reduction tested (Marshall`s truncature, Michailesco aggregation method and Moore truncature) with their algorithms and their encoding in the MATRED software, (4) the application of model reduction methods to the GENEC and ETNA cells and to a medium size dual-zone building, (5) the modeling of meteorological influences classically applied to buildings (external temperature and solar flux), (6) the analytical expression of these modeled meteorological influences. The last chapter presents the results of these improved methods on the GENEC and ETNA cells and on a lower inertia building. These new methods are compared to classical methods. (J.S.) 69 refs.

  7. Modelling of the ultrasonic inspection of steel tubes with longitudinal defects; Modelisation du controle ultrasonore de tubes d`acier presentant des defauts de type ``entaille longitudinale``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mephane, M

    1998-12-31

    A model has been developed in order to simulate the ultrasonic inspection of steel tubes in the Vallourec control configuration. The model permits to simulate the control of steel tubes showing longitudinal defects located near the internal or external surface of tubes which appear during the rolling process. To detect this kind of defect, the probe is placed in an incident place perpendicular to the tube`s axis. The probe is in front of the external surface of the tube. The main characteristics of the model is to assume that the field radiated in the material does not depend on the probe`s position. This assumption permits to treat separately the field retracted in the material and the interaction between the defect and the ultrasonic beam. The focal plane is located in the material, so the plane waves approximation is applied where the waves front are assumed plane and parallel. The parallel refracted beam becomes divergent after reflection on the internal surface of tube. To treat the beam divergence, an amplitude weighting coefficient is then calculated by mean of the energy conservation of a tube of rays before and after reflection, following the Snell laws. This model can predict the edge diffraction echoes, the echoes issued from the corner effect, and also the mode conversion echoes. It has been validated on artificial notches, and on some natural defects. A comparison between experimental and modelling results shows a good agreement. (author) 39 refs.

  8. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann......–Shapley prices. We suggest to overcome such problems by using lexicographic goal programing techniques. Moreover, cost allocation based on the cost function is unable to account for differences between efficient and actual cost. We suggest to employ the notion of rational inefficiency in order to supply a set of...... assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  9. Applied Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Ronald J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the feasibility of reusing major components of a software system that had been used to control the operations of a spacecraft launched in the 1980s. The study was done in the context of a ground data processing system that was to be rehosted from a large mainframe to an inexpensive workstation. The study concluded that a systematic approach using inexpensive tools could aid in the reengineering process by identifying a set of certified reusable components. The study also developed procedures for determining duplicate versions of software, which were created because of inadequate naming conventions. Such procedures reduced reengineering costs by approximately 19.4 percent.

  10. Eulerian numerical simulation of gas-solid flows with several particles species; Modelisation numerique eulerienne des ecoulements gaz-solide avec plusieurs especes de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino-Palacios, G

    2007-11-15

    The simulation of the multiphase flows is currently an important scientific, industrial and economic challenge. The objective of this work is to improve comprehension via simulations of poly-dispersed flows and contribute the modeling and characterizing of its hydrodynamics. The study of gas-solid systems involves the models that takes account the influence of the particles and the effects of the collisions in the context of the momentum transfer. This kind of study is covered on the framework of this thesis. Simulations achieved with the Saturne-polyphasique-Tlse code, developed by Electricite de France and co-worked with the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, allowed to confirm the feasibility of approach CFD for the hydrodynamic study of the injectors and dense fluidized beds. The stages of validation concern, on the one hand, the placement of the tool for simulation in its current state to make studies of validation and sensitivity of the models and to compare the numerical results with the experimental data. In addition, the development of new physical models and their establishments in the code Saturne will allow the optimization of the industrial process. To carry out this validation in a satisfactory way, a key simulation is made, in particular a monodisperse injection and the radial force of injection in the case of a poly-disperse flow, as well as the fluidization of a column made up of solid particles. In this last case, one approached three configurations of dense fluidized beds, in order to study the influence of the grid on simulations; then, one simulates the operation of a dense fluidized bed with which one characterizes the segregation between two various species of particles. The study of the injection of the poly-disperse flows presents two configurations; a flow Co-current gas-particle in gas (Case Hishida), and in addition, a poly-phase flow in a configuration of the jet type confined with zones of recirculation and stagnation (case

  11. Taxonomic Evidence Applying Intelligent Information Taxonomic Evidence Applying Intelligent Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Anibal Vallejos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Numeric Taxonomy aims to group operational taxonomic units in clusters (OTUs or taxons or taxa, using the denominated structure analysis by means of numeric methods. These clusters that constitute families are the purpose of this series of projects and they emerge of the structural analysis, of their phenotypical characteristic, exhibiting the relationships in terms of grades of similarity of the OTUs, employing tools such as i the Euclidean distance and ii nearest neighbor techniques. Thus taxonomic evidence is gathered so as to quantify the similarity for each pair of OTUs (pair-group method obtained from the basic data matrix and in this way the significant concept of spectrum of the OTUs is introduced, being based the same one on the state of their characters. A new taxonomic criterion is thereby formulated and a new approach to Computational Taxonomy is presented, that has been already employed with reference to Data Mining, when apply of Machine Learning techniques, in particular to the C4.5 algorithms, created by Quinlan, the degree of efficiency achieved by the TDIDT family's algorithms when are generating valid models of the data in classification problems with the Gain of Entropy through Maximum Entropy Principle. The Numeric Taxonomy aims to group operational taxonomic units in clusters (OTUs or taxons or taxa, using the denominated structure analysis by means of numeric methods. These clusters that constitute families are the purpose of this series of projects and they emerge of the structural analysis, of their phenotypical characteristic, exhibiting the relationships in terms of grades of similarity of the OTUs, employing tools such as i the Euclidean distance and ii nearest neighbor techniques. Thus taxonomic evidence is gathered so as to quantify the similarity for each pair of OTUs (pair-group method obtained from the basic data matrix and in this way the significant concept of spectrum of the OTUs is introduced, being based

  12. Wall modeling for the simulation of highly non-isothermal unsteady flows; Modelisation de paroi pour la simulation d'ecoulements instationnaires non-isothermes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devesa, A

    2006-12-15

    Nuclear industry flows are most of the time characterized by their high Reynolds number, density variations (at low Mach numbers) and a highly unsteady behaviour (low to moderate frequencies). High Reynolds numbers are un-affordable by direct simulation (DNS), and simulations must either be performed by solving averaged equations (RANS), or by solving only the large eddies (LES), both using a wall model. A first investigation of this thesis dealt with the derivation and test of two variable density wall models: an algebraic law (CWM) and a zonal approach dedicated to LES (TBLE-{rho}). These models were validated in quasi-isothermal cases, before being used in academic and industrial non-isothermal flows with satisfactory results. Then, a numerical experiment of pulsed passive scalars was performed by DNS, were two forcing conditions were considered: oscillations are imposed in the outer flow; oscillations come from the wall. Several frequencies and amplitudes of oscillations were taken into account in order to gain insights in unsteady effects in the boundary layer, and to create a database for validating wall models in such context. The temporal behaviour of two wall models (algebraic and zonal wall models) were studied and showed that a zonal model produced better results when used in the simulation of unsteady flows. (author)

  13. Multivariable fuzzy modelling and command: application to the thermic engine control; Modelisation et commande multivariables floues: application a la commande d`un moteur thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolet, P.

    1998-12-11

    During these last two decades, the growing awareness of the contribution of the automobile to the degradation of the environment has forces different figures from the transportation world to put automobiles under more and more severe controls. Fuzzy logic is a technique which allows for the taking into account of experts knowledge; the most recent research work has moreover shown interest in associating fuzzy logic with algorithmic control techniques (adaptive control, robust control...). Our research work can be broken down into three distinct parts: a theoretical approach concerning the methods of fuzzy modeling permitting one to achieve models of the type Takagi-Sugeno and to use them in the synthesis of controls; the work of physical modeling of a four-stroke direct injection gas motor in collaboration with the development teams from Siemens Automotive SA; the simulated application of fuzzy modeling techniques and of fuzzy control developed on a theoretical level to a four-stroke direct injection gas motor. (author) 105 refs.

  14. Characterisation, modelling and control of advanced scenarios in the european tokamak jet; Caracterisation, modelisation et controle des scenarios avances dans le tokamak europeen jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresset, G

    2002-09-26

    The advanced scenarios, developed for less than ten years with the internal transport barriers and the control of current profile, give rise to a 'new deal' for the tokamak as a future thermonuclear controlled fusion reactor. The Joint European Torus (JET) in United Kingdom is presently the most powerful device in terms of fusion power and it has allowed to acquire a great experience in these improved confinement regimes. The reduction of turbulent transport, considered now as closely linked to the shape of current profile optimised for instance by lower hybrid current drive or the self-generated bootstrap current, can be characterised by a dimensionless criterion. Most of useful information related to the transport barriers are thus available. Large database analysis and real time plasma control are envisaged as attractive applications. The so-called 'S'-shaped transport models exhibit some interesting properties in fair agreement with the experiments, while the non-linear multivariate dependencies of thermal diffusivity can be approximated by a neural network, suggesting a new approach for transport investigation and modelling. Finally, the first experimental demonstrations of real time control of internal transport barriers and current profile have been performed on JET. Sophisticated feedback algorithms have been proposed and are being numerically tested to achieve steady-state and efficient plasmas. (author)

  15. Modelisation numerique des phenomenes physiques du soudage par friction-malaxage et comportement en fatigue de joints soudes en aluminium 7075-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemme, Frederic

    The aim of the present research project is to increase the amount of fundamental knowledge regarding the process by getting a better understanding of the physical phenomena involved in friction stir welding (FSW). Such knowledge is required to improve the process in the context of industrial applications. In order to do so, the first part of the project is dedicated to a theoretical study of the process, while the microstructure and the mechanical properties of welded joints obtained in different welding conditions are measured and analyzed in the second part. The combination of the tool rotating and translating movements induces plastic deformation and heat generation of the welded material. The material thermomechanical history is responsible for metallurgical phenomena occurring during FSW such as recrystallization and precipitate dissolution and coarsening. Process modelling is used to reproduce this thermomechanical history in order to predict the influence of welding on the material microstructure. It is helpful to study heat generation and heat conduction mechanisms and to understand how joint properties are related to them. In the current work, a finite element numerical model based on solid mechanics has been developed to compute the thermomechanical history of the welded material. The computation results were compared to reference experimental data in order to validate the model and to calibrate unknown physical parameters. The model was used to study the effect of the friction coefficient on the thermomechanical history. Results showed that contact conditions at the workpiece/tool interface have a strong effect on relative amounts of heat generated by friction and by plastic deformation. The comparison with the experimental torque applied by the tool for different rotational speeds has shown that the friction coefficient decreases when the rotational speed increases. Consequently, heat generation is far more important near the material/tool interface and

  16. Thermodynamic and kinetics models of hydrogen absorption bound to phase transformations; Modelisation thermodynamique et cinetiques d'absorption d'hydrogene associees aux transformations de phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondor, G.; Lexcellent, Ch. [Institut FEMTO-ST, Lab. de Mecanique Appliquee R. Chaleat (LMARC), 25 - Besancon (France)

    2007-07-01

    In order to design hydrogen gaseous pressure tanks, the absorption (desorption) of hydrogen has to be described and modelled. The equilibrium state can be described by the 'H{sub 2} gas pressure - H{sub 2} composition in the intermetallic compounds - isotherms' (PCI) curves. Several models of PCI curves already exist. At the beginning of the absorption, the hydrogen atoms and the intermetallic compounds form a solid solution ({alpha} phase). When the hydrogen concentration increases, a phase transformation appears changing the {alpha} solid solution into an hydride ({beta} phase) (solid solution + H{sub 2} {r_reversible} hydride). When all the solid solution has been transformed into hydride, the absorbed hydrogen atoms are in {beta} phase. A new thermodynamic model has been developed in order to take into account this transition phase. The equilibrium state is then given by a relation between the H{sub 2} gas pressure and the H{sub 2} concentration in the intermetallic compound for a fixed external temperature. Two kinetics models have been developed too; at first has been considered that the kinetics depend only of the entire concentration in the intermetallic compound and of the difference between the applied pressure and the equilibrium pressure. Then, has been considered that the hydrogen concentration changes in the metallic matrix. In this last case, for each hydrogenation process, the absorption velocity is calculated to determine the slowest local process which regulates the local evolution of the hydrogen concentration. These two models are based on the preceding thermodynamic model of the PCI curves. (O.M.)

  17. 3D asynchronous particle tracking in single and dual continuum matrix-fractures. Application to nuclear waste storage; Modelisation 3D du transport particulaire asynchrone en simple et double continuum matrice-fractures: application au stockage de dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, M.Ph

    2008-06-15

    This PhD research was conducted as a collaboration between Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement (LNHE) from EDF R and D and the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT) in the frame of a CIFRE contract. This PhD thesis aims at providing LNHE a reliable numerical model to study the feasibility of a nuclear waste storage in deep geological structures. The main focus of the thesis is put on developing and implementing a Random Walk Particle Method (RWPM) to model contaminant transport in 3D heterogeneous and fractured porous media. In its first part, the report presents the Lagrangian particle tracking method used to model transport in heterogeneous media with a direct high resolution approach. The solute plume is discretized into concentration packets: particles. The model tracks each particle based on a time-explicit displacement algorithm according to an advective component and a diffusive random component. The method is implemented on a hydraulic model discretized on a 3D unstructured tetrahedral finite element mesh. We focus on techniques to overcome problems due to the discontinuous transport parameters and the unstructured mesh. First, we introduce an asynchronous time-stepping approach to deal with the numerical and overshoot errors that occur with conventional RWPM. Then, a filtering method is applied to smooth discontinuous transport parameters (pre-processing). Finally, once the particle displacements are computed, we propose several filtering and sampling methods to obtain concentrations from particle positions (post-processing). Applications of these methods are presented with cases of tracer advection-dispersion in homogeneous and heterogeneous media. For dense fracture networks, direct high resolution methods are very time consuming and need a lot of computational resources. So, as an alternative to the discrete approach, a dual-continuum representation is used, in the second part of the report, to describe the porous

  18. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  19. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  20. Bootstrapping in Applied Linguistics: Assessing Its Potential Using Shared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsky, Luke; Egbert, Jesse; Laflair, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Parametric analyses such as t tests and ANOVAs are the norm--if not the default--statistical tests found in quantitative applied linguistics research (Gass 2009). Applied statisticians and one applied linguist (Larson-Hall 2010, 2012; Larson-Hall and Herrington 2010), however, have argued that this approach may not be appropriate for small samples…

  1. Modeling of engine hydrodynamics equations on hybrid unstructured meshes; Modelisation des equations de l`hydrodynamique moteur sur maillage non structure hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, A.

    1996-10-10

    In this thesis, we are interested in the modeling of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in 2-D moving domains with hybrid meshes. This work, far from being restricted to these equations, could be generalized to any other convection-diffusion system written in conservative vector form. After having described the mathematical equations and elaborated on finite volume (FV) methods, numerical schemes and various meshes, we have selected the Galerkin FV method. This method consists in locating the unknowns at the mesh nodes, then in solving the convective terms by means of VF method - quasi 1-D by edge approximation - and the diffusive terms by means of the finite element (FE) method - P{sub 1} for the triangular and Q{sub 1} for the quadrilateral. The equivalence between the Galerkin FV method and a mass-lumped FE method for temporal terms allows the construction of a new control volume constructed by means of medians. Then, show its interest in comparison to the classical control volume constructed by means of medians. Then first-order in comparison to the classical control volume constructed bu means of medians. Then, the first-order Roe scheme and its extension to second-order by the MUSCL method are detailed Emphasis is laid on two calculations oF the Gradient integral. Numerous numerical tests as well as the comparison with another code validate the approach. In particular, we show that triangular meshes lead to less precise results compared to quadrilateral meshes in certain cases. Afterward, we switch to the dimensionless Navier-Stokes equations and we describe a simplified (Bubnov)-Galerkin FE method in the case of the quadrilaterals. The newly deduced computer code is validated bu the means of a vortex convection-diffusion for different Reynolds numbers. This test shows that only highly viscous flows give rise to equivalent solutions for both meshes. (author)

  2. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J.V.; Cadene, V.; Occelli, R. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  3. Essays in applied microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting

    In this dissertation I use Microeconomic theory to study firms' behavior. Chapter One introduces the motivations and main findings of this dissertation. Chapter Two studies the issue of information provision through advertisement when markets are segmented and consumers' price information is incomplete. Firms compete in prices and advertising strategies for consumers with transportation costs. High advertising costs contribute to market segmentation. Low advertising costs promote price competition among firms and improves consumer welfare. Chapter Three also investigates market power as a result of consumers' switching costs. A potential entrant can offer a new product bundled with an existing product to compensate consumers for their switching cost. If the primary market is competitive, bundling simply plays the role of price discrimination, and it does not dominate unbundled sales in the process of entry. If the entrant has market power in the primary market, then bundling also plays the role of leveraging market power and it dominates unbundled sales. The market for electric power generation has been opened to competition in recent years. Chapter Four looks at issues involved in the deregulated electricity market. By comparing the performance of the competitive market with the social optimum, we identify the conditions under which market equilibrium generates socially efficient levels of electric power. Chapter Two to Four investigate the strategic behavior among firms. Chapter Five studies the interaction between firms and unemployed workers in a frictional labor market. We set up an asymmetric job auction model, where two types of workers apply for two types of job openings by bidding in auctions and firms hire the applicant offering them the most profits. The job auction model internalizes the determination of the share of surplus from a match, therefore endogenously generates incentives for an efficient division of the matching surplus. Microeconomic

  4. Applied large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Paul G; Lardeau, Sylvain

    2009-07-28

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is now seen more and more as a viable alternative to current industrial practice, usually based on problem-specific Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods. Access to detailed flow physics is attractive to industry, especially in an environment in which computer modelling is bound to play an ever increasing role. However, the improvement in accuracy and flow detail has substantial cost. This has so far prevented wider industrial use of LES. The purpose of the applied LES discussion meeting was to address questions regarding what is achievable and what is not, given the current technology and knowledge, for an industrial practitioner who is interested in using LES. The use of LES was explored in an application-centred context between diverse fields. The general flow-governing equation form was explored along with various LES models. The errors occurring in LES were analysed. Also, the hybridization of RANS and LES was considered. The importance of modelling relative to boundary conditions, problem definition and other more mundane aspects were examined. It was to an extent concluded that for LES to make most rapid industrial impact, pragmatic hybrid use of LES, implicit LES and RANS elements will probably be needed. Added to this further, highly industrial sector model parametrizations will be required with clear thought on the key target design parameter(s). The combination of good numerical modelling expertise, a sound understanding of turbulence, along with artistry, pragmatism and the use of recent developments in computer science should dramatically add impetus to the industrial uptake of LES. In the light of the numerous technical challenges that remain it appears that for some time to come LES will have echoes of the high levels of technical knowledge required for safe use of RANS but with much greater fidelity. PMID:19531503

  5. Applying Sustainable Systems Development Approach to Educational Technology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is an essential part of modern education. The roles and contributions of technology to education have been thoroughly documented in academic and professional literature. Despite the benefits, the use of educational technology systems (ETS) also creates a significant impact on the environment, primarily due to energy…

  6. Social categories and sociolinguistics:applying a realist approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sealey, Alison; Carter, Bob

    2001-01-01

    In a previous article (Carter and Sealey 2000) we have suggested that sociolinguistics can benefit from recent developments in social theory that are broadly termed 'sociological realism.' This rests on the claim that social reality is stratified, comprising not only the activities and interactions of human beings (agency) but also the structured social relations arising from these activities and interactions (structure), as well as the products of human consciousness or thought (culture). Th...

  7. Considerations When Applying Simplified LCA Approaches in the Wine Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Arzoumanidis; Andrea Raggi; Luigia Petti

    2014-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to improve the environmental performance of food systems and simplification of LCA appears to be a vital question, especially for Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Following a literature review on simplified LCA tools and their subsequent ranking, some of the best-rated tools were implemented and the results were examined in parallel to those of a full LCA.

  8. A Model-Based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain...

  9. A Model-based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain...

  10. Applying Resilience Concepts in Forest Management: A Retrospective Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren C. Dymond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the resilience of ecological and sociological systems has been proposed as an option to adapt to changing future climatic conditions. However, few studies test the applicability of those strategies to forest management. This paper uses a real forest health incident to assess the ability of forest management strategies to affect ecological and economic resilience of the forest. Two landscape scale strategies are compared to business as usual management for their ability to increase resilience to a climate-change induced mountain pine beetle outbreak in the Kamloops Timber Supply Area, British Columbia, Canada for the period 1980 to 2060. Proactive management to reduce high risk species while maintaining or increasing diversity through reforestation was found to be more resilient in terms of the metrics: post-disturbance growing stock, improved volume and stability of timber flow, and net revenue. However, landscape-scale indicators of diversity were little affected by management. Our results were robust to uncertainty in tree growth rates and timber value and show that adapting to climate change through improving the resilience of forested landscapes is an economically viable option.

  11. Strategic market entry by applying the path dependency approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Sara; Bern, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Entering a new market is one of the most important strategic decisions a company makes, and being an external player can make it possible to reveal opportunities not apparent to the industry players. The key is to not take industry structures for granted, but to think outside the box when formulating the entering strategy. This study rests on the assumption that there are factors in industries that are more path dependent than others, hence they are rigid and difficult to change. These factor...

  12. The effective action approach applied to nuclear chiral sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear chiral sigma model of nuclear matter is considered by means of the Cornwall-Jackiw-tomboulis (CTJ) effective action. The method provides a very general framework for investigating many important problems: chiral symmetry in nuclear medium, energy density of nuclear ground state, nuclear Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations, etc. It is shown that the SD equations for sigma-omega mixing are actually not present in this formalism. For numerical computation purposes the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation for ground state energy density is also presented. (author). 26 refs

  13. Considerations When Applying Simplified LCA Approaches in the Wine Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Arzoumanidis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA has been increasingly used to improve the environmental performance of food systems and simplification of LCA appears to be a vital question, especially for Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs. Following a literature review on simplified LCA tools and their subsequent ranking, some of the best-rated tools were implemented and the results were examined in parallel to those of a full LCA.

  14. Applying open source innovation approaches in developing business innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Lindgren, Peter

    2015-01-01

    managed effectively in developing business model innovation. The aim of this paper is therefore to close this research gap and to provide new knowledge within the research field of OI and OI applications. Thus, in the present study we explore the facilitation and management of open source innovation in...

  15. Person-job fit applied to teamwork - A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E; Nauta, A; Jehn, KA

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of team task autonomy on the relationship between the mean level of three personality traits in a team-conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience-and two individual outcomes-job satisfaction and learning. Questionnaire data were collect

  16. Sn approach applied to the solution of transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the origin of the Transport Theory is considered and the Transport Equation for the movement of the neutron in a system is established in its more general form, using the laws of nuclear physics. This equation is used as the starting point for development, under adequate assumptions, of simpler models that render the problem suitable for numerical solution. Representation of this model in different geometries is presented. The different processes of nuclear physics are introduced briefly and discussed. In addition, the boundary conditions for the different cases and a general procedure for the application of the Conservation Law are stated. The last chapter deals specifically with the Sn method, its development, definitions and generalities. Computational schemes for obtaining the Sn solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry, and convergence acceleration methods are also developed. (author)

  17. Applying Resilience Concepts in Forest Management: A Retrospective Simulation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Caren C. Dymond; David L. Spittlehouse; Sinclair Tedder; Katherine Hopkins; Katharine McCallion; James Sandland

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the resilience of ecological and sociological systems has been proposed as an option to adapt to changing future climatic conditions. However, few studies test the applicability of those strategies to forest management. This paper uses a real forest health incident to assess the ability of forest management strategies to affect ecological and economic resilience of the forest. Two landscape scale strategies are compared to business as usual management for their ability to increase ...

  18. Semantic Approaches Applied to Scientific Ocean Drilling Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fils, D.; Jenkins, C. J.; Arko, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The application of Linked Open Data methods to 40 years of data from scientific ocean drilling is providing users with several new methods for rich-content data search and discovery. Data from the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have been translated and placed in RDF triple stores to provide access via SPARQL, linked open data patterns, and by embedded structured data through schema.org / RDFa. Existing search services have been re-encoded in this environment which allows the new and established architectures to be contrasted. Vocabularies including computed semantic relations between concepts, allow separate but related data sets to be connected on their concepts and resources even when they are expressed somewhat differently. Scientific ocean drilling produces a wide range of data types and data sets: borehole logging file-based data, images, measurements, visual observations and the physical sample data. The steps involved in connecting these data to concepts using vocabularies will be presented, including the connection of data sets through Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID) and open entity collections such as Freebase and dbPedia. Demonstrated examples will include: (i) using RDF Schema for inferencing and in federated searches across NGDC and IODP data, (ii) using structured data in the data.oceandrilling.org web site, (iii) association through semantic methods of age models and depth recorded data to facilitate age based searches for data recorded by depth only.

  19. Sinking in Quicksand: An Applied Approach to the Archimedes Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. M.; Evans, S. C.; Moreno-Atanasio, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a laboratory experiment that explains the phenomenon of sinking in quicksand simulated as a fluidized bed. The paper demonstrates experimentally and theoretically that the proportion of a body that sinks in quicksand depends on the volume fraction of solids and the density of the body relative to the…

  20. Essays in applied economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arano, Kathleen

    Three independent studies in applied economics are presented. The first essay looks at the US natural gas industrial sector and estimates welfare effects associated with the changes in natural gas regulatory policy over the past three decades. Using a disequilibrium model suited to the natural gas industry, welfare transfers and deadweight losses are calculated. Results indicate that deregulation policies, beginning with the NGPA of 1978, have caused the industry to become more responsive to market conditions. Over time, regulated prices converge toward the estimated equilibrium prices. As a result of this convergence, deadweight losses associated with regulation are also diminished. The second essay examines the discounted utility model (DU), the standard model used for intertemporal decision-making. Prior empirical studies challenge the descriptive validity of the model. This essay addresses the four main inconsistencies that have been raised: domain dependence, magnitude effects, time effects, and gain/loss asymmetries. These inconsistencies, however, may be the result of the implicit assumption of linear utility and not a failure of the DU model itself. In order to test this hypothesis, data was collected from in-class surveys of economics classes at Mississippi State University. A random effects model for panel data estimation which accounts for individual specific effects was then used to impute discount rates measured in terms of dollars and utility. All four inconsistencies were found to be present when the dollar measures were used. Using utility measures of the discount rate resolved the inconsistencies in some cases. The third essay brings together two perspectives in the study of religion and economics: modeling religious behavior using economic tools and variables, and modeling economic behavior using religious variables. A system of ordered probit equations is developed to simultaneously model religious activities and economic outcomes. Using data