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Sample records for applicator guided stereotactic

  1. MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: comparison with stereotactically guided and ultrasound-guided techniques

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    Imschweiler, Thomas; Freiwald, Bianka; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A. [Kantonspital Baden AG, Institute for Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Haueisen, Harald [Kantonspital Aarau AG, Institute for Radiology, Aarau (Switzerland); Kampmann, Gert [Clinica Sant' Anna, Lugano, Sorengo (Switzerland); Rageth, Luzi [Adjumed Services AG, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Division of Biostatistics, Zuerich (Switzerland); Rageth, Christoph [Breast Centre, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    To analyse the development of MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) in Switzerland and to compare the procedure with stereotactically guided and ultrasound-guided VAB. We performed a retrospective analysis of VABs between 2009 and 2011. A total of 9,113 VABs were performed. Of these, 557 were MRI guided. MRI-guided VAB showed the highest growth rate (97 %) of all three procedures. The technical success rates for MRI-guided, stereotactically guided and ultrasound-guided VAB were 98.4 % (548/557), 99.1 % (5,904/5,960) and 99.6 % (2,585/2,596), respectively. There were no significant differences (P = 0.12) between the MRI-guided and the stereotactically guided procedures. The technical success rate for ultrasound-guided VAB was significantly higher than that for MRI-guided VAB (P < 0.001). There were no complications using MRI-guided VAB requiring open surgery. The malignancy diagnosis rate for MRI-guided VAB was similar to that for stereotactically guided VAB (P = 0.35). MRI-guided VAB is a safe and accurate procedure that provides insight into clinical breast findings. (orig.)

  2. MRI guided stereotactic ventrointermediate thalamotomy for writer's cramp: two cases report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-shi NIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the methods and curative effect of stereotactic surgery for treating writer's cramp (WC. Methods and Results Two patients with writer's cramp (tremor type underwent MRI guided stereotactic ventrointermediate (Vim thalamotomy on the left side. The symptoms of one patient disappeared immediately after operation, and the patient could write legibly. The tremor of right upper extremity in another patient was improved significantly. Two patients did not present obvious complications, and the previous symptoms were not found to recur during follow-up period respectively. Conclusions Stereotactic surgery for treatment of writer's cramp has definite therapeutic effect. MRI guided stereotactic technique can effectively avoid the complications of Vim thalamotomy. However, the indications of two methods in surgical treatment [thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation (DBS] and the respective merits still need further study. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.009

  3. Diagnostic yield and morbidity by neuronavigation-guided frameless stereotactic biopsy using magnetic resonance imaging and by frame-based computed tomography-guided stereotactic biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamitsu Nishihara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared the diagnostic yield and morbidity by frame-based computed tomography-guided stereotactic biopsy (CTSTB with Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW unit and by neuronavigation-guided frameless stereotactic biopsy (NSTB using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Methods: The subjects′ age range was 15-83 years. CTSTB with BRW unit was performed for 59 tumors (58 cases, 1988-2007. NSTB was performed for 38 tumors (35 cases, 2007-2013 with the needle sheath attached to the head holder. By NSTB, target locations of sampling points and trajectories were confirmed by using MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tractography was used to achieve safe trajectories. STB by using BRW did not visualize the trajectory virtually; however, the planning images for NSTB were able to show the trajectory virtually before the procedure. Results: Histological diagnoses were established for 93 tumors at the first biopsy. The diagnostic yield was 94.9% by CTSTB and 97.4% by NSTB (P = 0.944. The morbidity rate was 5.1% by CTSTB and 0% by NSTB (P = 0.417. The absolute risk reduction was 23.1% by NSTB when the targets were basal ganglia (putamen, globus pallidus or thalamus. In the cases of glioma for which the targets were basal ganglia (putamen, globus pallidus or thalamus, the absolute risk reduction by NSTB was 30%. Conclusions: There was no significant difference between CTSTB and NSTB concerning the diagnostic yield and morbidity. However, when the target is the basal ganglia (putamen, globus pallidus or thalamus and glioma is suspected, NSTB by using MRI with virtual trajectory is preferable to CTSTB concerning morbidity.

  4. Cirurgia estereotáxica guiada para angiomas cavernosos Stereotactic-guided surgery for cavernous angioma

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    MURILO S. MENESES

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os angiomas cavernosos intracerebrais são lesões que podem causar hemorragias, crises convulsivas e déficits neurológicos. Essa patologia passou a ter diagnóstico mais precoce com o advento da ressonância magnética. A remoção radical por cirurgia é o melhor método de tratamento. Devido a frequente localização subcortical ou profunda, a utilização de métodos de localização por imagem como a estereotaxia apresentam várias vantagens como: menor incisão de pele, craniotomia e manipulação do tecido cerebral, consequentemente com menor morbidade. Apresentamos uma série de nove angiomas cavernosos tratados por ressecção cirúrgica radical guiada por estereotaxia. Em todos os casos o diagnóstico foi realizado por ressonância magnética e houve confirmação anátomo-patológica. A média de idade dos pacientes foi 30 anos, variando entre 20 e 54 anos. Como morbidade transitória, um paciente teve uma crise convulsiva no 3° dia pós-operatório e uma paciente apresentou disfasia e hemiparesia no 2° dia pós-operatório, com recuperação total na evolução. No total, a remoção foi radical em todos os casos e os pacientes permanecem sem nenhum déficit neurológico relacionado à cirurgia.Intracerebral cavernous angiomas may cause hemorrhage, epileptic seizures and neurological deficits. The diagnosis of these lesions became easier with the advent of the magnetic resonance image (MRI. Radical resection is the treatment of choice. Due to frequent subcortical or deep location, image-guided techniques, such as stereotactic-guided surgery, offer many advantages as smaller skin incision and craniotomy, less brain manipulation with consequently lower morbidity. We present a series of nine cavernous angiomas treated by stereotactic-guided radical surgical resection. The diagnosis was done by MRI and confirmed by pathologic studies in all cases. Mean age of patients was 30 years old (range 20-54 years. Postoperative morbidity

  5. The role of stereotactically guided conformal radiotherapy for local tumor control of esthesioneuroblastoma

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    Zabel, A.; Thilmann, C.; Zuna, I. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Milker-Zabel, S.; Wannenmacher, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Schlegel, W. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics; Debus, J. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2002-04-01

    Background: In a retrospective analysis we compared conventional radiotherapy and stereotactically guided conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) in patients with esthesioneuroblastoma. Patients and Methods: Between 1991 and 1999 14 patients with esthesioneuroblastoma underwent radiotherapy at our institution. Median follow-up was 30 months (range 12-107 months). Treatment included adjuvant radiotherapy (9), adjuvant radiochemotherapy (3) or radiotherapy alone (2). Eight patients received SCRT with 3-D treatment planning. For comparison a standard three-field plan for these patients and dose-volume histogram analyses were performed. Median total dose was 64 Gy using SCRT and 56 Gy with standard technique. Results: Local tumor control rate was 50% with conventional radiotherapy and 75% with SCRT. Overall survival was 33.3% and 62.5%, respectively. Target coverage could be improved statistically significant (p < 0.05) and dose to critical structures was reduced using SCRT. Greatest differences were seen regarding volume above the 30%-isodose as well as mean dose of brain stem (p < 0.05). A reduction of maximum dose was seen using SCRT as consequence of a more homogeneous treatment. Conclusions: SCRT improves target coverage and sparing of organs at risk. Our clinical data although with low patient numbers suggest that the technical advantage translates into a clinical advantage. The use of SCRT appears to facilitate higher dose prescriptions without risking major acute and late side effects. Thus the risk of complications in this area is minimized. Adjuvant radiotherapy is a save and effective treatment modality for local control of esthesioneuroblastoma. (orig.)

  6. Image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for patients with vestibular schwannoma. A clinical study

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    Badakhshi, H.; Muellner, S.; Budach, V. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital of Berlin, Departments for Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Wiener, E. [School of Medicine and University Hospital of Berlin, Institute for Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Local tumor control and functional outcome after linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) were assessed. In all, 250 patients with VS were treated: 190 patients with tumors < 2 cm diameter underwent SRS and 60 patients with tumors >2 to 3.5 cm underwent FSRT. Dose prescription for all cases with SRS (n = 190, 76 %) was 13.5 Gy. For FSRT, mainly two hypofractionated schedules (n = 60, 24 %) with either 7 fractions of 5 Gy (total dose: 35 Gy; n = 35) or 11 fractions of 3.8 Gy (total dose: 41.8 Gy; n = 16) were used. The primary endpoint was local tumor control. Secondary endpoints were symptomatic control and morbidity. The median follow-up was 33.8 months. The 3-year local tumor control was 88.9 %. Local control for SRS and FSRT was 88 and 92 %, respectively. For FSRT with 35 and 41.8 Gy, local control was 90 and 100 %, respectively. There were no acute reactions exceeding grade I. In 61 cases (24.4 % of the entire cohort), trigeminal neuralgia was reported prior to treatment. At last follow-up, 16.3 % (10/61) of those patients reported relief of pain. Regarding facial nerve dysfunction, 45 patients (18 %) presented with symptoms prior to RT. At the last follow-up, 13.3% (6/45) of those patients reported a relief of dysesthesia. Using SRS to treat small VS results in good local control rates. FSRT for larger lesions also seems effective. Severe treatment-related complications are not frequent. Therefore, image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy is an appropriate alternative to microsurgery for patients with VS. (orig.) [German] Wir analysierten die lokale Kontrolle und die funktionellen Verlaeufe bei Patienten mit einem Vestibularisschwannom (VS), die sich einer linacbasierten stereotaktischen Radiochirurgie (SRS) oder einer fraktionierten stereotaktischen Radiotherapie (FSRT) unterzogen. Zwischen 1998 und 2008 wurden 250 Patienten mit einem VS behandelt. In dieser Kohorte wurden 190

  7. Automatic metastatic brain tumor segmentation for stereotactic radiosurgery applications

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    Liu, Yan; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Hrycushko, Brian; Wardak, Zabi; Lu, Weiguo; Yan, Yulong; Jiang, Steve B.; Timmerman, Robert; Abdulrahman, Ramzi; Nedzi, Lucien; Gu, Xuejun

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an automatic segmentation strategy for efficient and accurate metastatic brain tumor delineation on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (T1c) magnetic resonance images (MRI) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) applications. The proposed four-step automatic brain metastases segmentation strategy is comprised of pre-processing, initial contouring, contour evolution, and contour triage. First, T1c brain images are preprocessed to remove the skull. Second, an initial tumor contour is created using a multi-scaled adaptive threshold-based bounding box and a super-voxel clustering technique. Third, the initial contours are evolved to the tumor boundary using a regional active contour technique. Fourth, all detected false-positive contours are removed with geometric characterization. The segmentation process was validated on a realistic virtual phantom containing Gaussian or Rician noise. For each type of noise distribution, five different noise levels were tested. Twenty-one cases from the multimodal brain tumor image segmentation (BRATS) challenge dataset and fifteen clinical metastases cases were also included in validation. Segmentation performance was quantified by the Dice coefficient (DC), normalized mutual information (NMI), structural similarity (SSIM), Hausdorff distance (HD), mean value of surface-to-surface distance (MSSD) and standard deviation of surface-to-surface distance (SDSSD). In the numerical phantom study, the evaluation yielded a DC of 0.98  ±  0.01, an NMI of 0.97  ±  0.01, an SSIM of 0.999  ±  0.001, an HD of 2.2  ±  0.8 mm, an MSSD of 0.1  ±  0.1 mm, and an SDSSD of 0.3  ±  0.1 mm. The validation on the BRATS data resulted in a DC of 0.89  ±  0.08, which outperform the BRATS challenge algorithms. Evaluation on clinical datasets gave a DC of 0.86  ±  0.09, an NMI of 0.80  ±  0.11, an SSIM of 0.999  ±  0.001, an HD of 8

  8. Adjuvant therapy after resection of brain metastases. Frameless image-guided LINAC-based radiosurgery and stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy

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    Broemme, J.; Aebersold, D.M.; Pica, A. [Bern Univ., Bern Univ. Hospital (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Abu-Isa, J.; Beck, J.; Raabe, A. [Bern Univ., Bern Univ. Hospital (Switzerland). Neurosurgery; Kottke, R.; Wiest, R. [Bern Univ., Bern Univ. Hospital (Switzerland). Neuroradiology; Malthaner, M.; Schmidhalter, D. [Bern Univ., Bern Univ. Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Medical Radiation Physics

    2013-09-15

    Background: Tumor bed stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) after resection of brain metastases is a new strategy to delay or avoid whole-brain irradiation (WBRT) and its associated toxicities. This retrospective study analyzes results of frameless image-guided linear accelerator (LINAC)-based SRS and stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy (SHRT) as adjuvant treatment without WBRT. Materials and methods: Between March 2009 and February 2012, 44 resection cavities in 42 patients were treated with SRS (23 cavities) or SHRT (21 cavities). All treatments were delivered using a stereotactic LINAC. All cavities were expanded by {>=} 2 mm in all directions to create the clinical target volume (CTV). Results: The median planning target volume (PTV) for SRS was 11.1 cm{sup 3}. The median dose prescribed to the PTV margin for SRS was 17 Gy. Median PTV for SHRT was 22.3 cm{sup 3}. The fractionation schemes applied were: 4 fractions of 6 Gy (5 patients), 6 fractions of 4 Gy (6 patients) and 10 fractions of 4 Gy (10 patients). Median follow-up was 9.6 months. Local control (LC) rates after 6 and 12 months were 91 and 77 %, respectively. No statistically significant differences in LC rates between SRS and SHRT treatments were observed. Distant brain control (DBC) rates at 6 and 12 months were 61 and 33 %, respectively. Overall survival (OS) at 6 and 12 months was 87 and 63.5 %, respectively, with a median OS of 15.9 months. One patient treated by SRS showed symptoms of radionecrosis, which was confirmed histologically. Conclusion: Frameless image-guided LINAC-based adjuvant SRS and SHRT are effective and well tolerated local treatment strategies after resection of brain metastases in patients with oligometastatic disease. (orig.)

  9. Fractionated stereotactically guided radiotherapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy; Fraktionierte, stereotaktisch gefuehrte Radiotherapie der pharmakoresistenten Epilepsie

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    Grabenbauer, G.G.; Reinhold, C.; Lambrecht, U.; Sauer, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Kerling, F.; Pauli, E.; Stefan, H. [Neurologische Klinik, Abt. Epileptologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Mueller, R.G. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Ganslandt, O. [Neurochirurgische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This prospective study evaluated the efficiency of fractionated stereotactically guided radiotherapy as a treatment of pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Patients and Methods: Inclusion criteria were patients aged between 17 and 65 years with one-sided temporally located focus, without sufficient epilepsy control by, antiepileptic drugs or neurosurgery. Between 1997 and 1999, two groups of six patients each were treated with 21 Gy (7 times 3 Gy) and 30 Gy (15 times 2 Gy). Study end points were seizure frequency, intensity, seizure length and neuropsychological parameters. Results: All patients experienced a marked reduction in seizure frequency. The mean reduction of seizures was 37% (range 9-77%, i.e. seizures reduced from a monthly mean number of 11.75 to 7.52) at 18 months following radiation treatment and 46% (23-94%, i.e. 0.2-23 seizures per month) during the whole follow-up time. Seizure length was reduced in five out of eleven patients and intensity of seizures in seven out of eleven patients. Conclusion: Radiotherapy was identified as safe and effective for pharmacoresistant epilepsy since a very good reduction of seizure frequency was observed. It is no substitute for regular use of antiepileptic drugs, but means an appropriate alternative for patients with contraindication against neurosurgery or insufficient seizure reduction after neurosurgery. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Diese prospektive Studie untersuchte die Effizienz einer fraktionierten stereotaktischen Radiotherapie (RT) bei therapieresistenter Temporallappenepilepsie. Patienten und Methoden: Einschlusskriterien waren Patienten im Alter von 17 bis 65 Jahren, die weder medikamentoes noch epilepsiechirurgisch anfallsfrei wurden und einen einseitigen Fokus aufwiesen. Zwei Patientenkohorten zu je sechs Patienten wurden zwischen 1997 und 1999 einer fraktionierten, stereotaktisch gefuehrten Radiotherapie mit 21 Gy (7 x 3 Gy) bzw. 30 Gy (15 x 2 Gy) unterzogen. Endpunkte der Untersuchung waren

  10. Versatility of the Novalis system to deliver image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for various anatomical sites.

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    Teh, Bin S; Paulino, Arnold C; Lu, Hsin H; Chiu, J Kam; Richardson, Susan; Chiang, Stephen; Amato, Robert; Butler, E Brian; Bloch, Charles

    2007-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) programs to treat brain tumors were implemented when we first acquired the Brainlab Novalis system in 2003. Two years later, we started an extra-cranial stereotactic radio-ablation or more appropriately a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) program using the Brainlab Novalis image-guided system at The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas. We hereby summarize our initial experience with this system in delivering image-guided SBRT to a total of 80 patients during our first year of clinical implementation, from February 2005 to January 2006. Over 100 lesions in more than 20 distinct anatomical sites were treated. These include all levels of spine from cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral lesions. Spinal lesions encompass intramedullary, intradural, extradural, or osseous compartments. Also treated were lesions in other bony sites including orbit, clavicle, scapula, humerus, sternum, rib, femur, and pelvis (ilium, ischium, and pubis). Primary or metastatic lesions located in the head and neck, supraclavicular region, axilla, mediastinum, lung (both central and peripheral), abdominal wall, liver, kidney, para-aortic lymph nodes, prostate, and pelvis were also treated. In addition to primary radiotherapy, SBRT program using the Brainlab Novalis system allows re-irradiation for recurrence and "boost" after conventional treatment to various anatomical sites. Treating these sites safely and efficaciously requires knowledge in radiation tolerance, fraction size, total dose, biologically equivalent dose (BED), prior radiotherapy, detailed dose volume histograms (DVH) of normal tissues, and the radiosensitive/radioresistant nature of the tumor. Placement of radio-opaque markers (Visicoil, Radiomed) in anatomical sites not in close proximity to bony landmarks (e.g., kidney and liver) helps in measuring motion and providing image guidance during each treatment fraction. Tumor/organ motion

  11. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  12. Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer

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    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja, E-mail: barbara.jereczek@ieo.it [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Beltramo, Giancarlo [CyberKnife Center CDI, Milan (Italy); Fariselli, Laura [Radiotherapy Unit, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute Foundation, Milan (Italy); Fodor, Cristiana [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Santoro, Luigi [Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Vavassori, Andrea; Zerini, Dario [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Gherardi, Federica [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Ascione, Carmen [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Bossi-Zanetti, Isa; Mauro, Roberta [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Bregantin, Achille; Bianchi, Livia Corinna [CyberKnife Center CDI, Milan (Italy); De Cobelli, Ottavio [Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of robotic CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA)-based stereotactic radiotherapy (CBK-SRT) for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and December 2009, 34 consecutive patients/38 lesions were treated (15 patients reirradiated for local recurrence [P], 4 patients reirradiated for anastomosis recurrence [A], 16 patients treated for single lymph node recurrence [LN], and 3 patients treated for single metastasis [M]). In all but 4 patients, [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed. CBK-SRT consisted of reirradiation and first radiotherapy in 27 and 11 lesions, respectively. The median CBK-SRT dose was 30 Gy in 4.5 fractions (P, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; A, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; LN, 33 Gy in 3 fractions; and M, 36 Gy in 3 fractions). In 18 patients (21 lesions) androgen deprivation was added to CBK-SRT (median duration, 16.6 months). Results: The median follow-up was 16.9 months. Acute toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event). Late toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event and 1 Grade 2 event). Biochemical response was observed in 32 of 38 evaluable lesions. Prostate-specific antigen stabilization was seen for 4 lesions, and in 2 cases prostate-specific antigen progression was reported. The 30-month progression-free survival rate was 42.6%. Disease progression was observed for 14 lesions (5, 2, 5, and 2 in Groups P, A, LN, and M respectively). In only 3 cases, in-field progression was seen. At the time of analysis (May 2010), 19 patients are alive with no evidence of disease and 15 are alive with disease. Conclusions: CyberKnife-based stereotactic radiotherapy is a feasible approach for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer, offering excellent in-field tumor

  13. [Assessment of overall spatial accuracy in image guided stereotactic body radiotherapy using a spine registration method].

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    Nakazawa, Hisato; Uchiyama, Yukio; Komori, Masataka; Hayashi, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung and liver tumors is always performed under image guidance, a technique used to confirm the accuracy of setup positioning by fusing planning digitally reconstructed radiographs with X-ray, fluoroscopic, or computed tomography (CT) images, using bony structures, tumor shadows, or metallic markers as landmarks. The Japanese SBRT guidelines state that bony spinal structures should be used as the main landmarks for patient setup. In this study, we used the Novalis system as a linear accelerator for SBRT of lung and liver tumors. The current study compared the differences between spine registration and target registration and calculated total spatial accuracy including setup uncertainty derived from our image registration results and the geometric uncertainty of the Novalis system. We were able to evaluate clearly whether overall spatial accuracy is achieved within a setup margin (SM) for planning target volume (PTV) in treatment planning. After being granted approval by the Hospital and University Ethics Committee, we retrospectively analyzed eleven patients with lung tumor and seven patients with liver tumor. The results showed the total spatial accuracy to be within a tolerable range for SM of treatment planning. We therefore regard our method to be suitable for image fusion involving 2-dimensional X-ray images during the treatment planning stage of SBRT for lung and liver tumors.

  14. [Setup accuracy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using virtual isocenter in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Hisato; Uchiyama, Yukio; Komori, Masataka; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Mori, Yoshimasa

    2012-01-01

    We use Novalis Body system for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung and liver tumors. Novalis system is dedicated to SBRT with image-guided patient setup system ExacTrac. The spinal bone is the main landmark in patient setup during SBRT using ExacTrac kV X-ray system. When the target tumor is located laterally distant from the spinal bone at the midline, it is difficult to ensure the accuracy of the setup, especially if there are rotational gaps (yaw, pitch and roll) in the setup. For this, we resolve the problem by using a virtual isocenter (VIC) different from isocenter (IC) .We evaluated the setup accuracy in a rand phantom by using VIC and checked the setup errors using rand phantom and patient cases by our original method during the setup for IC. The accuracy of setup using VIC was less than 1.0 mm. Our original method was useful for checking patient setup when VIC used.

  15. Lipiodol versus diaphragm in 4D-CBCT-guided stereotactic radiotherapy of hepatocellular carcinomas

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    Chan, Mark K.H.; Lee, Venus; Chiang, C.L.; Lee, Francis A.S.; Law, Gilbert; Wong, Frank C.S.; Tung, Stewart Y.; Luk, Hollis [TuenMun Hospital, Department of Clinical Oncology, TuenMun, Hong Kong (China); Sin, N.Y.; Siu, K.L. [TuenMun Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, TuenMun, Hong Kong (China); Blanck, Oliver [University Clinic Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Radiation Oncology, Saphir Radiosurgery Center, Kiel (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential of lipiodol as a direct tumor surrogate alternative to the diaphragm surrogate on four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) image guidance for stereotactic radiotherapy of hepatocellular carcinomas. A total of 29 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) patients treated by stereotactic radiotherapy following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with homogeneous or partial defective lipiodol retention were included. In all, 4-7 pretreatment 4D-CBCT scans were selected for each patient. For each scan, either lipiodol or the diaphragm was used for 4D registration. Resulting lipiodol/diaphragm motion ranges and position errors relative to the reconstructed midventilation images were analyzed to obtain the motion variations, and group mean (ΔM), systematic (Σ), and random (σ) errors of the treatment setup. Of the lipiodolized tumors, 55 % qualified for direct localization on the 4D-CBCT. Significant correlations of lipiodol and diaphragm positions were found in the left-right (LR), craniocaudal (CC), and anteroposterior (AP) directions. ΔM and σ obtained with lipiodol and diaphragm were similar, agreed to within 0.5 mm in the LR and AP, and 0.3 mm in the CC directions, and Σ differed by 1.4 (LR), 1.1 (CC), and 0.6 (AP) mm. Variations of diaphragm motion range > 5 mm were not observed with lipiodol and in one patient with diaphragm. The margin required for the tumor prediction error using the diaphragm surrogate was 6.7 (LR), 11.7 (CC), and 4.1 (AP) mm. Image-guidance combining lipiodol with 4D-CBCT enabled accurate localization of HCC and thus margin reduction. A major limitation was the degraded lipiodol contrast on 4D-CBCT. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war es, das Potential von Lipiodol als direktes Tumorsurrogat alternativ zum Zwerchfellsurrogat fuer die vierdimensionale Cone-beam-Computertomographie (4D-CBCT) in der stereotaktischen Strahlentherapie von hepatozellulaeren Karzinomen (HCC

  16. Image guided respiratory gated hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (H-SBRT) for liver and lung tumors: Initial experience

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    Wurm, R.E.; Gum, F.; Erbel, S. [Charite Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate our initial experience with image guided respiratory gated H-SBRT for liver and lung tumors. The system combines a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system (ExacTrac{sup R} X-Ray 6D) with a dedicated conformal stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy linear accelerator (Novalis) and ExacTrac{sup R} Adaptive Gating for dynamic adaptive treatment. Moving targets are located and tracked by x-ray imaging of implanted fiducial markers defined in the treatment planning computed tomography (CT). The marker position is compared with the position in verification stereoscopic x-ray images, using fully automated marker detection software. The required shift for a correct, gated set-up is calculated and automatically applied. We present our acceptance testing and initial experience in patients with liver and lung tumors. For treatment planning CT and Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) taken at free breathing and expiration breath hold with internal and external fiducials present were used. Patients were treated with 8-11 consecutive fractions to a dose of 74.8-79.2 Gy. Phantom tests demonstrated targeting accuracy with a moving target to within {+-}1 mm. Inter- and intrafractional patient set-up displacements, as corrected by the gated set-up and not detectable by a conventional set-up, were up to 30 mm. Verification imaging to determine target location during treatment showed an average marker position deviation from the expected position of up to 4 mm on real patients. This initial evaluation shows the accuracy of the system and feasibility of image guided real-time respiratory gated H-SBRT for liver and lung tumors.

  17. Migration of implanted markers for image-guided lung tumor stereotactic ablative radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Julian C; Eclov, Neville C W; Yu, Yao; Rao, Aarti K; Dieterich, Sonja; Le, Quynh-Thu; Diehn, Maximilian; Sze, Daniel Y; Loo, Billy W; Kothary, Nishita; Maxim, Peter G

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this study was to quantify postimplantation migration of percutaneously implanted cylindrical gold seeds ("seeds") and platinum endovascular embolization coils ("coils") for tumor tracking in pulmonary stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). We retrospectively analyzed the migration of markers in 32 consecutive patients with computed tomography scans postimplantation and at simulation. We implanted 147 markers (59 seeds, 88 coils) in or around 34 pulmonary tumors over 32 procedures, with one lesion implanted twice. Marker coordinates were rigidly aligned by minimizing fiducial registration error (FRE), the root mean square of the differences in marker locations for each tumor between scans. To also evaluate whether single markers were responsible for most migration, we aligned with and without the outlier causing the largest FRE increase per tumor. We applied the resultant transformation to all markers. We evaluated migration of individual markers and FRE of each group. Median scan interval was 8 days. Median individual marker migration was 1.28 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 0.78-2.63 mm). Median lesion FRE was 1.56 mm (IQR 0.92-2.95 mm). Outlier identification yielded 1.03 mm median migration (IQR 0.52-2.21 mm) and 1.97 mm median FRE (IQR 1.44-4.32 mm). Outliers caused a mean and median shift in the centroid of 1.22 and 0.80 mm (95th percentile 2.52 mm). Seeds and coils had no statistically significant difference. Univariate analysis suggested no correlation of migration with the number of markers, contact with the chest wall, or time elapsed. Marker migration between implantation and simulation is limited and unlikely to cause geometric miss during tracking.

  18. Role of high-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging on a multi-image fusion-guided stereotactic biopsy of the basal ganglia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Chen, Zhijuan; Yang, Shuyuan; Zhang, Jianning; Yue, Shuyuan; Wang, Zengguang; Yang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present case study was to investigate the advantages of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) on the real-time guidance and monitoring of a stereotactic biopsy. The study describes a patient with intracranial lesions, which were examined by conventional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging using a 1.5T intraoperative MRI system. The digital and pre-operative positron emission/computed tomography image data were transferred to a BrainLAB planning workstation, and a variety of images were automatically fused. The BrainLAB software was then used to reconstruct the corticospinal tract (CST) and create a three-dimensional display of the anatomical association between the CST and the brain lesions. A Leksell surgical planning workstation was used to identify the ideal target site and a reasonable needle track for the biopsy. The 1.5T iMRI was used to effectively monitor the intracranial condition during the brain biopsy procedure. Post-operatively, the original symptoms of the patient were not aggravated and no further neurological deficits were apparent. The histopathological diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma was made. Using high-field iMRI, the multi-image fusion-guided stereotactic brain biopsy allows for a higher positive rate of biopsy and a lower incidence of complications. The approach of combining multi-image fusion images with the frame-based stereotactic biopsy may be clinically useful for intracranial lesions of deep functional areas.

  19. Hypofractionated image-guided breath-hold SABR (Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy of liver metastases – clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boda-Heggemann Judit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR is a non-invasive therapy option for inoperable liver oligometastases. Outcome and toxicity were retrospectively evaluated in a single-institution patient cohort who had undergone ultrasound-guided breath-hold SABR. Patients and methods 19 patients with liver metastases of various primary tumors consecutively treated with SABR (image-guidance with stereotactic ultrasound in combination with computer-controlled breath-hold were analysed regarding overall-survival (OS, progression-free-survival (PFS, progression pattern, local control (LC, acute and late toxicity. Results PTV (planning target volume-size was 108 ± 109cm3 (median 67.4 cm3. BED2 (Biologically effective dose in 2 Gy fraction was 83.3 ± 26.2 Gy (median 78 Gy. Median follow-up and median OS were 12 months. Actuarial 2-year-OS-rate was 31%. Median PFS was 4 months, actuarial 1-year-PFS-rate was 20%. Site of first progression was predominantly distant. Regression of irradiated lesions was observed in 84% (median time to detection of regression was 2 months. Actuarial 6-month-LC-rate was 92%, 1- and 2-years-LC-rate 57%, respectively. BED2 influenced LC. When a cut-off of BED2 = 78 Gy was used, the higher BED2 values resulted in improved local control with a statistical trend to significance (p = 0.0999. Larger PTV-sizes, inversely correlated with applied dose, resulted in lower local control, also with a trend to significance (p-value = 0.08 when a volume cut-off of 67 cm3 was used. No local relapse was observed at PTV-sizes 3 and BED2 > 78 Gy. No acute clinical toxicity > °2 was observed. Late toxicity was also ≤ °2 with the exception of one gastrointestinal bleeding-episode 1 year post-SABR. A statistically significant elevation in the acute phase was observed for alkaline-phosphatase; in the chronic phase for alkaline-phosphatase, bilirubine, cholinesterase and C

  20. Defining the Optimal Planning Target Volume in Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Brain Metastases: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, John P., E-mail: john.kirkpatrick@dm.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Zhiheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Sampson, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E. [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Allen, Karen J.; Duffy, Eileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Hoang, Jenny K. [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chang, Zheng; Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yin, Fang-Fang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify an optimal margin about the gross target volume (GTV) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases, minimizing toxicity and local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases less than 4 cm in greatest dimension, no previous brain radiation therapy, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) above 70 were eligible for this institutional review board–approved trial. Individual lesions were randomized to 1- or 3- mm uniform expansion of the GTV defined on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resulting planning target volume (PTV) was treated to 24, 18, or 15 Gy marginal dose for maximum PTV diameters less than 2, 2 to 2.9, and 3 to 3.9 cm, respectively, using a linear accelerator–based image-guided system. The primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR). Secondary endpoints included neurocognition Mini-Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test Parts A and B, quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain), radionecrosis (RN), need for salvage radiation therapy, distant failure (DF) in the brain, and overall survival (OS). Results: Between February 2010 and November 2012, 49 patients with 80 brain metastases were treated. The median age was 61 years, the median KPS was 90, and the predominant histologies were non–small cell lung cancer (25 patients) and melanoma (8). Fifty-five, 19, and 6 lesions were treated to 24, 18, and 15 Gy, respectively. The PTV/GTV ratio, volume receiving 12 Gy or more, and minimum dose to PTV were significantly higher in the 3-mm group (all P<.01), and GTV was similar (P=.76). At a median follow-up time of 32.2 months, 11 patients were alive, with median OS 10.6 months. LR was observed in only 3 lesions (2 in the 1 mm group, P=.51), with 6.7% LR 12 months after SRS. Biopsy-proven RN alone was observed in 6 lesions (5 in the 3-mm group, P=.10). The 12-month DF rate was 45.7%. Three months after SRS, no significant change in

  1. Application of frameless stereotactic aspiration in the treatment of hypertension cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-san ZHANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the technical points and clinical outcomes of frameless stereotactic aspiration in treatment of patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage (HPCH. Methods  The clinical data of 68 consecutive patients with HPCH, treated with frameless stereotactic aspiration from Jan. 2012 to Jun. 2014, were retrospectively analyzed, and compared to that of 45 patients treated in the meantime by frame-based stereotactic aspiration. The surgical results, procedure-related complications and clinical prognosis were evaluated. Results  For the patients treated with frameless stereotactic aspiration, the median age was 53.3 years (range 36-80, the mean initial Glasgow coma scale score was over 5. Among them seven patients died within a month after operation: 3 died of respiratory failure, 2 of cerebral edema and 2 of rehemorrhage. At the six-months follow-up, the good recovery rate (gradeⅠ-Ⅲof ADL was 77.9%(53/68, better than that of patients treated with frame-based stereotactic aspiration (60.0%, P<0.05. Conclusion  Frameless stereotactic aspiration for HPCH is easy to operate, minimal invasion and safe procedure with low mortality and rehemorrhage rate. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.12

  2. Wind energy applications guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  3. Dosimetric characterization of a bi-directional micromultileaf collimator for stereotactic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciolini, M; Russo, S; Banci Buonamici, F; Pini, S; Silli, P

    2002-07-01

    A 6 MV photon beam from Linac SL75-5 has been collimated with a new micromultileaf device that is able to shape the field in the two orthogonal directions with four banks of leaves. This is the first clinical installation of the collimator and in this paper the dosimetric characterization of the system is reported. The dosimetric parameters required by the treatment planning system used for the dose calculation in the patient are: tissue maximum ratios, output factors, transmission and leakage of the leaves, penumbra values. Ionization chambers, silicon diode, radiographic films, and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters have been employed for measurements of absolute dose and beam dosimetric data. Measurements with different dosimeters supply results in reasonable agreement among them and consistent with data available in literature for other models of micromultileaf collimator; that permits the use of the measured parameters for clinical applications. The discrepancies between results obtained with the different detectors (around 2%) for the analyzed parameters can be considered an indication of the accuracy that can be reached by current stereotactic dosimetry.

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leksell, L. (Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1983-09-01

    The development and scope of stereotactic radiosurgery is described. The technique, which combines well with the latest diagnostic methods, has already proved a safe and effective way of treating inaccessible cerebral lesions and in particular small arteriovenous malformations, acoustic neuroma and the solid component of craniopharyngioma, as well as playing an increasingly useful role in the therapy of pituitary adenoma.

  5. 微电极引导立体定向手术治疗帕金森病的研究%Management of Parkinson's Diseases with Microelectrode-guided Stereotactic Pallidotomy and Thalamotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔高宇; 冯华; 王宪荣; 吴国材; 陈志

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the methods and outcome of 71 patients with Parkinson's disease treated with microelectrode-guided stereotactic pallidotomy and thalamotomy. Method Pallidal and thalamal target sites are chosen by supervision of microelectrode recording technique in 71 patients with Parkinson's disease. The UPDRS motor score was used to evaluate the outcomes 12 weeks before and after operation Result After 12 months follow-up, tremor disappeared completely or nearly completely in 12 patients who underwent unilateral and l bilateral ventrolateral thalamotomy. Dramatic improvement of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia were observed in 57 patients underwent posteroventral pallidotomy,including 6 underwent bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy. Intracerebral hemorrhage was observed in l patient. Conclusion Microelectrode-guided stereotactic pallidotomy and thalamotomy are effective in treatmenting Parkinson's disease, but with serious complications

  6. Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary and metastatic liver tumors using the novalis image-guided system: preliminary results regarding efficacy and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiromitsu; Shibamoto, Yuta; Hashizume, Chisa; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Naoki; Kosaki, Katsura; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kuzuya, Teiji; Utsunomiya, Setsuo

    2010-12-01

    www.tcrt.org The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for primary and metastatic liver tumors using the Novalis image-guided radiotherapy system. After preliminarily treating liver tumors using the Novalis system from July 2006, we started a protocol-based study in February 2008. Eighteen patients (6 with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and 12 with metastatic liver tumor) were treated with 55 or 50 Gy, depending upon their planned dose distribution and liver function, delivered in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Four non-coplanar and three coplanar static beams were used. Patient age ranged from 54 to 84 years (median: 72 years). The Child-Pugh classification was Grade A in 17 patients and Grade B in 1. Tumor diameter ranged from 12 to 35 mm (median: 23 mm). Toxicities were evaluated according to the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events version 4.0, and radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) was defined by Lawrence's criterion. The median follow-up period was 14.5 months. For all patients, the 1-year overall survival and local control rates were 94% and 86%, respectively. A Grade 1 liver enzyme change was observed in 5 patients, but no RILD or chronic liver dysfunction was observed. SBRT using the Novalis image-guided system is safe and effective for treating primary and metastatic liver tumors. Further investigation of SBRT for liver tumors is warranted. In view of the acceptable toxicity observed with this protocol, we have moved to a new protocol to shorten the overall treatment time and escalate the dose.

  7. CyberKnife robotic image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for oligometastic cancer. A prospective evaluation of 95 patients/118 lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jereczek-Fossa, B.A.; Bossi-Zanetti, I.; Mauro, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Milan Univ. (Italy); Beltramo, G.; Bianchi, L.C. [CyberKnife Center CDI, Milan (Italy); Fariselli, L. [Carlo Besta Neurological Institute Foundation, Milan (Italy). Radiotherapy Unit; Fodor, C. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Fossati, P.; Orecchia, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Radiotherapy; National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO) Foundation, Pavia, Milan (Italy); Milan Univ. (Italy); Baroni, G. [National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO) Foundation, Pavia, Milan (Italy); Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. of Bioengineering

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of robotic CyberKnife (Accuray Inc. Sunnyvale, USA)-based stereotactic radiotherapy (CBK-SRT) for oligometastic cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between May 2007 and December 2009, 95 patients with a total of 118 lesions underwent CBK-SRT (median dose 24 Gy in 3 fractions). Inclusion criteria: adult patients with limited volume cancer; suitability for SRT but not for other local therapies. Primary diagnoses included breast, lung, head and neck, gastrointestinal and other malignancies. Prostate cancer patients were excluded. Concomitant systemic therapy was given in 40 % of cases and median follow-up was 12 months. Toxicity and tumor response were evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) Scale and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors RECIST. Results: Toxicity was rare and observed mainly in patients with comorbidities or uncontrolled cancer. Out of 87 evaluable lesions, complete radiological response, partial response, stabilization and progressive disease were observed in 15 (17 %), 25 (29 %), 34 (39 %) and 13 (15 %) lesions, respectively. Upon restricting the analysis to lesions treated with CBK-SRT alone (no concomitant therapy), response- and local control (LC) rates remained similar. Actuarial 3-year in-field progression-free survival- (i.e. LC), progression-free survival- (PFS) and overall-survival (OS) rates were 67.6, 18.4, and 31.2 %, respectively. LC was reduced in cases of early recurrence. OS- and cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were significantly lower in patients treated for visceral lesions. Failures were predominantly out-field. Conclusion: CBK-SRT is a feasible therapeutic approach for oligometastastic cancer patients that provides long-term in-field tumor control with a low toxicity profile. Further investigations should focus on dose escalation and optimization of the combination with systemic therapies. (orig.)

  8. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shrager, Joseph B. [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Leung, Ann N. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Popat, Rita [Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  9. Clinical applications of stereotactic radiation therapy for oligometastatic cancer patients: a disease-oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardi, Umberto; Badellino, Serena; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Oligometastases from solid tumors are currently recognized as a distinct clinical entity, corresponding to an intermediate state between local and widespread disease. It has been suggested that local ablative therapies (including surgery, radiofrequency ablation and radiation therapy) play an important role in this setting, in combination or not with systemic therapies, particularly in delaying disease progression and hopefully in increasing the median survival time. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) rapidly emerged in recent years as one of the most effective and less toxic local treatment modalities for lung, liver, adrenal, brain and bone metastases. The aim of this review was to focus on its clinical role for oligometastatic disease in four major cancer subtypes: lung, breast, colorectal and prostate. On the basis of the available evidence, SBRT is able to provide high rates of local tumor control without significant toxicity. Its global impact on survival is uncertain; however, in specific subpopulations of oligometastatic patients there is a trend towards a significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival rates; these important data might be used as a platform for clinical decision-making and establish the basis for the current and future prospective trials investigating its role with or without systemic treatments. PMID:26962198

  10. Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT Cost-Effectiveness Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash eBijlani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and synthesize the current stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT cost-effectiveness research to date across several common SRS and SBRT applications. Methods: This review was limited to comparative economic evaluations of SRS, SBRT and alternative treatments (e.g., other radiotherapy techniques or surgery. Based on PubMed searches using the terms, stereotactic, stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, economic evaluation, quality adjusted life year (QALY, cost, cost effectiveness, cost utility and cost analysis, published studies of cost-effectiveness and health economics were obtained. Included were articles in peer-reviewed journals that presented a comparison of costs between treatment alternatives from January 1997 to November 2012. Papers were excluded if they did not present cost calculations, therapeutic cost comparisons, or health economic endpoints. Results: Clinical outcomes and costs of SRS and SBRT were compared to other therapies for treatment of cancer in the brain, spine, lung, prostate and pancreas. Treatment outcomes for SRS and SBRT are usually superior or comparable, and cost-effective, relative to alternative techniques. Conclusion: Based on the review of current SRS and SBRT clinical and health economic literature, from a patient perspective, SRS and SBRT provide patients a clinically-effective treatment option, while from the payer and provider perspective, SRS and SBRT demonstrate cost-savings.

  11. GNOME 3 application development beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Anwari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step guide with ready-to-run codes to guide you in developing applications with GNOME. If you have programming skill either in Linux or other operating systems and want to have GNOME 3 as one of your deployment targets, then this book is for you. This book is also for commercial software developers or an open source software hacker. The reader needs to be familiar with Vala and JavaScript before starting to develop Gtk+ and Clutter applications.

  12. Emerging radiotherapy technology in a developing country: A single Brazilian institution assessment of stereotactic body radiotherapy application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ynoe Moraes

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To provide a quantitative profile of the indications and use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT in a developing country oncology-based institution. In addition, to describe the patients' and treatment characteristics, and to provide a temporal analysis. Method: SBRT patients treated from 2007 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated by two independently investigators. Data were stratified and compared in two periods: first experience (FE (May 2007 to April 2011, and following experience (FollowE (May 2011 to April 2015. The following parameters were compared between the groups: total number of treated patients and lesions, treatment site, additional image fusion used, formal protocol adoption, and SBRT planning technique. Results: One hundred and seventy-six (176 patients with 191 lesions were treated: 34 (18% lesions in the FE and 157 (82% lesions in FollowE. The majority of lesions were metastases (60.3%, and lung (60.2% was the most common treatment site, followed by spine (31%, and others (8.8%. An average of 1.4 (±0.6 additional imaging exams for delineation was performed. Conformal 3D radiotherapy planning technique was used in 64.4%, and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT in the remaining 35.6% (p=0.0001. Higher rates of curative treatments were observed in FE, as well as more lung lesions, patients ≥ 70 years, 3D conformal, number of additional images and ECOG 0, and all presented p<0.05. The global rate of protocol statement was 79%, lung treatment being the most stated. Conclusion: SBRT application is rapidly increasing in our setting. Treatment sites and planning techniques are becoming more diversified and complex.

  13. Microsoft Application Virtualization Advanced Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    A practical tutorial containing clear, step-by-step explanations of all the concepts required to understand the technology involved in virtualizing your application infrastructure. Each chapter uses real-world scenarios so that the readers can put into practice what they learn immediately and with the right guidance. Each topic is written defining a common need and developing the process to solve it using Microsoft App-V. This book is for system administrators or consultants who want to master and dominate App-V, and gain a deeper understanding of the technology in order to optimize App V impl

  14. Active and passive beam application design guide for global application

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Passive Beam Application Design Guide is the result of collaboration by worldwide experts to give system designers a current, authoritative guide on successfully applying active and passive beam technology. Active and Passive Beam Application Design Guide provide energy-efficient methods of cooling, heating, and ventilating indoor areas, especially spaces that require individual zone control and where internal moisture loads are moderate. The systems are simple to operate, with low maintenance requirements. This book is an essential resource for consulting engineers, architects, owners, and contractors who are involved in the design, operation, and installation of these systems. Building on REHVA’s Chilled Beam Application Guidebook, this new guide provides up-to-date tools and advice for designing, commissioning, and operating chilled-beam systems to achieve a determined indoor climate, and includes examples of active and passive beam calculations and selections. Dual units (SI and I-P) are...

  15. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissue an area of abnormal tissue change a new mass or area of calcium deposits is present ... may also be asked to remove jewelry, removable dental appliances, eye glasses and ... the equipment look like? The specialized mammography machine used in ...

  16. Dosimetric and deformation effects of image-guided interventions during stereotactic body radiation therapy of the prostate using an endorectal balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Bernard L.; Gan, Gregory; Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Timmerman, Robert D.; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: During stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the treatment of prostate cancer, an inflatable endorectal balloon (ERB) may be used to reduce motion of the target and reduce the dose to the posterior rectal wall. This work assessed the dosimetric impact of manual interventions on ERB position in patients receiving prostate SBRT and investigated the impact of ERB interventions on prostate shape. Methods: The data of seven consecutive patients receiving SBRT for the treatment of clinical stage T1cN0M0 prostate cancer enrolled in a multi-institutional, IRB-approved trial were analyzed. The SBRT dose was 50 Gy in five fractions to a planning target volume (PTV) that included the prostate (implanted with three fiducial markers) with a 3-5 mm margin. All plans were based on simulation images that included an ERB inflated with 60 cm{sup 3} of air. Daily kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging was performed to localize the PTV, and an automated fusion with the planning images yielded displacements required for PTV relocalization. When the ERB volume and/or position were judged to yield inaccurate repositioning, manual adjustment (ERB reinflation and/or repositioning) was performed. Based on all 59 CBCT image sets acquired, a deformable registration algorithm was used to determine the dose received by, displacement of, and deformation of the prostate, bladder (BLA), and anterior rectal wall (ARW). This dose tracking methodology was applied to images taken before and after manual adjustment of the ERB (intervention), and the delivered dose was compared to that which would have been delivered in the absence of intervention. Results: Interventions occurred in 24 out of 35 (69%) of the treated fractions. The direct effect of these interventions was an increase in the prostate radiation dose that included 95% of the PTV (D95) from 9.6 {+-} 1.0 to 10.0 {+-} 0.2 Gy (p = 0.06) and an increase in prostate coverage from 94.0% {+-} 8.5% to 97.8% {+-} 1

  17. Intraoperative 3D Ultrasonography for Image-Guided Neurosurgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letteboer, Marloes Maria Johanna

    2004-01-01

    Stereotactic neurosurgery has evolved dramatically in recent years from the original rigid frame-based systems to the current frameless image-guided systems, which allow greater flexibility while maintaining sufficient accuracy. As these systems continue to evolve, more applications are found, and i

  18. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

  19. CRISPR guide RNA design for research applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Stephanie E; Hu, Yanhui; Ewen-Campen, Benjamin; Housden, Benjamin E; Viswanatha, Raghuvir; Perrimon, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    The rapid rise of CRISPR as a technology for genome engineering and related research applications has created a need for algorithms and associated online tools that facilitate design of on-target and effective guide RNAs (gRNAs). Here, we review the state of the art in CRISPR gRNA design for research applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, including knockout, activation, and inhibition. Notably, achieving good gRNA design is not solely dependent on innovations in CRISPR technology. Good design and design tools also rely on availability of high-quality genome sequence and gene annotations, as well as on availability of accumulated data regarding off-targets and effectiveness metrics.

  20. Dosimetric and Deformation Effects of Image-Guided Interventions during Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of the Prostate using an Endorectal Balloon

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Bernard L; Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Timmerman, Robert D; Miften, Moyed

    2013-01-01

    During Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of prostate cancer, an inflatable endorectal balloon (ERB) may be used to reduce motion of the target and reduce the dose to the posterior rectal wall. This work assessed the dosimetric impact of manual interventions on ERB position in patients receiving prostate SBRT and investigated the impact of ERB interventions on prostate shape. Daily kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging was performed to localize the PTV, and an automated fusion with the planning images yielded displacements required for PTV re-localization. When the ERB volume and/or position were judged to yield inaccurate repositioning, manual adjustment (ERB re-inflation and/or repositioning) was performed. Based on all 59 CBCT image sets acquired, a deformable registration algorithm was used to determine the dose received by, displacement of, and deformation of the prostate, bladder, and anterior rectal wall. This dose tracking methodology was applied to images ...

  1. Minimal Inter-Fractional Fiducial Migration during Image-Guided Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using SuperLock Nitinol Coil Fiducial Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Rong

    Full Text Available Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT is being increasingly used for the treatment of patients with lung cancer or lung metastasis who are medically unfit to undergo resection. In order to improve accuracy and confidence in targeting tumors, many centers rely on fiducial implantation. We evaluated the migration of a novel fiducial marker specifically designed for lung tissue implanted via electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB.We retrospectively quantified the individual and group migrations of SuperLock nitinol coil fiducials for 15 patients receiving lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT, in order to evaluate the reliability of using these fiducials as a target surrogate for cases where tumors cannot be clearly delineated on cone beam CTs (CBCTs. For each fraction, we compared the individual and group migrations of the fiducials between the planning CT and the acquired CBCT. The group migration was defined as the distance between the centroids of the fiducial group and GTV.A total of 16 lung targets were included in our study for these 15 patients (one patient with two targets. Of 55 fiducials placed, we observed a 100% retention rate. The mean individual migration was 1.87 mm (range, 0.63-5.25 mm with a standard deviation of 1.26 mm. The mean group migration was 1.94 mm (range, 0.03-6.19 mm with a standard deviation of 1.45 mm. Overall, there was minimal change in the relative locations of the markers with respect to each other, as well as to the target.We found that the SuperLock nitinol coil fiducial marker positions are stable throughout the radiation treatment, and can be used as a reliable surrogate to target, and to avoid geometric misses during gated treatments.

  2. A kinetic model of tumor growth and its radiation response with an application to Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin Z; Hui, Susanta K

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model to simulate the growth of tumor volume and its response to a single fraction of high dose irradiation. We made several key assumptions of the model. Tumor volume is composed of proliferating (or dividing) cancer cells and non-dividing (or dead) cells. Tumor growth rate (or tumor volume doubling time, Td) is proportional to the ratio of the volumes of tumor vasculature and the tumor. The vascular volume grows slower than the tumor by introducing the vascular growth retardation factor, theta. Upon irradiation the proliferating cells gradually die over a fixed time period after irradiation. Dead cells are cleared away with cell clearance time, Tcl. The model was applied to simulate pre-treatment growth and post-treatment radiation response of rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor and metastatic brain tumors of five patients who were treated by Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). By selecting appropriate model parameters, we showed the temporal variation of the tumors for both th...

  3. Phased annular array transducers for ultrasonic guided wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Borigo, Cody; Liang, Yue; Koduru, Jaya P.; Rose, Joseph L.

    2011-04-01

    Mode and frequency control always plays an important role in ultrasonic guided wave applications. In this paper, theoretical understanding of guided wave excitations of axisymmetric sources on plate structures is established. It is shown that a wave number spectrum can be used to investigate the guided wave excitations of an axisymmetric source. The wave number spectrum is calculated from a Hankel transform of the axial source loading profile. On the basis of the theoretical understanding, phased annular array transducers are developed as a powerful tool for guided wave mode and frequency control. By applying appropriate time delays to phase the multiple elements of an annular array transducer, guided wave mode and frequency tuning can be achieved fully electronically. The phased annular array transducers have been successfully used for various applications. Example applications presented in this paper include phased annular arrays for guided wave beamforming and a novel ultrasonic vibration modal analysis technique for damage detection.

  4. Use of Image-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Lieu of Intracavitary Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Inoperable Endometrial Neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmerer, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hernandez, Enrique; Ferriss, James S. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Valakh, Vladimir; Miyamoto, Curtis; Li, Shidong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Micaily, Bizhan, E-mail: bizhan.micaily@tuhs.temple.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of patients with invasive endometrial neoplasia who were treated with external beam radiation therapy followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost because of the inability to undergo surgery or brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We identified 11 women with stage I-III endometrial cancer with a median age of 78 years that were not candidates for hysterectomy or intracavitary brachytherapy secondary to comorbidities (91%) or refusal (9%). Eight patients were American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I (3 stage IA, 5 stage IB), and 3 patients were AJCC stage III. Patients were treated to a median of 4500 cGy at 180 cGy per fraction followed by SBRT boost (600 cGy per fraction Multiplication-Sign 5). Results: The most common side effect was acute grade 1 gastrointestinal toxicity in 73% of patients, with no late toxicities observed. With a median follow-up of 10 months since SBRT, 5 patients (45%) experienced locoregional disease progression, with 3 patients (27%) succumbing to their malignancy. At 12 and 18 months from SBRT, the overall freedom from progression was 68% and 41%, respectively. Overall freedom from progression (FFP) was 100% for all patients with AJCC stage IA endometrial carcinoma, whereas it was 33% for stage IB at 18 months. The overall FFP was 100% for International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology grade 1 disease. The estimated overall survival was 57% at 18 months from diagnosis. Conclusion: In this study, SBRT boost to the intact uterus was feasible, with encouragingly low rates of acute and late toxicity, and favorable disease control in patients with early-stage disease. Additional studies are needed to provide better insight into the best management of these clinically challenging cases.

  5. The use of a short-acting benzodiazepine to reduce the risk of syncopal episodes during upright stereotactic breast biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.J. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jjames3@ncht.trent.nhs.uk; Wilson, A.R.M. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Evans, A.J. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Burrell, H. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Cornford, E.J. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Hamilton, L.J. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    The use of sublingual lorazepam provides a safe and effective means of reducing the risk of syncopal episodes during upright stereotactic breast biopsy. Sublingual lorazepam, 2-4 mg, was received by 19 women undergoing a total of 20 stereotactic procedures. Of 14 women who had previously fainted during upright stereotactic biopsy, 13 had a successful repeat biopsy following administration of sublingual lorazepam. All 4 women who received lorazepam for significant anxiety had successful biopsies. Stereotactic guided wire localization also was performed in 2 cases.

  6. Tumor Control Outcomes After Hypofractionated and Single-Dose Stereotactic Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Extracranial Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Greco, Carlo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Motzer, Robert [Solid Tumor Service, Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Magsanoc, Juan Martin; Pei Xin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Lovelock, Michael; Mechalakos, Jim [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Zatcky, Joan; Fuks, Zvi; Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To report tumor local progression-free outcomes after treatment with single-dose, image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and hypofractionated regimens for extracranial metastases from renal cell primary tumors. Patients and Methods: Between 2004 and 2010, 105 lesions from renal cell carcinoma were treated with either single-dose, image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy to a prescription dose of 18-24 Gy (median, 24) or hypofractionation (three or five fractions) with a prescription dose of 20-30 Gy. The median follow-up was 12 months (range, 1-48). Results: The overall 3-year actuarial local progression-free survival for all lesions was 44%. The 3-year local progression-free survival for those who received a high single-dose (24 Gy; n = 45), a low single-dose (<24 Gy; n = 14), or hypofractionation regimens (n = 46) was 88%, 21%, and 17%, respectively (high single dose vs. low single dose, p = .001; high single dose vs. hypofractionation, p < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed the following variables were significant predictors of improved local progression-free survival: 24 Gy dose compared with a lower dose (p = .009) and a single dose vs. hypofractionation (p = .008). Conclusion: High single-dose, image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy is a noninvasive procedure resulting in high probability of local tumor control for metastatic renal cell cancer generally considered radioresistant according to the classic radiobiologic ranking.

  7. IBM WebSphere Application Server 80 Administration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Steve

    2011-01-01

    IBM WebSphere Application Server 8.0 Administration Guide is a highly practical, example-driven tutorial. You will be introduced to WebSphere Application Server 8.0, and guided through configuration, deployment, and tuning for optimum performance. If you are an administrator who wants to get up and running with IBM WebSphere Application Server 8.0, then this book is not to be missed. Experience with WebSphere and Java would be an advantage, but is not essential.

  8. Stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzevic, Dario; Legcevic, Jelena; Splavski, Bruno;

    2014-01-01

    ; Web of Science; CAB Abstracts; ISRCTN and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 24 July 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy compared with observation alone, microsurgical...

  9. Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) / Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT): Benefit to Irish patients and Irish Healthcare Economy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cagney, DN

    2017-01-01

    Cancer incidence across Europe is projected to rise rapidly over the next decade. This rising cancer incidence is mirrored by increasing use of and indications for stereotactic radiation. This paper seeks to summarize the exponential increase in indications for stereotactic radiotherapy as well as the evolving economic advantages of stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy

  10. R statistical application development by example : beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tattar, Narayanachart Prabhanjan

    2013-01-01

    Full of screenshots and examples, this Beginner's Guide by Example will teach you practically everything you need to know about R statistical application development from scratch. You will begin learning the first concepts of statistics in R which is vital in this fast paced era and it is also a bargain as you do not need to do a preliminary course on the subject.

  11. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

  12. Software metrics a guide to planning, analysis, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Pandian, C Ravindranath

    2003-01-01

    Software Metrics: A Guide to Planning, Analysis, and Application simplifies software measurement and explains its value as a pragmatic tool for management. Ideas and techniques presented in this book are derived from best practices. The ideas are field-proven, down to earth, and straightforward, making this volume an invaluable resource for those striving for process improvement.

  13. Analysis of volumetric response of pituitary adenomas receiving adjuvant CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery with the application of an exponential fitting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Lin; Yang, Yun-Ju; Lin, Chin; Hsieh, Chih-Chuan; Li, Chiao-Zhu; Feng, Shao-Wei; Tang, Chi-Tun; Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Ma, Hsin-I; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Ju, Da-Tong; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tumor control rates of pituitary adenomas (PAs) receiving adjuvant CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (CK SRS) are high. However, there is currently no uniform way to estimate the time course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the volumetric responses of PAs after CK SRS and investigate the application of an exponential decay model in calculating an accurate time course and estimation of the eventual outcome. A retrospective review of 34 patients with PAs who received adjuvant CK SRS between 2006 and 2013 was performed. Tumor volume was calculated using the planimetric method. The percent change in tumor volume and tumor volume rate of change were compared at median 4-, 10-, 20-, and 36-month intervals. Tumor responses were classified as: progression for >15% volume increase, regression for ≤15% decrease, and stabilization for ±15% of the baseline volume at the time of last follow-up. For each patient, the volumetric change versus time was fitted with an exponential model. The overall tumor control rate was 94.1% in the 36-month (range 18–87 months) follow-up period (mean volume change of −43.3%). Volume regression (mean decrease of −50.5%) was demonstrated in 27 (79%) patients, tumor stabilization (mean change of −3.7%) in 5 (15%) patients, and tumor progression (mean increase of 28.1%) in 2 (6%) patients (P = 0.001). Tumors that eventually regressed or stabilized had a temporary volume increase of 1.07% and 41.5% at 4 months after CK SRS, respectively (P = 0.017). The tumor volume estimated using the exponential fitting equation demonstrated high positive correlation with the actual volume calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as tested by Pearson correlation coefficient (0.9). Transient progression of PAs post-CK SRS was seen in 62.5% of the patients receiving CK SRS, and it was not predictive of eventual volume regression or progression. A three-point exponential model is of potential predictive value

  14. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Simon S. [Univ. Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Case Comprehensive Cancer Center; Teh, Bin S. [The Methodist Hospital Cancer Center and Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States). Weill Cornell Medical College; Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schefter, Tracey E. (eds.) [Colorado Univ., Aurora, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-11-01

    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  15. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases: Application guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E.; Aimo, N.J.; Oostrom, M.; White, M.D.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through the Office of Technology Development, has requested the demonstration of remediation technologies for the cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated radionuclides within the soil and ground water at arid sites. This demonstration program, called the VOC-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstrated Program (Arid-ID), has been initially directed at a volume of unsaturated and saturated soil contaminated with carbon tetrachloride on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. A principal subtask of the Arid-ID program involves the development of an integrated engineering simulator for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of various remediation technologies. The engineering simulator`s intended users include scientists and engineers who are investigating soil physics phenomena associated with remediation technologies. Principal design goals for the engineering simulator include broad applicability, verified algorithms, quality assurance controls, and validated simulations against laboratory and field-scale experiments. An important goal for the simulator development subtask involves the ability to scale laboratory and field-scale experiments to full-scale remediation technologies, and to transfer acquired technology to other arid sites. The STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for modeling remediation technologies. Information on the use, application, and theoretical basis of the STOMP simulator are documented in three companion guide guides. This document, the Application Guide, provides a suite of example applications of the STOMP simulator.

  16. Analog circuit design a tutorial guide to applications and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    2011-01-01

    * Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges. * Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice. * Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design. * Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Willia

  17. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine, E-mail: naj@mail.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States); Kruecker, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.kruecker@philips.com [Philips Research North America (United States); Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.kadoury@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (Canada); Kobeiter, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.kobeiter@gmail.com [CHU Henri Mondor, UPEC, Departments of Radiology and d' imagrie medicale (France); Venkatesan, Aradhana M., E-mail: VenkatesanA@cc.nih.gov; Levy, Elliot, E-mail: levyeb@cc.nih.gov; Wood, Bradford J., E-mail: bwood@cc.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  18. Stereotactic CO2 laser therapy for hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozodoy-Pins, Rebecca L.; Harrington, James A.; Zazanis, George A.; Nosko, Michael G.; Lehman, Richard M.

    1994-05-01

    A new fiber-optic delivery system for CO2 radiation has been used to successfully treat non-communicating hydrocephalus. This system consists of a hollow sapphire waveguide employed in the lumen of a stereotactically-guided neuroendoscope. CO2 gas flows through the bore of the hollow waveguide, creating a path for the laser beam through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This delivery system has the advantages of both visualization and guided CO2 laser radiation without the same 4.3 mm diameter scope. Several patients with hydrocephalus were treated with this new system. The laser was used to create a passage in the floor of the ventricle to allow the flow of CSF from the ventricles to the sub-arachnoid space. Initial postoperative results demonstrated a relief of the clinical symptoms. Long-term results will indicate if this type of therapy will be superior to the use of implanted silicone shunts. Since CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 micrometers is strongly absorbed by the water in tissue and CSF, damage to tissue surrounding the lesion with each laser pulse is limited. The accuracy and safety of this technique may prove it to be an advantageous therapy for obstructive hydrocephalus.

  19. Standard Guide for Conducting Corrosion Tests in Field Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for conducting corrosion tests in plant equipment or systems under operating conditions to evaluate the corrosion resistance of engineering materials. It does not cover electrochemical methods for determining corrosion rates. 1.1.1 While intended primarily for immersion tests, general guidelines provided can be applicable for exposure of test specimens in plant atmospheres, provided that placement and orientation of the test specimens is non-restrictive to air circulation. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See also 10.4.2.

  20. Navigation-guided endoscopic biopsy for intraparenchymal brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kyoji; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Zaboronok, Alexander; Nakai, Kei; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Uemae, Yoji; Tsurubuchi, Takao; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Ihara, Satoshi; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intraparenchymal brain tumor biopsy using endoscopy and a navigation system (navigation-guided endoscopic biopsy) as a diagnostic tool, a case series of intraparenchymal tumor biopsies was reviewed. Navigation-guided endoscopic biopsy was applied in 9 cases, stereotactic needle biopsy in 16 cases, and open biopsy with or without navigation system in 34 cases. In all biopsy cases, 84.7% of biopsy points were sampled accurately, and 93.2% of diagnoses by biopsy were correct. Comparison of each type of biopsy showed that the resected volumes in navigation-guided endoscopic biopsy and open biopsy tended to be larger than those in stereotactic biopsy, and the mean operation time for the open biopsy procedure was the longest. To define the most applicable device or examination method to increase sampling accuracy, various factors were analyzed in 59 procedures. Navigation-guided endoscopic biopsy was the most accurate of the three types of biopsy, although the statistical difference was not significant. Older patients, histological diagnosis of high-grade glioma or malignant lymphoma, positive photodynamic diagnosis, and positive intraoperative pathology were significant factors in improving the sampling accuracy. Navigation-guided endoscopic biopsy could provide a larger sample volume within a relatively short operation time. The biopsy can be easily combined with both photodynamic diagnosis and intraoperative pathology, significantly improving the histological diagnostic yield.

  1. Greatly improved neuroprotective efficiency of citicoline by stereotactic delivery in treatment of ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fangjingwei; Hongbin Han; Yan, Junhao; Chen, He; He, Qingyuan; Xu, Weiguo; Zhu, Ning; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Fugen; Lee, Kejia

    2011-01-01

    Limited penetration of neuroprotective drug citicoline into the central nervous system (CNS) by systemic administration led to poor efficiency. A novel method of stereotactic drug delivery was explored to make citicoline bypass the blood brain barrier (BBB) and take effect by direct contact with ischemic neurons. A permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model of rats was prepared. To get the optimal conditions for citicoline administration by the novel stereotactic delivery pathway, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tracer method was used, and a dose-dependent effect was given. Examinations of MRI, behavior evaluation, infarct volume assessment and histological staining were performed to evaluate the outcome. This MRI-guided stereotactic delivery of citicoline resulted in a notable reduction (>80%) in infarct size and a delayed ischemic injury in cortex 12 hours after onset of acute ischemia when compared with the systematic delivery. The improved neuroprotective efficiency was realized by a full distribution of citicoline in most of middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory and an adequate drug reaction in the involved areas of the brain. Brain lesions of treated rats by stereotactic delivery of citicoline were well predicted in the lateral ventricle and thalamus due to a limited drug deposition by MRI tracer method. Our study realized an improved neuroprotective efficiency of citicoline by stereotactic delivery, and an optimal therapeutic effect of this administration pathway can be achieved under MRI guidance.

  2. Imaging Advances in Stereotactic Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Christina; Drzymala, Robert E; Rich, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Novel functional and metabolic MRI imaging provides the ability to analyze tumor tissue properties including tumor vasculature, vascular permeability, tumor cellularity, hypoxia, and tumor proliferation. Stereotactic radiosurgery involves the delivery of a very precise, focal dose of radiation to a target. Recent advances in MR imaging have the potential to improve accuracy for target volume delineation and to potentially improve outcome. Novel MR imaging techniques may also be used in subsequent post-treatment follow-up to distinguish between tumor recurrences versus non-neoplastic treatment-related changes. In this paper, we address multiparametric MR imaging and cerebral angiography as tools to reduce toxicity.

  3. Light-Guided Surface Engineering for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayagopal, Ashwath; Stone, Gregory P.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2010-01-01

    Free radical species generated through fluorescence photobleaching have been reported to effectively couple a water-soluble species to surfaces containing electron-rich sites (1). In this report, we expand upon this strategy to control the patterned attachment of antibodies and peptides to surfaces for biosensing and tissue engineering applications. In the first application, we compare hydrophobic attachment and photobleaching methods to immobilize FITC-labeled anti-M13K07 bacteriophage antibodies to the SiO2 layer of a differential capacitive biosensor and to the polyester filament of a feedback-controlled filament array. On both surfaces, antibody attachment and function were superior to the previously employed hydrophobic attachment. Furthermore, a laser scanning confocal microscope could be used for automated, software-guided photoattachment chemistry. In a second application, the cell-adhesion peptide RGDS was site-specifically photocoupled to glass coated with fluorescein-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol). RGDS attachment and bioactivity were characterized by a fibroblast adhesion assay. Cell adhesion was limited to sites of RGDS photocoupling. These examples illustrate that fluorophore-based photopatterning can be achieved by both solution-phase fluorophores or surface-adhered fluorophores. The coupling preserves the bioactivity of the patterned species, is amenable to a variety of surfaces, and is readily accessible to laboratories with fluorescence imaging equipment. The flexibility offered by visible light patterning will likely have many useful applications in bioscreening and tissue engineering where the controlled placement of biomolecules and cells is critical, and should be considered as an alternative to chemical coupling methods. PMID:18314938

  4. Guided Bone Regeneration: biological principle and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzepi, Maria; Donos, N

    2010-06-01

    The Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) treatment concept advocates that regeneration of osseous defects is predictably attainable via the application of occlusive membranes, which mechanically exclude non-osteogenic cell populations from the surrounding soft tissues, thereby allowing osteogenic cell populations originating from the parent bone to inhabit the osseous wound. The present review discusses the evolution of the GBR biological rationale and therapeutic concept over the last two decades. Further, an overview of the GBR research history is provided with specific focus on the evidence available on its effectiveness and predictability in promoting the regeneration of critical size cranio-maxillo-facial defects, the neo-osteogenesis potential and the reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges before, or in conjunction with, the placement of dental implants. The authors conclude that future research should focus on (a) the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the wound healing process following GBR application; (b) the identification of site and patient related factors which impact on the effectiveness and predictability of GBR therapy and (c) the evaluation of the pathophysiology of the GBR healing process in the presence of systemic conditions potentially affecting the skeletal system.

  5. Stereotactic radiosurgery: a "targeted" therapy for cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zeng; Liang-Fu Han

    2012-01-01

    The developments of medicine always follow innovations in science and technology.In the past decade,such innovations have made cancer-related targeted therapies possible.In general,the term "targeted therapy" has been used in reference to cellular and molecular level oriented therapies.However,improvements in the delivery and planning of traditional radiation therapy have also provided cancer patients more options for "targeted" treatment,notably stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).In this review,the progress and controversies of SRS and SBRT are discussed to show the role of stereotactic radiation therapy in the ever evolving multidisciplinary care of cancer patients.

  6. Stereotactic imaging in functional neurosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirabayashi, Hidehiro

    2012-07-01

    Background: The birth of stereotactic functional neurosurgery in 1947 was to a great extent dependent on the development of ventriculography. The last decades have witnessed a renaissance of functional stereotactic neurosurgery in the treatment of patients with movement disorders. Initially, these procedures were largely based on the same imaging technique that had been used since the birth of this technique, and that is still used in some centers. The introduction of new imaging modalities such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provided new potentials, but also new challenges for accurate identification and visualisation of the targets in the basal ganglia and the thalamus with an urge to thoroughly evaluate and optimize the stereotactic targeting technique, as well as evaluate accurately in stereotactic space the location and extent of stereotactic Radiofrequency (RF) lesions and the position of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. Aims: To study the differences between CT and MRI regarding indirect atlas coordinates in thalamic and pallidal procedures and to evaluate and validate visualisation of the pallidum and the subthalamic nucleus in view of direct targeting irrespective of atlas-derived coordinates. Furthermore, to evaluate the contribution of RF parameters on the size of stereotactic lesions, as well as the impact of size and location on clinical outcome. Method: The coordinates in relation to the landmarks of the 3{sup rd} ventricle of the targets in the pallidum and ventrolateral thalamus were compared between CT and MRI in 34 patients. In another 48 patients direct visualization of the pallidum was evaluated and compared to indirect atlas based targeting. The possibility and versatility of visualizing the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) on short acquisition MRI were evaluated in a multicentre study, and the use of alternative landmarks in identification of the STN was demonstrated in another study. In 46 patients CT and

  7. Stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takayuki; Oyama, Hirofumi; Iwakoshi, Takayasu (Komaki City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1994-07-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas was attempted using a 201-source cobalt gamma knife. Forty patients bearing 42 tumors were involved in this study. Their ages ranged from 30 to 91 years, with an average of 55.1 years. The most frequent sites of origin were the parasellar and petroclival regions. The mean tumor diameter was 27.2 mm and the marginal tumor dose of radiosurgery ranged from 10 to 20 Gy, depending on tumor location and size. Serial imaging studies with MRI were obtained in all 40 cases, in which minor tumor shrinkage was demonstrated in 7.9%, 40.0% and 53.3% at 6, 12 and 18 months after radiosurgery respectively. Only two tumors became enlarged after the treatment. Obvious low signal intensity on MRI, indicating central tumor necrosis, was found in 32% at 12 months and 40% at 18 months. Four large tumors over 40 mm in mean diameter were treated by staged radiosurgery with intervals of 1.5 to 7 months. A similar good response was able to be obtained in all 4 cases, even though they were treated with a marginal dose less than 12 Gy. Symptomatic edema occurred in 5 cases (12.5%) within 12 months and required corticosteroid therapy and hyperosmotic diuresis. In conclusion stereotactic radiosurgery has proved to be an effective and relatively safe method for the treatment of intracranial meningiomas. (author).

  8. Tubular Scaffold with Shape Recovery Effect for Cell Guide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi M. Zakir Hossain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tubular scaffolds with aligned polylactic acid (PLA fibres were fabricated for cell guide applications by immersing rolled PLA fibre mats into a polyvinyl acetate (PVAc solution to bind the mats. The PVAc solution was also mixed with up to 30 wt % β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP content. Cross-sectional images of the scaffold materials obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the aligned fibre morphology along with a significant number of voids in between the bundles of fibres. The addition of β-TCP into the scaffolds played an important role in increasing the void content from 17.1% to 25.3% for the 30 wt % β-TCP loading, which was measured via micro-CT (µCT analysis. Furthermore, µCT analyses revealed the distribution of aggregated β-TCP particles in between the various PLA fibre layers of the scaffold. The compressive modulus properties of the scaffolds increased from 66 MPa to 83 MPa and the compressive strength properties decreased from 67 MPa to 41 MPa for the 30 wt % β-TCP content scaffold. The scaffolds produced were observed to change into a soft and flexible form which demonstrated shape recovery properties after immersion in phosphate buffered saline (PBS media at 37 °C for 24 h. The cytocompatibility studies (using MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line revealed preferential cell proliferation along the longitudinal direction of the fibres as compared to the control tissue culture plastic. The manufacturing process highlighted above reveals a simple process for inducing controlled cell alignment and varying porosity features within tubular scaffolds for potential tissue engineering applications.

  9. Dosimetric verification and clinical evaluation of a new commercially available Monte Carlo-based dose algorithm for application in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Margarida; Wen Ning; Kumar, Sanath; Liu Dezhi; Ryu, Samuel; Movsas, Benjamin; Munther, Ajlouni; Chetty, Indrin J, E-mail: ichetty1@hfhs.or [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2010-08-21

    Modern cancer treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have greatly increased the demand for more accurate treatment planning (structure definition, dose calculation, etc) and dose delivery. The ability to use fast and accurate Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculations within a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) in the clinical setting is now becoming more of a reality. This study describes the dosimetric verification and initial clinical evaluation of a new commercial MC-based photon beam dose calculation algorithm, within the iPlan v.4.1 TPS (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany). Experimental verification of the MC photon beam model was performed with film and ionization chambers in water phantoms and in heterogeneous solid-water slabs containing bone and lung-equivalent materials for a 6 MV photon beam from a Novalis (BrainLAB) linear accelerator (linac) with a micro-multileaf collimator (m{sub 3} MLC). The agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions in the water phantom verification tests was, on average, within 2%/1 mm (high dose/high gradient) and was within {+-}4%/2 mm in the heterogeneous slab geometries. Example treatment plans in the lung show significant differences between the MC and one-dimensional pencil beam (PB) algorithms within iPlan, especially for small lesions in the lung, where electronic disequilibrium effects are emphasized. Other user-specific features in the iPlan system, such as options to select dose to water or dose to medium, and the mean variance level, have been investigated. Timing results for typical lung treatment plans show the total computation time (including that for processing and I/O) to be less than 10 min for 1-2% mean variance (running on a single PC with 8 Intel Xeon X5355 CPUs, 2.66 GHz). Overall, the iPlan MC algorithm is demonstrated to be an accurate and efficient dose algorithm, incorporating robust tools for MC

  10. Stereotactic breast biopsy: pitfalls and pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Monica L; Adrada, Beatriz E; Candelaria, Rosalind; Thames, Deborah; Dawson, Debora; Yang, Wei T

    2014-03-01

    Stereotactic breast biopsies have become indispensable and the standard of care for patients in whom screening mammography or tomosynthesis reveals breast lesions suggestive of malignancy. A variety of stereotactic biopsy systems and needle types are now available, which allow more accurate sampling of lesions as well as successful biopsy of lesions in difficult locations in patients of all body habitus. We discuss how to plan, perform, and follow up stereotactic biopsies. Most importantly, we offer suggestions on how to avoid problems and complications and detail how to achieve technical success even in the most challenging cases. Stereotactic biopsy has proven over time to be an accurate and acceptable alternative to surgical biopsy for histopathologic diagnosis of breast abnormalities. Successful performance of this minimally invasive procedure spares women from undergoing potentially deforming and expensive procedures to diagnose breast disease.

  11. Image-guided drug delivery: preclinical applications and clinical translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojha, Tarun; Rizzo, Larissa; Storm, Gert; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided drug delivery refers to the combination of drug targeting and imaging. Preclinically, image-guided drug delivery can be used for several different purposes, including for monitoring biodistribution, target site accumulation, off-target localization, drug release and drug efficacy. Clini

  12. Image-guided drug delivery : Preclinical applications and clinical translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojha, Tarun; Rizzo, Larissa; Storm, G; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided drug delivery refers to the combination of drug targeting and imaging. Preclinically, image-guided drug delivery can be used for several different purposes, including for monitoring biodistribution, target site accumulation, off-target localization, drug release and drug efficacy. Clini

  13. Target identification for stereotactic thalamotomy using diffusion tractography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsigmond Tamás Kincses

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stereotactic targets for thalamotomy are usually derived from population-based coordinates. Individual anatomy is used only to scale the coordinates based on the location of some internal guide points. While on conventional MR imaging the thalamic nuclei are indistinguishable, recently it has become possible to identify individual thalamic nuclei using different connectivity profiles, as defined by MR diffusion tractography. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the inter-individual variation of the location of target nuclei for thalamotomy: the putative ventralis oralis posterior (Vop and the ventral intermedius (Vim nucleus as defined by probabilistic tractography. We showed that the mean inter-individual distance of the peak Vop location is 7.33 mm and 7.42 mm for Vim. The mean overlap between individual Vop nuclei was 40.2% and it was 31.8% for Vim nuclei. As a proof of concept, we also present a patient who underwent Vop thalamotomy for untreatable tremor caused by traumatic brain injury and another patient who underwent Vim thalamotomy for essential tremor. The probabilistic tractography indicated that the successful tremor control was achieved with lesions in the Vop and Vim respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data call attention to the need for a better appreciation of the individual anatomy when planning stereotactic functional neurosurgery.

  14. Radioterapia estereotáctica Stereotactic radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Aristu

    2009-01-01

    independent of the patient to achive a precise location of the lesion. Stereotactic radiotherapy generate highly conformal, precisely focused radiation beams to administer very high doses of radiation without increasing the radiation to healthy surrounding organs or structures. When the procedure is carried out in one treatment session the procedure is termed radiosurgery, and when the treatment is administered in several fractions, the radiation modality is termed stereotactic radiotherapy. Special systems of patient immobilization (guides or stereotactic frames are required together with radiotherapy devices capable of generating conformal beams (lineal accelerator, gammaknife, cyberknife, tomotherapy, cyclotrons. Modern stereotactic radiotherapy techniques employ intra-tumoural radio-opaque fiducials or CT image systems included in the irradiation device, which make possible a precise location of mobile lesions in each treatment session. Besides, technological advances permit breathing synchronized radiation (gating and tracking for maximum tightening of margins and excluding a greater volume of healthy tissue. Radiosurgery is mainly indicated in benign or malign cerebral lesions less than 3-4 centimetres (arteriovenous malformations, neurinomas, meningiomas, cerebral metastases and stereotactic radiotherapy is basically administered in tumours of extracraneal location that require high conformation and precision, such as inoperable early lung cancer and liver metastasis.

  15. Stereotactic computer tomography with a modified Riechert-Mundinger device as the basis for integrated stereotactic neuroradiological investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, V.; Pastyr, O.; Schlegel, W.; Scharfenberg, H.; Zabel, H.J.; Netzeband, G.; Schabbert, S.; Berberich, W. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-01-01

    For stereotactic biopsy, intracavitary and interstitial irradiation of intracranial tumours, stereotactic CT investigations are of utmost importance. Targetpoints within a tumour as well as the tumour-outlines have to be transferred precisely from transverse and longitudinal CT sections to stereotactic X-ray images. For this purpose, the stereotactic apparatus of Riechert and Mundinger has been equipped with a fixation system of carbon fibre and a measuring phantoma of plexiglas with embedded steel wires allowing stereotactic CT scanning without artefacts. The stereotactic coordinates (x, y, z) of any target point can be taken directly from transverse CT images with high accuracy. The tumour outlines can be transferred to the stereotactic coordinate system from longitudinal CT reconstructions using special programmes. Precise transfer is possible if the CT investigations are performed stereotactically.

  16. Guided-wave acousto-optics interactions, devices, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    The field of integrated- or guided-wave optics has experienced significant and continuous growth since its inception in the late 1960s. There has been a considerable increase in research and development activity in this field worldwide and some significant advances in the realization of working in­ tegrated optic devices and modules have been made in recent years. In fact, there have already been some commercial manufacturing and technical ap­ plications of such devices and modules. The guided-wave-acoustooptics involving Bragg interactions between guided optical waves and surface acoustic waves is one of the areas of in­ tegrated-optics that has reached some degree of scientific and technological maturity. This topical volume is devoted to an in-depth treatment of this emerging branch of science and technology. Presented in this volume are concise treatments on bulk-wave acoustooptics, guided-wave optics, and surface acoustic waves, and detailed studies of guided-wave acoustooptic Bragg diffraction in thr...

  17. The Application of the Functional Equivalence in the Translation of Chi-nese Tourist Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid growth of Chinese tourism, more and more foreigners come to China to travel. The translation of Chinese tourist guide has become an effective way to publicize China and promote the development of Chinese tourism.The thesis mainly analyzes the application of the functional equivalence in the translation of Chinese tourist guide from the reader’s reception and response, and suggests some different translation techniques such as conversion, recasting, analogy and creative translation to make the translation of Chinese tourist guide better accepted by the target language readers.

  18. Microencapsulation of indocyanine green for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X

    2015-02-07

    We present a novel process to encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in liposomal droplets at high concentration for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery. The microencapsulation process follows two consecutive steps of droplet formation by liquid-driven coaxial flow focusing (LDCFF) and solvent removal by oil phase dewetting. These biocompatible lipid vesicles may have important applications in drug delivery and fluorescence imaging.

  19. A Love Wave Reflective Delay Line with Polymer Guiding Layer for Wireless Sensor Application

    OpenAIRE

    Shitang He; Wen Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal design for a Love wave reflective delay line on 41o YX LiNbO3 with a polymer guiding layer for wireless sensor applications. A theoretical model was established to describe the Love wave propagation along the larger piezoelectric substrate with polymer waveguide, and the lossy mechanism from the viscoelastic waveguide was discussed, which results in the optimal guiding layer thickness. Coupling of modes (COM) was used to determine the optimal design parameters o...

  20. Early manifestation of communicating hydrocephalus after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for aggressive giant atypical prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Ohe, Naoyuki; Iwama, Toru; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Aggressive giant invasive pituitary adenomas refractory to standard surgical or medical treatment remain a genuine challenge. In addition, communicating hydrocephalus (CH) attributed to malabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) developing after radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas has not been previously reported. Herein, we describe the case of a 48-year-old male presenting with a giant atypical prolactinoma refractory to previous therapies, including pharmacotherapy and repetitive surgery. He underwent image-guided fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in 28 fractions, resulting in early manifestation of CH associated with undisputed, both radiological and hormonal response. He recovered well after a shunt placement, with otherwise favorable consequences such as sustained tumor regression, decreasing prolactin level, and retained visual function for a 22-month follow-up. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy would provide a viable treatment alternative for these refractory cases, while caution should be exercised regarding the possibility of iatrogenic CH.

  1. Stereotactic Irradiation of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the best stereotactic irradiation (STI) technique in treatment of small lung tumors, using dose-volume statistics. Methods: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the study phantom consisting of CT using the software of FOCUS-3D planning system. The beam was a 6MV X-ray from a Varian 2300C. The analysis data of Dose-volume statistics was from the technique used for: (1) 2- 12 arcs; (2) 20° - 45° separation angle of arcs; (3) 80° - 160° of gantry rotation. Then we studied the difference of DVH with various irradiation techniques and the influence of target positions and field size by calculated to the distribution of dose from 20%- 90% of the six targets in the lung with 3×3 cm2, 4′ 4 cm2 and 5′ 5 cm2 field size. Results: The volume irradiated pulmonary tissue was the smallest using a six non-coplanar 120° arcs with 30° separation between arcs in the hypothetical set up, the non-coplanar SRI was superiority than conventional one's. The six targets were chosen in the right lung, the volume was the largest in geometric center and was decreased in hilus, bottom, anterior chest wall, lateral wall and apex of the lung in such an order. The DVH had significant change with an increasing field size. Conclusion: the irradiation damage of normal pulmonary tissue was the lowest using the six non-coplanar 120° arcs with a 30° separation between arcs by <5×5 cm2 field and the position of target was not a restricting factor.

  2. Guided wave photonics fundamentals and applications with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionHistorical Overview of Integrated Optics and PhotonicsWhy Analysis of Optical Guided-wave Devices?Principal ObjectivesChapters OverviewSingle Mode Planar Optical WaveguidesFormation of Planar Single Mode Waveguide ProblemsApproximate Analytical Methods of SolutionAPPENDIX A: Maxwell Equations in Dielectric MediaAPPENDIX B: Exact Analysis of Clad-linear Optical WaveguidesAPPENDIX C: Wentzel-Kramers-Brilluoin Method, Turning Points and Connection FormulaeAPPENDIX D: Design and Simulation of Planar Optical Waveguides3D Integrated Optical WaveguidesMarcatili's Method| Effective Index M

  3. Automated guided vehicle systems a primer with practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ullrich, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This primer is directed at experts and practitioners in intralogistics who are concerned with optimizing material flows. The presentation is comprehensive covering both, practical and theoretical aspects with a moderate degree of specialization, using clear and concise language. Areas of operation as well as technical standards of all relevant components and functions are described. Recent developments in technology and in the markets are taken into account. The goal of this book is to further stronger use of automated guided transport systems and the enhancement of their future performance.

  4. Designing Tracking Software for Image-Guided Surgery Applications: IGSTK Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gobbi, David; Turek, Matt; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Lindseth, Frank; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many image-guided surgery applications require tracking devices as part of their core functionality. The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) was designed and developed to interface tracking devices with software applications incorporating medical images. METHODS: IGSTK was designed as an open source C++ library that provides the basic components needed for fast prototyping and development of image-guided surgery applications. This library follows a component-based architecture with several components designed for specific sets of image-guided surgery functions. At the core of the toolkit is the tracker component that handles communication between a control computer and navigation device to gather pose measurements of surgical instruments present in the surgical scene. The representations of the tracked instruments are superimposed on anatomical images to provide visual feedback to the clinician during surgical procedures. RESULTS: The initial version of the IGSTK toolkit has been released in the public domain and several trackers are supported. The toolkit and related information are available at www.igstk.org. CONCLUSION: With the increased popularity of minimally invasive procedures in health care, several tracking devices have been developed for medical applications. Designing and implementing high-quality and safe software to handle these different types of trackers in a common framework is a challenging task. It requires establishing key software design principles that emphasize abstraction, extensibility, reusability, fault-tolerance, and portability. IGSTK is an open source library that satisfies these needs for the image-guided surgery community.

  5. Enterprise applications administration the definitive guide to implementation and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Applications Administration prepares you for the full breadth of work associated with administering large enterprise applications. This book provides essential information on tasks such as operating systems administration, network design, system architecture, project planning, working within a team, protecting the network, and how to keep applications up and running. The book effectively bridges the gap between what is taught in the technology-specific literature and the real world of enterprise application administrators.Provides a general understanding of all key knowledge areas n

  6. The Effect of Stereotactic Injections on Demyelination and Remyelination: a Study in the Cuprizone Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Laura Salinas; Wostradowski, Tanja; Gingele, Stefan; Skripuletz, Thomas; Gudi, Viktoria; Stangel, Martin

    2017-01-26

    Remyelination is the natural repair mechanism in demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis. Several animal models have been used to study demyelination and remyelination. Among toxic animal models, oral administration of the toxin cuprizone leads to white and gray matter demyelination. In contrast, focal demyelination models include the stereotactic application of a toxin such as lysolecithin or ethidium bromide. The injection procedure generates a local disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and might thus trigger a local inflammatory reaction and consequently may influence demyelination and remyelination. In order to study such consequences, we applied stereotactic injections in the cuprizone model where demyelination and remyelination are mediated independent of this procedure. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the presence of lymphocytes and activated glial cells in the injection area. Blood protein stainings were used to assess the integrity of the BBB and myelin staining to evaluate demyelination and remyelination processes. Stereotactic injection led to a local disruption of the BBB as shown by local extravasation of blood proteins. Along the injection canal, T and B lymphocytes could be detected and there was a tendency of a higher microgliosis and astrocytosis. However, these changes did not influence demyelination and remyelination processes at the site of injection, in the corpus callosum, or in the cerebral cortex. Our results suggest that a local stereotactic injection has no major impact on CNS demyelination and remyelination.

  7. Stereotactic radiotherapy for wet age-related macular degeneration: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neffendorf JE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available James E Neffendorf, Timothy L Jackson Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom Abstract: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Currently, the treatment of choice is intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF medications. These require frequent dosing, up to monthly, and impose a substantial burden on patients and the health economy. Ionizing radiation was proposed as a possible treatment for age-related macular degeneration due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Stereotactic radiotherapy is an outpatient-based radiotherapy platform that provides stereotactic application of low energy X-ray to the retina in three highly collimated beams that cross the inferior sclera to overlap at the macula. A randomized, double-masked, sham-controlled trial of 230 patients (INTREPID showed that a single dose of stereotactic radiotherapy significantly reduces the number of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections needed over 2 years. A larger randomized controlled trial (STAR is underway. Keywords: wet age-related macular degeneration, radiation therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, vascular endothelial growth factor

  8. 三维可视化图像引导立体定位脑干及松果体区病灶活检术的研究%The technical report of three-dimension visualized image-guided stereotactic biopsy for lesions in pineal region and brain stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明; 于新; 李志超; 惠瑞; 刘锐; 尹丰; 张雷鸣; 程岗; 张剑宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the methodology,technical essential and significance of threedimension visualized image-guided stereotactic biopsy (SB) for lesions in pineal region and brain stem.Methods A total of 88 cases of lesions in pineal region and brain stem underwent image-guided SB in our department were retrospectively studied.Frame-based and CAS-2 type frameless SBs were performed in 57 and 31 cases respectively.Pre-biopsy three-dimension visualized image reconstruction was performed by SB planning software and the structure related to possible trajectory in each image slice was confirmed.The most suitable trajectory was selected accordingly.For lesions in pineal region,anterior-frontal trans-tentorium cerebella hiatus trajectory for avoiding tentorial margin was used.For lesions in mesencephalon,posteriorfrontal trans-lateral ventrical-thalamus trajectory via the vertical axis of brain stem was used.For pontal lesions,supra-occipital trans-pedunculus cerebellaris medius trajectory was used.Results Histological diagnosis was established in all 88 cases,which gave a high diagnostic yield (100%).Fifty-six lesions (64%) located in brain stem (middle brain and pons) and 32 (36%) in pineal region.In 56 brain stem lesions,there were 38 cases (68%) of glioma,3(5%) lymphoma,2(4%) neurodegenerative disease,6 (11%) multiple sclerosis and tumefactive demyelinating lesion,2 (4%) non-specific inflammation,2 (4%)brain infarct,2(4%) brain metastases,and 1 (2%) radiation necrosis.For lesions in pineal region,there were 18 cases (56%) of germ cell tumor,4(13%) glioma,9 (28%) pineal cell tumor,and 1 (3%) Wemicke encephalopathy.One case (1%) died of biopsy-related hemorrhage.The neurological deficits became severe because of hemorrhage in 5 cases,the medical treatment was adopted in 3 cases (3%)and drainage in 2 (2%).Conclusions Stereotactic biopsy for lesions in pineal region and brain stem was a safe and effective procedure that could help

  9. A practical guide to testing wireless smartphone applications

    CERN Document Server

    Harty, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Testing applications for mobile phones is difficult, time-consuming, and hard to do effectively. Many people have limited their testing efforts to hands-on testing of an application on a few physical handsets, and they have to repeat the process every time a new version of the software is ready to test. They may miss many of the permutations of real-world use, and as a consequence their users are left with the unpleasant mess of a failing application on their phone.Test automation can help to increase the range and scope of testing, while reducing the overhead of manual testing of each version

  10. Application of light scattering to coatings a user's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Diebold, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The book begins with the fundamentals of light scattering, first by individual particles, then by small groups of particles, and finally by the trillions of particles present in a real-life paint film. From there, Dr. Diebold focuses on application of these fundamentals to paint formulation. The scope includes both theory and practice with an emphasis on application (from both performance and cost standpoints). The book gives a clear understanding of light scattering principles and application of these principles to paint formulation (with a focus on TiO2 - the strongest scattering material a

  11. A printed Yagi–Uda antenna for application in magnetic resonance thermometry guided microwave hyperthermia applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulides, M. M.; Mestrom, R. M. C.; Salim, G.; Adela, B. B.; Numan, W. C. M.; Drizdal, T.; Yeo, D. T. B.; Smolders, A. B.

    2017-03-01

    Biological studies and clinical trials show that addition of hyperthermia stimulates conventional cancer treatment modalities and significantly improves treatment outcome. This supra-additive stimulation can be optimized by adaptive hyperthermia to counteract strong and dynamic thermoregulation. The only clinically proven method for the 3D non-invasive temperature monitoring required is by magnetic resonance (MR) temperature imaging, but the currently available set of MR compatible hyperthermia applicators lack the degree of heat control required. In this work, we present the design and validation of a high-frequency (433 MHz ISM band) printed circuit board antenna with a very low MR-footprint. This design is ideally suited for use in a range of hyperthermia applicator configurations. Experiments emulating the clinical situation show excellent matching properties of the antenna over a 7.2% bandwidth (S 11  antenna was found negligible and MR temperature imaging in a homogeneous muscle phantom was highly correlated with gold-standard probe measurements (root mean square error: RMSE  =  0.51 °C and R 2  =  0.99). This work paves the way for tailored MR imaging guided hyperthermia devices ranging from single antenna or incoherent antenna-arrays, to real-time adaptive hyperthermia with phased-arrays.

  12. A printed Yagi-Uda antenna for application in magnetic resonance thermometry guided microwave hyperthermia applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulides, M M; Mestrom, R M C; Salim, G; Adela, B B; Numan, W C M; Drizdal, T; Yeo, D T B; Smolders, A B

    2017-03-07

    Biological studies and clinical trials show that addition of hyperthermia stimulates conventional cancer treatment modalities and significantly improves treatment outcome. This supra-additive stimulation can be optimized by adaptive hyperthermia to counteract strong and dynamic thermoregulation. The only clinically proven method for the 3D non-invasive temperature monitoring required is by magnetic resonance (MR) temperature imaging, but the currently available set of MR compatible hyperthermia applicators lack the degree of heat control required. In this work, we present the design and validation of a high-frequency (433 MHz ISM band) printed circuit board antenna with a very low MR-footprint. This design is ideally suited for use in a range of hyperthermia applicator configurations. Experiments emulating the clinical situation show excellent matching properties of the antenna over a 7.2% bandwidth (S 11  antenna was found negligible and MR temperature imaging in a homogeneous muscle phantom was highly correlated with gold-standard probe measurements (root mean square error: RMSE  =  0.51 °C and R (2)  =  0.99). This work paves the way for tailored MR imaging guided hyperthermia devices ranging from single antenna or incoherent antenna-arrays, to real-time adaptive hyperthermia with phased-arrays.

  13. Collagen based barrier membranes for periodontal guided bone regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Zeeshan; Qureshi, Javairia; Alshahrani, Abdullah M; Nassar, Heba; Ikeda, Yuichi; Glogauer, Michael; Ganss, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Certain cell populations within periodontal tissues possess the ability to induce regeneration, provided they have the opportunity to populate the wound or defect. Guided regeneration techniques have been investigated for regenerating periodontal tissues and such therapies usually utilize barrier membranes. Various natural and synthetic barrier membranes have been fabricated and tested to prevent epithelial and connective tissue cells from invading while allowing periodontal cells to selectively migrate into the defect. This paper focuses on the literature relevant to the use and potential of resorbable collagen membranes in GBR procedures, sites of periodontal and intrabony defects, in cases of socket and alveolar ridge preservation and at implant sites. The results of their use in GBR procedures has shown them to be effective and comparable with non-resorbable membranes with regards to clinical attachment gain, probing depth reduction and defect bone filling. They have also shown to prevent epithelial ingrowth into the defect space during the initial wound healing phase postsurgically. Collagen membranes have also been used for root coverage and GBR procedures and have shown good success rates comparable to subepithelial connective tissue grafts and expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membranes. The future for periodontal tissue engineering is very exciting with the use of barrier membranes expected to continue playing a critical role. However, long-term clinical trials are required to further evaluate and confirm the efficacy of the available collagen barrier membranes for periodontal and bone regeneration use.

  14. A guide to magnetic tweezers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rupa; Rybenkov, Valentin

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic force spectroscopy is a rapidly developing single molecule technique that found numerous applications at the interface of physics and biology. Since the invention of the first magnetic tweezers, a number of modifications were incorporated into the approach that helped relieve the limitations of the original design and amplified its strengths. Inventive molecular biology solutions further advanced the technique by expanding its possible applications. In its present form, the method can be applied to single molecules and live cells without resorting to intense sample irradiation, can be easily multiplexed, accommodates multiple DNAs, displays impressive resolution, and allows a remarkable ease in stretching and twisting macromolecules. In this review, we describe the architecture of magnetic tweezers, key requirements to the experimental design and analysis of data, and outline several applications of the method that illustrate its versatility.

  15. Star, student action for recycling: Application and program guide for school boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This guide is intended for the co-ordinators of board-level recycling programs (including independent and provincial schools). It describes the three basic stages in implementing a board-level recycling program: getting organized; planning; and preparing and submitting an application to the STAR program.

  16. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) – Best practice guide for application of WASA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Carsten; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Cronin, Tom;

    The present report is a best practice guide for application of results from the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA). A general description of the methodological framework – the wind atlas methodology – is given, including validation results of the numerical wind atlas at 10 measurement sites...

  17. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  18. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

  19. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Wayne; And Others

    This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of…

  20. The Poor Man's Guide to Computer Networks and their Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2003-01-01

    These notes for DTU course 02220, Concurrent Programming, give an introduction to computer networks, with focus on the modern Internet. Basic Internet protocols such as IP, TCP and UDP are presented, and two Internet application protocols, SMTP and HTTP, are described in some detail. Techniques...

  1. Applications guide to the MORSE Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1985-08-01

    A practical guide for the implementation of the MORESE-CG Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code system is presented. The various versions of the MORSE code are compared and contrasted, and the many references dealing explicitly with the MORSE-CG code are reviewed. The treatment of angular scattering is discussed, and procedures for obtaining increased differentiality of results in terms of reaction types and nuclides from a multigroup Monte Carlo code are explained in terms of cross-section and geometry data manipulation. Examples of standard cross-section data input and output are shown. Many other features of the code system are also reviewed, including (1) the concept of primary and secondary particles, (2) fission neutron generation, (3) albedo data capability, (4) DOMINO coupling, (5) history file use for post-processing of results, (6) adjoint mode operation, (7) variance reduction, and (8) input/output. In addition, examples of the combinatorial geometry are given, and the new array of arrays geometry feature (MARS) and its three-dimensional plotting code (JUNEBUG) are presented. Realistic examples of user routines for source, estimation, path-length stretching, and cross-section data manipulation are given. A deatiled explanation of the coupling between the random walk and estimation procedure is given in terms of both code parameters and physical analogies. The operation of the code in the adjoint mode is covered extensively. The basic concepts of adjoint theory and dimensionality are discussed and examples of adjoint source and estimator user routines are given for all common situations. Adjoint source normalization is explained, a few sample problems are given, and the concept of obtaining forward differential results from adjoint calculations is covered. Finally, the documentation of the standard MORSE-CG sample problem package is reviewed and on-going and future work is discussed.

  2. New applications of radio guided surgery in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Pinto, Paula Nicole Vieira; Martins, Eduardo Bruno Lobato; Chojniak, Rubens [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Image], e-mail: almirgvb@yahoo.com.br; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Nuclear Medicine

    2009-07-01

    Objective: To report oncological cases (excluding those related to breast cancer) for which radioguided surgery has been used in combination with the Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization technique. Introduction: Radioguided surgery enables a surgeon to identify lesions or tissues that have been preoperatively marked with radioactive substances. The Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization technique has been widely used to identify the sentinel lymph node and occult lesions in patients with breast cancer. However, few studies have reported the use of this technique for non-breast cancer pathologies. Methodology: In all cases, injection of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid was performed, directly inside or near by the suspicious lesion, guided by ultrasound or computed tomography, up to 36 hours prior to the surgical procedure. Intraoperative lesion detection was carried out using a gamma-probe. Results: We report five oncology cases in which preoperative markings of the lesions were carried out using the Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization technique. The patients presented with the following: recurrence of renal cell carcinoma, cervical recurrence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, recurrence of retroperitoneal sarcoma, lesions of the popliteal fossa, and recurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma of a thigh. In each case, the lesions that were marked preoperatively were ultimately successfully excised. Conclusions: Radioguided surgery has proven to be a safe and effective alternative for the management of oncology patients. The Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization technique can be useful in selected cases where suspect lesions may be difficult to identify intraoperatively, due to their dimensions or anatomical location. The procedure allows for more conservative excisions and reduces the surgery-related morbidity. (author)

  3. Stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia utilizing the BrainLAB Novalis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Hadi; Teh, Bin S; Paulino, Arnold C; Yoshor, Daniel; Trask, Todd; Baskin, David; Butler, E Brian

    2009-12-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is one of the least invasive treatments for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). To date, most reports have been about Cobalt-based treatments (i.e., Gamma Knife) with limited data on image-guided stereotactic linear accelerator treatments. We describe our initial experience of using BrainLAB Novalis stereotactic system for the radiosurgical treatment of TN. A total of 20 patients were treated between July 2004 and February 2007. Each SRS procedure was performed using the BrainLAB Novalis System. Thin cuts MRI images of 1.5 mm thickness were acquired and fused with the simulation CT of each patient. Majority of the patients received a maximum dose of 90 Gy. The median brainstem dose to 1.0 cc and 0.1 cc was 2.3 Gy and 13.5 Gy, respectively. In addition, specially acquired three-dimensional fast imaging sequence employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) MRI was utilized to improve target delineation of the trigeminal proximal nerve root entry zone. Barrow Neurological Index (BNI) pain scale for TN was used for assessing treatment outcome. At a median follow-up time of 14.2 months, 19 patients (95%) reported at least some improvement in pain. Eight (40%) patients were completely pain-free and stopped all medications (BNI Grade I) while another 2 (10%) patients also stopped medications but reported occasional pain (BNI Grade II). Another 2 (10%) patients reported no pain and 7 (35%) patients only occasional pain while continuing medications, BNI Grade IIIA and IIIB, respectively. Median time to pain control was 8.5 days (range: 1-70 days). No patient reported severe pain, worsening pain or any pain not controlled on their previously taken medication. Intermittent or persistent facial numbness following treatments occurred in 35% of patients. No other complications were reported. Stereotactic radiosurgery using the BrainLAB Novalis system is a safe and effective treatment for TN. This information is important as more centers are obtaining image-guided

  4. A Guide to Using STITCHER for Overlapping Assembly PCR Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2017-01-01

    Overlapping PCR is commonly used in many molecular applications that include stitching PCR fragments together, generating fluorescent transcriptional and translational fusions, inserting mutations, making deletions, and PCR cloning. Overlapping PCR is also used for genotyping and in detection experiments using techniques such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). STITCHER is a web tool providing a central resource for researchers conducting all types of overlapping assembly PCR experiments with an intuitive interface for automated primer design that's fast, easy to use, and freely available online.

  5. Stereotactic radiosurgery for multiple brain metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; (Josh Yamada, Yoshiya

    2017-01-01

    Whole brain radiation therapy has been the traditional treatment of choice for patients with multiple brain metastases. Although stereotactic radiosurgery is widely accepted for the management to up to 4 brain metastases, its use is still controversial in cases of 5 or more brain metastases. Randomized trials have suggested that stereotactic radiosurgery alone is appropriate in up to 4 metastases without concomitant whole brain radiation. Level 1 evidence also suggests that withholding whole brain radiation may also reduce the impact of radiation on neurocognitive function and also may even offer a survival advantage. A recent analysis of a large multicentre prospective database has suggested that there are no differences in outcomes such as the likelihood of new metastasis or leptomeningeal disease in cases of 2-10 brain metastases, nor in overall survival. Hence in the era of prolonged survival with stage IV cancer, stereotactic radiosurgery is a reasonable alternative to whole brain radiation in order to minimize the impact of treatment upon quality of life without sacrificing overall survival.

  6. Template Guided Live Wire and Its Application on Automatic Extraction of Tongue in Digital Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yuan-jie; YANG Jie; ZHOU Yue

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel automatic object extraction algorithm, named the Template Guided Live Wire, based on the popularly used livewire techniques. We discuss in details the novel method's applications on tongue extraction in digital images. With the guides of a given template curve which approximates the tongue's shape, our method can finish the extraction of tongue without any human intervention. In the paper, we also discussed in details how the template guides the live wire, and why our method functions more effectively than other boundary based segmentation methods especially the snake algorithm. Experimental results on some tongue images areas well provided to show our method's better accuracy and robustness than the snake algorithm.

  7. A Love Wave Reflective Delay Line with Polymer Guiding Layer for Wireless Sensor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; He, Shitang

    2008-12-05

    This paper presents an optimal design for a Love wave reflective delay line on 41(o) YX LiNbO₃ with a polymer guiding layer for wireless sensor applications. A theoretical model was established to describe the Love wave propagation along the larger piezoelectric substrate with polymer waveguide, and the lossy mechanism from the viscoelastic waveguide was discussed, which results in the optimal guiding layer thickness. Coupling of modes (COM) was used to determine the optimal design parameters of the reflective delay line structured by single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs) and shorted grating reflectors. Using the network analyzer, the fabricated Love wave reflective delay line was characterized, high signal noise ratio (S/N), sharp reflection peaks, and few spurious noise between the peaks were found, and the measured result agrees well with the simulated one. Also, the optimal guiding layer thickness of 1.5~1.8μm was extracted experimentally, and it is consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  8. Guided self-assembly of magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Fischbacher, Johann; Özelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Brandl, Martin; Schrefl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Micromagnetic beads are widely used in biomedical applications for cell separation, drug delivery, and hypothermia cancer treatment. Here we propose to use self-organized magnetic bead structures which accumulate on fixed magnetic seeding points to isolate circulating tumor cells. The analysis of circulating tumor cells is an emerging tool for cancer biology research and clinical cancer management including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Microfluidic chips for isolating circulating tumor cells use either affinity, size or density capturing methods. We combine multiphysics simulation techniques to understand the microscopic behavior of magnetic beads interacting with Nickel accumulation points used in lab-on-chip technologies. Our proposed chip technology offers the possibility to combine affinity and size capturing with special antibody-coated bead arrangements using a magnetic gradient field created by Neodymium Iron Boron permanent magnets. The multiscale simulation environment combines ...

  9. Guided self-assembly of magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Nguyen, Ha; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Fischbacher, Johann; Özelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Brandl, Martin; Schrefl, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Micromagnetic beads are widely used in biomedical applications for cell separation, drug delivery, and hyperthermia cancer treatment. Here we propose to use self-organized magnetic bead structures which accumulate on fixed magnetic seeding points to isolate circulating tumor cells. The analysis of circulating tumor cells is an emerging tool for cancer biology research and clinical cancer management including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Microfluidic chips for isolating circulating tumor cells use either affinity, size or density capturing methods. We combine multiphysics simulation techniques to understand the microscopic behavior of magnetic beads interacting with soft magnetic accumulation points used in lab-on-chip technologies. Our proposed chip technology offers the possibility to combine affinity and size capturing with special antibody-coated bead arrangements using a magnetic gradient field created by Neodymium Iron Boron permanent magnets. The multiscale simulation environment combines magnetic field computation, fluid dynamics and discrete particle dynamics.

  10. Light-guide snapshot spectrometer for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2016-04-01

    We present a proof-of-principle prototype of a fiber-based snapshot spectrometer to provide high spatial and spectral sampling for biomedical application such as cell signaling or diagnostics. An image is collected by a custom fiber bundle and then divided into spatial groups with spaces in between for dispersion. The image is later scaled down by an image taper (to scale down the image size and allow smaller optical components), dispersed with a prism and captured by a CCD camera. An interpolation algorithm is used to locate each wavelength and reconstruct the image for each spectral channel. The fiber bundle is fabricated by aligning multi-mode bare fiber ribbons as matrix, gluing together in Teflon molds, laser cutting and polishing. We present preliminary finger occlusion results obtained with the spectrometer where the oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin spectrum could be differentiated.

  11. Stereotactic Laser Ablation for Medically Intractable Epilepsy: The Next Generation of Minimally Invasive Epilepsy Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Joseph LaRiviere

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common, disabling illness that is refractory to medical treatment in approximately one third of patients, particularly among those with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. While standard open mesial temporal resection is effective, achieving seizure freedom in most patients, efforts to develop safer, minimally invasive techniques have been underway for over half a century. Stereotactic ablative techniques, in particular radiofrequency ablation, were first developed in the 1960s, with refinements in the 1990s with the advent of modern computed tomography and magnetic resonance-based imaging. In the past 5 years, the most recent techniques have used MRI-guided laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT, whose development began in the 1980s, saw refinements in MRI thermal imaging through the 1990s, and was initially used primarily for the treatment of intracranial and extracranial tumors. The present review describes the original stereotactic ablation trials, followed by modern imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation series for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. The development of LITT and MRI thermometry are then discussed. Finally, the two currently available MRI-guided laser interstitial thermotherapy systems are reviewed for their role in the treatment of mesial temporal lobe and other medically refractory epilepsies.

  12. Initial Experience with a Cone-beam Breast Computed Tomography-guided Biopsy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Posy J; Morgan, Renee C; Conover, David L; Arieno, Andrea L

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate our initial experience with a cone-beam breast computed tomography (BCT)-guided breast biopsy system for lesion retrieval in phantom studies for use with a cone-beam BCT imaging system. Materials and Methods: Under the Institutional Review Board approval, a phantom biopsy study was performed using a dedicated BCT-guided biopsy system. Fifteen biopsies were performed on each of the small, medium, and large anthropomorphic breast phantoms with both BCT and stereotactic guidance for comparison. Each set of the 45 phantoms contained masses and calcification clusters of varying sizes. Data included mass/calcium retrieval rate and dose and length of procedure time for phantom studies. Results: Phantom mass and calcium retrieval rate were 100% for BCT and stereotactic biopsy. BCT dose for small and medium breast phantoms was found to be equivalent to or less than the corresponding stereotactic approach. Stereotactic-guided biopsy dose was 34.2 and 62.5 mGy for small and medium breast phantoms, respectively. BCT-guided biopsy dose was 15.4 and 30.0 mGy for small and medium breast phantoms, respectively. Both computed tomography biopsy and stereotactic biopsy study time ranged from 10 to 20 min. Conclusion: Initial experience with a BCT-guided biopsy system has shown to be comparable to stereotactic biopsy in phantom studies with equivalent or decreased dose. PMID:28217404

  13. Mustafa environment description and users' guide with applications to CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Guignard, Gilbert

    1998-01-01

    In the main linacs of future linear colliders, the control of the emittances and the stability of a train of bunches are critical. It was therefore important for the Compact Linear Collider study (CLIC) to have a tool allowing numerical investigations of these questions. An interactive environment called MUSTAFA (MUltibunch Simulation and Tracking Algorithm for Future Accelerators) has been created and different tools have been developed over the time according to the needs. Progressively, these code and interactive facilities evolved into two main features, their portability on PCs independent from the main frame computers and their analysis capability using animated graphics. All the codes have been written under the MS-DOS operating system. The main application MBTR has been written in FORTRAN, the animated graphics facility MOVIE and the so-called MBUNCH utility program in QUICKBASIC (MS V4.5). The MBUNCH code was created in order to manage in a user friendly set-up the other two mentioned as well as the ...

  14. A Framework for Research in Gamified Mobile Guide Applications using Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Doumanis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Guides are mobile applications that provide players with local and location-based services (LBS, such as navigation assistance, where and when they need them most. Advances in mobile technologies in recent years have enabled the gamification of these applications, opening up new opportunities to transfer education and culture through game play. However, adding traditional game elements such as PBLs (points, badges, and leaderboards alone cannot ensure that the intended learning outcomes will be met, as the player’s cognitive resources are shared between the application and the surrounding environment. This distribution of resources prevents players from easily immersing themselves into the educational scenario. Adding artificial conversational characters (ECAs that simulate the social norms found in real-life human-to-human guide scenarios has the potential to address this problem and improve the player’s experience and learning of cultural narratives [1]. Although significant progress has been made towards creating game-like mobile guides with ECAs ([2], [3], there is still a lack of a unified framework that enables researchers and practitioners to investigate the potential effects of such applications to players and how to approach the concepts of player experience, cognitive accessibility and usability in this context. This paper presents a theoretically-well supported research framework consisted of four key components: differences in players, different features of the gamified task, aspects of how the ECA looks, sound or behaves and different mobile environments. Furthermore, it provides based on this framework a working definition of what player experience, cognitive accessibility and usability are in the context of game-like mobile guide applications. Finally, a synthesis of the results of six empirical studies conducted within this research framework is discussed and a series of design guidelines for the effective gamification

  15. Stereotactic laser induced thermotherapy (LITT): a novel treatment for brain lesions regrowing after radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Reveron, Juan; Tomasiewicz, Hilarie C; Shetty, Anil; Amankulor, Nduka M; Chiang, Veronica L

    2013-07-01

    Since the inception of radiosurgery, the management of brain metastases has become a common problem for neurosurgeons. Although the use of stereotactic radiosurgery and/or whole brain radiation therapy serves to control the majority of disease burden, patients who survive longer than 6-8 months sometimes face the problem of symptomatic radiographically regrowing lesions with few treatment options. Here we investigate the feasibility of use of MRI-guided stereotactic laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) as a novel treatment option for these lesions. Six patients who had previously undergone gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases were selected. All patients had an initial favorable response to radiosurgery but subsequently developed regrowth of at least one lesion associated with recurrent edema and progressive neurological symptoms requiring ongoing steroids for symptom control. All lesions were evaluated for craniotomy, but were deemed unresectable due to deep location or patient's comorbidities. Stereotactic biopsies were performed prior to the thermotherapy procedure in all cases. LITT was performed using the Visualase system and follow-up MRI imaging was used to determine treatment response. In all six patients biopsy results were negative for tumor and consistent with adverse radiation effects also known as radiation necrosis. Patients tolerated the procedure well and were discharged from the hospital within 48 h of the procedure. In 4/6 cases there was durable improvement of neurological symptoms until death. In all cases steroids were weaned off within 2 months. One patient died from systemic causes related to his cancer a month after the procedure. One patient had regrowth of the lesion 3 months after the procedure and required re-initiation of steroids and standard craniotomy for surgical resection. There were no complications directly related to the thermocoagulation procedure. Stereotactic laser induced thermotherapy is a feasible

  16. Guide to cloud computing for business and technology managers from distributed computing to cloudware applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Guide to Cloud Computing for Business and Technology Managers: From Distributed Computing to Cloudware Applications unravels the mystery of cloud computing and explains how it can transform the operating contexts of business enterprises. It provides a clear understanding of what cloud computing really means, what it can do, and when it is practical to use. Addressing the primary management and operation concerns of cloudware, including performance, measurement, monitoring, and security, this pragmatic book:Introduces the enterprise applications integration (EAI) solutions that were a first ste

  17. COL Application Content Guide for HTGRs: Revision to RG 1.206, Part 1 - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2012-08-01

    A combined license (COL) application is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for all proposed nuclear plants. The information requirements for a COL application are set forth in 10 CFR 52.79, “Contents of Applications; Technical Information in Final Safety Analysis Report.” An applicant for a modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) must develop and submit for NRC review and approval a COL application which conforms to these requirements. The technical information necessary to allow NRC staff to evaluate a COL application and resolve all safety issues related to a proposed nuclear plant is detailed and comprehensive. To this, Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.206, “Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants” (LWR Edition), was developed to assist light water reactor (LWR) applicants in incorporating and effectively formatting required information for COL application review (Ref. 1). However, the guidance prescribed in RG 1.206 presumes a LWR design proposal consistent with the systems and functions associated with large LWR power plants currently operating under NRC license.

  18. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  19. Detection-Guided Fast Affine Projection Channel Estimator for Speech Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu Jennifer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In various adaptive estimation applications, such as acoustic echo cancellation within teleconferencing systems, the input signal is a highly correlated speech. This, in general, leads to extremely slow convergence of the NLMS adaptive FIR estimator. As a result, for such applications, the affine projection algorithm (APA or the low-complexity version, the fast affine projection (FAP algorithm, is commonly employed instead of the NLMS algorithm. In such applications, the signal propagation channel may have a relatively low-dimensional impulse response structure, that is, the number m of active or significant taps within the (discrete-time modelled channel impulse response is much less than the overall tap length n of the channel impulse response. For such cases, we investigate the inclusion of an active-parameter detection-guided concept within the fast affine projection FIR channel estimator. Simulation results indicate that the proposed detection-guided fast affine projection channel estimator has improved convergence speed and has lead to better steady-state performance than the standard fast affine projection channel estimator, especially in the important case of highly correlated speech input signals.

  20. A Love Wave Reflective Delay Line with Polymer Guiding Layer for Wireless Sensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shitang He

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal design for a Love wave reflective delay line on 41o YX LiNbO3 with a polymer guiding layer for wireless sensor applications. A theoretical model was established to describe the Love wave propagation along the larger piezoelectric substrate with polymer waveguide, and the lossy mechanism from the viscoelastic waveguide was discussed, which results in the optimal guiding layer thickness. Coupling of modes (COM was used to determine the optimal design parameters of the reflective delay line structured by single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs and shorted grating reflectors. Using the network analyzer, the fabricated Love wave reflective delay line was characterized, high signal noise ratio (S/N, sharp reflection peaks, and few spurious noise between the peaks were found, and the measured result agrees well with the simulated one. Also, the optimal guiding layer thickness of 1.5~1.8μm was extracted experimentally, and it is consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  1. SystemVerilog assertions and functional coverage guide to language, methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Ashok B

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on, application-oriented guide to the language and methodology of both SystemVerilog Assertions and SytemVerilog Functional Coverage.  Readers will benefit from the step-by-step approach to functional hardware verification, which will enable them to uncover hidden and hard to find bugs, point directly to the source of the bug, provide for a clean and easy way to model complex timing checks and objectively answer the question 'have we functionally verified everything'.  Written by a professional end-user of both SystemVerilog Assertions and SystemVerilog Functional Co

  2. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and Ablative Therapies for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Danish, Adnan; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    The treatment paradigm for early stage lung cancer and oligometastatic disease to the lung is rapidly changing. Ablative therapies, especially stereotactic body radiation therapy, are challenging the surgical gold standard and have the potential to be the standard for operable patients with early stage lung cancer who are high risk due to co- morbidities. The most commonly used ablative modalities include stereotactic body radiation therapy, microwave ablation, and radiofrequency ablation.

  3. 体部肿瘤立体定向放疗(SBRT或SABR)的临床应用现状%Current status of clinical application of stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖光莉

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy has become more and more popular in clinical practice due to its satisfactory efficacy and relatively low incidence of side effects.Different fractionation schemes are adopted based on the characteristics,location,and size of tumor.However,the optimal fractionation scheme and dose limits for organs at risk are still not clear.Therefore,further studies and observation of long-term adverse reactions are required.%体部肿瘤的立体定向放疗(SBRT)因其疗效好,副作用低,在临床上的应用越来越广泛.根据肿瘤特征、位置和大小,采用不同的放疗分割模式,但最佳分隔模式和OAR的剂量限制仍不清楚,需要进一步研究和观察长期的不良反应.

  4. Core based stress measurements: A guide to their application. Topical report, July 1991--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W.; Lorenz, J.C.; Holcomb, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This report is a summary and a guide to core-based stress measurements. It covers anelastic strain recovery, circumferential velocity anistropy, differential strain curve analysis, differential wave velocity analysis, petrographic examination of microcracks, overcoring of archieved core, measurements of the Kaiser effect, strength anisotropy tests, and analysis of coring-induced fractures. The report begins with a discussion of the stored energy within rocks, its release during coring, and the subsequent formation of relaxation microcracks. The interogation or monitoring of these microcracks form the basis for most of the core-based techniques (except for the coring induced fractures). Problems that can arise due to coring or fabric are also presented, Coring induced fractures are discussed in some detail, with the emphasis placed on petal (and petal-centerline) fractures and scribe-knife fractures. For each technique, a short description of the physics and the analysis procedures is given. In addition, several example applications have also been selected (where available) to illustrate pertinent effects. This report is intended to be a guide to the proper application and diagnosis of core-based stress measurement procedures.

  5. Inquiry guided learning in a chemical engineering core curriculum: General instructional approach and specific application to the fluid mechanics case

    OpenAIRE

    Atilhan, Mert; Eljack, Fadwa; Alfadala, Hassan; Froyd, Jeffrey E.; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud; Mahalec, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a preliminary study of the effectiveness of using inquiry-guided learning instructional strategies both in chemical engineering classrooms and laboratories. For readers unfamiliar with the instructional strategy, the paper describes the general approach and then reports on results of its application for the fluid mechanics course taken by undergraduate students in the Chemical Engineering Department at Qatar University. Inquiry-guided activities were developed...

  6. Experimental investigations of an endoluminal ultrasound applicator for MR-guided thermal therapy of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Jones, Peter; Plata, Juan; Chen, Henry; Pauly, Kim Butts; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris

    2017-03-01

    An MR-guided endoluminal ultrasound applicator has been proposed for palliative and potential curative thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. Minimally invasive ablation or hyperthermia treatment of pancreatic tumor tissue would be performed with the applicator positioned in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen, and sparing of the luminal tissue would be achieved with a water-cooled balloon surrounding the ultrasound transducers. This approach offers the capability of conformal volumetric therapy for fast treatment times, with control over the 3D spatial deposition of energy. Prototype endoluminal ultrasound applicators have been fabricated using 3D printed fixtures that seat two 3.2 or 5.6 MHz planar or curvilinear transducers and contain channels for wiring and water flow. Spiral surface coils have been integrated onto the applicator body to allow for device localization and tracking for therapies performed under MR guidance. Heating experiments with a tissue-mimicking phantom in a 3T MR scanner were performed and demonstrated capability of the prototype to perform volumetric heating through duodenal luminal tissue under real-time PRF-based MR temperature imaging (MRTI). Additional experiments were performed in ex vivo pig carcasses with the applicator inserted into the esophagus and aimed towards liver or soft tissue surrounding the spine under MR guidance. These experiments verified the capacity of heating targets up to 20-25 mm from the GI tract. Active device tracking and automated prescription of imaging and temperature monitoring planes through the applicator were made possible by using Hadamard encoded tracking sequences to obtain the coordinates of the applicator tracking coils. The prototype applicators have been integrated with an MR software suite that performs real-time device tracking and temperature monitoring.

  7. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with acromegaly: an interim single-centre audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roug, Anne Stidsholt; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Juhler, M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in acromegaly in a retrospective analysis.......To evaluate the effect of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in acromegaly in a retrospective analysis....

  8. Stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases; results from a single institution experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, D

    2013-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is frequently used for the treatment of brain metastases. This study provides a retrospective evaluation of patients with secondary lesions of the brain treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) at our institution.

  9. Functional MRI for immediate monitoring stereotactic thalamotomy in a patient with essential tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Schaaf, Maike; Krug, Barbara; Lackner, Klaus [University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Maarouf, Mohammed; Hunsche, Stefan; Sturm, Volker [University of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Lasek, Kathrin [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Luebeck (Germany); Wedekind, Christoph [Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Belegabteilung fuer Neurochirurgie, Klinikum Bamberg, Bamberg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    The effect of stereotactic thalamotomy was assessed with pre- and postoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) under motor stimulation. A patient with unilateral essential tremor (ET) of the left arm underwent stereotactically guided thalamotomy of the right ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus (VIM). FMRI was done directly before and after surgery on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. The stimulation paradigm was maintainance of the affected arm in an extended position and hand clenching being performed in a block design manner. Statistical analysis was done with Brain Voyager 2000. After thalamotomy the tremor diminished completely. As a difference between the pre- and postoperative fMRI, a significant activation was found in the VIM contralateral to the activation site, adjacent to the inferior olivary nucleus contralateral to the activation site and in the dorsal cingulum. In conclusion, fMRI can detect the functional effect of thalamotomy for tremor treatment. Direct postoperative fMRI provides a sufficient method for estimating the effect of thalamotomy immediately after intervention. The importance of the intermediate thalamic nucleus and the olivary nucleus in tremor generation is supported by our findings. (orig.)

  10. Patient specific quality control for Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR): it takes more than one phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, T.; Ungureanu, E.; Antony, R.; Hardcastle, N.; Clements, N.; Ukath, J.; Fox, C.; Lonski, P.; Wanigaratne, D.; Haworth, A.

    2017-01-01

    Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR) is an extension of the concepts of Stereotactic Radiosurgery from intracranial procedures to extracranial targets. This brings with it new technological challenges for set-up of a SABR program and continuing quality assurance. Compared with intracranial procedures SABR requires consideration of motion and inhomogeneities and has to deal with a much larger variety of targets ranging from lung to liver, kidney and bone. To meet many of the challenges virtually all advances in modern radiotherapy, such as Intensity Modulated and Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IMRT and IGRT) are used. Considering the few fractions and high doses per fraction delivered to complex targets it is not surprising that patient specific quality control is considered essential for safe delivery. Given the variety of targets and clinical scenarios we employ different strategies for different patients to ensure that the most important aspects of the treatment are appropriately tested, be it steep dose gradients, inhomogeneities or the delivery of dose in the presence of motion. The current paper reviews the different approaches and phantoms utilised at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre for SABR QA.

  11. Stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith K Moorthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS has proven to be an effective strategy in the management of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in children and adults over the past three decades. Its application has resulted in lowering the morbidity and mortality associated with treatment of deep-seated AVMs. SRS has been used as a primary modality of therapy as well as in conjunction with embolization and microsurgery in the management of AVMs. The obliteration rate after SRS has been reported to range from 35% to 92%. Smaller AVMs receiving higher marginal doses have obliteration rates of 70% and more. The median follow-up reported in most series is approximately 36–40 months. The median time to obliteration has been reported to be approximately 24–36 months in most series. Radiation-induced neurological complications have been reported in less than 10% of patients, with a 1.5%–6% risk of developing a new permanent neurological deficit. The bleeding rate during the latency to obliteration has been reported to be approximately 5%. This review describes the experience reported in literature with respect to the indications, dosage, factors affecting obliteration rate of AVMs, and complications after SRS.

  12. Stereotactic localization and visualization of the subthalamic nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wei-gao; WANG Hai-yang; LIN Zhi-guo; SHEN Hong; CHEN Xiao-guang; FU Yi-li; GAO Wen-peng

    2009-01-01

    Background The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is widely recognized as one of the most important and commonly targeted nuclei in stereotactic and functional neurosurgery. The success of STN surgery depends on accuracy in target determination. Construction of a digitalized atlas of STN based on stereotactic MRI will play an instrumental role in the accuracy of anatomical localization. The aim of this study was to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) target location of STN in stereotactic space and construct a digitalized atlas of STN to accomplish the visualization of the STN on stereotactic MRI, thus providing clinical guidance on the precise anatomical localization of STN.Methods One hundred and twenty healthy people volunteered to be scanned by 1.5 Tesla MRI scanning with 1-mm-thick slice in the standard stereotactic space between 2005 and 2006. One adult male was selected for 3D reconstruction of STN. The precess of 3D reconstruction included identification, manual segmentation, extraction,conservation and reconstruction.Results There was a significant correlation between the coordinates and age (P <0.05). The volume of left STN was significantly larger than the right STN, and there was a significant negative correlation between volume and age (P <0.05).The surface of the STN nucleus after 3D reconstruction appeared smooth, natural and realistic. The morphological feature of STN on the individual brain could be visualized directly in 3D. The 3D reconstructed STN could be rotated,zoomed and displayed at any direction in the stereotactic space. The anteroposterior diameter of the STN nucleus was longer than the vertical and transverse diameters in 3D space. The 3D reconstruction of STN manifested typical structure of the "dual lens".Conclusions The visualization of individual brain atlas based on stereotactic MRI is feasible. However, software for automated segmentation, extraction and registration of MR images need to be further developed.

  13. Highly directional transurethral ultrasound applicators with rotational control for MRI-guided prostatic thermal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Anthony B [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Diederich, Chris J [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nau, William H [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gill, Harcharan [Department of Urology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Bouley, Donna M [Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Daniel, Bruce [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Rieke, Viola [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Butts, R Kim [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Sommer, Graham [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-01-21

    Transurethral ultrasound applicators with highly directional energy deposition and rotational control were investigated for precise treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and adenocarcinoma of the prostate (CaP). Two types of catheter-based applicators were fabricated, using either sectored tubular (3.5 mm OD x 10 mm) or planar transducers (3.5 mm x 10 mm). They were constructed to be MRI compatible, minimally invasive and allow for manual rotation of the transducer array within a 10 mm cooling balloon. In vivo evaluations of the applicators were performed in canine prostates (n 3) using MRI guidance (0.5 T interventional magnet). MR temperature imaging (MRTI) utilizing the proton resonance frequency shift method was used to acquire multiple-slice temperature overlays in real time for monitoring and guiding the thermal treatments. Post-treatment T1-weighted contrast-enhanced imaging and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stained tissue sections were used to define regions of tissue coagulation. Single sonications with the tubular applicator ) produced coagulated zones covering a wedge of the prostate extending from 1-2 mm outside the urethra to the outer boundary of the gland (16 mm radial coagulation). Single sonications with the planar applicator (15-20 W, 10 min, {approx}8 MHz) generated thermal lesions of {approx}30 extending to the prostate boundary. Multiple sequential sonications (sweeping) of a planar applicator (12 W with eight rotations of 30 each) demonstrated controllable coagulation of a 270 contiguous section of the prostate extending to the capsule boundary. The feasibility of using highly directional transurethral ultrasound applicators with rotational capabilities to selectively coagulate regions of the prostate while monitoring and controlling the treatments with MRTI was demonstrated in this study.

  14. Application of composite materials to turbofan engine fan exit guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    A program was conducted by NASA with the JT9D engine manufacturer to develop a lightweight, cost effective, composite material fan exit guide vane design having satisfactory structural durability for commerical engine use. Based on the results of a previous company supported program, eight graphite/epoxy and graphite-glass/epoxy guide vane designs were evaluated and four were selected for fabrication and testing. Two commercial fabricators each fabricated 13 vanes. Fatigue tests were used to qualify the selected design configurations under nominally dry, 38 C (100 F) and fully wet and 60 C (140 F) environmental conditions. Cost estimates for a production rate of 1000 vanes per month ranged from 1.7 to 2.6 times the cost of an all aluminum vane. This cost is 50 to 80 percent less than the initial program target cost ratio which was 3 times the cost of an aluminum vane. Application to the JT9D commercial engine is projected to provide a weight savings of 236 N (53 lb) per engine.

  15. A microstructure-guided constitutive modeling approach for random heterogeneous materials: Application to structural binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sumanta; Maroli, Amit; Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Stannard, Tyler; Xiao, Xianghui; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a microstructure-guided modeling approach to predict the effective elastic response of heterogeneous materials, and demonstrates its application toward two highly heterogeneous, uncon- ventional structural binders, i.e., iron carbonate and fly ash geopolymer. Microstructural information from synchrotron X-ray tomography (XRT) and intrinsic elastic properties of component solid phases from statistical nanoindentation are used as the primary inputs. The virtual periodic 3D microstructure reconstructed using XRT, along with periodic boundary conditions is used as a basis for strain- controlled numerical simulation scheme in the linear elastic range to predict the elastic modulus as well as the stresses in the microstructural phases. The elastic modulus of the composite material predicted from the microstructure-based constitutive modeling approach correlates very well with experimental measurements for both the materials considered. This technique efficiently links the microstructure to mechanical properties of interest and helps develop material design guidelines for novel heterogeneous composites

  16. Generalized poroviscoelastic model based on effective Biot theory and its application to borehole guided wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Heinson, Graham

    2016-12-01

    A method using modified attenuation factor function is suggested to determine the parameters of the generalized Zener model approximating the attenuation factor function. This method is applied to constitute the poroviscoelastic model based on the effective Biot theory which considers the attenuative solid frame of reservoir. In the poroviscoelastic model, frequency-dependent bulk modulus and shear modulus of solid frame are represented by generalized Zener models. As an application, the borehole logging dispersion equations from Biot theory are extended to include effects from the intrinsic body attenuation in formation media in full-frequency range. The velocity dispersions of borehole guided waves are calculated to investigate the influence from attenuative bore fluid, attenuative solid frame of the formation and impermeable bore wall.

  17. A new treatment method for brain diseases. Stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirato, Hiroki (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with stereotactic radiosurgery, a novel medical treatment technique for brain diseases. It is the most sophisticated modality that allows the functional preservation. Recently, CT scan and MRI scan have dramatically changed the diagnostic accuracy of tumor localization in the brain. A device named stereotactic head fixation system makes it possible to localize deep-seated brain diseases with an accuracy of 1-1.5 mm. Using multiple convergent narrow beams of high-energy X-ray, a stereotactic head frame, and a three dimensional computer graphics of CT images, patients with deep-seated nidus can be treated without any complications. Normal tissues would not receive large doses but the center of the nidus is irradiated heavily because of the convergence of X-ray beams. Thus stereotactic radiosurgery is more accurate, effective, and less toxic than conventional radiotherapy and is safer and more effective than surgery for many brain diseases. Small arteriovenous malformation in the brain, which is a fetal disease, and small acoustic neurinomas, in which surgery often causes facial nerve palsy and hearing loss, are presented as good candidates for radiosurgery. For metastatic brain tumors, stereotactic radiosurgery makes such patients free from neurological symptoms, such as difficulty in walking and speaking, in a few days. (N.K.).

  18. Stereotactic Irradiation of GH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Minniti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy (RT is often employed in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions in order to prevent tumour regrowth and normalize elevated GH and IGF-I levels. It achieves tumour control and hormone normalization up to 90% and 70% of patients at 10–15 years. Despite the excellent tumour control, conventional RT is associated with a potential risk of developing late toxicity, especially hypopituitarism, and its role in the management of patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas remains a matter of debate. Stereotactic techniques have been developed with the aim to deliver more localized irradiation and minimize the long-term consequences of treatment, while improving its efficacy. Stereotactic irradiation can be given in a single dose as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or in multiple doses as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT. We have reviewed the recent published literature on stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

  19. A new system for neuronavigation and stereotactic biopsy pantograph stereotactic localization and guidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishamkar, Saeid; Moin, Houshang; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Honarmand, Azim; Hajibabaie, Mahmood; Haghighi, Elham K; Abbasifard, Salman

    2011-07-01

    Everyday, neurosurgeons face the problem of orientation within the brain but the advent of stereotactic surgery and neuronavigation have solved this problem. Frame-based stereotactic systems (FBSS) and neuronavigation systems have their own strengths and priority and pitfalls, which were the main driving force for us to design a new system. This hybrid system comprises three main parts: main frame, monitoring system, and pantograph, which are connected to each other and to the operating table by particular attachments. For using this system, after performing CT SCAN or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) the axial view will be transferred to Liquid Cristal Display (LCD). In the operating room, the head of the patient fixes to the operating table and registration is completed by two arms of pantograph. We made a simulation operation with our system on an occipital cavernous angioma and a frontal oligodendroglioma. The software, which have been used for simulation were as follows; Poser (version-7), Catia (version 5- R18), and 3 Dimension Max (version 2008). The accuracy of this system is approximately two millimeter. The advantages of this system are: easy to use, much less expensive, and compatible with different devices, which may be needed during neurosurgical operation. For countries that do not have the opportunity to have sophisticated technology and neuronavigation system, we believe that our system is a one-stop solution.

  20. Radiobiological mechanisms of stereotactic body radiation therapy and stereotactic radiation surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Kim, Won Woo; Park, In Hwan; Kim, Hee Jong; Lee, Eun Jin; Jung, Jae Hoon [Research Center for Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Lawrence Chin Soo; Song, Chang W. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Despite the increasing use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) in recent years, the biological base of these high-dose hypo-fractionated radiotherapy modalities has been elusive. Given that most human tumors contain radioresistant hypoxic tumor cells, the radiobiological principles for the conventional multiple-fractionated radiotherapy cannot account for the high efficacy of SBRT and SRS. Recent emerging evidence strongly indicates that SBRT and SRS not only directly kill tumor cells, but also destroy the tumor vascular beds, thereby deteriorating intratumor microenvironment leading to indirect tumor cell death. Furthermore, indications are that the massive release of tumor antigens from the tumor cells directly and indirectly killed by SBRT and SRS stimulate anti-tumor immunity, thereby suppressing recurrence and metastatic tumor growth. The reoxygenation, repair, repopulation, and redistribution, which are important components in the response of tumors to conventional fractionated radiotherapy, play relatively little role in SBRT and SRS. The linear-quadratic model, which accounts for only direct cell death has been suggested to overestimate the cell death by high dose per fraction irradiation. However, the model may in some clinical cases incidentally do not overestimate total cell death because high-dose irradiation causes additional cell death through indirect mechanisms. For the improvement of the efficacy of SBRT and SRS, further investigation is warranted to gain detailed insights into the mechanisms underlying the SBRT and SRS.

  1. Stereotactic radiosurgery for glioblastoma: retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Kevin A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This retrospective study was done to better understand the conditions for which stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS for glioblastoma may be efficacious. Methods Between 2000 and 2007, 33 patients with a pathological diagnosis of glioblastoma received SRS with the Novalis® Shaped Beam Radiosurgery system. Eighteen patients (54% underwent salvage SRS for recurrence while 15 (45% patients received upfront SRS following standard fractionated RT for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Results There were no RTOG grade >2 acute side effects. The median survival after SRS was 6.7 months (range 1.4 – 74.7. There was no significant difference in overall survival (from the time of initial diagnosis with respect to the timing of SRS (p = 0.2. There was significantly better progression free survival in patients treated with SRS as consolidation versus at the time of recurrence (p = 0.04. The majority of patients failed within or at the margin of the SRS treatment volume (21/26 evaluable for recurrence. Conclusion SRS is well tolerated in the treatment of glioblastoma. As there was no difference in survival whether SRS is delivered upfront or at recurrence, the treatment for each patient should be individualized. Future studies are needed to identify patients most likely to respond to SRS.

  2. The Confluence of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy and Tumor Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Eric Finkelstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotactic radiation approaches are gaining more popularity for the treatment of intracranial as well as extracranial tumors in organs such as the liver and lung. Technology, rather than biology, is driving the rapid adoption of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT, also known as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR, in the clinic due to advances in precise positioning and targeting. Dramatic improvements in tumor control have been demonstrated; however, our knowledge of normal tissue biology response mechanisms to large fraction sizes is lacking. Herein, we will discuss how SABR can induce cellular expression of MHC I, adhesion molecules, costimulatory molecules, heat shock proteins, inflammatory mediators, immunomodulatory cytokines, and death receptors to enhance antitumor immune responses.

  3. A halo-ring technique for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B.G.; Podgorsak, E.B.; Souhami, L.; Caron, J.-L.; Sixel, K.E. (Montreal General Hospital, PQ (Canada)); Olivier, A. (Montreal Neurological Inst., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1993-06-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery has become established as an effective treatment modality for certain non-malignant brain diseases such as arteriovenous malformations. This paper describes an extension of the authors' linear accelerator-based radiosurgical technique to fractionated treatment of intracranial disease. The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy technique expands the use of the modality by sparing normal cells within the treatment volume thus improving the therapeutic ratio. The first treatment is given using a stereotactic frame both for target localization and patient immobilization. The frame is then removed and subsequent treatments use a standard neurosurgical halo-ring for patient immobilization. The halo-ring is left in place on the skull for the duration of the course of treatment. They describe a sensitive and effective technique for checking the rotational beam parameters and collimator alignment which is used immediately prior to treatment to ensure adequate accuracy of dose delivery to the target volume. (author).

  4. Preliminary Study of Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From March 1997 to November 1999, 45 patients with lung cancer were treated by astereotactic radiotherapy, with 15 cases treated by a stereotactic radiotherapy alone, and 30 cases by the external radiotherapy plus stereotactic radiotherapy. The clinical target volume was 1.89-187. 26 cm3 with the median being 18. 17 cm3. The doses of plan target volume (PTV) edge was 16-30 Gy/2-3 times and the doses of center was 120 % to 150 % of PTV edge doses. The overall response rate was 84.4 % (38/45), with 11 complete response (CR) and 27 partial response (PR). This study confirmed that the stereotactic radiotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for lung cancer. For those early-stage patients who can tolerate neither operation nor even conventional radiotherapy for various reasons, it can both achieve therapeutic purpose and improve quality of life.

  5. 76 FR 46330 - NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft... for public comment a document entitled, NUREG-1934 (EPRI 1023259), ``Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling... pdr.resource@nrc.gov . NUREG-1934 (EPRI 1023259), ``Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling...

  6. Guided-mode resonance in planar photonic crystals: Application to sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Nikhil

    This dissertation addresses the design, fabrication and characterization of planar photonic crystals that employ the guided-mode resonance effect for sensing and detection applications. A theoretical basis for these applications is first developed, followed by the demonstration of a near-ultraviolet reflectance filter that provides high reflection efficiency in the 400-450 nm spectral range. The response of photonic crystal label-free biosensors is shown to be greatly improved by the use of a near-ultraviolet device, and this improvement in performance is shown to stem from the enhanced surface sensitivity and lowered bulk sensitivity for devices operating in this wavelength range. The application of PCs for wavelength detection is demonstrated by developing a system employing a continuously variable reflectance filter. The system is composed of only two components and allows detection of wavelength changes as small as 0.011 nm. Visible wavelength PCs are also studied for application as fluorescence enhancement biosensors. For the first time, a PC capable of a dual enhancement modality (enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction of fluorescence) is demonstrated for boosting quantum dot fluorescence by over two orders of magnitude. The distance dependence of the enhanced excitation effect is studied and provides clarification for its mechanism and suggests that the PC can be modified to accommodate a wide range of analyte sizes. Finally the enhanced extraction effect is studied in detail using a model system involving quantum dots and waveguide gratings. The results suggest that enhanced extraction can greatly improve the output of fluorophores that are spectrally and spatially matched to the device. A practical demonstration of this effect is carried out in the detection of the cytokine TNF-alpha.

  7. SystemVerilog assertions and functional coverage guide to language, methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Ashok B

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on, application-oriented guide to the language and methodology of both SystemVerilog Assertions and SystemVerilog Functional Coverage. Readers will benefit from the step-by-step approach to functional hardware verification using SystemVerilog Assertions and Functional Coverage, which will enable them to uncover hidden and hard to find bugs, point directly to the source of the bug, provide for a clean and easy way to model complex timing checks and objectively answer the question ‘have we functionally verified everything’. Written by a professional end-user of ASIC/SoC/CPU and FPGA design and Verification, this book explains each concept with easy to understand examples, simulation logs and applications derived from real projects. Readers will be empowered to tackle the modeling of complex checkers for functional verification, thereby drastically reducing their time to design and debug. This updated second edition addresses the latest functional set released in IEEE-1800 (2012) L...

  8. A GUIDED SWAT MODEL APPLICATION ON SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING IN PANGANI RIVER BASIN: LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis Marco Ndomba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to report on the lessons learnt from applying Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT in a well guided sediment yield modelling study. The study area is the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM reservoir catchment, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. It should be noted that, previous modeling exercises in the region applied SWAT with preassumption that inter-rill or sheet erosion was the dominant erosion type. In contrast, in this study SWAT model application was guided by results of analysis of high temporal resolution of sediment flow data and hydro-meteorological data. The runoff component of the SWAT model was calibrated from six-years (i.e. 1977–1982 of historical daily streamflow data. The sediment component of the model was calibrated using one-year (1977–1988 daily sediment loads estimated from one hydrological year sampling programme (between March and November, 2005 rating curve. A long-term period over 37 years (i.e. 1969–2005 simulation results of the SWAT model was validated to downstream NYM reservoir sediment accumulation information. The SWAT model captured 56 percent of the variance (CE and underestimated the observed daily sediment loads by 0.9 percent according to Total Mass Control (TMC performance indices during a normal wet hydrological year, i.e., between November 1, 1977 and October 31, 1978, as the calibration period. SWAT model predicted satisfactorily the long-term sediment catchment yield with a relative error of 2.6 percent. Also, the model has identified erosion sources spatially and has replicated some erosion processes as determined in other studies and field observations in the PRB. This result suggests that for catchments where sheet erosion is dominant SWAT model may substitute the sediment-rating curve. However, the SWAT model could not capture the dynamics of sediment load delivery in some seasons to the catchment outlet.

  9. A GUIDED SWAT MODEL APPLICATION ON SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING IN PANGANI RIVER BASIN: LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis M. Ndomba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to report on the lessons learnt from applying Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT in a well guided sediment yield modelling study. The study area is the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM reservoir catchment, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. It should be noted that, previous modeling exercises in the region applied SWAT with preassumption that inter-rill or sheet erosion was the dominant erosion type. In contrast, in this study SWAT model application was guided by results of analysis of high temporal resolution of sediment flow data and hydro-meteorological data. The runoff component of the SWAT model was calibrated from six-years (i.e. 1977¿1982 of historical daily streamflow data. The sediment component of the model was calibrated using one-year (1977-1988 daily sediment loads estimated from one hydrological year sampling programme (between March and November, 2005 rating curve. A long-term period over 37 years (i.e. 1969-2005 simulation results of the SWAT model was validated to downstream NYM reservoir sediment accumulation information. The SWAT model captured 56 percent of the variance (CE and underestimated the observed daily sediment loads by 0.9 percent according to Total Mass Control (TMC performance indices during a normal wet hydrological year, i.e., between November 1, 1977 and October 31, 1978, as the calibration period. SWAT model predicted satisfactorily the long-term sediment catchment yield with a relative error of 2.6 percent. Also, the model has identified erosion sources spatially and has replicated some erosion processes as determined in other studies and field observations in the PRB. This result suggests that for catchments where sheet erosion is dominant SWAT model may substitute the sediment-rating curve. However, the SWAT model could not capture the dynamics of sediment load delivery in some seasons to the catchment outlet.

  10. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andolino, David L., E-mail: dandolin@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Johnson, Cynthia S. [Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Maluccio, Mary [Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Kwo, Paul [Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Tector, A. Joseph [Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Zook, Jennifer; Johnstone, Peter A.S.; Cardenes, Higinia R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2009, 60 patients with liver-confined HCC were treated with SBRT at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center: 36 Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) Class A and 24 CTP Class B. The median number of fractions, dose per fraction, and total dose, was 3, 14 Gy, and 44 Gy, respectively, for those with CTP Class A cirrhosis and 5, 8 Gy, and 40 Gy, respectively, for those with CTP Class B. Treatment was delivered via 6 to 12 beams and in nearly all cases was prescribed to the 80% isodose line. The records of all patients were reviewed, and treatment response was scored according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results: The median follow-up time was 27 months, and the median tumor diameter was 3.2 cm. The 2-year LC, PFS, and OS were 90%, 48%, and 67%, respectively, with median TTP of 47.8 months. Subsequently, 23 patients underwent transplant, with a median time to transplant of 7 months. There were no {>=}Grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities. Thirteen percent of patients experienced an increase in hematologic/hepatic dysfunction greater than 1 grade, and 20% experienced progression in CTP class within 3 months of treatment. Conclusions: SBRT is a safe, effective, noninvasive option for patients with HCC {<=}6 cm. As such, SBRT should be considered when bridging to transplant or as definitive therapy for those ineligible for transplant.

  11. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of vestibular schwannomas accelerates hearing loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune; Claesson, Magnus; Stangerup, Sven-Eric;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate long-term tumor control and hearing preservation rates in patients with vestibular schwannoma treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT), comparing hearing preservation rates to an untreated control group. The relationship between radiation dose to the cochlea and hear...

  12. Electric sail, photonic sail and deorbiting applications of the freely guided photonic blade

    CERN Document Server

    Janhunen, P

    2013-01-01

    We consider a freely guided photonic blade (FGPB) which is a centrifugally stretched sheet of photonic sail membrane that can be tilted by changing the centre of mass or by other means. The FGPB can be installed at the tip of each main tether of an electric solar wind sail (E-sail) so that one can actively manage the tethers to avoid their mutual collisions and to modify the spin rate of the sail if needed. This enables a more scalable and modular E-sail than the baseline approach where auxiliary tethers are used for collision avoidance. For purely photonic sail applications one can remove the tethers and increase the size of the blades to obtain a novel variant of the heliogyro that can have a significantly higher packing density than the traditional heliogyro. For satellite deorbiting in low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions, analogous designs exist where the E-sail effect is replaced by the negative polarity plasma brake effect and the photonic pressure by atmospheric drag. We conclude that the FGPB appears to ...

  13. A bioactive metallurgical grade porous silicon-polytetrafluoroethylene sheet for guided bone regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, E G; Clarkin, O M; Raghavendra, R; Tanner, D A

    2014-01-01

    The properties of porous silicon make it a promising material for a host of applications including drug delivery, molecular and cell-based biosensing, and tissue engineering. Porous silicon has previously shown its potential for the controlled release of pharmacological agents and in assisting bone healing. Hydroxyapatite, the principle constituent of bone, allows osteointegration in vivo, due to its chemical and physical similarities to bone. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is currently applied as a surface coating to medical devices and prosthetics, encouraging bone in-growth at their surface and improving osseointegration. This paper examines the potential for the use of an economically produced porous silicon particulate-polytetrafluoroethylene sheet for use as a guided bone regeneration device in periodontal and orthopaedic applications. The particulate sheet is comprised of a series of microparticles in a polytetrafluoroethylene matrix and is shown to produce a stable hydroxyapatite on its surface under simulated physiological conditions. The microstructure of the material is examined both before and after simulated body fluid experiments for a period of 1, 7, 14 and 30 days using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition is examined using a combination of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Thin film X-ray diffraction, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and the uptake/release of constituents at the fluid-solid interface is explored using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Microstructural and compositional analysis reveals progressive growth of crystalline, 'bone-like' apatite on the surface of the material, indicating the likelihood of close bony apposition in vivo.

  14. Detecting MLC errors in stereotactic radiotherapy plans with a liquid filled ionization chamber array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick; Seshadri, Venkatakrisnan; Charles, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Quality assurance of stereotactic radiotherapy demands the use of equipment with the highest resolution and sensitivity available. This study examines the sensitivity of a commercially available liquid-filled ionization chamber array--the Octavius 1000 SRS (PTW, Frieburg, Germany) for detecting small (sub-millimetre) multi-leaf collimator (MLC) alignment errors in static square fields (side length 16-40 mm). Furthermore, the effectiveness of detecting small MLC errors in clinical stereotactic radiotherapy patient plans using the device was also evaluated. The commonly used gamma pass rate metric (of the measurements compared with treatment planning system generated results) was used. The gamma pass rates were then evaluated as a function of MLC position error (MLC error size 0.1-2.5 mm). The detector array exhibited a drop in pass rate between plans without error and those which had MLC errors induced. For example a drop in pass rate of 4.5% (gamma criteria 3%, 1 mm) was observed when a 0.8 mm error was introduced into a 16 mm square field. Furthermore the drop in pass rate increased as the MLC position error increased. This study showed that the Octavius 1000 SRS array could be a useful tool for applications requiring the detection of small geometric delivery uncertainties.

  15. Application of the MCNPX-McStas interface for shielding calculations and guide design at ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Willendrup, Peter Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an interface between the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the neutron ray-tracing code MCNPX was developed [1, 2]. Based on the expected neutronic performance and guide geometries relevant for the ESS, the combined MCNPX-McStas code is used to calculate dose rates along neutron beam guides...

  16. Application of the MCNPX-McStas interface for shielding calculations and guide design at ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Willendrup, Peter Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Recently, an interface between the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the neutron ray-tracing code MCNPX was developed[1]. Based on the expected neutronic performance and guide geometries relevant for the ESS, the combined MCNPX-McStas code is used to calculate dose rates along neutron beam guides...

  17. Application of the MCNPX-McStas interface for shielding calculations and guide design at ESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkby, E. B.; Knudsen, E. B.; Willendrup, P. K.; Lauritzen, B.; Nonbøl, E.; Bentley, P.; Filges, U.

    2014-07-01

    Recently, an interface between the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the neutron ray-tracing code MCNPX was developed [1, 2]. Based on the expected neutronic performance and guide geometries relevant for the ESS, the combined MCNPX-McStas code is used to calculate dose rates along neutron beam guides. The generation and moderation of neutrons is simulated using a full scale MCNPX model of the ESS target monolith. Upon entering the neutron beam extraction region, the individual neutron states are handed to McStas via the MCNPX-McStas interface. McStas transports the neutrons through the beam guide, and by using newly developed event logging capability, the neutron state parameters corresponding to un-reflected neutrons are recorded at each scattering. This information is handed back to MCNPX where it serves as neutron source input for a second MCNPX simulation. This simulation enables calculation of dose rates in the vicinity of the guide. In addition the logging mechanism is employed to record the scatterings along the guides which is exploited to simulate the supermirror quality requirements (i.e. m-values) needed at different positions along the beam guide to transport neutrons in the same guide/source setup.

  18. An Application of Project-Based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdpol, Sakon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of a research entitled, " An Application of Project-based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province. It was intended to develop young local tour guides on Tai Phuan's culture and tourist attractions in…

  19. Application of a diagnosis-based clinical decision guide in patients with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Donald R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is common and costly. Development of accurate and efficacious methods of diagnosis and treatment has been identified as a research priority. A diagnosis-based clinical decision guide (DBCDG; previously referred to as a diagnosis-based clinical decision rule has been proposed which attempts to provide the clinician with a systematic, evidence-based means to apply the biopsychosocial model of care. The approach is based on three questions of diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to present the prevalence of findings using the DBCDG in consecutive patients with LBP. Methods Demographic, diagnostic and baseline outcome measure data were gathered on a cohort of LBP patients examined by one of three examiners trained in the application of the DBCDG. Results Data were gathered on 264 patients. Signs of visceral disease or potentially serious illness were found in 2.7%. Centralization signs were found in 41%, lumbar and sacroiliac segmental signs in 23% and 27%, respectively and radicular signs were found in 24%. Clinically relevant myofascial signs were diagnosed in 10%. Dynamic instability was diagnosed in 63%, fear beliefs in 40%, central pain hypersensitivity in 5%, passive coping in 3% and depression in 3%. Conclusion The DBCDG can be applied in a busy private practice environment. Further studies are needed to investigate clinically relevant means to identify central pain hypersensitivity, poor coping and depression, correlations and patterns among the diagnostic components of the DBCDG as well as inter-examiner reliability and efficacy of treatment based on the DBCDG.

  20. Application of the MCNPX-McStas interface for shielding calculations and guide design at ESS

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Lauritzen, Bent; Nonbøl, Erik; Bentley, Philip; Filges, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Recently, an interface between the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the neutron ray-tracing code MCNPX was developed [1, 2]. Based on the expected neutronic performance and guide geometries relevant for the ESS, the combined MCNPX-McStas code is used to calculate dose rates along neutron beam guides. The generation and moderation of neutrons is simulated using a full scale MCNPX model of the ESS target monolith. Upon entering the neutron beam extraction region, the individual neutron states are han...

  1. Guided modes in coal seams and their application to underground seismic surveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.E.; Mason, I.M.

    1975-01-01

    Underground seismic surveying of coal seams can be performed using the channel waves guided by the low velocity coal layer. The roadway modes, i.e. the modes guided by the free face of the coal seam, are analysed. The knowledge of channel modes and roadway modes are shown to be fundamental to the interpretation of any survey data. Detailed calculations of the channel modes and the pulse propagation in a particular coal seam are presented.

  2. Neurosurgical Brain Estereotactic- Guided Procedures Performed at Hospital Universitario San Ignacio (HUSI): Development in the Short and Medium Term

    OpenAIRE

    Zorro, Óscar; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio; Ordóñez Rubiano, Édgar Gerardo; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio; Camacho, jorge Esteban; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio; Tschampel Garvin, Andrés; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio; Burgos, Rodrigo Antonio; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio; Acevedo, Juan Carlos; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio; Berbeo, Miguel; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio; Feo, Óscar; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio; Díaz, Roberto; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Retrospective description of postoperative outcomes of patients who underwent neurosurgical brain stereotactic guided procedures at the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio during the period July 2009-July 2011.Materials and Methods: A review of medical records of 78 patients who were taken to neurosurgical stereotactic guided procedures at the Hospital Universitario San Ignaci. We reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients, the location of the lesions on neuroimaging, managem...

  3. Development of an MRI-compatible needle insertion manipulator for stereotactic neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamune, K; Kobayashi, E; Masutani, Y; Suzuki, M; Dohi, T; Iseki, H; Takakura, K

    1995-01-01

    A variety of medical robots for stereotactic neurosurgery has been developed in recent years. Almost of all these robots use computed tomography (CT) to scan the brain of the patient before and during surgery. Currently, we are developing a needle insertion manipulator for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided neurosurgery. MRI techniques, including MRI angiography and functional MRI, are attractive for the development of interventional MRI therapies and operations. If a robot were available, these therapies would be minimally invasive, with more accurate guidance than is possible with current CT-guided systems. Actuation of a robot in an MRI environment is difficult because of the presence of strong magnetic fields. Therefore, the robot must be constructed of nonmagnetic materials. The system frame was manufactured using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and was actuated using ultrasonic motors. Accuracy-evaluation procedures and phantom tests have been performed. The total accuracy of the system was approximately 3.0 mm. No artifacts caused by the manipulator were observed in the images.

  4. Assessing small-volume spinal cord dose for repeat spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijun; Kirby, Neil; Korol, Renee; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2012-12-01

    Spinal cord biologically effective dose (BED) limits are critical to safe spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivery. In particular, when repeating SBRT to the same site, the problem of adding non-uniform BED distributions within small volumes of spinal cord has yet to be solved. We report a probability-based generalized BED (gBED) model to guide repeat spine SBRT treatment planning. The gBED was formulated by considering the sequential damaging probabilities of repeat spine SBRT treatments. Parameters from the standard linear-quadratic model, such as α/β = 2 Gy for the spinal cord, were applied. We tested the model based on SBRT specific spinal cord tolerance using a simulated and ten clinical repeat SBRT cases. The gBED provides a consistent solution for superimposing non-uniform dose distributions from different fractionation schemes, analogous to the BED for uniform dose distributions. Based on ten clinical cases, the gBED was observed to eliminate discrepancies in the cumulative BED of approximately 5% to 20% within small volumes (e.g. 0.1-2.0 cc) of spinal cord, as compared to a conventional calculation method. When assessing spinal cord tolerance for repeat spinal SBRT treatments, caution should be exercised when applying conventional BED calculations for small volumes of spinal cord irradiated, and the gBED potentially provides more conservative and consistently derived dose surrogates to guide safe treatment planning and treatment outcome modeling.

  5. Biological characteristics of HCC by ultrasound-guided aspiration biopsy and its clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wu Lin; Xue-Ying Lin; Yi-Mi He; Shang-Da Gao; Xiao-Dong Lin

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To probe the pathological biological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by the ultrasound-guided aspiration biopsy and assess the clinical application value of this method.METHODS: The biopsy and DNA analysis by flow cytometry (FCM) were taken in 46 cases with HCC nodules, including 26 cases and 20 cases with nodules ≤3 cm and >3 cm in diameters respectively, and 12 cases with intrahepatic benign hyperplastic nodules. They were taken in 22 cases of 46cases with HCC before and after the therapy. Fine-needles and automatic histological incised biopsy needles were used.The fresh biopsy tissue was produced into the single cell suspension, which was sent for DNA detection and ratio analysis of cell period. The ratio of each DNA period of cell proliferation of each group was calculated and compared with each other. The DNA aneuploid (AN) and apoptosis cell peak were observed and their percentages were calculated.RESULTS: The ratios of S and G2/M periods of DNA, which reflect cell hyperproliferation, in the group with HCC tumors >3 cm in diameter were markedly higher than those of the group with HCC nodules ≤3 cm in diameter and the group with the benign hyperplastic nodules (P<0.01 except A:B of S period, P<0.05). The ratios of the middle group were also apparently higher than those of the latter group (P<0.01).The ratio of DNA AN of 46 cases with HCC nodules was 34.8 % (16/46). None of the cases with the intrahepatic hyperplastic nodules appeared AN. The DNA AN appeared more apparently with the growth of the tumors. The AN ratio of the group with tumors >3 cm in diameter was 55 %(11/20), markedly higher than that of the group with tumors ≤3 cm in diameter which was 19.2 % (5/26) (P<0.01). The FCM DNA analysis of 22 specimens of hepatic carcinoma tissue before therapy showed that the aneuploid peaks appeared in 5 cases (22.7 %). The ratio of G1 period rose after therapy while the S period and G2/M ratios fell (P<0.01).The

  6. Stereotactic body radiotherapy in lung cancer: an update *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Cintra Vita; Ferreira, Paula Pratti Rodrigues; de Moraes, Fabio Ynoe; Neves, Wellington Furtado Pimenta; Gadia, Rafael; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For early-stage lung cancer, the treatment of choice is surgery. In patients who are not surgical candidates or are unwilling to undergo surgery, radiotherapy is the principal treatment option. Here, we review stereotactic body radiotherapy, a technique that has produced quite promising results in such patients and should be the treatment of choice, if available. We also present the major indications, technical aspects, results, and special situations related to the technique. PMID:26398758

  7. Stereotactic radiotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Mahdy; Kurz, Maximilian; Holzhey, Annekatrin; Melchert, Corinna; Rades, Dirk; Grisanti, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is a new approach to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The INTREPID trial suggested that SRT could reduce the frequency of regular intravitreal injections (IVIs) with antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs, which are necessary to control disease activity. However, the efficacy of SRT in nAMD and resulting morphological changes have not been validated under real-life circumstances, an issue, which we would like to address ...

  8. Normal tissue toxicity after small field hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Constine Louis S; Milano Michael T; Okunieff Paul

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stereotactic body radiation (SBRT) is an emerging tool in radiation oncology in which the targeting accuracy is improved via the detection and processing of a three-dimensional coordinate system that is aligned to the target. With improved targeting accuracy, SBRT allows for the minimization of normal tissue volume exposed to high radiation dose as well as the escalation of fractional dose delivery. The goal of SBRT is to minimize toxicity while maximizing tumor control. This review ...

  9. Stereotactic body radiotherapy in lung cancer: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Cintra Vita; Ferreira, Paula Pratti Rodrigues; Moraes, Fabio Ynoe de; Neves Junior, Wellington Furtado Pimenta; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade, E-mail: heloisa.carvalho@hc.fm.usp.br [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia; Gadia, Rafael [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia; Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia. Servico de Radioterapia

    2015-07-15

    For early-stage lung cancer, the treatment of choice is surgery. In patients who are not surgical candidates or are unwilling to undergo surgery, radiotherapy is the principal treatment option. Here, we review stereotactic body radiotherapy, a technique that has produced quite promising results in such patients and should be the treatment of choice, if available. We also present the major indications, technical aspects, results, and special situations related to the technique. (author)

  10. Delivery validation of VMAT stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy at commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olding, T.; Alexander, K. M.; Jechel, C.; Nasr, A. T.; Joshi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Dosimetric validation of two volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) plans was completed as part of the commissioning process of this technique in our clinic. Static and dynamic ion chamber, EBT3 film and leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gel measurements were acquired using a motion phantom with appropriate inserts for each dosimeter. The results show good agreement between measured and calculated plan dose.

  11. 大脑中央区脑囊虫病灶的立体定向手术治疗%Analysis of neurocysticercosis in the central region by stereotactic open surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏成雨; 牛朝诗; 凌士营

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨CT或MRI导向的立体定向手术切除中央区脑囊虫病灶的应用价值,总结手术治疗的经验.方法 采用Lesell-G型立体定向仪,在CT或MRI导向下对25例中央区脑囊虫病灶,通过环钻开颅和显微外科技术摘除病灶.结果 25例脑囊虫病灶均能精确定位后完全切除,全组无新的神经功能损伤出现.结论 CT或MRI导向下的立体定向手术治疗中央区脑囊虫病灶安全有效.%Objective To discuss the experience and value of CT/MRI guided stereotactic open surgery on the treatment of neurocysticercosis in the central region. Methods 25 patients with neurocysticercosis underwent resection of the lesions in the central region by CT/MRI guided Leksell-G type stereotactic system, through craniectomy by trepan and microsurgical skills. Results Total resection was performed in all 25 patients with lesions of neurocysticercosis in the cental region without new neurological deficit or mortality. Conclusion CT/MRI guided stereotactic open surgery is a safety and effective method for treatment of the lesions of neurocysticercosis in the central region.

  12. Extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy: evaluation of PTV coverage and dose conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädinger, Ulrich; Thiele, Wibke; Wulf, Jörn

    2002-01-01

    During the past few years the concept of cranial stereotactic radiotherapy has been successfully extended to extracranial tumoral targets. In our department, hypofractionated treatment of tumours in lung, liver, abdomen, and pelvis is performed in the Stereotactic Body Frame (ELEKTA Instrument AB) since 1997. We present the evaluation of 63 consecutively treated targets (22 lung, 21 liver, 20 abdomen/pelvis) in 58 patients with respect to dose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) as well as conformity of the dose distribution. The mean PTV coverage was found to be 96.3% +/- 2.3% (lung), 95.0% +/- 4.5% (liver), and 92.1% +/- 5.2% (abdomen/pelvis). For the so-called conformation number we obtained values of 0.73 +/- 0.09 (lung), 0.77 +/- 0.10 (liver), and 0.70 +/- 0.08 (abdomen/pelvis). The results show that highly conformal treatment techniques can be applied also in extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy. This is primarily due to the relatively simple geometrical shape of most of the targets. Especially lung and liver targets turned out to be approximately spherically/cylindrically shaped, so that the dose distribution can be easily tailored by rotational fields.

  13. Immune Modulation and Stereotactic Radiation: Improving Local and Abscopal Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New and innovative treatment strategies for cancer patients in the fields of immunotherapy and radiotherapy are rapidly developing in parallel. Among the most promising preclinical treatment approaches is combining immunotherapy with radiotherapy where early data suggest synergistic effects in several tumor model systems. These studies demonstrate that radiation combined with immunotherapy can result in superior efficacy for local tumor control. More alluring is the emergence of data suggesting an equally profound systemic response also known as “abscopal” effects with the combination of radiation and certain immunotherapies. Studies addressing optimal radiation dose, fractionation, and modality to be used in combination with immunotherapy still require further exploration. However, recent anecdotal clinical reports combining stereotactic or hypofractionated radiation regimens with immunotherapy have resulted in dramatic sustained clinical responses, both local and abscopal. Technologic advances in clinical radiation therapy has made it possible to deliver hypofractionated regimens anywhere in the body using stereotactic radiation techniques, facilitating further clinical investigations. Thus, stereotactic radiation in combination with immunotherapy agents represents an exciting and potentially fruitful new space for improving cancer therapeutic responses.

  14. Safety and Efficacy of Frameless Stereotactic Brain Biopsy Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-jian Zhang; Wen-hao Wang; Xiang-pin Wei; Yi-gang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the safety and efficacy of frameless stereotactic brain biopsy.MethodsDiagnosticaccuracy was calculatedby comparing biopsy diagnosis with definitive pathology in 62 patients who underwent frameless stereotactic brain biopsy between January 2008 and December 2010in Xiamen University Southeast Hospital. Preoperative characteristics and histological diagnosis werereviewed and then information was analysed to identify factors associated with the biopsy not yielding a diagnosis and complications.ResultsDiagnostic yield was 93.5%. No differences were found between pathological diagnosis andfrozen pathological diagnosis. The most common lesions were astrocytic lesions, included 16 cases of low-grade glioma and 12 cases of malignant glioma.Remote hemorrhage, metastasis, and lymphoma werefollowing in incidence. Multiple brain lesions were found in 17 cases (27.4%). Eleven cases were frontal lesions (17.7%), 8 were frontotemporal (12.9%), 6 were frontoparietal (9.7%), and 5 each were temporal,parietal, and parietotemporal lesions (8.1%).Postoperative complications occurred in 21.0% of the patients after biopsies,including 10 haemorrhages (16.1%) and 3 temporary neurological deficits (1 epilepsy, 1headache, and 1 partial hemiparesis). No patient required operation for hematoma evacuation.Conclusion Frameless stereotactic biopsy is an effective and safetechnique for histologic diagnosis of brain lesions, particularly for multifocal and frontal lesions.

  15. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Adrenal Gland Metastases: University of Florence Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casamassima, Franco, E-mail: f.casamassima@dfc.unifi.it [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Masciullo, Stefano; Menichelli, Claudia; Masi, Laura [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Meattini, Icro [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bonucci, Ivano [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Agresti, Benedetta; Simontacchi, Gabriele [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Doro, Raffaela [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a retrospective single-institution outcome after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and December 2009, we treated 48 patients with SBRT for adrenal metastases. The median age of the patient population was 62.7 years (range, 43-77 years). In the majority of patients, the prescription dose was 36 Gy in 3 fractions (70% isodose, 17.14 Gy per fraction at the isocenter). Eight patients were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery and forty patients with multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: Overall, the series of patients was followed up for a median of 16.2 months (range, 3-63 months). At the time of analysis, 20 patients were alive and 28 patients were dead. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 39.7% and 14.5%, respectively. We recorded 48 distant failures and 2 local failures, with a median interval to local failure of 4.9 months. The actuarial 1-year disease control rate was 9%; the actuarial 1- and 2-year local control rate was 90%. Conclusion: Our retrospective study indicated that SBRT for the treatment of adrenal metastases represents a safe and effective option with a control rate of 90% at 2 years.

  16. Stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial lesions using a linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Kazufusa [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine; Toyota, Shun; Seta, Hidetoshi [and others

    1996-09-01

    Experiences in 47 cases of stereotactic radiosurgery were reported. The surgery was carried out using stereotactic radiosurgery system of Fisher STP system (Leibinger Co.). The accelerator was Clinac 2100c (Varian Co., 10 mV X ray) or EXL-15 SP (Mitsubishi Co., 6 mV) equipped with collimator. CT and MRI imaging data were firstly transported to the working station to determine the target volume, target coordinates and radiation dose. Irradiation from 90deg to -90deg directions from isocenter of the linac was done within an error of 1 mm after the actual measurement of the target on the port film. The treatment was necessary for 6-8 hr and and irradiation was essentially complete for it. The dose was 20 Gy for metastatic brain tumors (31 patients), 14-16 Gy for acoustic neuroma (1) and 16 Gy for arteriovenous malformation (1). The local control rate of the brain tumors was as high as 90%. The complication was cerebral necrosis (1 case) and exacerbation of neurological symptoms (1), which exhibited remission with steroid treatment. Thus stereotactic radiosurgery with linac made it possible to treat intracranial lesions without invasion effectively and safely. (K.H.)

  17. Obstacle detection for guided directional drilling for gas distribution applications; Detection d'obstacles pour le forage directionnel guide en vue des applications de distribution de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, R.S. [GRI, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2000-07-01

    GRI began the development of guided horizontal drilling concepts for the natural gas industry in 1984. At that time, very little technology was available for small, shallow depth horizontal directional drilling. Over the years in the US, a number of horizontal, directional drilling systems has been developed by several highly qualified manufacturers. Consequently, in the late 1990's horizontal directional drilling became a very efficient and cost effective method for piping, cable, and conduit installations in the US. In the gas industry approximately 10% of the service installations are made with horizontal directional drilling equipment. With greater use of this trench-less technology came the potential problem of striking other underground objects or linear systems. In 1997, GRI began a comprehensive program to study the possibility of using sensors with these horizontal directional drilling systems to detect underground obstacles in the path of trench-less drilling tools. This paper reviews the progress to date on these basic research and development studies. (author)

  18. Protein adsorption capability on polyurethane and modified-polyurethane membrane for periodontal guided tissue regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Zeeshan; Khan, Abdul Samad; Roohpour, Nima; Glogauer, Michael; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2016-11-01

    Periodontal disease if left untreated can result in creation of defects within the alveolar ridge. Barrier membranes are frequently used with or without bone replacement graft materials for achieving periodontal guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Surface properties of barrier membranes play a vital role in their functionality and clinical success. In this study polyetherurethane (PEU) membranes were synthesized by using 4,4'-methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO) and 1,4-butane diol (BDO) as a chain extender via solution polymerization. Hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) due to having inherent surface orientation towards air was used for surface modification of PEU on one side of the membranes. This resulting membranes had one surface being PEU and the other being PDMS coated PEU. The prepared membranes were treated with solutions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in de-ionized water at 37°C at a pH of 7.2. The surface protein adsorptive potential of PEU membranes was observed using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and Confocal Raman spectroscopy. The contact angle measurement, tensile strength and modulus of prepared membranes were also evaluated. PEU membrane (89.86±1.62°) exhibited less hydrophobic behavior than PEU-PDMS (105.87±3.16°). The ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus of PEU (27±1MPa and 14±2MPa) and PEU-PDMS (8±1MPa and 26±1MPa) membranes was in required range. The spectral analysis revealed adsorption of BSA proteins on the surface of non PDMS coated PEU surface. The PDMS modified PEU membranes demonstrated a lack of BSA adsorption. The non PDMS coated side of the membrane which adsorbs proteins could potentially be used facing towards the defect attracting growth factors for periodontal tissue regeneration. Whereas, the PDMS coated side could serve as an occlusive barrier for preventing gingival epithelial cells from

  19. Standard guide for mutual inductance bridge applications for wall thickness determinations in boiler tubing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes a procedure for obtaining relative wall thickness indications in ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic steels using the mutual inductance bridge method. The procedure is intended for use with instruments capable of inducing two substantially identical magnetic fields and noting the change in inductance resulting from differing amounts of steel. It is used to distinguish acceptable wall thickness conditions from those which could place tubular vessels or piping at risk of bursting under high temperature and pressure conditions. 1.2 This guide is intended to satisfy two general needs for users of industrial Mutual Inductance Bridge (MIB) equipment: (1) the need for a tutorial guide addressing the general principles of Mutual Inductance Bridges as they apply to industrial piping; and (2) the need for a consistent set of MIB performance parameter definitions, including how these performance parameters relate to MIB system specifications. Potential users and buyers, as well as experienced M...

  20. Survival and prognostic factors in patients treated with stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Thomas; Oettingen, Gorm von; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin A.;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background. Stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) of brain metastases is used with good effect around the world, but no consensus exists regarding which prognostic factors that are related to favourable or unfavourable prognosis after the treatment. A better definition of these factors...... will ensure a more precise application of the treatment. Material and methods. A consecutive cohort of the 198 patients treated for brain metastases with SRT without concurrent whole-brain radiation therapy at our department from 2001 to 2012 was retrospectively analysed. Results. Median survival was seven...... months and median time to clinical cerebral progression was eight months. The multivariate analysis revealed age ≥ 65 years, Performance Status ≥ 2, extracranial metastases and size of metastasis > 20 mm as independent prognostic factors related to shorter survival. No factors were independently related...

  1. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for skull base tumors: analysis of treatment accuracy using a stereotactic mask fixation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagnoli Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the accuracy of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT using a stereotactic mask fixation system. Patients and Methods Sixteen patients treated with FSRT were involved in the study. A commercial stereotactic mask fixation system (BrainLAB AG was used for patient immobilization. Serial CT scans obtained before and during FSRT were used to assess the accuracy of patient immobilization by comparing the isocenter position. Daily portal imaging were acquired to establish day to day patient position variation. Displacement errors along the different directions were calculated as combination of systematic and random errors. Results The mean isocenter displacements based on localization and verification CT imaging were 0.1 mm (SD 0.3 mm in the lateral direction, 0.1 mm (SD 0.4 mm in the anteroposterior, and 0.3 mm (SD 0.4 mm in craniocaudal direction. The mean 3D displacement was 0.5 mm (SD 0.4 mm, being maximum 1.4 mm. No significant differences were found during the treatment (P = 0.4. The overall isocenter displacement as calculated by 456 anterior and lateral portal images were 0.3 mm (SD 0.9 mm in the mediolateral direction, -0.2 mm (SD 1 mm in the anteroposterior direction, and 0.2 mm (SD 1.1 mm in the craniocaudal direction. The largest displacement of 2.7 mm was seen in the cranio-caudal direction, with 95% of displacements Conclusions The results indicate that the setup error of the presented mask system evaluated by CT verification scans and portal imaging are minimal. Reproducibility of the isocenter position is in the best range of positioning reproducibility reported for other stereotactic systems.

  2. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  3. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-15

    This guide provides federal facility managers with an overview of the energy savings potential of wireless lighting occupancy sensors for various room types, cost considerations, key steps to successful installation of wireless sensors, pros and cons of various technology options, light source considerations, and codes and standards.

  4. Application of PTCA steerable guide wire for abdominal and peripheral interventional angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuribayashi, Sachio; Ootaki, Makoto; Iwata, Yoshirou; Harada, Tsumio; Tsuji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Seiya

    1988-06-01

    Steerable guide wire used in PTCA was applied for various abdominal and peripheral interventional angiographies in eight patients. In embolization procedures, this wire was used with coaxial catheter system. The steerable wire facilitated superselective catheterization of distal branches in mesenteric, renal and hepatic artery embolizations. This wire was also useful for traversing severe stenoses in renal and peripheral angioplasties.

  5. Efficient and accurate stereotactic radiotherapy using flattening filter free beams and HexaPOD robotic tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Hansen, C. R.; Brink, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) high dose rate beam technique was introduced for brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). Furthermore, a HexaPOD treatment table was introduced for the brain SRS to enable correction of rotational setup errors. 19 filter fl...

  6. Fluoroscopy-guided application of corticosteroids for local control of manubriosternal joint pain in patients with spondyloarthropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Werner; Karberg, Kirsten; Sieper, Joachim

    2004-12-01

    Symptomatic manubriosternal arthritis, occasionally encountered with spondyloarthropathies, may not be adequately controlled by systemic therapy. Local corticosteroid injections make a potential contribution to symptomatic management. Three patients with acute inflammation of the joint as documented by MRI and fluoroscopy-guided therapy are presented. Topical treatment with triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg) was well tolerated and induced rapid and complete relief of pain for between 3 weeks and 3 months. In spite of the clinical improvement, the signs of inflammation in MRI did not decrease. Local steroid application seems to be an underused therapeutic modality in managing rheumatic involvement of the anterior chest wall.

  7. The Application of AHP Model to Guide Decision Makers: A Case Study of E-banking Security

    CERN Document Server

    Syamsuddin, Irfan; 10.1109/ICCIT.2009.251

    2010-01-01

    Changes in technology have resulted in new ways for bankers to deliver their services to costumers. Electronic banking systems in various forms are the evidence of such advancement. However, information security threats also evolving along this trend. This paper proposes the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology to guide decision makers in banking industries to deal with information security policy. The model is structured according aspects of information security policy in conjunction with information security elements. We found that cultural aspect is valued on the top priority among other security aspects, while confidentiality is considered as the most important factor in terms of information security elements.

  8. Towards Laser-Guide-Stars for Multi-Aperture Interferometry: an application to the Hypertelescope

    CERN Document Server

    Nuñez, Paul D; Riaud, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Optical interferometry has been successful at achieving milliarcsecond resolution on bright stars. Imaging performance can improve greatly by increasing the number of baselines, which has motivated proposals to build large (~ 100 m) optical interferometers with tens to hundreds of telescopes. It is also desirable to adaptively correct atmospheric turbulence to obtain direct phased images of astrophysical sources. When a natural guide star is not available, we investigate the feasibility of using a modified laser-guide-star technique that is suitable for large diluted apertures. The method consists of using sub-sets of apertures to create an array of artificial stars in the sodium layer and collecting back-scattered light with the same sub-apertures. We present some numerical and laboratory simulations that quantify the requirements and sensitivity of the technique.

  9. Planar waveguide with left-handed material guiding film for refractometry applications

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A symmetric 3-layer slab waveguide with a left-handed material as a guiding layer is examined analytically for cover refractive index detection. The TM mode dispersion relation of the proposed waveguide is investigated. The sensitivity of the proposed sensor to changes in the cover refractive index and the power flowing within each layer are presented. Some unusual features are found; for example, the sensitivity of the proposed sensor is negative. Moreover, the sensitivity improvem...

  10. Spatially varying Riemannian elasticity regularization: Application to thoracic CT registration in image-guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Aznar, M.;

    2012-01-01

    For deformable registration of computed tomography (CT) scans in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) we apply Riemannian elasticity regularization. We explore the use of spatially varying elasticity parameters to encourage bone rigidity and local tissue volume change only in the gross tumor......-model we achieved a total mean target registration error (TRE) of 0.92 ± 0.49 mm. Using spatially varying regularization for the HL case, deformation was limited to the GTV and lungs....

  11. Application of a Magnetostrictive Guided wave Technique to Monitor the Evolution of Defect Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Yong-Moo; Oh, Se-Beom; Lee, Duck-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    An advantage of a magnetostrictive strip transducer for a long-range guided wave inspection is that wave patterns are clear and simple when compared to a conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. Therefore, if we can characterize the evolution of defect signals, it could be a promising tool for a structural health monitoring of pipes for a long period of time as well as an identification of flaw. Of course, when evaluating a signal during a realistic field examination, it should be careful because of some spurious signals or false indications, such as signals due to a directionality, multiple reflections, mode conversion, geometrical reflections etc. Therefore, the different frequency components of the guided waves will travel at different speeds and the shape of the received signal will changed as it propagates along the pipe. Once the magnetostrictive sensors are attached in the pipe permanently and the signal shape and phase can be compared to the signals before and after, we can monitor the evolution of the flow for the given period. We developed a program to subtract the guided wave signal. The program has a capability of adjusting the time scale and can minimize the noise level after subtraction. By applying the newly developed program, a notch with 2% of CSA can be detected with increased accuracy with noise reduction.

  12. Regioselective patterning of multiple SAMs and applications in surface-guided smart microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanzhao; Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin

    2014-12-24

    A top-down nanofabrication technology is developed to integrate multiple SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) into regioselective patterns. With ultraviolet light exposure through regioselectively hollowed hard mask, an existing SAM at designated microregions can be removed and a dissimilar kind of SAM can be regrown there. By repeating the photolithography-like process cycle, diverse kinds of SAM building blocks can be laid out as a desired pattern in one microfluidic channel. In order to ensure high quality of the surface modifications, the SAMs are vapor-phase deposited before the channel is closed by a bonding process. For the first time the technique makes it possible to integrate three or more kinds of SAMs in one microchannel. The technique is very useful for multiplex surface functionalization of microfluidic chips where different segments of a microfluidic channel need to be individually modified with different SAMs or into arrayed pattern for surface-guided fluidic properties like hydrophobicity/philicity and/or oleophobicity/philicity, etc. The technique has been well validated by experimental demonstration of various surface-directed flow-guiding functions. By modifying a microchannel surface into an arrayed pattern of multi-SAM "two-tone" stripe array, surface-guiding-induced 3D swirling flow is generated in a microfluidic channel that experimentally exhibits quick oil/water mixing and high-efficiency oil-to-water chemical extraction.

  13. MRI-only lesions: application of diffusion-weighted imaging obviates unnecessary MR-guided breast biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spick, Claudio; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal A. [Medical University of Vienna (AKH), General Hospital Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Wien (Austria); Rudas, Margaretha [Medical University of Vienna (AKH), Clinical Institute of Pathology, Wien (Austria)

    2014-06-15

    To assess if the application of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) obviates unnecessary MR-guided biopsies in suspicious breast lesions visible only on contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI). This institutional review board (IRB)-approved, retrospective, single-centre study included 101 patients (mean age, 49.5; SD 13.9 years) who underwent additional DWI at 1.5 T prior to MRI-guided biopsy of 104 lesions classified as suspicious for malignancy and visible on CE-MRI only. An experienced radiologist, blinded to histopathologic and follow-up results, measured apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained from DWI. Diagnostic accuracy was investigated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Histopathology revealed 20 malignant and 84 benign lesions. Lesions were masses in 61 (15 malignant, 24.6 %) and non-masses in 43 cases (five malignant, 11.6 %). Mean ADC values were 1.53 ± 0.38 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in benign lesions and 1.06 ± 0.27 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in malignant lesions. ROC analysis revealed exclusively benign lesions if ADC values were greater than 1.58 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. As a consequence, 29 false-positive biopsies (34.5 %) could have been avoided without any false-negative findings. Both in mass and in non-mass lesions, rule-in and rule-out criteria were identified using flexible ADC thresholds based on ROC analysis. Additional application of DWI in breast lesions visible only on MRI can avoid false-positive, MR-guided biopsies. Thus, DWI should be an integral part of breast MRI protocols. (orig.)

  14. How to measure what matters: development and application of guiding principles to select measurement instruments in an epidemiologic study on functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Boldt, Christine; Post, Marcel; Eriks-Hoogland, Inge; Cieza, Alarcos; Stucki, Gerold

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe and to apply a comprehensive set of guiding principles in the selection of measurement instruments for a longitudinal epidemiologic study focusing on functioning using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as reference framework. Based on the literature, the ICF linkage rules, and the definition of ICF categories to be measured, the following guiding principles for selecting measurement instruments are defined: redundancy, efficiency, level of detail of information, comparability, feasibility, and truth and discrimination. Examples illustrate that the application of guiding principles allows for a systematic and reasoned process of measurement instrument selection and thus offers a potential solution for the multifaceted challenges that one encounters in the selection of measurement instruments. It is transparently demonstrated how the ICF linkage rules enable researchers to address issues such as efficiency, comparability, and redundancy and how the definition of a set of ICF categories to be measured allows assessing inefficiencies in measurement instruments. Because of the ICF linkage rules and the definition of ICF categories to be measured, new guiding principles for selecting measurement instruments emerge. The main challenges lie in the difficulty to quantify and prioritize the applicability of guiding principles and the fact that they strongly interact. Notably, the prioritization and application of guiding principles must be defined considering the specific characteristics and aims of the specific study.

  15. Stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: outcomes and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loescher, Alison R; Radatz, Matthias; Kemeny, Andras; Rowe, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is one of a number of recognised treatments for the management of trigeminal neuralgia refractory to drug therapy. The reported success of stereotactic radiosurgery in managing patients with trigeminal neuralgia varies in different units from 22 to 75%. This paper reports the outcomes of patients with trigeminal neuralgia who were treated at the National Centre for Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Sheffield, UK. The study reports the outcome of 72 patients treated consecutively between October 2004 and May 2008. Data were collected prospectively by a postal questionnaire sent to patients at 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. The median age was 65.6 years (39 males: 33 females). Fourteen patients had secondary trigeminal neuralgia (eight multiple sclerosis). Fifteen of the patients included in the study were receiving a second treatment (an initial treatment having improved their pain significantly for at least 6 months). All radiosurgical procedures were performed using a single 4 mm collimator isocenter covering the region of the dorsal root entry zone with a maximal radiation dose of 80 Gy. The percentage of patients defined as having an excellent outcome (pain free without medication) was 39% after 6 months, 36% after 12 months and 64% after 24 months. The percentage of patients who reported being very satisfied with treatment was 71% after 6 months, 57% after 12 months and 53% after 24 months. Half the patients with secondary trigeminal neuralgia were pain free without medication after treatment, and 60% of patients who underwent a second treatment were pain free. A new trigeminal sensory deficit was reported by 31% of patients after radiosurgical treatment.

  16. Stereotactic radiotherapy of primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, Joern; Guckenberger, Matthias; Haedinger, Ulrich; Oppitz, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerd; Baier, Kurt; Flentje, Michael [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2006-09-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the clinical results of stereotactic radiotherapy in primary liver tumors and hepatic metastases. Five patients with primary liver cancer and 39 patients with 51 hepatic metastases were treated by stereotactic radiotherapy since 1997. Twenty-eight targets were treated in a 'low-dose'-group with 3x10 Gy (n=27) or 4x7 Gy (n=1) prescribed to the PTV-encl. 65%-isodose. In a 'high-dose'-group patients were treated with 3x12 - 12.5 Gy (n=19; same dose prescription) or 1x26 Gy/PTV-enclosing 80%-isodose (n=9). Median follow-up was 15 months (2-48 months) for primary liver cancer and 15 months (2-85 months) for hepatic metastases. While all primary liver cancers were controlled, nine local failures (3-19 months) of 51 metastases were observed resulting in an actuarial local control rate of 92% after 12 months and 66% after 24 months and later. A borderline significant correlation between dose and local control was observed (p=0.077): the actuarial local control rate after 12 and 24?months was 86% and 58% in the low-dose-group versus 100% and 82% in the high-dose-group. In multivariate analysis high versus low-dose was the only significant factor predicting local control (p=0.0089). Overall survival after 1 and 2 years was 72% and 32% for all patients and was impaired due to systemic progression of disease. No severe acute or late toxicity exceeding RTOG/EORTC-score 2 were observed. Stereotactic irradiation of primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases offers a locally effective treatment without significant complications in patients, who are not amenable for surgery. Patient selection is important, because those with low risk for systemic progression are more likely to benefit from this approach.

  17. A Smartphone Application for Landscape Plants: A Case Study and Guide to Developing a Decision-Making Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gail; Purcell, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Smart phone applications are rapidly gaining popularity, and Extension programs are eager to use this teaching tool. But developing an application can be time intensive and costly. Students in environmental horticulture at the University of Florida teamed with the Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ program to develop an application with an extensive…

  18. Novalis Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyoung-Su; Song, Young-Jin; Kim, Ki-Uk

    2016-07-01

    The spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is rare, presenting with progressive, insidious symptoms, and inducing spinal cord ischemia and myelopathy, resulting in severe neurological deficits. If physicians have accurate and enough information about vascular anatomy and hemodynamics, they achieve the good results though the surgery or endovascular embolization. However, when selective spinal angiography is unsuccessful due to neurological deficits, surgery and endovascular embolization might be failed because of inadequate information. We describe a patient with a history of vasospasm during spinal angiography, who was successfully treated by spinal stereotactic radiosurgery using Novalis system.

  19. MRI anatomical mapping and direct stereotactic targeting in the subthalamic region: functional and anatomical correspondence in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Coste, Jerome [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, Service de Neurochirurgie A, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Inserm, ERI 14, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Ouchchane, Lemlih [Univ Clermont 1, UFR Medecine, Unite de Bio statistiques, telematique et traitement d' image, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Inserm, ERI 14, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Hemm, Simone [Inserm, ERI 14, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Durif, Franck [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, Service de Neurologie A, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Siadoux, Severine [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, Service de Radiologie A, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Gabrillargues, Jean [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, Service de Radiologie A, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Inserm, ERI 14, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chazal, Jean [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, Service de Neurochirurgie A, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2007-08-15

    Object Relationships between clinical effects, anatomy, and electrophysiology are not fully understood in DBS of the subthalamic region in Parkinson's disease. We proposed an anatomic study based on direct image-guided stereotactic surgery with a multiple source data analysis. Materials and Methods A manual anatomic mapping was realized on coronal 1.5-Tesla MRI of 15 patients. Biological data were collected under local anesthesia: the spontaneous neuron activities and the clinical efficiency and the appearance of adverse effects. They were related to relevant current values (mA), the benefit threshold (bt, minimal current leading an clear efficiency), the adverse effect threshold (at, minimal current leading an adverse effect) and the stimulation margin (sm = at - bt); they were matched with anatomy. Results We found consistent relationships between anatomy and biological data. The optimal stimulation parameters (low bt + high sm) were noted in the dorsolateral STN. The highest spontaneous neuron activity was found in the ventromedial STN. Dorsolateral (sensorimotor) STN seems the main DBS effector. The highest spontaneous neuron activity seems related to the anterior (rostral) ventromedial (limbic) STN. Conclusion 1.5 Tesla images provide sufficiently detailed subthalamic anatomy for image-guided stereotactic surgery and may aid in understanding DBS mechanisms. (orig.)

  20. Stereotactic Hypofractionated Irradiation for Metastatic, Inoperable, and Recurrent Malignancies: A Modern Necessity, rather than a Luxury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar P. Susheela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotactic-irradiation combines highly conformal delivery of radiation to selected volumes at large doses per fraction, with the treatment completed typically within one to five fractions. The radiobiological equivalence of doses delivered by stereotactic-irradiation (often beyond 80–100 Gy is much higher in comparison to the doses achievable by conventional fractionation. At the high fraction sizes used in stereotactic-irradiation, evidence suggests the role of various radiobiological mechanisms of actions, which are not traditionally relatable with conventional radiotherapy. In spite of the accumulating evidence in favour of the efficacy of stereotactic irradiation in terms of improving local control and at times attaining increments in survival, the clinical adoption of the technique remains dismal. This review provides a brief description of the available evidence describing the benefits of stereotactic-irradiation for the management of patients with oligometastases, unresectable malignancies and for disease recurrence after prior radiotherapy. Given the growing body of evidence illustrating the efficacy of stereotactic irradiation among patients with conditions which were previously often regarded as untreatable, it is likely that the widespread adoption of stereotactic irradiation may achieve cure in a few patients, while in the remainder providing prospects of long term local control. This could be a step in the direction of converting incurable malignancies into chronic controllable diseases.

  1. Electrospun PDLLA/PLGA composite membranes for potential application in guided tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ershuai; Zhu, Chuanshun; Yang, Jun; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Suhua; Wang, Yonglan; Sun, Lu; Yao, Fanglian

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to explore a membrane system with appropriate degradation rate and excellent cell-occlusiveness for guided tissue regeneration (GTR), a series of poly(D, L-lactic acid) (PDLLA)/poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (100/0, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70, 0/100, w/w) composite membranes were fabricated via electrospinning. The fabricated membranes were evaluated by morphological characterization, water contact angle measurement and tensile test. In vitro degradation was characterized in terms of the weight loss and the morphological change. Moreover, in vitro cytologic research revealed that PDLLA/PLGA composite membranes could efficiently inhibit the infiltration of 293 T cells. Finally, subcutaneous implant test on SD rat in vivo showed that PDLLA/PLGA (70/30, 50/50) composite membranes could function well as a physical barrier to prevent cellular infiltration within 13 weeks. These results suggested that electrospun PDLLA/PLGA (50/50) composite membranes could serve as a promising barrier membrane for guided tissue regeneration due to suitable biodegradability, preferable mechanical properties and excellent cellular shielding effects.

  2. Unique nucleotide sequence-guided assembly of repetitive DNA parts for synthetic biology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, JP; Lienert, F; Boehm, CR; Chen, JH; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2014-08-07

    Recombination-based DNA construction methods, such as Gibson assembly, have made it possible to easily and simultaneously assemble multiple DNA parts, and they hold promise for the development and optimization of metabolic pathways and functional genetic circuits. Over time, however, these pathways and circuits have become more complex, and the increasing need for standardization and insulation of genetic parts has resulted in sequence redundancies-for example, repeated terminator and insulator sequences-that complicate recombination-based assembly. We and others have recently developed DNA assembly methods, which we refer to collectively as unique nucleotide sequence (UNS)-guided assembly, in which individual DNA parts are flanked with UNSs to facilitate the ordered, recombination-based assembly of repetitive sequences. Here we present a detailed protocol for UNS-guided assembly that enables researchers to convert multiple DNA parts into sequenced, correctly assembled constructs, or into high-quality combinatorial libraries in only 2-3 d. If the DNA parts must be generated from scratch, an additional 2-5 d are necessary. This protocol requires no specialized equipment and can easily be implemented by a student with experience in basic cloning techniques.

  3. Application of mobile digital communications in law enforcement, an introductory planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, R. L.; Abraham, J. E.; Leflang, W. G.; Kennedy, R. D.; Wilson, J. H.; Gurfield, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A set of planning guidelines for the application of digital communications techniques to law enforcement use is presented. Some essential characteristics of digital techniques and their applications are outlined, as are some principles of system analysis, evaluation, and planning. Requirements analysis, system concept design, implementation planning, and performance and cost modeling are described and demonstrated with respect to this application problem. Information on law enforcement digital communications systems and equipment and a list of vendor sources are given in appendices.

  4. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of head muscles and glands correlated with cranial nerves and surface and sectional neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Chua, Beng Choon; Johnson, Aleksandra; Qian, Guoyu; Poh, Lan Eng; Yi, Su Hnin Wut; Bivi, Aminah; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2013-04-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relationships between head muscles and cranial nerves innervating them are complicated. Existing sources present these relationships in illustrations, radiologic scans, or autopsy photographs, which are limited for learning and use. Developed electronic atlases are limited in content, quality, functionality, and/or presentation. We create a truly 3D interactive, stereotactic and high quality atlas, which provides spatial relationships among head muscles, glands and cranial nerves, and correlates them to surface and sectional neuroanatomy. The head muscles and glands were created from a 3T scan by contouring them and generating 3D models. They were named and structured according to Terminologia anatomica. The muscles were divided into: extra-ocular, facial, masticatory and other muscles, and glands into mouth and other glands. The muscles, glands (and also head) were placed in a stereotactic coordinate system. This content was integrated with cranial nerves and neuroanatomy created earlier. To explore this complex content, a scalable user interface was designed with 12 modules including central nervous system (cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord), cranial nerves, muscles, glands, arterial system, venous system, tracts, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, white matter, visual system, head. Anatomy exploration operations include compositing/decompositing, individual/group selection, 3D view-index mapping, 3D labeling, highlighting, distance measuring, 3D brain cutting, and axial/coronal/sagittal triplanar display. To our best knowledge, this is the first truly 3D, stereotactic, interactive, fairly complete atlas of head muscles, and the first attempt to create a 3D stereotactic atlas of glands. Its use ranges from education of students and patients to research to potential clinical applications.

  5. TU-AB-201-07: Image Guided Endorectal HDR Brachytherapy Using a Compliant Balloon Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, G; Goodman, K [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: High dose rate endorectal brachytherapy is an option to deliver a focal, high-dose radiotherapy to rectal tumors for patients undergoing non-operative management. We investigate a new multichannel, MR compatible applicator with a novel balloon-based design to provide improved treatment geometry. We report on the initial clinical experience using this applicator. Methods: Patients were enrolled on an IRB-approved, dose-escalation protocol evaluating the use of the anorectal (AR-1) applicator (Ancer Medical, Hialeah, FL), a multichannel applicator with two concentric balloons. The inner balloon supports 8 source lumens; the compliant outer balloon expands to separate the normal rectal wall and the source lumens, yet deforms around a firm, exophytic rectal mass, leading to dose escalation to tumor while sparing normal rectum. Under general anesthesia, gold fiducial markers were inserted above and below the tumor, and the AR applicator was placed in the rectum. MRI-based treatment plans were prepared to deliver 15 Gy in 3 weekly fractions to the target volume while sparing healthy rectal tissue, bladder, bowel and anal muscles. Prior to each treatment, CBCT/Fluoroscopy were used to place the applicator in the treatment position and confirm the treatment geometry using rigid registration of the CBCT and planning MRI. After registration of the applicator images, positioning was evaluated based on the match of the gold markers. Results: Highly conformal treatment plans were achieved. MR compatibility of the applicator enabled good tumor visualization. In spite of the non-rigid nature of the applicators and the fact that a new applicator was used at each treatment session, treatment geometry was reproducible to within 2.5 mm. Conclusions: This is the first report on using the AR applicator in patients. Highly conformal plans, confidence in MRI target delineation, in combination with reproducible treatment geometry provide encouraging feedback for continuation with

  6. Stereotactic radiation in primary brain tumors in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benk, V; Clark, B G; Souhami, L; Algan, O; Bahary, J; Podgorsak, E B; Freeman, C R

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate treatment outcome and morbidity of stereotactic external-beam irradiation (SEBI) in pediatric patients, we reviewed 14 children treated with SEBI, using a 10-MV isocentric linear accelerator at McGill University between 1988 and 1994. The median follow-up was 46 months (range 6-82 months). The median age was 14 years. There were 8 low-grade astrocytomas, 3 neuromas and 4 other histologies. Twelve patients received fractionated treatments. The median collimator diameter was 2.5 cm (range 1-5 cm). The median biological effective dose delivered to the entire tumor volume was 57 Gy for astrocytomas and 43 Gy for the other histologies. The overall actuarial survival rate and disease-free survival rate at 5 years were 83 and 62%, respectively. For the patients with low-grade astrocytomas, the 5-year survival and disease-free survival rates were 100 and 60%, respectively. Four children had recurrence at a median of 37 months. Four patients developed treatment-related complications: 1 had edema alone, 2 had necrosis and 1 had edema associated with necrosis. Neither the physical nor radiobiological parameters were predictive of the treatment outcome or the treatment complications. Stereotactic irradiation is a valid option for progressive nonresectable tumors in children.

  7. Stereotactic radiotherapy of meningiomas. Symptomatology, acute and late toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzel, M.; Gross, M.W.; Failing, T.; Strassmann, G.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Gisssen (Germany); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Marburg Univ. (Germany); Hamm, K.; Surber, G.; Kleinert, G. [Dept. of Stereotactic Neurosurgery and Radiosurgery, Helios Klinikum Erfurt (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Background and purpose: stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is well established in the treatment of skull base meningiomas, but this therapy approach is limited to small tumors only. The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) offers an alternative treatment option. This study aims at local control, symptomatology, and toxicity. Patients and methods: between 1997-2003, 224 patients were treated with SRT (n= 183), hypofractionated SRT (n = 30), and SRS (n = 11). 95/224 were treated with SRT/SRS alone. 129/224 patients underwent previous operations. Freedom from progression and overall survival, toxicity, and symptomatology were evaluated systematically. Additionally, tumor volume (TV) shrinkage was analyzed three-dimensionally within the planning system. Results: the median follow-up was 36 months (range, 12-100 months). Overall survival and freedom from progression for 5 years were 92.9% and 96.9%. Quantitative TV reduction was 26.2% and 30.3% 12 and 18 months after SRT/SRS (p < 0.0001). 95.9% of the patients improved their symptoms or were stable. Clinically significant acute toxicity (CTC III ) was rarely seen (2.5%). Clinically significant late morbidity (III -IV ) or new cranial nerve palsies did not occur. Conclusion: SRT offers an additional treatment option of high efficacy with only few side effects. In the case of large tumor size (> 4 ml) and adjacent critical structures (< 2 mm), SRT is highly recommended. (orig.)

  8. Stereotactic radiotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mahdy; Kurz, Maximilian; Holzhey, Annekatrin; Melchert, Corinna; Rades, Dirk; Grisanti, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is a new approach to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The INTREPID trial suggested that SRT could reduce the frequency of regular intravitreal injections (IVIs) with antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs, which are necessary to control disease activity. However, the efficacy of SRT in nAMD and resulting morphological changes have not been validated under real-life circumstances, an issue, which we would like to address in this retrospective analysis. Patients who met the INTREPID criteria for best responders were eligible for SRT. A total of 32 eyes of 32 patients were treated. Thereafter, patients were examined monthly for 12 months and received pro re nata IVI of aflibercept or ranibizumab. Outcome measures were: mean number of injections, best-corrected visual acuity, and morphological changes of the outer retina-choroid complex as well as patient safety. Mean number of IVI decreased by almost 50% during the 12 months after SRT compared to the year before, whereas visual acuity increased by one line (logMAR). Morphological evaluation showed that most changes affect outer retinal layers. Stereotactic radiotherapy significantly reduced IVI retreatment in nAMD patients under real-life circumstances. Therefore, SRT might be the first step to stop visual loss as a result of IVI undertreatment, which is a major risk. PMID:28033280

  9. Stereotactic radiosurgery for acoustic neuroma: a Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, I.B. [Univ. of Manitoba, Section of Neurosurgery, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Tator, C.H. [Univ. of Toronto, Div. of Neurosurgery, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    Stereotactically delivered radiation is now an accepted treatment for patients with acoustic neuroma. In some cases, patient preference may be the reason for its selection, while in others neurosurgeons may select it for patients who are elderly or have significant risk factors for conventional surgery. The majority of patients with acoustic neuroma treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery have been treated with the Gamma Knife, with follow ups of over 25 years in some instances. Other radiosurgical modalities utilizing the linear accelerator have been developed and appear promising, but there is no long-term: follow up. Canada does not possess a Gamma Knife facility, and its government-funded hospital and medical insurance agencies have made it difficult for patients to obtain reimbursement for Gamma Knife treatments in other countries. We review the literature to date on the various forms of radiation treatment for acoustic neuroma and discuss the current issues facing physicians and patients in Canada who wish to obtain their treatment of choice. (author)

  10. Neural Network Control-Based Drive Design of Servomotor and Its Application to Automatic Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shyan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic guided vehicle (AGV is extensively used for productions in a flexible manufacture system with high efficiency and high flexibility. A servomotor-based AGV is designed and implemented in this paper. In order to steer the AGV to go along a predefined path with corner or arc, the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID control is used in the system. However, it is difficult to tune PID gains at various conditions. As a result, the neural network (NN control is considered to assist the PID control for gain tuning. The experimental results are first provided to verify the correctness of the neural network plus PID control for 400 W-motor control system. Secondly, the AGV includes two sets of the designed motor systems and CAN BUS transmission so that it can move along the straight line and curve paths shown in the taped videos.

  11. Totally Accessible MRI A User's Guide to Principles, Technology, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lipton, Michael L

    2008-01-01

    This is a practical guide that offers a lucid introduction to the principles of MRI physics. The author, recognized in the imaging community for his exceptional teaching methods and lectures, has written an easy to understand text. Each chapter explains the "why" and "how" behind MRI physics. Readers will understand how altering MRI parameters will have many different consequences for image quality and the speed in which images are generated. Practical topics, selected for their value to clinical practice, include progressive changes in key MRI parameters, imaging time, and signal to noise ratio. A wealth of high quality illustrations, complemented by concise text, enables readers to gain a thorough understanding of the subject without requiring prior in-depth knowledge

  12. Application of environmental and economic metrics to guide the development of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Ramos, Joana; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    The increasing industrial interest in biocatalytic processes is predominantly driven by the need for selective chemistry, with high reaction yield (Y-reaction) and few side reactions, as well as the need for optically pure chiral molecules (in particularly in the pharmaceutical industry). Interes......The increasing industrial interest in biocatalytic processes is predominantly driven by the need for selective chemistry, with high reaction yield (Y-reaction) and few side reactions, as well as the need for optically pure chiral molecules (in particularly in the pharmaceutical industry...... processes are not yet fully optimized. Hence, in this paper we propose the use of a range of tools which can be used to guide process development, research tasks and support decision-making. Three sets of metrics are identified, each for use at different stages of process development (route selection, early...

  13. Application of 2-D Position Sensitive Detector in Spatial Straightness Measurement of Guide Rails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lifeng; ZHANG Guoxiong; GONG Qiang; ZHENG Qi

    2005-01-01

    A laser collimating system based on 2-D position sensitive detector (PSD) is presented in this paper. The working principle of PSD is depicted in detail. A calibration device was developed to check the nonlinearity errors of PSD and a multilayer feedforward neural network based on error back-propagation algorithm was used to compensate errors. With the aid of computer-based data acquisition system, an automatic dynamic measuring process was realized. A series of experiments, including comparison tests with laser interferometer, were done to evaluate the performance of the measuring system. The experimental results show that the spatial straightness errors of guide rails can be measured with high accuracy. The maximum differences between the device and laser interferometer are 0.027 mm in Y direction, and 0.053 mm in X direction in the measuring distance of 6 m.

  14. Impact of lubrication on the tribological behaviour of PTFE composites for guide rings application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M TRABELSI; M KHARRAT; M DAMMAK

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the friction and wear behaviours of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-based composites were comparatively evaluated under dry sliding and oil-lubricated conditions. Two PTFE composites filled with bronze and bronze $+$ molybdenum disulfide (MoS$_2$) were considered. These composites were used as guide rings for hydraulic actuating cylinder. Friction and wear tests of the composite specimens sliding against high chromium steel ball were conducted using reciprocating linear tribometer. The wear mechanisms of the composites under the two different sliding conditions were analysed and discussed based on scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examinationsof the worn surface and optical micrographs of the steel counterface. Under the oil-lubricated condition, the friction and wear behaviours of the composites were considerably improved if compared to that under the dry sliding. The oil adsorbed layer limited the transfer of the composite to the steel counterface and avoided the oxidation of the MoS$_2$ during the sliding test.

  15. Guides d'ondes infrarouges pour applications en télécommunications, capteurs chimiques et biochimiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smektala, F.; Bureau, B.; Adam, J. L.; Lucas, J.

    2002-06-01

    Les énergies de phonons élevés des verres à base de silice limitent leurs applications dans l'infrarouge. Il devient donc incontournable de créer des verres à plus faible énergie de phonons pour développer une optique passive guidée opérationnelle dans l'IR moyen et pour réaliser de nouveaux guide d'ondes optiques activés par des lanthanides pouvant jouer le rôle soit d'amplificateurs optiques soit de fibres lasers. Les compositions de verres stables répondant à ces critères sont exceptionnelles et appartiennent aux familles chimiques des fluorures et des chalcogénures. Les verres de fluorures, convenablement dopés par des terres rares, ont permis la réalisation d'amplificateurs optiques opérant dans la fenêtre télecom de la silice (1.3 μm avec le praséodyme, 1.45 μm avec le thulium et 1.55 μm avec l'erbium. Les verres de chalcogénures permettent la réalisation de fibres opérationnelles jusqu'à 12 μm mais seulement pour des applications courtes distances telles que le transport d'énergie moyenne, la radiométrie à l'ambiante et la spectrométrie IR déportée par fibre optique de molécules chimiques ou de tissus biologiques.

  16. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver tumors. Principles and practical guidelines of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzing, Florian [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Klinische Kooperationseinheit Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Brunner, Thomas B. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Radiologische Klinik, Freiburg (Germany); Ernst, Iris; Greve, Burkhard [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Muenster (Germany); Baus, Wolfgang W. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Koeln (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Guckenberger, Matthias [UniversitaetsSpital Zuerich, Klinik fuer Radio-Onkologie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-15

    This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a practical guideline for safe and effective stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of liver tumors. The literature on the clinical evidence of SBRT for both primary liver tumors and liver metastases was reviewed and analyzed focusing on both physical requirements and special biological characteristics. Recommendations were developed for patient selection, imaging, planning, treatment delivery, motion management, dose reporting, and follow-up. Radiation dose constraints to critical organs at risk are provided. SBRT is a well-established treatment option for primary and secondary liver tumors associated with low morbidity. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe Stereotaxie der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie (DEGRO) legt hier eine Empfehlung zur sicheren und effektiven Durchfuehrung der SBRT von Lebertumoren vor. Eine Literaturrecherche zur Untersuchung der Evidenz der SBRT sowohl fuer primaere Lebertumore als auch fuer Lebermetastasen wurde durchgefuehrt. Auf dieser Basis werden Empfehlungen fuer technisch-physikalische Voraussetzungen wie auch fuer die taegliche Praxis der Leber-SBRT gegeben. Weiterhin werden radiobiologische Besonderheiten dieses Verfahrens dargestellt. Praktische Vorgaben werden fuer Patientenselektion, Bildgebung, Planung, Applikation, Bewegungsmanagement, Dosisdokumentation und Follow-up gegeben. Dosisempfehlungen fuer die kritischen Risikoorgane werden dargestellt. Die SBRT stellt eine etablierte Behandlungsmethode fuer primaere und sekundaere Lebertumore dar und ist mit niedriger Morbiditaet assoziiert. (orig.)

  17. Inter- and intrafractional movement of the tumour in extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy of NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik R; Hansen, Olfred; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the inter- and intra-fractional respiration induced tumour movements as well as setup accuracy in a stereotactic body frame for stereotactic treatments of NSCLC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From August 2005 to March 2008, 26 patients with NSCLC...... where given a stereotactic treatment. The patients were scanned with normal and uncoached respiration without use of abdominal compression. Each patient had CT-scans performed at four occasions throughout the treatment: As part of the CT-simulation and before the three radiotherapy treatments. At every...... frame were LR: 1.5 mm, AP: 1.1 mm and CC: 1.7 mm (1 SD). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Consecutive CT scans can be used to evaluate the respiration induced tumour movement. For patients immobilized in a stereotactic body frame, large movements of the tumour are rarely seen within the lung...

  18. Fully automated image-guided needle insertion: application to small animal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A; Bour, G; Aprahamian, M; Bayle, B; Graebling, P; Gangloff, J; Soler, L; Egly, J M; Marescaux, J

    2007-01-01

    The study of biological process evolution in small animals requires time-consuming and expansive analyses of a large population of animals. Serial analyses of the same animal is potentially a great alternative. However non-invasive procedures must be set up, to retrieve valuable tissue samples from precisely defined areas in living animals. Taking advantage of the high resolution level of in vivo molecular imaging, we defined a procedure to perform image-guided needle insertion and automated biopsy using a micro CT-scan, a robot and a vision system. Workspace limitations in the scanner require the animal to be removed and laid in front of the robot. A vision system composed of a grid projector and a camera is used to register the designed animal-bed with to respect to the robot and to calibrate automatically the needle position and orientation. Automated biopsy is then synchronised with respiration and performed with a pneumatic translation device, at high velocity, to minimize organ deformation. We have experimentally tested our biopsy system with different needles.

  19. Optimal structure of particles-based superparamagnetic microrobots: application to MRI guided targeted drug therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellal, Lyès [INSA Centre Val de Loire, Université d’Orléans, PRISME EA 4229 (France); Belharet, Karim [Hautes Études d’Ingénieur campus Centre, PRISME EA 4229 (France); Folio, David; Ferreira, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.ferreira@insa-cvl.fr, E-mail: antoine.ferreira@ensi-bourges.fr [INSA Centre Val de Loire, Université d’Orléans, PRISME EA 4229 (France)

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents an optimal design strategy for therapeutic magnetic micro carriers (TMMC) guided in real time by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. As aggregates of TMMCs must be formed to carry the most amount of drug and magnetic actuation capability, different clustering agglomerations could be arranged. Nevertheless, its difficult to predict the hydrodynamic behavior of any arbitrary-shaped object due to the nonlinear hydrodynamic effects. Indeed, the drag effect is related not only to the properties of the bolus but also to its interaction with the fluid viscosity, the free-stream velocity and the container geometry. In this work, we propose a mathematical framework to optimize the TMMC aggregates to improve the steering efficiency in experimental endovascular conditions. The proposed analysis is carried out on various sizes and geometries of microcarrier: spherical, ellipsoid-like, and chain-like of microsphere structures. We analyze the magnetophoretic behavior of such designs to exhibit the optimal configuration. Based on the optimal design of the boluses, experimental investigations were carried out in mm-sized fluidic artery phantoms to demonstrate the steerability of the magnetic bolus using a proof-of-concept setup. The experiments demonstrate the steerability of the magnetic bolus under different velocity, shear-stress, and trajectory constraints with a laminar viscous fluidic environment. Preliminary experiments with a MRI system confirm the feasibility of the steering of these TMMCs in hepatic artery microchannel phantom.

  20. Development and application of stent-based image guided navigation system for oral and maxillofacial surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woo Jin; Kim, Dae Seung [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Dental Research Institute and BK21, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Heo, Min Suk; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Kim, Myung Jin; Lee, Jee Ho [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a stent-based image guided surgery system and to apply it to oral and maxillofacial surgeries for anatomically complex sites. We devised a patient-specific stent for patient-to-image registration and navigation. Three dimensional positions of the reference probe and the tool probe were tracked by an optical camera system and the relative position of the handpiece drill tip to the reference probe was monitored continuously on the monitor of a PC. Using 8 landmarks for measuring accuracy, the spatial discrepancy between CT image coordinate and physical coordinate was calculated for testing the normality. The accuracy over 8 anatomical landmarks showed an overall mean of 0.56 {+-} 0.16 mm. The developed system was applied to a surgery for a vertical alveolar bone augmentation in right mandibular posterior area and possible interior alveolar nerve injury case of an impacted third molar. The developed system provided continuous monitoring of invisible anatomical structures during operation and 3D information for operation sites. The clinical challenge showed sufficient accuracy and availability of anatomically complex operation sites. The developed system showed sufficient accuracy and availability in oral and maxillofacial surgeries for anatomically complex sites.

  1. Guide d'application de la réglementation incendie

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Vous trouverez dans ce guide, de nombreux schémas et tableaux de synthèses, associés aux recommandations et alertes de l'auteur qui permettent d'aborder la problématique de la sécurité incendie étape par étape en identifiant clairement les dispositions à mettre en œuvre selon le type de construction. Pour chaque type de locaux, les principes de sécurité, le classement des bâtiments, les dispositions constructives, le désenfumage, les règles d'aménagement, les installations techniques ainsi que les moyens de secours sont décrits et commentés. Des cas spécifiques, tels que les logements-foyers, les parcs de stationnement ou les grandes cuisines (ERP) sont abordés. Pour les ERP, les dispositions de sécurité sont développées en tenant compte des spécificités des 15 types d'établissements les plus courants. Cette édition prend en compte les dernières évolutions réglementaires intégrées et/ou des précisions sur certains points : - installations de détecteurs de fumée dans les hab...

  2. MR findings of stereotactic radiofrequency VIM-Thalamotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joo Hyun; Hwang, Hee Young; Lee, Un; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Young Seok [Chung-Ang Gil General Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Jun [Dankook University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    To evaluate the role of the MRI after the stereotactic radiofrequency ventralis intermedius nucleus(VIM) thalamotomy for the treatment of tremor. 156 cases of the postthalamotomy MR findings were analyzed retrospectively. The sagittal T1 weighted image(WI), axial and coronal Proton and T2WI were obtained by using 0.38 T(Resonex Sunnyvale, U. S. A) machine . The interval between thalamotomy and MR examination was from 3 days to 2 months. The MR characteristics and complications related to thalamotomy were reviewed. In 16 cases, a follow-up MR was done 3 to 13 months after the initial MR study. We also reviewed the follow-up MR findings. The mean size of the thalamus lesion was 16 mm. The thalamus lesions were noted as a single layer in 23 cases and as layers of different signal intensity in 100 cases; (2 layers in 84 cases, and 3 or more layers in 16 cases). In 74 cases of the 84 cases with 2 layers, the inner layers was isointense with gray matter on T1WI, hypointense on T2WI, and the outer layer was hypointense on T1WI, hypointense on T2WI. There were extrathalamic lesions that were related to mistargetting of stereotactic radiofrequency. The locations of the extrathalamic lesions were the posterior limb of the interal capsule(119 case), the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the midbrain(39 cases), the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the basal ganglia(11 cases), and the midbraine(9 cases). In 5 cases of the mistargetting, double radiofrequency lesions were visualized because of the repeated coaqulation. The other complications were intracerebral hemorrhage(2 cases), subdural hemorrhage(2 cases), epidural hemorrhage(1 case), and intraventricular hemorrhage(1 case). On the follow up MR studies(16 cases), 2 cases showed the hemosiderin deposition in periphery of the lesion. The MRI was useful for the evaluation of the thalamic lesions and complications after the stereotactic radiofrequency VIM-thalamotomy for the treatment of tumor.

  3. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 2: User's guide to computer EMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A description and user's guide of the computer program developed to simulate the dynamics of an electromechanical actuator for aerospace applications are presented. The effects of the stator phase currents on the permanent magnets of the rotor are examined. The voltage and current waveforms present in the power conditioner network during the motoring, regenerative braking, and plugging modes of operation are presented and discussed.

  4. Image-guided intracranial cannula placement for awake in vivo microdialysis in nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Antong; Bone, Ashleigh; Hines, Catherine D. G.; Dogdas, Belma; Montgomery, Tamara O.; Michener, Maria; Winkelmann, Christopher T.; Ghafurian, Soheil; Lubbers, Laura S.; Renger, John; Bagchi, Ansuman; Uslaner, Jason M.; Johnson, Colena; Zariwala, Hatim A.

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial microdialysis is used for sampling neurochemicals and large peptides along with their metabolites from the interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain. The ability to perform this in nonhuman primates (NHP) e.g., rhesus could improve the prediction of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) action of drugs in human. However, microdialysis in rhesus brains is not as routinely performed as in rodents. One challenge is that the precise intracranial probe placement in NHP brains is difficult due to the richness of the anatomical structure and the variability of the size and shape of brains across animals. Also, a repeatable and reproducible ISF sampling from the same animal is highly desirable when combined with cognitive behaviors or other longitudinal study end points. Toward that end, we have developed a semi-automatic flexible neurosurgical method employing MR and CT imaging to (a) derive coordinates for permanent guide cannula placement in mid-brain structures and (b) fabricate a customized recording chamber to implant above the skull for enclosing and safeguarding access to the cannula for repeated experiments. In order to place the intracranial guide cannula in each subject, the entry points in the skull and the depth in the brain were derived using co-registered images acquired from MR and CT scans. The anterior/posterior (A/P) and medial-lateral (M/L) rotation in the pose of the animal was corrected in the 3D image to appropriately represent the pose used in the stereotactic frame. An array of implanted fiducial markers was used to transform stereotactic coordinates to the images. The recording chamber was custom fabricated using computer-aided design (CAD), such that it would fit the contours of the individual skull with minimum error. The chamber also helped in guiding the cannula through the entry points down a trajectory into the depth of the brain. We have validated our method in four animals and our results indicate average placement error

  5. Method for MRI-guided conformal thermal therapy of prostate with planar transurethral ultrasound heating applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rajiv; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Haider, Masoom A; Bronskill, Michael J

    2005-11-07

    A method for conformal prostate thermal therapy using transurethral ultrasound heating applicators incorporating planar transducers is described. The capability to shape heating patterns to the geometry of the prostate gland from a single element in a multi-element heating applicator was evaluated using Bioheat transfer modelling. Eleven prostate geometries were obtained from patients who underwent MR imaging of the prostate gland prior to radical prostatectomy. Results indicate that ultrasound heating applicators incorporating multi-frequency planar transducers (4 x 20 mm, f = 4.7 MHz, 9.7 MHz) are capable of shaping thermal damage patterns to the geometry of individual prostates. A temperature feedback control algorithm has been developed to control the frequency, rotation rate and applied power level from transurethral heating applicators based on measurements of the boundary temperature during heating. The discrepancy between the thermal damage boundary and the target boundary was less than 5 mm, and the transition distance between coagulation and normal tissue was less than 1 cm. Treatment times for large prostate volumes were less than 50 min, and perfusion did not have significant impact on the control algorithm. Rectal cooling will play an important role in reducing undesired heating near the rectal wall. Experimental validation of the simulations in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and generated patterns of thermal damage.

  6. Method for MRI-guided conformal thermal therapy of prostate with planar transurethral ultrasound heating applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Rajiv [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Burtnyk, Mathieu [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Haider, Masoom A [University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Bronskill, Michael J [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2005-11-07

    A method for conformal prostate thermal therapy using transurethral ultrasound heating applicators incorporating planar transducers is described. The capability to shape heating patterns to the geometry of the prostate gland from a single element in a multi-element heating applicator was evaluated using Bioheat transfer modelling. Eleven prostate geometries were obtained from patients who underwent MR imaging of the prostate gland prior to radical prostatectomy. Results indicate that ultrasound heating applicators incorporating multi-frequency planar transducers (4 x 20 mm, f 4.7 MHz, 9.7 MHz) are capable of shaping thermal damage patterns to the geometry of individual prostates. A temperature feedback control algorithm has been developed to control the frequency, rotation rate and applied power level from transurethral heating applicators based on measurements of the boundary temperature during heating. The discrepancy between the thermal damage boundary and the target boundary was less than 5 mm, and the transition distance between coagulation and normal tissue was less than 1 cm. Treatment times for large prostate volumes were less than 50 min, and perfusion did not have significant impact on the control algorithm. Rectal cooling will play an important role in reducing undesired heating near the rectal wall. Experimental validation of the simulations in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and generated patterns of thermal damage.

  7. Getting started with Spring Framework a hands-on guide to begin developing applications using Spring Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, J

    2016-01-01

    Getting started with Spring Framework is a hands-on guide to begin developing applications using Spring Framework. The examples (consisting of 74 sample projects) that accompany this book are based on Spring 4.3 and Java 8. You can download the examples described in this book from the following GitHub project:github.com/getting-started-with-spring/3rdEdition This book is meant for Java developers with little or no knowledge of Spring Framework. Getting started with Spring Framework, Third Edition has been updated to reflect changes in Spring 4.3 and also includes new chapters on Java-based configuration and Spring Data (covers Spring Data JPA and Spring Data MongoDB projects). The existing chapters have been revised to include information on Java-based configuration. The book also includes some new information on bean definition profiles, importing application context XML files, lazy autowiring, creating custom qualifier annotations, JSR 349 annotations, spring-messaging module, Java 8's Optional type, and s...

  8. Fundamental Studies of Fiber-Guided Soft Tissue Cutting by Means of Pulsed Midinfrared Lasers and their Application in Ureterotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, R; Knipper, A; Dro Ge, G; Schro Er, F; Gromoll, B; Birngruber, R

    1998-01-01

    Fiber-guided ablation of soft tissue with pulsed holmium and thulium lasers was investigated for intraluminal incisions. A bare fiber/tissue-contact application system with a nearly tangential irradiation geometry was first used in vitro on porcine ureter tissue. The efficiency and precision of the method was analyzed for different laser and application parameters. The ablation dynamics in water and tissue was investigated by fast flash photography. Uniform cuts could be achieved with 200- and 318-μm fibers using a free-running holmium laser with a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz and an average power of up to 4 W. The depth of the cuts could be increased by using a thulium laser with the same laser parameters. By reducing the pulse duration by one order of magnitude, the quality of the incisions was made more irregular, the zone of thermomechanical damage increased, and the cuts became deeper owing to the growing influence of cavitation on shorter laser pulse durations. In a first clinical trial, 20 patients underwent holmium laser therapy to reopen ureteral strictures. Neither bleeding nor other adverse effects due to the laser treatment occurred, showing IR laser ureterotomy to be a suitable and promising minimally invasive technique. © 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  9. "Hemosuccus pancreaticus"--primarily ultrasound-guided successful intervention using transcutaneous fibrin glue application and histoacryl injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, U; Mueller, A-K; Grote, R; Meyer, F

    2008-12-01

    There is a broad spectrum of causes for upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding that can be stopped by various approaches. On the basis of the report of an extraordinary case, the favorable minimally invasive approach of applying fibrin glue and histoacryl/lipiodol to the vascular basis of a bleeding pseudoaneurysm leading to "Hemosuccus pancreaticus" as a rare cause of recurrent bleeding in the upper GI tract and dangerous complications in the case of chronic pancreatitis is described. There were recurrent bleeding episodes within the upper GI tract in a 40-year-old female patient. Her medical history was significant for chronic pancreatitis and pseudocyst. Abdominal ultrasound plus duplex ultrasonography revealed a pseudoaneurysm within the tail of the pancreas as the cause of "Hemosuccus pancreaticus". Ultrasound guidance was used to repeatedly apply 2 ml of fibrin glue and 2 x 2 ml of the mixture of lipiodol and histoacryl to the basis of the pseudoaneurysm which led to complete and permanent cessation of the bleeding. Immediate and follow-up control duplex ultrasonographies (up to one year) demonstrated sufficient exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm but a preservation of the lienal artery with no disturbance of the blood perfusion in the splenic parenchyma. In conclusion, this is one of the first reports of the successful cessation of recurrent bleeding into a pseudocyst out of pseudoaneurysm ("Hemosuccus pancreaticus") by an ultrasound-guided transcutaneous fibrin glue and histoacryl/lipiodol application, which 1. is recommended as an alternative but feasible and safe therapeutic tool, 2. can provide sufficient and permanent cessation of bleeding but preserve the perfusion of the natural vessel as an initial step in the possible therapeutic algorithm, and 3. can avoid, in case of success, more invasive approaches such as angiography-guided embolization with coils or implantation of a prosthesis and even open surgical intervention, in particular, in high

  10. JBoss ESB Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    DiMaggio, Len; Magesh, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter contains practical examples with step-by-step instructions and plenty of screenshots to guide you through the implementation of JBoss ESB. This book is intended for Java programmers although you don't need previous experience with middleware such as application servers or ESBs.

  11. Gastrointestinal Toxicities With Combined Antiangiogenic and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, Erqi L.; Deng, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Pai, Reetesh K. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Brown, J. Martin; Giaccia, Amato; Loo, Billy W.; Shultz, David B.; Le, Quynh Thu; Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Combining the latest targeted biologic agents with the most advanced radiation technologies has been an exciting development in the treatment of cancer patients. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an ablative radiation approach that has become established for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, and it has been increasingly used in combination with biologic agents, including those targeting angiogenesis-specific pathways. Multiple reports have emerged describing unanticipated toxicities arising from the combination of SBRT and angiogenesis-targeting agents, particularly of late luminal gastrointestinal toxicities. In this review, we summarize the literature describing these toxicities, explore the biological mechanism of action of toxicity with the combined use of antiangiogenic therapies, and discuss areas of future research, so that this combination of treatment modalities can continue to be used in broader clinical contexts.

  12. Dose volume analysis in brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery

    CERN Document Server

    Tozer-Loft, S M

    2000-01-01

    compared with a range of figures of merit which express different aspects of the quality of each dose distributions. The results are analysed in an attempt to answer the question: What are the important features of the dose distribution (conformality, uniformity, etc) which show a definite relationship with the outcome of the treatment? Initial results show positively that, when Gamma Knife radiosurgery is used to treat acoustic neuroma, some measures of conformality seem to have a surprising, but significant association with outcome. A brief introduction to three branches of radiotherapy is given: interstitial brachytherapy, external beam megavoltage radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. The current interest in issues around conformity, uniformity and optimisation is explained in the light of technical developments in these fields. A novel method of displaying dose-volume information, which mathematically suppresses the inverse-square law, as first suggested by L.L. Anderson for use in brachytherapy i...

  13. Normal tissue toxicity after small field hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constine Louis S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stereotactic body radiation (SBRT is an emerging tool in radiation oncology in which the targeting accuracy is improved via the detection and processing of a three-dimensional coordinate system that is aligned to the target. With improved targeting accuracy, SBRT allows for the minimization of normal tissue volume exposed to high radiation dose as well as the escalation of fractional dose delivery. The goal of SBRT is to minimize toxicity while maximizing tumor control. This review will discuss the basic principles of SBRT, the radiobiology of hypofractionated radiation and the outcome from published clinical trials of SBRT, with a focus on late toxicity after SBRT. While clinical data has shown SBRT to be safe in most circumstances, more data is needed to refine the ideal dose-volume metrics.

  14. Normal tissue toxicity after small field hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Michael T; Constine, Louis S; Okunieff, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation (SBRT) is an emerging tool in radiation oncology in which the targeting accuracy is improved via the detection and processing of a three-dimensional coordinate system that is aligned to the target. With improved targeting accuracy, SBRT allows for the minimization of normal tissue volume exposed to high radiation dose as well as the escalation of fractional dose delivery. The goal of SBRT is to minimize toxicity while maximizing tumor control. This review will discuss the basic principles of SBRT, the radiobiology of hypofractionated radiation and the outcome from published clinical trials of SBRT, with a focus on late toxicity after SBRT. While clinical data has shown SBRT to be safe in most circumstances, more data is needed to refine the ideal dose-volume metrics. PMID:18976463

  15. Complications from Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kylie H. [School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Okoye, Christian C.; Patel, Ravi B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Siva, Shankar [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Biswas, Tithi; Ellis, Rodney J.; Yao, Min; Machtay, Mitchell; Lo, Simon S., E-mail: Simon.Lo@uhhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has become a standard treatment option for early stage, node negative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients who are either medically inoperable or refuse surgical resection. SBRT has high local control rates and a favorable toxicity profile relative to other surgical and non-surgical approaches. Given the excellent tumor control rates and increasing utilization of SBRT, recent efforts have focused on limiting toxicity while expanding treatment to increasingly complex patients. We review toxicities from SBRT for lung cancer, including central airway, esophageal, vascular (e.g., aorta), lung parenchyma (e.g., radiation pneumonitis), and chest wall toxicities, as well as radiation-induced neuropathies (e.g., brachial plexus, vagus nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve). We summarize patient-related, tumor-related, dosimetric characteristics of these toxicities, review published dose constraints, and propose strategies to reduce such complications.

  16. The use of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Irfan; Rowe, J G; Walton, L; Radatz, M W R; Kemeny, A A

    2005-02-01

    This is a systematic review of a consecutive series of 309 meningiomas treated with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery between 1994 and 2000. There was an extreme selection bias towards lesions unfavourable for surgery, determined by the patients referred for treatment: 70% of tumours involved the skull base, 47% specifically the cavernous sinus: 15% of patients had multiple meningiomatosis or type 2 neurofibromatosis. Tumour histology was the main determinant of growth control (p < 0.001), the 5-year actuarial control rates being 87% for typical meningiomas, 49% for atypical tumours and 0% for malignant lesions. Complications from radiosurgery were rare, occurring in 3% of tumours, and were most frequently trigeminal and eye movement disturbances treating cavernous sinus meningiomas. Given the problems inherent in managing these tumours, radiosurgery is a valuable strategy and adjuvant treatment for these meningiomas.

  17. LENS repair and modification of metal NW components:materials and applications guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smugeresky, John E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gill, David Dennis; Oberhaus, Jason (BWXT Y-12); Adams, Thad (Savannah River National Laboratory); VanCamp, Chad (Kansas City Plant)

    2006-11-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) is a unique, layer additive, metal manufacturing technique that offers the ability to create fully dense metal features and components directly from a computer solid model. LENS offers opportunities to repair and modify components by adding features to existing geometry, refilling holes, repairing weld lips, and many other potential applications. The material deposited has good mechanical properties with strengths typically slightly higher that wrought material due to grain refinement from a quickly cooling weld pool. The result is a material with properties similar to cold worked material, but without the loss in ductility traditionally seen with such treatments. Furthermore, 304L LENS material exhibits good corrosion resistance and hydrogen compatibility. This report gives a background of the LENS process including materials analysis addressing the requirements of a number of different applications. Suggestions are given to aid both the product engineer and the process engineer in the successful utilization of LENS for their applications. The results of testing on interface strength, machinability, weldability, corrosion resistance, geometric effects, heat treatment, and repair strategy testing are all included. Finally, the qualification of the LENS process is briefly discussed to give the user confidence in selecting LENS as the process of choice for high rigor applications. The testing showed LENS components to have capability in repair/modification applications requiring complex castings (W80-3 D-Bottle bracket), thin wall parts requiring metal to be rebuilt onto the part (W87 Firing Set Housing and Y-12 Test Rings), the filling of counterbores for use in reservoir reclamation welding (SRNL hydrogen compatibility study) and the repair of surface defects on pressure vessels (SRNL gas bottle repair). The material is machinable, as testing has shown that LENS deposited material machines similar to that of

  18. Operational modal analysis of civil engineering structures an introduction and guide for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rainieri, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of operational modal analysis for civil engineering, from theoretical background to applications, including measurement hardware, software development, and data processing. In particular, this book provides an extensive description and discussion of OMA methods, their classification and relationship, and advantages and drawbacks. The authors cover both the well-established theoretical background of OMA methods and the most recent developments in the field, providing detailed examples to help the reader better understand the concepts and potentialities of the technique. Additional material is provided (data, software) to help practitioners and students become familiar with OMA. Covering a range of different aspects of OMA, always with the application in mind, the practical perspective adopted in this book makes it ideal for a wide range of readers from researchers to field engineers; graduate and undergraduate students; and technicians interested in structural dynamics, system iden...

  19. Leveraging software architectures to guide and verify the development of sense/compute/control applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassou, Damien; Balland, Emilie; Consel, Charles;

    2011-01-01

    A software architecture describes the structure of a computing system by specifying software components and their interactions. Mapping a software architecture to an implementation is a well known challenge. A key element of this mapping is the architecture’s description of the data and control-f...... verifications. We instantiate our approach in an architecture description language for Sense/Compute/Control applications, and describe associated compilation and verification strategies....

  20. 超声导波检测技术的发展、应用与挑战%Development,applications and challenges in ultrasonic guided waves testing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何存富; 吴斌; 郑明方; 吕炎; 邓鹏; 赵华民; 刘秀成; 宋国荣; 刘增华; 焦敬品

    2016-01-01

    回顾了近三十年的超声导波技术发展及应用,阐述了导波的频散现象及其求解方法,深入分析了导波激励的力学加载原理和模态选择原则。论述了导波的传感激励方法与装置,并比较了各种激励接收方法的特点与应用场合。对超声导波在板类、管类和复合材料中的应用进行了评述,并从提高缺陷检测能力的角度,介绍了时间反转法和相控阵法在超声导波技术中的应用。最后总结了当前导波技术面临的机遇与挑战。%This paper gives an overview of the development and application of guided waves technique for NDT&E in recent 30 years. Firstly,the fundamental concepts of guided waves propagation and their characteristics are explained,and the mechanical loading principles and mode selection principles for guided wave excitation is analyzed thoroughly.Secondly,the transducer excitation method and its apparatus for ultrasonic guided waves are introduced,then the features and applications are discussed among different excitation methods.Thirdly,ultrasonic guided wave applications in plates,tubes and composite materials are described,meanwhile,the time reversal and the phased array method are introduced to improve the capability of defect detection.Finally,the challenges and opportunities in of guided ultrasonic waves in future are outlined.

  1. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  2. Dose volume analysis in brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozer-Loft, S.M

    2000-12-01

    A brief introduction to three branches of radiotherapy is given: interstitial brachytherapy, external beam megavoltage radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. The current interest in issues around conformity, uniformity and optimisation is explained in the light of technical developments in these fields. A novel method of displaying dose-volume information, which mathematically suppresses the inverse-square law, as first suggested by L.L. Anderson for use in brachytherapy is explained in detail, and some improvements proposed. These 'natural' histograms are extended to show the effects of real point sources which do not exactly follow the inverse-square law, and to demonstrate the in-target dose-volume distribution, previously unpublished. The histograms are used as a way of mathematically analysing the properties of theoretical mono-energetic radionuclides, and for demonstrating the dosimetric properties of a potential new brachytherapy source (Ytterbium-169). A new modification of the Anderson formalism is then described for producing Anderson Inverse-Square Shifted (AISS) histograms for the Gamma Knife, which are shown to be useful for demonstrating the quality of stereotactic radiosurgery dose distributions. A study is performed analysing the results of Gamma Knife treatments on 44 patients suffering from a benign brain tumour (acoustic neuroma). Follow-up data is used to estimate the volume shrinkage or growth of each tumour, and this measure of outcome is compared with a range of figures of merit which express different aspects of the quality of each dose distributions. The results are analysed in an attempt to answer the question: What are the important features of the dose distribution (conformality, uniformity, etc) which show a definite relationship with the outcome of the treatment? Initial results show positively that, when Gamma Knife radiosurgery is used to treat acoustic neuroma, some measures of conformality seem to have a surprising

  3. Stereotactic radiotherapy in the liver hilum. Basis for future studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, C.; Messmer, M.B.; Momm, F. [Univ. Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Becker, G. [Univ. Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

    2012-01-15

    A basis for future trials with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for tumors of the liver hilum should be established. Thus, dosage concepts, planning processes, and dose constraints as well as technical innovations are summarized in this contribution. Methods On the background of our own data, the current literature was reviewed. The use of SBRT in the most common tumors of the liver hilum (pancreatic cancer and Klatskin tumors) was investigated. Dose constraints were calculated in 2 Gy standard fractionation doses. Results A total of 8 pilot or phase I/II studies about SBRT in the liver hilum were identified. In recent years, the SBRT technique has developed very quickly from classical stereotactic body frame radiotherapy to IGRT techniques including gating and tracking systems. In the studies using classical body frame technique, patients experienced considerable toxicities (duodenal ulcer/perforation) as compared to tolerable side effects in IGRT studies (<10% grade 3 and 4 toxicities). Dose constraints for duodenum, liver, kidneys, colon, and spinal cord were derived from the investigated studies. Survival and local tumor control data are very heterogeneous: median survival in these patients with locally advanced pancreatic or Klatskin tumors ranges between 5 and 32 months. Excellent local tumor control rates of about 80% over 24 months were achieved using SBRT. Conclusion Despite a few negative results, SBRT seems to be a promising technique in the treatment of tumors of the liver hilum. Highest precision in diagnostics, positioning, and irradiation as well as strict dose constraints should be applied to keep target volumes as small as possible and side effects tolerable. (orig.)

  4. Inception of a national multidisciplinary registry for stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Jason P; Kavanagh, Brian D; Asher, Anthony; Harbaugh, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) represents a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of ionizing high-dose radiation to treat a wide variety of disorders. Much of the radiosurgical literature is based upon retrospective single-center studies along with a few randomized controlled clinical trials. More timely and effective evidence is needed to enhance the consistency and quality of and clinical outcomes achieved with SRS. The authors summarize the creation and implementation of a national SRS registry. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) through NeuroPoint Alliance, Inc., started a successful registry effort with its lumbar spine initiative. Following a similar approach, the AANS and NeuroPoint Alliance collaborated with corporate partners and the American Society for Radiation Oncology to devise a data dictionary for an SRS registry. Through administrative and financial support from professional societies and corporate partners, a framework for implementation of the registry was created. Initial plans were devised for a 3-year effort encompassing 30 high-volume SRS centers across the country. Device-specific web-based data-extraction platforms were built by the corporate partners. Data uploaders were then used to port the data to a common repository managed by Quintiles, a national and international health care trials company. Audits of the data for completeness and veracity will be undertaken by Quintiles to ensure data fidelity. Data governance and analysis are overseen by an SRS board comprising equal numbers of representatives from the AANS and NeuroPoint Alliance. Over time, quality outcome assessments and post hoc research can be performed to advance the field of SRS. Stereotactic radiosurgery offers a high-technology approach to treating complex intracranial disorders. Improvements in the consistency and quality of care delivered to patients who undergo SRS should be afforded by the national registry effort that is underway.

  5. Six-dimensional correction of intra-fractional prostate motion with CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eCollins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLarge fraction radiation therapy offers a shorter course of treatment and radiobiological advantages for prostate cancer treatment. The CyberKnife is an attractive technology for delivering large fraction doses based on the ability to deliver highly conformal radiation therapy to moving targets. In addition to intra-fractional translational motion (left-right, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior, prostate rotation (pitch, roll and yaw can increase geographical miss risk. We describe our experience with six-dimensional (6D intrafraction prostate motion correction using CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT. Eighty-eight patients were treated by SBRT alone or with supplemental external radiation therapy. Trans-perineal placement of four gold fiducials within the prostate accommodated X-ray guided prostate localization and beam adjustment. Fiducial separation and non-overlapping positioning permitted the orthogonal imaging required for 6D tracking. Fiducial placement accuracy was assessed using the CyberKnife fiducial extraction algorithm. Acute toxicities were assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC v3. There were no Grade 3, or higher, complications and acute morbidity was minimal. Ninety-eight percent of patients completed treatment employing 6D prostate motion tracking with intrafractional beam correction. Suboptimal fiducial placement limited treatment to 3D tracking in 2 patients. Our experience may guide others in performing 6D correction of prostate motion with CyberKnife SBRT.

  6. Climate risk screening tools and their application: A guide to the guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traerup, S.; Olhoff, A.

    2011-07-01

    Climate risk screening is an integral part of efforts to ascertain current and future vulnerabilities and risks related to climate change. It is a prerequisite for identifying and designing adaptation measures, and an important element in the process of integrating, or mainstreaming, climate change adaptation into development project, planning and policy processes. There is an increasing demand and attention among national stakeholders in developing countries to take into account potential implications of climate variability and change for planning and prioritizing of development strategies and activities. Subsequently, there is a need for user friendly guidance on climate risk screening tools and their potentials for application that targets developing country stakeholders. This need is amplified by the sheer volume of climate change mainstreaming guidance documents and risk screening and assessment tools available and currently under development. Against this background, this paper sets out to provide potential users in developing countries, including project and programme developers and managers, with an informational entry point to climate risk screening tools. The emphasis in this report is on providing: 1) An overview of available climate risk screening and assessment tools along with indications of the tools available and relevant for specific purposes and contexts (Section 3). 2) Examples of application of climate risk screening and assessment tools along with links to further information (Section 4). Before turning to the respective sections on available climate risk screening tools and examples of their application, a delimitation of the tools included in this paper is included in Section 2. This section also provides a brief overview of how climate screening and related tools fit into decision making steps at various planning and decision making levels in conjunction with an outline of overall considerations to make when choosing a tool. The paper is

  7. Programming Flex 2 The Comprehensive Guide to Creating Rich Media Applications with Adobe Flex

    CERN Document Server

    Kazoun, Chafic

    2008-01-01

    Programming Flex 2 discusses the Flex framework in context. The authors introduce features with practical and useful examples that tell the reader not only how, but also the reasons why to use a particular feature, when to use it, and when not to. This book is written for development professionals. While the book does not assume the audience has worked with Flash technologies previously, readers will benefit from the book most if they have previously built web-based, n-tiered applications. This book is part of the official Adobe Developer Library series.

  8. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy to the rat hippocampus. Determination of dose response and tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst-Stecken, A.; Roedel, F.; Grabenbauer, G.; Sauer, R. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery Center; Jeske, I.; Bluemcke, I. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Hess, A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology; Ganslandt, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Brune, K. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Doerenkamp Professor for Innovations in Animal and Consumer Protection

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (hfSRT) on adult rat brain tissue (necrosis, impact on blood-brain barrier, signal changes on high-field magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Material and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats underwent MRI and CT scanning of the brain and respective images were introduced into the Novalis trademark radiosurgery device (BrainLab, Feldkirchen, Germany). All animals (body weight 350 g) were irradiated weekly with doses of 2 x 10 Gy (n = 3 animals), 3 x 10 Gy (n = 3 animals) and 4 x 10 Gy (n = 3 animals), targeted to the left hippocampus after image-guided positioning. 4.7-T T2-weighted MRI scanning was performed in each animal. Animals were sacrificed 8, 12, and 16 weeks after hfSRT and brains were immersion-fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for subsequent histopathologic analysis. Results: In concordance with isodose distributions, pathologic signal hyperintensities in MRI were recorded from 4 x 10 Gy after 8 weeks, 3 x 10 Gy after 12 weeks, while 2 x 10 Gy induced slight detectable alterations only after 16 weeks. Subsequent histopathologic analysis revealed hippocampal cell necrosis with significantly earlier and stronger occurrence for higher doses (40 Gy > 30 Gy > 20 Gy). Pial microvessel permeability also increased after 40 Gy, whereas 30 Gy induced moderate changes. Conclusion: Conclusion: Partial-brain irradiation with hfSRT (Novalis trademark System) was successfully adopted for small animals and histopathologic analysis confirmed its repositioning accuracy. The neuropathologic effects correlated with dose and observation time. The approach will be further developed for quality assurance in hfSRT of normal brain tissue, as well as novel treatment modalities in epileptic rats and orthotopic tumor models. (orig.)

  9. A study to evaluate the efficacy of CBCT and EXACTRAC on spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Keun; Park, Su Yeon; Park, Do Keun; Song, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study is to evaluate the efficacy of the CBCT and EXACTRAC the image on the spine stereotactic body radiation treatment. The study compared the accuracy of the dose distribution for changes in the real QA phantom for The shape of the body of the phantom was performed. Novalis treatment artificially set up at the center and to the right, on the Plan 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm in front 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and upwards 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 0.5 degrees by moving side to side Exactrac error correction and error values of CBCT and plan changes on the dose distribution were recorded and analyzed. Cubic Phantom of the experimental error, the error correction Exactrac X-ray 6D Translation in the direction of the 0.18 mm, Rotation direction was 0.07 degrees. Translation in the direction of the 3D CBCT 0.15 mm Rotation direction was 0.04 degrees. DVH dose distribution using the results of the AP evaluate the change in the direction of change was greatest when moving. ExacTrac image-guided radiation therapy with a common easy and fast to get pictures from all angles, from the advantage of CBCT showed a potential alternative. But every accurate information compared with CT treatment planning and treatment of patients with more accurate than the CBCT ExacTrac the location provided. Changes in the dose distribution in the experiment results show that the treatment of spinal SBRT set up some image correction due to errors at the target and enter the spinal cord dose showed that significant differences appear.

  10. The first formulation of image-based stereotactic principles: the forgotten work of Gaston Contremoulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Cole A; Mornet, Patrick; Moreau, Jean-François

    2017-02-17

    Although image-based human stereotaxis began with Spiegel and Wycis in 1947, the major principles of radiographic stereotaxis were formulated 50 years earlier by the French scientific photographer Gaston Contremoulins. In 1897, frustrated by the high morbidity of bullet extraction from the brain, the Parisian surgeon Charles Rémy asked Contremoulins to devise a method for bullet localization using the then new technology of x-rays. In doing so, Contremoulins conceived of many of the modern principles of stereotaxis, including the use of a reference frame, radiopaque fiducials for registration, images to locate the target in relation to the frame, phantom devices to locate the target in relation to the fiducial marks, and the use of an adjustable pointer to guide the surgical approach. Contremoulins' ideas did not emerge from science or medicine, but instead were inspired by his training in the fine arts. Had he been a physician instead of an artist, he might have never discovered his extraordinary methods. Contremoulins' "compass" and its variants enjoyed great success during World War I, but were abandoned by 1920 for simpler methods. Although Contremoulins was one of the most eminent radiographers in France, he was not a physician, and his personality was uncompromising. By 1940, both he and his methods were forgotten. It was not until 1988 that he was rediscovered by Moreau while reviewing the history of French radiology, and chronicled by Mornet in his extensive biography. The authors examine Contremoulins' stereotactic methods in historical context, describe the details of his devices, relate his discoveries to his training in the fine arts, and discuss how his prescient formulation of stereotaxis was forgotten for more than half a century.

  11. Hematological Toxicity After Robotic Stereotactic Body Radiosurgery for Treatment of Metastatic Gynecologic Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunos, Charles A., E-mail: charles.kunos@UHhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Debernardo, Robert [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Radivoyevitch, Tomas [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Fabien, Jeffrey; Dobbins, Donald C.; Zhang Yuxia; Brindle, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate hematological toxicity after robotic stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) for treatment of women with metastatic abdominopelvic gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: A total of 61 women with stage IV gynecologic malignancies treated with abdominopelvic SBRT were analyzed after ablative radiation (2400 cGy/3 divided consecutive daily doses) delivered by a robotic-armed Cyberknife SBRT system. Abdominopelvic bone marrow was identified using computed tomography-guided contouring. Fatigue and hematologic toxicities were graded by retrospective assignment of common toxicity criteria for adverse events (version 4.0). Bone marrow volume receiving 1000 cGy (V10) was tested for association with post-therapy (median 32 days [25%-75% quartile, 28-45 days]) white- or red-cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and platelet counts as marrow toxicity surrogates. Results: In all, 61 women undergoing abdominopelvic SBRT had a median bone marrow V10 of 2% (25%-75% quartile: 0%-8%). Fifty-seven (93%) of 61 women had received at least 1 pre-SBRT marrow-taxing chemotherapy regimen for metastatic disease. Bone marrow V10 did not associate with hematological adverse events. In all, 15 grade 2 (25%) and 2 grade 3 (3%) fatigue symptoms were self-reported among the 61 women within the first 10 days post-therapy, with fatigue resolved spontaneously in all 17 women by 30 days post-therapy. Neutropenia was not observed. Three (5%) women had a grade 1 drop in hemoglobin level to <10.0 g/dL. Single grade 1, 2, and 3 thrombocytopenias were documented in 3 women. Conclusions: Abdominopelvic SBRT provided ablative radiation dose to cancer targets without increased bone marrow toxicity. Abdominopelvic SBRT for metastatic gynecologic malignancies warrants further study.

  12. A practical guide to the application of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Keith, David A; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Murray, Nicholas J; Nicholson, Emily; Regan, Tracey J; Miller, Rebecca M; Barrow, Edmund G; Bland, Lucie M; Boe, Kaia; Brooks, Thomas M; Oliveira-Miranda, María A; Spalding, Mark; Wit, Piet

    2015-02-19

    The newly developed IUCN Red List of Ecosystems is part of a growing toolbox for assessing risks to biodiversity, which addresses ecosystems and their functioning. The Red List of Ecosystems standard allows systematic assessment of all freshwater, marine, terrestrial and subterranean ecosystem types in terms of their global risk of collapse. In addition, the Red List of Ecosystems categories and criteria provide a technical base for assessments of ecosystem status at the regional, national, or subnational level. While the Red List of Ecosystems criteria were designed to be widely applicable by scientists and practitioners, guidelines are needed to ensure they are implemented in a standardized manner to reduce epistemic uncertainties and allow robust comparisons among ecosystems and over time. We review the intended application of the Red List of Ecosystems assessment process, summarize 'best-practice' methods for ecosystem assessments and outline approaches to ensure operational rigour of assessments. The Red List of Ecosystems will inform priority setting for ecosystem types worldwide, and strengthen capacity to report on progress towards the Aichi Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. When integrated with other IUCN knowledge products, such as the World Database of Protected Areas/Protected Planet, Key Biodiversity Areas and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the Red List of Ecosystems will contribute to providing the most complete global measure of the status of biodiversity yet achieved.

  13. Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework: a guide to developing and implementing second-generation mobile applications for behavioral health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Jennifer; Staplefoote-Boynton, B Lynette; Martinez, Angel; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Meeker, Daniella; Scharf, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    Advances in mobile technology and mobile applications (apps) have opened up an exciting new frontier for behavioral health researchers, with a "second generation" of apps allowing for the simultaneous collection of multiple streams of data in real time. With this comes a host of technical decisions and ethical considerations unique to this evolving approach to research. Drawing on our experience developing a second-generation app for the simultaneous collection of text message, voice, and self-report data, we provide a framework for researchers interested in developing and using second-generation mobile apps to study health behaviors. Our Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework breaks the app development process into four phases: (1) information and resource gathering, (2) software and hardware decisions, (3) software development and testing, and (4) study start-up and implementation. At each phase, we address common challenges and ethical issues and make suggestions for effective and efficient app development. Our goal is to help researchers effectively balance priorities related to the function of the app with the realities of app development, human subjects issues, and project resource constraints.

  14. 3D quantitative assessment of response to fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and single-session stereotactic radiosurgery of vestibular schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Chapiro, J. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lin, M. [Philips Research North America, Ultrasound Imaging and Interventions (UII), Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States); Geschwind, J.F. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Science, New Haven, CT (United States); Kleinberg, L. [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rigamonti, D.; Jusue-Torres, I.; Marciscano, A.E. [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yousem, D.M. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To determine clinical outcome of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) after treatment with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) and single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) by using 3D quantitative response assessment on MRI. This retrospective analysis included 162 patients who underwent radiation therapy for sporadic VS. Measurements on T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (in 2-year post-therapy intervals: 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10, 10-12 years) were taken for total tumour volume (TTV) and enhancing tumour volume (ETV) based on a semi-automated technique. Patients were considered non-responders (NRs) if they required subsequent microsurgical resection or developed radiological progression and tumour-related symptoms. Median follow-up was 4.1 years (range: 0.4-12.0). TTV and ETV decreased for both the FSRT and SRS groups. However, only the FSRT group achieved significant tumour shrinkage (p < 0.015 for TTV, p < 0.005 for ETV over time). The 11 NRs showed proportionally greater TTV (median TTV pre-treatment: 0.61 cm{sup 3}, 8-10 years after: 1.77 cm{sup 3}) and ETV despite radiation therapy compared to responders (median TTV pre-treatment: 1.06 cm{sup 3}; 10-12 years after: 0.81 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.001). 3D quantification of VS showed a significant decrease in TTV and ETV on FSRT-treated patients only. NR had significantly greater TTV and ETV over time. (orig.)

  15. Guide relative to the regulatory requirements applicable to the radioactive materials transport in airport area; Guide relatif aux exigences reglementaires applicables au transport des matieres radioactives en zone aeroportuaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This guide makes an inventory of all the points necessary for the correct functioning of the transport of radioactive materials in airport zone. Stowage of the parcels, program of radiological protection (P.R.P.), operation of transport, quality assurance, radiation dose evaluation, radiation monitoring, dose optimization, storage management, are the principal points of this guide. (N.C.)

  16. Application guide for AFINCH (Analysis of Flows in Networks of Channels) described by NHDPlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, David J.

    2009-01-01

    AFINCH (Analysis of Flows in Networks of CHannels) is a computer application that can be used to generate a time series of monthly flows at stream segments (flowlines) and water yields for catchments defined in the National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) value-added attribute system. AFINCH provides a basis for integrating monthly flow data from streamgages, water-use data, monthly climatic data, and land-cover characteristics to estimate natural monthly water yields from catchments by user-defined regression equations. Images of monthly water yields for active streamgages are generated in AFINCH and provide a basis for detecting anomalies in water yields, which may be associated with undocumented flow diversions or augmentations. Water yields are multiplied by the drainage areas of the corresponding catchments to estimate monthly flows. Flows from catchments are accumulated downstream through the streamflow network described by the stream segments. For stream segments where streamgages are active, ratios of measured to accumulated flows are computed. These ratios are applied to upstream water yields to proportionally adjust estimated flows to match measured flows. Flow is conserved through the NHDPlus network. A time series of monthly flows can be generated for stream segments that average about 1-mile long, or monthly water yields from catchments that average about 1 square mile. Estimated monthly flows can be displayed within AFINCH, examined for nonstationarity, and tested for monotonic trends. Monthly flows also can be used to estimate flow-duration characteristics at stream segments. AFINCH generates output files of monthly flows and water yields that are compatible with ArcMap, a geographical information system analysis and display environment. Chloropleth maps of monthly water yield and flow can be generated and analyzed within ArcMap by joining NHDPlus data structures with AFINCH output. Matlab code for the AFINCH application is presented.

  17. Railo 3 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Drew, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book uses practical examples and screenshots to steadily guide the reader through setting up and using Railo. If you want to develop your own dynamic web applications using CFML, then this book is for you. No prior experience with Railo or CFML is required, although you will be expected to have some web application development experience and knowledge of HTML.

  18. Stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardi, Umberto; Badellino, Serena; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo [Dept. of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) represents a consolidated treatment option for patients with medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical evidence accumulated in the past decade supports its use as an alternative to surgery with comparable survival outcomes. Due to its limited toxicity, SBRT is also applicable to elderly patients with very poor baseline pulmonary function or other severe comorbidities. Recent comparative studies in operable patients raised the issue of the possible use of SBRT also for this subgroup, with quite promising results that still should be fully confirmed by prospective trials with long-term follow-up. Aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the major studies conducted over the years on SBRT and to provide data on the efficacy and toxicity of this radiotherapy technique for stage I NSCLC. Technical aspects and quality of life related issues are also discussed, with the goal to provide information on the current role and limitations of SBRT in clinical practice.

  19. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  20. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  1. Ambulatory ECG-based T-wave alternans monitoring for risk assessment and guiding medical therapy: mechanisms and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Richard L; Ikeda, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Identification of individuals at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD), the main cause of adult mortality in developed countries, remains a major challenge. The main contemporary noninvasive marker, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), has not proved adequately reliable, as the majority of individuals who die suddenly have relatively preserved cardiac mechanical function. Monitoring of T-wave alternans (TWA), a beat-to-beat fluctuation in ST-segment or T-wave morphology, on ambulatory electrocardiogram (AECG) is an attractive approach on both scientific and clinical grounds. Specifically, TWA's capacity to assess risk for malignant arrhythmias has been shown to rest on sound electrophysiologic principles and AECG-based TWA monitoring can be performed in the flow of routine clinical evaluation. This review addresses: (1) electrophysiologic and ionic mechanisms underlying TWA's predictivity, (2) principles and practical aspects of AECG-based TWA monitoring, (3) clinical evidence supporting this approach to SCD risk stratification, and (4) current and potential applications in guiding medical therapy.

  2. 3D Segmentation with an application of level set-method using MRI volumes for image guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnjak, A; Montilla, G; Villegas, R; Jara, I

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovation in the application for image guided surgery using a comparative study of three different method of segmentation. This segmentation method is faster than the manual segmentation of images, with the advantage that it allows to use the same patient as anatomical reference, which has more precision than a generic atlas. This new methodology for 3D information extraction is based on a processing chain structured of the following modules: 1) 3D Filtering: the purpose is to preserve the contours of the structures and to smooth the homogeneous areas; several filters were tested and finally an anisotropic diffusion filter was used. 2) 3D Segmentation. This module compares three different methods: Region growing Algorithm, Cubic spline hand assisted, and Level Set Method. It then proposes a Level Set-based on the front propagation method that allows the making of the reconstruction of the internal walls of the anatomical structures of the brain. 3) 3D visualization. The new contribution of this work consists on the visualization of the segmented model and its use in the pre-surgery planning.

  3. In vitro bioactivity assessment of composite membrane containing antimicrobial lauric acid for guided bone regeneration in dental application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Muhammad Jabir; Kalitheertha, Jamuna Thevi; Sabri, Siti Noorzidah

    2015-07-01

    The manuscript reflect research work in fabrication of a triple layered composite membrane and to perform an in vitro bioactivity evaluation on composite membrane containing antimicrobial lauric acid. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) matrix was incorporated with various amounts of nanoapatite (NAp) and lauric acid (LA) to form a triple-layered composite membrane. This membrane was prepared using a single step fabrication technique comprising of solvent casting, thermally induced phase separation and solvent leaching processes. Apatite mineralization was detected on the composite membranes within 30 days of exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) and showed increased apatite formation at 30-60wt% of NAp content in the PLGA matrix on layer 3 (L3), that has the highest amount of NAp compared with layer 1 (L1) and layer 2 (L2) of the membrane. However, apatite mineralization was not detected on pure PLGA membrane. In addition, incorporation of LA on L1 and L2 has no influence on apatite mineral formation as none detected on these surfaces. The presence of NAp determines the formation of apatite crystals on the composite membrane. These membranes with triple layered design and bioactive properties showed potential use for guided bone regeneration purposes in dental application.

  4. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.

  5. Improved drug delivery properties of PVDF membranes functionalized with beta-cyclodextrin--application to guided tissue regeneration in periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschin, F; Blanchemain, N; Bria, M; Delcourt-Debruyne, E; Morcellet, M; Hildebrand, H F; Martel, B

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a membrane for guided tissue regeneration applicable in periodontology that could release antimicrobial agent during the healing period. Our strategy consisted to graft beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), a molecule that is known to form inclusion complexes with a large variety of drugs, onto PVDF membranes. Grafting occurred by using citric acid that provoked a crosslinking reaction of beta-CD, and the resulting polymer was imprisoned into the porous structure of the PVDF membrane. The reaction produced a weight increase of the membrane, the range of which depended on the temperature and on the time of curing applied in the process. The biological behavior of the membranes evaluated by proliferation and vitality tests showed good proliferation and improved activity of L132 epithelial cells on the raw and on the grafted membranes. Doxycyclin (DOX) and chlorhexidine (CHX) were used as antimicrobial agents. Their inclusion into the beta-CD cavity in aqueous solutions was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. After the impregnation of the membranes with DOX and CHX, their release was studied in vitro in batch type experiments and measured by UV spectrophotometry. Low amounts of DOX and CHX were delivered from the raw membranes within the first few hours of tests. Grafted membranes, however, delivered DOX and CHX in larger quantities within 24 h and 10 days respectively.

  6. Disorder Prediction Methods, Their Applicability to Different Protein Targets and Their Usefulness for Guiding Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Atkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role and function of a given protein is dependent on its structure. In recent years, however, numerous studies have highlighted the importance of unstructured, or disordered regions in governing a protein’s function. Disordered proteins have been found to play important roles in pivotal cellular functions, such as DNA binding and signalling cascades. Studying proteins with extended disordered regions is often problematic as they can be challenging to express, purify and crystallise. This means that interpretable experimental data on protein disorder is hard to generate. As a result, predictive computational tools have been developed with the aim of predicting the level and location of disorder within a protein. Currently, over 60 prediction servers exist, utilizing different methods for classifying disorder and different training sets. Here we review several good performing, publicly available prediction methods, comparing their application and discussing how disorder prediction servers can be used to aid the experimental solution of protein structure. The use of disorder prediction methods allows us to adopt a more targeted approach to experimental studies by accurately identifying the boundaries of ordered protein domains so that they may be investigated separately, thereby increasing the likelihood of their successful experimental solution.

  7. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis: a guide to good practice and understanding some new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, E H; Lawson, T

    2013-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence is a non-invasive measurement of photosystem II (PSII) activity and is a commonly used technique in plant physiology. The sensitivity of PSII activity to abiotic and biotic factors has made this a key technique not only for understanding the photosynthetic mechanisms but also as a broader indicator of how plants respond to environmental change. This, along with low cost and ease of collecting data, has resulted in the appearance of a large array of instrument types for measurement and calculated parameters which can be bewildering for the new user. Moreover, its accessibility can lead to misuse and misinterpretation when the underlying photosynthetic processes are not fully appreciated. This review is timely because it sits at a point of renewed interest in chlorophyll fluorescence where fast measurements of photosynthetic performance are now required for crop improvement purposes. Here we help the researcher make choices in terms of protocols using the equipment and expertise available, especially for field measurements. We start with a basic overview of the principles of fluorescence analysis and provide advice on best practice for taking pulse amplitude-modulated measurements. We also discuss a number of emerging techniques for contemporary crop and ecology research, where we see continual development and application of analytical techniques to meet the new challenges that have arisen in recent years. We end the review by briefly discussing the emerging area of monitoring fluorescence, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, field phenotyping, and remote sensing of crops for yield and biomass enhancement.

  8. Image-guided therapies in the treatment of hepatocellularcarcinoma: A multidisciplinary perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathon Willatt; Kevin K Hannawa; Julie A Ruma; Timothy L Frankel; Dawn Owen; Pranab M Barman

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach to the treatment ofpatients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) has led to improvements in screening, detection,and treatments. Interventional techniques includethermal ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, andradioembolization whilst stereotactic body radiationtherapy also uses imaging to target the radiation. Bothsurvival rates and cure rates have improved markedlysince the introduction of these techniques. This reviewarticle describes the image guided techniques used forthe treatment of HCC.

  9. Application of optimization technique to noncrystalline x-ray diffraction microscopy: Guided hybrid input-output method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Miao, Jianwei; Wang, C. W.; Lee, T. K.

    2007-08-01

    We have developed an algorithm that combines the concept of optimization with the conventional hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm for phase retrieval of oversampled diffraction intensities. In particular, the optimization algorithm of guiding searching direction to locate the global minimum has been implemented. Compared with HIO, this guided HIO algorithm retrieves the lost phase information from diffraction intensities with much better accuracy.

  10. Extracranial image-guided stereotactic; Stereotaxie extracranienne guidee par l'image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailleres, N.; Fenoglietto, P.; Boisselier, P.; Santoro, L.; Idri, K.; Simeon, S.; Azria, D.; Dubois, J.B. [CRLCC, Val d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, Dept. de Radiotherapie Oncologique, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2009-10-15

    The use of three-dimensional imaging board associated to dynamic computed tomography allows to reduce the patients positioning margins and to make sure that the target stays in the planned treatment volume (P.T.V.) during the different sessions. (N.C.)

  11. Lights Will Guide You : Sample Preparation and Applications for Integrated Laser and Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karreman, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    Correlative microscopy is the combined use of two different forms of microscopy in the study of a specimen, allowing for the exploitation of the advantages of both imaging tools. The integrated Laser and Electron Microscope (iLEM), developed at Utrecht University, combines a fluorescence microscope (FM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) in a single set-up. The region of interest in the specimen is labeled or tagged with a fluorescent probe and can easily be identified within a large field of view with the FM. Next, this same area is retraced in the TEM and can be studied at high resolution. The iLEM demands samples that can be imaged with both FM and TEM. Biological specimen, typically composed of light elements, generate low image contrast in the TEM. Therefore, these samples are often ‘contrasted’ with heavy metal stains. FM, on the other hand, images fluorescent samples. Sample preparation for correlative microscopy, and iLEM in particular, is complicated by the fact that the heavy metals stains employed for TEM quench the fluorescent signal of the probe that is imaged with FM. The first part of this thesis outlines preparation procedures for biological material yielding specimen that can be imaged with the iLEM. Here, approaches for the contrasting of thin sections of cells and tissue are introduced that do not affect the fluorescence signal of the probe that marks the region of interest. Furthermore, two novel procedures, VIS2FIXH and VIS2FIX­FS are described that allow for the chemical fixation of thin sections of cryo-immobilized material. These procedures greatly expedite the sample preparation process, and open up novel possibilities for the immuno-labeling of difficult antigens, eg. proteins and lipids that are challenging to preserve. The second part of this thesis describes applications of iLEM in research in the field of life and material science. The iLEM was employed in the study of UVC induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) of

  12. Clinical and pathological changes in cerebral arteriovenous malformations after stereotactic radiosurgery failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-ming; YE Xun; ZHAO Yuan-li; WANG Shuo; ZHAO Ji-zong

    2008-01-01

    Background Stereotactic radiosurgery is an alternative to resection of intracraniaI cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs),while it will failin some cases.This study aimed to evaluate the changes after stereotactic radiosurgery for AVMs.Methods Nineteen cases with cerebral AVMs had failure after stereotactic radiosurgery therapy.The symptoms and angiography were assessed.All patients underwent microsurgery.Pathologic examination was performed for all cases and electron microscopic examination was carried out in 6 patients.Reaults Seven cases had hemorrhage from 12 to 98 months after stereotactic radiosurgery,5 had headache.4 had refractory encephalon edema,2 had epilepsy as a new symptom and 1 had a pressure cyst 5 years after radiosurgery.Angiography in 18 cases,8-98 months after radiation therapy,demonstrated no significant changes in 5 cases.slight reduction in 9,near complete obliteration in 1 and complete obliteration in 3.An abnormal vessel was found on pathologic examination in 17 cases,even one case had obliterated in angiography.Electron microscopy examination showed vessel wall weakness,but the vessels remained open and blood circulated.One case died because of a moribund state before surgery.The other 18 cases had no new neurological deficiencies,seizure control and no hemorrhage occurred after microsurgery at an average follow-up of 3 years.Conclusion Stereotactic radiotherapy for AVMs should have a long period follow-up.If serious complications occur,microsurgery can be performed as salvage treatment.

  13. Treatment of Five or More Brain Metastases With Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Grant K.; Suh, John H.; Reuther, Alwyn M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Barnett, Gene H.; Angelov, Lilyana; Weil, Robert J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Neyman, Gennady [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of patients with five or more brain metastases treated in a single session with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with brain metastases treated with SRS to five or more lesions in a single session were reviewed. Primary disease type, number of lesions, Karnofsky performance score (KPS) at SRS, and status of primary and systemic disease at SRS were included. Patients were treated using dosing as defined by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 90-05, with adjustments for critical structures. We defined prior whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) as WBRT completed >1 month before SRS and concurrent WBRT as WBRT completed within 1 month before or after SRS. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression were used to determine which patient and treatment factors predicted overall survival (OS). Results: The median OS after SRS was 7.5 months. The median KPS was 80 (range, 60-100). A KPS of {>=}80 significantly influenced OS (median OS, 4.8 months for KPS {<=}70 vs. 8.8 months for KPS {>=}80, p = 0.0097). The number of lesions treated did not significantly influence OS (median OS, 6.6 months for eight or fewer lesions vs. 9.9 months for more than eight, p = nonsignificant). Primary site histology did not significantly influence median OS. On multivariate Cox modeling, KPS and prior WBRT significantly predicted for OS. Whole-brain radiotherapy before SRS compared with concurrent WBRT significantly influenced survival, with a risk ratio of 0.423 (95% confidence interval 0.191-0.936, p = 0.0338). No significant differences were observed when no WBRT was compared with concurrent WBRT or when the no WBRT group was compared with prior WBRT. A KPS of {<=}70 predicted for poorer outcomes, with a risk ratio of 2.164 (95% confidence interval 1.157-4.049, p = 0.0157). Conclusions: Stereotactic radiosurgery to five or more brain lesions is an effective treatment option for patients with

  14. Higher order Larmor radius corrections to guiding-centre equations and application to fast ion equilibrium distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthaler, S.; Pfefferlé, D.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.

    2017-04-01

    An improved set of guiding-centre equations, expanded to one order higher in Larmor radius than usually written for guiding-centre codes, are derived for curvilinear flux coordinates and implemented into the orbit following code VENUS-LEVIS. Aside from greatly improving the correspondence between guiding-centre and full particle trajectories, the most important effect of the additional Larmor radius corrections is to modify the definition of the guiding-centre’s parallel velocity via the so-called Baños drift. The correct treatment of the guiding-centre push-forward with the Baños term leads to an anisotropic shift in the phase-space distribution of guiding-centres, consistent with the well-known magnetization term. The consequence of these higher order terms are quantified in three cases where energetic ions are usually followed with standard guiding-centre equations: (1) neutral beam injection in a MAST-like low aspect-ratio spherical equilibrium where the fast ion driven current is significantly larger with respect to previous calculations, (2) fast ion losses due to resonant magnetic perturbations where a lower lost fraction and a better confinement is confirmed, (3) alpha particles in the ripple field of the European DEMO where the effect is found to be marginal.

  15. Toxic risk of stereotactic body radiotherapy and concurrent helical tomotherapy followed by erlotinib for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-An

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT applied by helical tomotherapy (HT is feasible for lung cancer in clinical. Using SBRT concurrently with erlotinib for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is not reported previously. Case Presentation A 77-year-old man with stage III NSCLC, received erlotinib 150 mg/day, combined with image-guided SBRT via HT. A total tumor dose of 54 Gy/9 fractions was delivered to the tumor bed. The tumor responded dramatically and the combined regimen was well tolerated. After concurrent erlotinib-SBRT, erlotinib was continued as maintenance therapy. The patient developed dyspnea three months after the combined therapy and radiation pneumonitis with interstitial lung disease was suspected. Conclusions Combination SBRT, HT, and erlotinib therapy provided effective anti-tumor results. Nonetheless, the potential risks of enhanced adverse effects between radiation and erlotinib should be monitored closely, especially when SBRT is part of the regimen.

  16. Application for TJ-II Signals Visualization: User's Guide; Aplicacion para la Visualizacion de Senales de TJ-II: Guia del Usuario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E.; Portas, A. B.; Vega, J. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In this documents are described the functionalities of the application developed by the Data Acquisition Group for TJ-II signal visualization. There are two versions of the application, the On-line version, used for signal visualization during TJ-II operation, and the Off-line version, used for signal visualization without TJ-II operation. Both versions of the application consist in a graphical user interface developed for X/Motif, in which most of the actions can be done using the mouse buttons. The functionalities of both versions of the application are described in this user's guide, beginning at the application start-up and explaining in detail all the options that it provides and the actions that can be done with each graphic control. (Author) 8 refs.

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Pulsed Radiofrequency Application via the Pterygopalatine Fossa: A Practical Approach to Treat Refractory Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Antoun; Bendok, Bernard R; Prine, Jeremy J; Kendall, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Although pharmacological therapy is the primary treatment modality for trigeminal neuralgia associated pain, ineffective analgesia and dose limiting side effects often prompt patients to seek alternative pharmacological solutions such as interventional nerve blockade. Blockade of the Gasserian ganglion or its branches is an effective analgesic procedure for trigeminal neuralgia, traditionally performed using fluoroscopy or CT imaging. Ultrasonography allows point of care and real time visualization of needle placement within the surrounding anatomical structures. The use of ultrasonography with pulsed radiofrequency therapy for trigeminal neuralgia has not been reported. Our case is a 66-year-old male suffering from trigeminal neuralgia for 4 years that was refractory to pharmacologic therapy. Neurological examination was normal with no sensory deficit. Imaging showed no vascular compression or mass involving the trigeminal nerve. A diagnostic ultrasound-guided trigeminal nerve block via the pterygopalatine fossa with 4 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% and 4 mg dexamethasone provided immediate pain relief (100%) with sustained analgesia >50% at 2 weeks. Pain relief was not sustained at one month, with return to pretreatment symptoms. A series of injections were performed with similar intermittent analgesic effectiveness. The decision was made that the patient was a suitable candidate for pulsed radiofrequency application in the pterygopalatine fossa. We successfully used an alternative approach through the pterygopalatine fossa to treat trigeminal neuralgia using ultrasound guidance in an office setting. Our case demonstrates the utility of ultrasound-guidance pulsed radiofrequency treatment in the pterygopalatine fossa as a potential alternative to other percutaneous techniques for patients with medical refractory trigeminal neuralgia.

  18. The benefits of paired-agent imaging in molecular-guided surgery: an update on methods and applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2016-03-01

    One of the major complications with conventional imaging-agent-based molecular imaging, particularly for cancer imaging, is variability in agent delivery and nonspecific retention in biological tissue. Such factors can account to "swamp" the signal arising from specifically bound imaging agent, which is presumably indicative of the concentration of targeted biomolecule. In the 1950s, Pressman et al. proposed a method of accounting for these delivery and retention effects by normalizing targeted antibody retention to the retention of a co-administered "untargeted"/control imaging agent [1]. Our group resurrected the approach within the last 5 years, finding ways to utilize this so-called "paired-agent" imaging approach to directly quantify biomolecule concentration in tissue (in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo) [2]. These novel paired-agent imaging approaches capable of quantifying biomolecule concentration provide enormous potential for being adapted to and optimizing molecular-guided surgery, which has a principle goal of identifying distinct biological tissues (tumor, nerves, etc…) based on their distinct molecular environment. This presentation will cover the principles and nuances of paired-agent imaging, as well as the current status of the field and future applications. [1] D. Pressman, E. D. Day, and M. Blau, "The use of paired labeling in the determination of tumor-localizing antibodies," Cancer Res, 17(9), 845-50 (1957). [2] K. M. Tichauer, Y. Wang, B. W. Pogue et al., "Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging," Phys Med Biol, 60(14), R239-69 (2015).

  19. Clinical application of CT and CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy in patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Luciana Vargas; Souza Júnior, Arthur Soares, E-mail: fabianonatividade@terra.com.br [Rio Preto-Ultra-X Radiological Diagnosis Institute, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of CT and CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (CT-PTNB) in patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs). Methods: We retrospectively studied 113 patients with PNs undergoing CT and CT-PTNB. Variables such as gender, age at diagnosis, smoking status, CT findings, and CT-PTNB techniques were analyzed. Data analysis was performed with the Student's t-test for independent samples the chi-square test, and normal approximation test for comparison of two proportions. Results: Of the 113 patients studied, 68 (60.2%) were male and 78 (69%) were smokers. The diameter of malignant lesions ranged from 2.6 cm to 10.0 cm. Most of the IPNs (85%) were located in the peripheral region. The biopsied IPNs were found to be malignant in 88 patients (77.8%) and benign in 25 (22.2%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common malignant tumor, affecting older patients. The IPN diameter was significantly greater in patients with malignant PNs than in those with benign IPNs (p < 0.001). Having regular contour correlated significantly with an IPN being benign (p = 0.022), whereas spiculated IPNs and bosselated IPNs were more often malignant (in 50.7% and 28.7%, respectively). Homogeneous attenuation and necrosis were more common in patients with malignant lesions (51.9% and 26.9%, respectively). Conclusions: In our sample, CT and CT-PTNB were useful in distinguishing between malignant and benign IPNs. Advanced age and smoking were significantly associated with malignancy. Certain CT findings related to IPNs (larger diameter, spiculated borders, homogeneous attenuation, and necrosis) were associated with malignancy. (author)

  20. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Chisa; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Nagai, Aiko; Hayashi, Naoki

    2010-06-01

    Craniopharyngioma has benign histological character. However, because of proximity to optic pathways, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus, it may cause severe and permanent damage to such critical structures and can even be life threatening. Total surgical resection is often difficult. This study aims to evaluate treatment results of Novalis stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways. Ten patients (six men, four women) with craniopharyngioma and median age of 56.5 years (range 10-74 years) were treated by SRT using Novalis from July 2006 through March 2009. Median volume of tumor was 7.9 ml (range 1.1-21 ml). Three-dimensional noncoplanar five- or seven-beam SRT or coplanar five-beam SRT with intensity modulation was performed. Total dose of 30-39 Gy in 10-15 fractions (median 33 Gy) was delivered to the target. Ten patients were followed up for 9-36 months (median 25.5 months). Response rate was 80% (8/10), and control rate was 100%. Improvement of neurological symptoms was observed in five patients. No serious complications due to SRT were found. SRT for craniopharyngioma may be a safe and effective treatment. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine long-term tumor control or late complications.

  1. Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Yasushi; Kida, Yoshihisa [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan). Gamma Knife Center

    2001-06-01

    The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

  2. Phase II study on stereotactic body radiotherapy of colorectal metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeyer, Morten; Grau, Cai; Der Maase, Hans von [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology; Roe, Henrik; Kiil Berthelsen, Anne; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Ohlhuis, Lars [Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Traberg Hansen, Anders; Petersen, Joergen [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Medical Physics; Nellemann, Hanne [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-09-15

    Surgical resection provides long term survival in approximately 30% of patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) liver metastases. However, only a limited number of patients with CRC-metastases are amendable for surgery. We have tested the effect of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of inoperable patients with CRC-metastases. Sixty-four patients with a total number of 141 CRC-metastases in the liver (n=44), lung (n=12), lymph nodes (n=3), suprarenal gland (n=1) or two organs (n=4) were treated with SBRT with a central dose of 15 Gyx3 within 5-8 days. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. After 2 years, actuarial local control was 86% and 63% in tumor and patient based analysis, respectively. Nineteen percent were without local or distant progression after 2 years and overall survival was 67, 38, 22, 13, and 13% after 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years, respectively. One patient died due to hepatic failure, one patient was operated for a colonic perforation and two patients were conservatively treated for duodenal ulcerations. Beside these, only moderate toxicities such as nausea, diarrhoea and skin reactions were observed. SBRT in patients with inoperable CRC-metastases resulted in high probability of local control and promising survival rate. One toxic death and few severe reactions were observed. For the majority of patients, the treatment related toxicity was moderate.

  3. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas: What Happens Long Term?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Daniel E., E-mail: daniel.roos@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of Adelaide School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Potter, Andrew E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Brophy, Brian P. [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of Adelaide School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the clinical outcomes for acoustic neuroma treated with low-dose linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) >10 years earlier at the Royal Adelaide Hospital using data collected prospectively at a dedicated SRS clinic. Methods and Materials: Between November 1993 and December 2000, 51 patients underwent SRS for acoustic neuroma. For the 44 patients with primary SRS for sporadic (unilateral) lesions, the median age was 63 years, the median of the maximal tumor diameter was 21 mm (range, 11-34), and the marginal dose was 14 Gy for the first 4 patients and 12 Gy for the other 40. Results: The crude tumor control rate was 97.7% (1 patient required salvage surgery for progression at 9.75 years). Only 8 (29%) of 28 patients ultimately retained useful hearing (interaural pure tone average {<=}50 dB). Also, although the Kaplan-Meier estimated rate of hearing preservation at 5 years was 57% (95% confidence interval, 38-74%), this decreased to 24% (95% confidence interval, 11-44%) at 10 years. New or worsened V and VII cranial neuropathy occurred in 11% and 2% of patients, respectively; all cases were transient. No case of radiation oncogenesis developed. Conclusions: The long-term follow-up data of low-dose (12-14 Gy) linear accelerator SRS for acoustic neuroma have confirmed excellent tumor control and acceptable cranial neuropathy rates but a continual decrease in hearing preservation out to {>=}10 years.

  4. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, C.; Theodorou, M.; Poullos, N.; Astner, S.T.; Geinitz, H.; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Stalla, G.K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany). Klinische Neuroendokrinologie; Meyer, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Grosu, A.L [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate tumor control and side effects associated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in the management of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Patients and methods: We report on 37 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated with FSRT at our department. All patients had previously undergone surgery. Twenty-nine patients had nonfunctioning, 8 had hormone-producing adenoma. The mean total dose delivered by a linear accelerator was 49.4 Gy (range 45-52.2 Gy), 5 x 1.8 Gy weekly. The mean PTV was 22.8 ccm (range 2.0-78.3 ccm). Evaluation included serial imaging tests, endocrinologic and ophthalmologic examination. Results: Tumor control was 91.9 % for a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 2-111 months). Before FSRT partial hypopituitarism was present in 41 % of patients, while 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. After FSRT pituitary function remained normal in 22 %, 43 % had partial pituitary dysfunction, and 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. Visual acuity was stable in 76 % of patients, improved in 19 %, and deteriorated in 5 %. Visual fields remained stable in 35 patients (95 %), improved in one and worsened in 1 patient (2.7 %). Conclusion: FSRT is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma. Good local tumor control and preservation of adjacent structures can be reached, even for large tumors. (orig.)

  5. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Disease in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungsoo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver metastasis in solid tumors, including colorectal cancer, is the most frequent and lethal complication. The development of systemic therapy has led to prolonged survival. However, in selected patients with a finite number of discrete lesions in liver, defined as oligometastatic state, additional local therapies such as surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, and radiotherapy can lead to permanent local disease control and improve survival. Among these, an advance in radiation therapy made it possible to deliver high dose radiation to the tumor more accurately, without impairing the liver function. In recent years, the introduction of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR has offered even more intensive tumor dose escalation in a few fractions with reduced dose to the adjacent normal liver. Many studies have shown that SABR for oligometastases is effective and safe, with local control rates widely ranging from 50% to 100% at one or two years. And actuarial survival at one and two years has been reported ranging from 72% to 94% and from 30% to 62%, respectively, without severe toxicities. In this paper, we described the definition and technical aspects of SABR, clinical outcomes including efficacy and toxicity, and related parameters after SABR in liver oligometastases from colorectal cancer.

  6. Effect of spine hardware on small spinal stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Yang, James N.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Tailor, Ramesh; Vassilliev, Oleg; Brown, Paul; Rhines, Laurence; Chang, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of a 6 MV photon beam was used to study the dose perturbation from a titanium rod 5 mm in diameter in various small fields range from 2 × 2 to 5 × 5 cm2. The results showed that the rod increased the dose to water by ˜6% at the water-rod interface because of electron backscattering and decreased the dose by ˜7% in the shadow of the rod because of photon attenuation. The Pinnacle3 treatment planning system calculations matched the MC results at the depths more than 1 cm past the rod when the correct titanium density of 4.5 g cm-3 was used, but significantly underestimated the backscattering dose at the water-rod interface. A CT-density table with a top density of 1.82 g cm-3 (cortical bone) is a practical way to reduce the dosimetric error from the artifacts by preventing high density assignment to them, but can underestimates the attenuation by the titanium rod by 6%. However, when multi-beam with intensity modulation is used in actual patient spinal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, the dosimetric effect of assigning 4.5 instead of 1.82 g cm-3 to titanium implants is complicated. It ranged from minimal effect to 2% dose difference affecting 15% target volume in the study. When hardware is in the beam path, density override to the titanium hardware is recommended.

  7. [Image-guided stereotaxic biopsy of central nervous system lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, J A; Confort, C I; Ferraz, A; Esperança, J C; Duarte, F

    1998-06-01

    In a series of 44 image guided stereotactic biopsy from August 1995 until March 1997, findings were as follows (frequency order). Tumors, glioblastoma was the most frequent. Primary lymphoma and other conditions associated to AIDS. Metastasis, three cases, Vasculites, two cases, Arachnoid cyst, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, cortical degeneration, inespecific calcification (one case each). The age varied from 1 to 83 years. Forty one lesions were supratentorial, two infratentorial, and one was outside the brain (dura and skull) and we used stereotaxy to localize it. There was no mortality and morbidity was 2.3%. The literature is reviewed. We conclude that this procedure is safe and highly diagnostic.

  8. Volume growth rate of acoustic neuromas on MRI post-stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    To, S.Y.; Lufkin, R.B.; Rand, R.; Robinson, J.D.; Hanafee, W.

    1990-01-01

    Of the approximately 160 acoustic neuroma patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery in the world up to 1987, 8 patients at UCLA Medical Center have had two or more magnetic resonance scans at least one year apart available for study (all 8 patients were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for acoustic neuromas by the Department of Neurosurgery at the Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden). The followup time after radiosurgery ranged from 4 to 8 years. The volume doubling rate post-stereotactic radiosurgery was calculated to be slow (763 to 888 days) in two patients, virtually arrested in five patients (doubling times larger than 2500 days) and negative (-563 days) in one patient indicating a shrinking tumor. Due to the limited sample size no radiological finding or clinical data correlated with the volume doubling times. A control patient that had no treatment for her tumor had a doubling time of 217 days for comparison.

  9. Guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

  10. Clinical application on CT guiding interventional radiology technology%CT导引介人技术的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建华; 彭述文; 米霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Computer Tomography (CT) guiding interventional radiology technology already became an extremely adequate technology in the large-scale general hospital, which was brought in since 2008-2009 in our hospital, and it has carried out dozens of cases, we improved it into a new kind of technology suitable for our hospital after summing up and studying it. This technology should be extended for popular use among the primary hospitals. Methods TOSHIBA Activion 16 screw CT scanner was used with the puncture needle Cook19G.After skin lung puncture biopsy 12 cases, after skin kidney puncture 25 cases, after skin liver puncture 7 cases. Results Among 12 cases of lung puncture biopsy, 9 cases are periphery the lung cancer, 2 cases are the pulmonary tuberculoses, 1 cases is pneumonia change in sexuality. 32 cases livers, the kidney puncture biopsy is a cyst, after extracts the pouch fluid to involve the hardened treatment, biggest cyst 11 cm, smallest cyst approximately 6cm, the short-term reexamination cyst obviously reduces approximately, after half year of reexaminations, the cyst disappeared basically or completely. No serious complication occurred. Conclusion The CT guiding interventional radiology technology belongs to the interventional radiology technology category, its application scope is broad, involving the whole body various systems, becoming one of the important methods of clinical diagnosis and treatment domain with characteristics of high security, minimally invasive surgery and less complication, etc. It' s worth to be extended popularly in primary hospitals.%目的 归纳、总结并不断改进我院CT导引介入技术,形成适应本院的一种新技术.方法 使用TOSHIBA Activion 16螺旋CT扫描机.穿刺针为Cook19G.经皮肺穿刺活检12例,经皮肾穿刺25例,经皮肝穿刺7例.结果 12例肺穿刺活检,9例为周围型肺癌,2例为肺结核,1例为肺炎性变.32例肝、肾穿刺活检为囊肿,抽取囊液后介入

  11. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  12. Guide for a typewriter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, R. D.; Pinson, G. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to accessories for typewriters, and more particularly to an improved guide for use in aligning a sheet of paper preparatory to an application of typed indicia to selected spaces. The device includes an aligning plate pivotally mounted on a line guide having formed therein a plurality of aligned apertures. The plate is so positioned that an aperture is positioned immediately above a target area for a type slug so that a slug will imprint a character in selected spaces.

  13. 临床外科实习医生的带教经验应用研究%Application of Guide and Teaching Experience in Clinical Surgical Intern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤明

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application of guide and teaching experience in surgical intern. Method: To select 48 surgical interns as a research object and divide the interns into control group and observer group. To use traditional teaching method in control group and use the guide and teaching experience in observer group; then observe and compare the teaching effect of two groups. Results: through different methods of teaching guide, the satisfaction rate and composite excellent rate of observer group are higher than the control group, the differences is existing, P<0.05. Conclusion: in the guidance of surgical interns, long guide and teaching experience plays an important guiding role.%目的:临床外科实习医生的带教经验应用研究.方法:选取外科实习医生48名作为研究对象,将实习医生分为对照组与观察组.给予对照组实习医生传统带教方法;观察组根据带教经验进行针对性指导;观察对比两组实习医生的带教效果.结果:通过不同的带教指导方法,观察组实习医生的临床表现满意率及综合优秀率均高于对照组,存在差异,P<0.05.结论:指导外科实习医生过程中,长期带教经验具有重要的指导作用.

  14. SU-E-J-247: Time Evolution of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury After Stereotactic Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassberger, C; Sharp, G; Fintelmann, F; Paganetti, H; Willers, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative metrics to assess patient-specific radiation-induced lung injury have the potential to guide individualization of therapy and be early indicators of recurrence. Here we investigate computed tomography (CT) density changes in normal lung after stereotactic Proton Therapy. Methods: Participants in a phase-I clinical trial for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with protons are analyzed on a rolling basis. The dataset includes 9 patients with 34 CT images to date. Follow-up images are registered to the planning CT using deformable image registration and the change in CT density is correlated to the dose to examine the time-evolution of Hounsfield Unit (HU) changes after large doses of proton radiation. Results: The lung density observed on the follow-up images increases significantly with dose for all dose levels above 5 Gy(RBE) (p<0.001) for 8/9 patients. The change per unit dose [HU/Gy] varies significantly among the patients, from 0.1 (for the one patient without significant correlation) to 5.7 ΔHU/Gy(RBE). The current population average of ΔHU/Gy(RBE) is 2.1, i.e. a 1 Gy(RBE) increase in dose leads on average to a 2.1 HU increase in CT density. The slope of the dose-response curve is constant for all timepoints investigated (from 3–24+ months). Additionally a pronounced non-linearity in the dose response curve is noted for long follow-up times (>18 months). Conclusion: CT density changes have a robust correlation with proton dose, quantitatively similar to photon dose, and may allow estimation of a patient’s intrinsic radiosensitivity after proton therapy. The stability of the correlation with time however diverges from what is known about CT response after photon irradiation. This could have important implications for clinical decision-making during proton therapy for lung cancer, especially for scheduling of follow-up CT/PET imaging and diagnosis of recurrence.

  15. Prospective Longitudinal Assessment of Quality of Life for Liver Cancer Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.klein@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jiang, Haiyan [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kim, John; Dinniwell, Rob; Brierley, James; Wong, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lockwood, Gina [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ringash, Jolie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate quality of life (QoL), an important outcome owing to poor long-term survival, after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to the liver. Methods and Materials: Patients (n=222) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver metastases, or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and Child-Pugh A liver function received 24-60 Gy of 6-fraction image-guided SBRT. Prospective QoL assessment was completed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) and/or Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary (FACT-Hep, version 4) questionnaires at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Ten HCC patients with Child-Pugh B liver function were also treated. Results: The QLQ-C30 was available for 205 patients, and 196 completed the FACT-Hep. No difference in baseline QoL (P=.17) or overall survival (P=.088) was seen between the HCC, liver metastases, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients. Appetite loss and fatigue measured by the QLQ-C30 clinically and statistically worsened by 1 month after treatment but recovered by 3 months. At 3 and 12 months after treatment, respectively, the FACT-Hep score had improved relative to baseline in 13%/19%, worsened in 36%/27%, and remained stable in 51%/54%. Using the QLQ-C30 Global Health score, QoL improved in 16%/23%, worsened in 34%/39%, and remained stable in 50%/38% at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Median survival was 17.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3-19.8 months). Higher baseline scores on both FACT-Hep and QLQ-C30 Global Health were associated with improved survival. Hazard ratios for death, per 10-unit decrease in QoL, were 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98; P=.001) and 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.95; P=.001), respectively. Tumor size was inversely correlated with survival. Conclusions: Liver SBRT temporarily worsens appetite and fatigue, but not overall QoL. Stereotactic body radiation therapy is well tolerated and warrants

  16. Hyperfractionated stereotactic reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvek, Jakub; Knybel, Lukas; Skacelikova, Eva; Otahal, Bretislav; Molenda, Lukas; Feltl, David [University Hospital Ostrava, Department of Oncology, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Stransky, Jiri; Res, Oldrich [University Hospital Ostrava, Department of Maxilofacial Surgery, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Matousek, Petr; Zelenik, Karol [University Hospital Ostrava, Department of Otolaryngology, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of hyperfractionated stereotactic reirradiation (re-RT) as a treatment for inoperable, recurrent, or second primary head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) that is not suitable for systemic treatment. Forty patients with recurrent or second primary HNSCC were included in this study. The patients had a median gross tumor volume of 76 ml (range 14-193 ml) and a previous radiotherapy dose greater than 60 Gy. Treatment was designed to cover 95 % of the planning target volume (PTV, defined as gross tumor volume [GTV] + 3 mm to account for microscopic spreading, with no additional set-up margin) with the prescribed dose (48 Gy in 16 fractions b.i.d.). Treatment was administered twice daily with a minimum 6 h gap. Uninvolved lymph nodes were not irradiated. Treatment was completed as planned for all patients (with median duration of 11 days, range 9-14 days). Acute toxicity was evaluated using the RTOG/EORTC scale. A 37 % incidence of grade 3 mucositis was observed, with recovery time of ≤ 4 weeks for all of these patients. Acute skin toxicity was never observed to be higher than grade 2. Late toxicity was also evaluated according to the RTOG/EORTC scale. Mandible radionecrosis was seen in 4 cases (10 %); however, neither carotid blowout syndrome nor other grade 4 late toxicity occurred. One-year overall survival (OS) and local progression-free survival (L-PFS) were found to be 33 and 44 %, respectively. Performance status and GTV proved to be significant prognostic factors regarding local control and survival. Hyperfractionated stereotactic re-RT is a reasonable treatment option for patients with recurrent/second primary HNSCC who were previously exposed to high-dose irradiation and who are not candidates for systemic treatment or hypofractionation. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war es, die Effektivitaet und Toxizitaet der hyperfraktionierten akzelerierten stereotaktischen Wiederbestrahlung (re

  17. RT-01FRACTIONATED STEREOTACTIC RADIOTHERAPY FOR PITUITARY ADENOMA WITH NOVALIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Ogura, Kengo; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Hojo, Masato; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Murata, Daiki

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is an available treatment modality for pituitary adenoma. In particular, it is effective for the case unable to be removed with surgery or repeating recurrence. However, hypopituitarism and optic nerve injury associated with radiation therapy become a problem. Novalis® (Brain Lab) is an equipment of radiation to establish the detailed irradiation area, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (fSRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Retrospectively, we review local control and morbidity following fSRT with Novalis in pituitary adenoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2012, 29 patients with pituitary adenoma (9 functioning, 20 non-functioning) received fSRT with Novalis in our institute. Total radiation dose was 50.4-54Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction) and prescribed to the gross target volume + 2 mm. The effectiveness of fSRT was evaluated by tumor volume and clinical symptoms on pre- fSRT, and every 1-year. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 59.1 months (20 to 83 months). Tumor regrowth was observed in 2 cases. Progression free survival rate was 93%. New visual field deficit was observed in 1 case, and new pituitary dysfunction were not observed in all patients. CONCLUSION: fSRT with Novalis is safe and effective in the treatment for pituitary adenoma. Although follow-up time is short, any problematic complications were not observed. In the future, fSRT is expected to make for safe and effective treatment in pituitary adenoma impossible to cure surgically.

  18. Proton Stereotactic Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Benign Meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halasz, Lia M., E-mail: lhalasz@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bussiere, Marc R.; Dennis, Elizabeth R.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S.; Shih, Helen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Given the excellent prognosis for patients with benign meningiomas, treatment strategies to minimize late effects are important. One strategy is proton radiation therapy (RT), which allows less integral dose to normal tissue and greater homogeneity than photon RT. Here, we report the first series of proton stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) used for the treatment of meningiomas. Methods and Materials: We identified 50 patients with 51 histologically proven or image- defined, presumed-benign meningiomas treated at our institution between 1996 and 2007. Tumors of <4 cm in diameter and located {>=}2 mm from the optic apparatus were eligible for treatment. Indications included primary treatment (n = 32), residual tumor following surgery (n = 8), and recurrent tumor following surgery (n = 10). The median dose delivered was 13 Gray radiobiologic equivalent (Gy[RBE]) (range, 10.0-15.5 Gy[RBE]) prescribed to the 90% isodose line. Results: Median follow-up was 32 months (range, 6-133 months). Magnetic resonance imaging at the most recent follow-up or time of progression revealed 33 meningiomas with stable sizes, 13 meningiomas with decreased size, and 5 meningiomas with increased size. The 3-year actuarial tumor control rate was 94% (95% confidence interval, 77%-98%). Symptoms were improved in 47% (16/ 34) of patients, unchanged in 44% (15/34) of patients, and worse in 9% (3/34) of patients. The rate of potential permanent adverse effects after SRS was 5.9% (3/51 patients). Conclusions: Proton SRS is an effective therapy for small benign meningiomas, with a potentially lower rate of long-term treatment-related morbidity. Longer follow-up is needed to assess durability of tumor control and late effects.

  19. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyner, Melissa [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Salter, Bill J. [The Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Papanikolaou, Niko [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Fuss, Martin [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Portland (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine

    2006-09-15

    Presentation of outcomes of patients treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung lesions located within or touching a 2 cm zone around major airways. Serial tomotherapeutic SBRT has been planned and delivered at our institution since August 2001. Of 108 patients treated for primary and secondary lung tumors, nine harbored tumors (8 metastases, 1 recurrent NSCLC) located in close proximity to carina, right and left main bronchi, right and left upper lobe bronchi, intermedius, right middle lobe, lingular, or right and left lower lobe bronchi. SBRT was delivered to total doses of 36 Gy in 3 fractions (n=8) or 6 fractions (n=1), using a serial tomotherapy system (Nomos Peacock). We assessed local tumor control, clinical toxicity, normal tissue imaging changes, and overall survival. Median tumor volume was 26 cm{sup 3} (range 1.7 to 135 cm{sup 3}). Tumor locations were hilar (n=3), and parenchymal in six cases. Hilar lesions accounted for the three largest tumor volumes in the series. During a median follow-up of 10.6 months (range 2.5 to 41.5 months), all lesions treated were locally controlled as confirmed by CT or CT/PET imaging. Parenchymal imaging changes included focal lung fibrosis and major airway wall thickening. One occurrence of major airway occlusion (right lower lobe bronchus) was observed. This event was diagnosed by chest x-ray at 36 months, following treatment of the second largest hilar lesion in the present series. Based on the outcomes observed in this small sample series, SBRT for centrally located lung lesions appears feasible, was associated with low incidence of toxicities, and provided sustained local tumor control. However, long-term survival may be associated with major airway injury. As long-term follow-up in larger numbers of patients is lacking at this time, exclusion of patients with centrally located lesions may be considered when patients are treated in curative intent.

  20. Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Vestibular Schwannomas Accelerates Hearing Loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Rune, E-mail: rune333@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Claesson, Magnus [Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Stangerup, Sven-Eric [Ear, Nose, and Throat Department, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Roed, Henrik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Christensen, Ib Jarle [Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Caye-Thomasen, Per [Ear, Nose, and Throat Department, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Juhler, Marianne [Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate long-term tumor control and hearing preservation rates in patients with vestibular schwannoma treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT), comparing hearing preservation rates to an untreated control group. The relationship between radiation dose to the cochlea and hearing preservation was also investigated. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients receiving FSRT between 1997 and 2008 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. All patients received 54 Gy in 27-30 fractions during 5.5-6.0 weeks. Clinical and audiometry data were collected prospectively. From a 'wait-and-scan' group, 409 patients were selected as control subjects, matched by initial audiometric parameters. Radiation dose to the cochlea was measured using the original treatment plan and then related to changes in acoustic parameters. Results: Actuarial 2-, 4-, and 10-year tumor control rates were 100%, 91.5%, and 85.0%, respectively. Twenty-one patients had serviceable hearing before FSRT, 8 of whom (38%) retained serviceable hearing at 2 years after FSRT. No patients retained serviceable hearing after 10 years. At 2 years, hearing preservation rates in the control group were 1.8 times higher compared with the group receiving FSRT (P=.007). Radiation dose to the cochlea was significantly correlated to deterioration of the speech reception threshold (P=.03) but not to discrimination loss. Conclusion: FSRT accelerates the naturally occurring hearing loss in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Our findings, using fractionation of radiotherapy, parallel results using single-dose radiation. The radiation dose to the cochlea is correlated to hearing loss measured as the speech reception threshold.

  1. Radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideomi; Yamashita; Wataru; Takahashi; Akihiro; Haga; Keiichi; Nakagawa

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy(SBRT)has a locacontrol rate of 95%at 2 years for non-small cell lungcancer(NSCLC)and should improve the prognosis oinoperable patients,elderly patients,and patients withsignificant comorbidities who have early-stage NSCLCThe safety of SBRT is being confirmed in internationalmulti-institutional PhaseⅡtrials for peripheral lungcancer in both inoperable and operable patients,bureports so far have found that SBRT is a safe and effective treatment for early-stage NSCLC and early metastatic lung cancer.Radiation pneumonitis(RP)is oneof the most common toxicities of SBRT.Although mospost-treatment RP is Grade 1 or 2 and either asymptomatic or manageable,a few cases are severe,symptomatic,and there is a risk for mortality.The reportedrates of symptomatic RP after SBRT range from 9%to28%.Being able to predict the risk of RP after SBRT isextremely useful in treatment planning.A dose-effecrelationship has been demonstrated,but suggesteddose-volume factors like mean lung dose,lung V20and/or lung V2.5 differed among the reports.We foundthat patients who present with an interstitial pneumo-nitis shadow on computed tomography scan and high levels of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein D have a high rate of severe radiation pneumo-nitis after SBRT.At our institution,lung cancer patients with these risk factors have not received SBRT since 2006,and our rate of severe RP after SBRT has de-creased significantly since then.

  2. A two dimensional silicon detectors array for quality assurance in stereotactic radiotherapy: MagicPlate-512

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldosari, A. H.; Petasecca, M., E-mail: marcop@uow.edu.au; Espinoza, A.; Newall, M.; Fuduli, I.; Porumb, C.; Alshaikh, S.; Alrowaili, Z. A.; Weaver, M.; Metcalfe, P.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Carolan, M. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Perevertaylo, V. [SPA-BIT, KIEV 02232 (Ukraine)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Silicon diode arrays are commonly implemented in radiation therapy quality assurance applications as they have a number of advantages including: real time operation (compared to the film) and high spatial resolution, large dynamic range and small size (compared to ionizing chambers). Most diode arrays have detector pitch that is too coarse for routine use in small field applications. The goal of this work is to characterize the two-dimensional monolithic silicon diode array named “MagicPlate-512” (MP512) designed for QA in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radio surgery (SRS). Methods: MP512 is a silicon monolithic detector manufactured on ap-type substrate. An array contains of 512 pixels with size 0.5 × 0.5 mm{sup 2} and pitch 2 mm with an overall dimension of 52 × 52 mm{sup 2}. The MP512 monolithic detector is wire bonded on a printed circuit board 0.5 mm thick and covered by a thin layer of raisin to preserve the silicon detector from moisture and chemical contamination and to protect the bonding wires. Characterization of the silicon monolithic diode array response was performed, and included pixels response uniformity, dose linearity, percent depth dose, output factor, and beam profiling for beam sizes relevant to SBRT and SRS and depth dose response in comparison with ionization chamber. Results: MP512 shows a good dose linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.998) and repeatability within 0.2%. The measured depth dose response for field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} agreed to within 1.3%, when compared to a CC13 ionization chamber for depths in PMMA up to 30 cm. The output factor of a 6 MV Varian 2100EX medical linac beam measured by MP512 at the isocenter agrees to within 2% when compared to PTW diamond, Scanditronix point EDD-2 diode and MOSkin detectors for field sizes down to 1 × 1 cm{sup 2}. An over response of 4% was observed for square beam size smaller than 1 cm when compared to EBT3 films, while the beam profiles (FWHM) of MP

  3. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

  4. CompTIA A+ Complete Deluxe Study Guide, Exams 220-701/220-702 Essentials/Practical Application

    CERN Document Server

    Docter, Quentin; Skandier, Toby

    2009-01-01

    An arsenal of study aids for anyone preparing to take the CompTIA A+ certification exams. The CompTIA A+ certification is the industry standard in terms of measuring a technician's hardware and software knowledge. As the most popular entry-level certification, it is particularly popular among individuals switching from another career to computers. This Deluxe Edition of the bestselling CompTIA A+ Study Guide features bonus practice exams, flashcards, and more than an hour of instructional video of key hands-on tasks. Covering all exam objectives, study guide focuses on the new best practices a

  5. SU-E-J-165: Dosimetric Impact of Liver Rotations in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, D; Paulsson, A; Sudhyadhom, A; Chen, J; Chang, A; Anwar, M; Gottschalk, A; Yom, S S.; Descovich, M [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Often in liver stereotactic body radiotherapy a single fiducial is implanted near the tumor for image-guided treatment delivery. In such cases, rotational corrections are calculated based on the spine. This study quantifies rotational differences between the spine and liver, and investigates the corresponding dosimetric impact. Methods: Seven patients with 3 intrahepatic fiducials and 4DCT scans were identified. The planning CT was separately co-registered with 4 phases of the 4DCT (0%, 50%, 100% inhale and 50% exhale) by 1) rigid registration of the spine, and 2) point-based registration of the 3 fiducials. Rotation vectors were calculated for each registration. Translational differences in fiducial positions between the 2 registrations methods were investigated. Dosimetric impact due to liver rotations and deformations was assessed using critical structures delineated on the 4DCT phases. For dose comparisons, a single fiducial was translationally aligned following spine alignment to represent what is typically done in the clinic. Results: On average, differences between spine and liver rotations during the 0%, 50%, 100% inhale, and 50% exhale phases were 3.23°, 3.27°, 2.26° and 3.11° (pitch), 3.00°, 2.24°, 3.12° and 1.73° (roll), and 1.57°, 1.98°, 2.09° and 1.36° (yaw), respectively. The maximum difference in rotations was 12°, with differences of >3° seen in 14/28 (pitch), 10/28 (roll), and 6/28 (yaw) cases. Average fiducial displacements of 2.73 (craniocaudal), 1.04 (lateral) and 1.82 mm (vertical) were seen. Evaluating percent dose differences for 5 patients at the peaks of the respiratory cycle, the maximum dose to the duodenum, stomach, bowel and esophagus differed on average by 11.4%, 5.3%, 11.2% and 49.1% between the 2 registration methods. Conclusion: Lack of accounting for liver rotation during treatment might Result in clinically significant dose differences to critical structures. Both rotational and translational deviations

  6. SU-E-T-94: An Advanced Rotating Gamma Ray System for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Chibani, O; Li, J; Chen, L [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mora, G [Universidade de Lisboa, Codex, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Co-60 beams have unique dosimetric properties that are ideally suited for cranial treatments. Co-60 sources with cone-shaped collimators provide conformal dose distributions allowing for ablative treatments with rapid dose falloff to spare nearby critical structures. This work investigates a novel, image-guided, rotational Gamma ray system that provides both superior dose conformity/gradient and accurate stereotaxy for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: The SupeRay system (Cyber Medical Corp., China) consists of a rotating source chamber containing 30 gamma sources focusing at the isocenter with 4 collimators measuring 3, 4, 8 and 16mm in diameter. A novel switch design enables the 30 Gamma sources to be turned off at any arbitrarily selected 60° interval in order to avoid critical structures. The 3D treatment couch provides automatic treatment positioning between individual shots and the kV imaging system provides orthogonal images with a spatial resolution of 0.24mm to facilitate target localization. Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute dose distributions and compare with measurements and other Gamma ray SRS systems. Results: Monte Carlo results confirmed the SupeRay design parameters including output factors and 3D dose distributions. Its beam penumbra/dose gradient is similar to or slightly better than that of the Elekta Gamma Knife. The penumbra in the (x,y,z) direction was (7.38mm,7.38mm,3.86mm) for the 16mm collimator, (4.83mm,4.83mm,3.12mm) for the 8mm collimator, and (3.03mm,3.03mm,2.38mm) for the 4mm collimator, respectively, on the SupeRay system while it was (9.5mm,10.0mm,2.9mm), (4.3mm,4.3mm,2.9mm) and (3.2mm,3.2mm,1.9mm) for the same collimator sizes, respectively, on the Perfexion system. The kV imaging system together with a non-invasive relocatable frame provides accurate target localization (<0.5mm) for cases requiring multiple treatment fractions. Conclusion: Because of the unique dosimetric properties of Co-60 sources

  7. Five-Year Outcomes of High-Dose Single-Fraction Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussazadeh, Nelson [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Lis, Eric [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Katsoulakis, Evangelia [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Kahn, Sweena; Svoboda, Marek; DiStefano, Natalie M.; McLaughlin, Lily [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bilsky, Mark H. [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Laufer, Ilya, E-mail: lauferi@mskcc.org [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To characterize local tumor control and toxicity risk in very long-term survivors (>5 years) after high-dose spinal image guided, intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered as single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Previously published spinal SRS outcome analyses have included a heterogeneous population of cancer patients, mostly with short survival. This is the first study reporting the long-term tumor control and toxicity profiles after high-dose single-fraction spinal SRS. Methods and Materials: The study population included all patients treated from June 2004 to July 2009 with single-fraction spinal SRS (dose 24 Gy) who had survived at least 5 years after treatment. The endpoints examined included disease progression, surgical or radiation retreatment, in-field fracture development, and radiation-associated toxicity, scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Local control and fracture development were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 278 patients, 31 (11.1%), with 36 segments treated for spinal tumors, survived at least 5 years after treatment and were followed up radiographically and clinically for a median of 6.1 years (maximum 102 months). The histopathologic findings for the 5-year survivors included radiation-resistant metastases in 58%, radiation-sensitive metastases in 22%, and primary bone tumors in 19%. In this selected cohort, 3 treatment failures occurred at a median of 48.6 months, including 2 recurrences in the radiation field and 1 patient with demonstrated progression at the treatment margins. Ten lesions (27.8%) were associated with acute grade 1 cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. Delayed toxicity ≥3 months after treatment included 8 cases (22.2%) of mild neuropathy, 2 (5.6%) of gastrointestinal discomfort, 8 (22.2%) of dermatitides, and 3 (8.3%) of myalgias/myositis. Thirteen

  8. TU-G-BRD-04: A Round Robin Dosimetry Intercomparison of Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Calibration Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drzymala, R [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Alvarez, P [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bednarz, G [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bourland, J [Wake Forest University, Winston-salem, NC (United States); DeWerd, L [University of Wisconsin, Madison/ADCL, Madison, WI (United States); Ma, L [University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Meltsner, S [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Neyman, G [The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Beachwood, OH (United States); Novotny, J [Hospital Na Homolce, Prague (Czech Republic); Petti, P [Washington Hospital, Fremont, CA (United States); Rivard, M [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Shiu, A [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goetsch, S [Dade Moeller Health Group, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this multi-institutional study was to compare two new gamma stereotactic radiosurgery (GSRS) dosimetry protocols to existing calibration methods. The ultimate goal was to guide AAPM Task Group 178 in recommending a standard GSRS dosimetry protocol. Methods: Nine centers (ten GSRS units) participated in the study. Each institution made eight sets of dose rate measurements: six with two different ionization chambers in three different 160mm-diameter spherical phantoms (ABS plastic, Solid Water and liquid water), and two using the same ionization chambers with a custom in-air positioning jig. Absolute dose rates were calculated using a newly proposed formalism by the IAEA working group for small and non-standard radiation fields and with a new air-kerma based protocol. The new IAEA protocol requires an in-water ionization chamber calibration and uses previously reported Monte-Carlo generated factors to account for the material composition of the phantom, the type of ionization chamber, and the unique GSRS beam configuration. Results obtained with the new dose calibration protocols were compared to dose rates determined by the AAPM TG-21 and TG-51 protocols, with TG-21 considered as the standard. Results: Averaged over all institutions, ionization chambers and phantoms, the mean dose rate determined with the new IAEA protocol relative to that determined with TG-21 in the ABS phantom was 1.000 with a standard deviation of 0.008. For TG-51, the average ratio was 0.991 with a standard deviation of 0.013, and for the new in-air formalism it was 1.008 with a standard deviation of 0.012. Conclusion: Average results with both of the new protocols agreed with TG-21 to within one standard deviation. TG-51, which does not take into account the unique GSRS beam configuration or phantom material, was not expected to perform as well as the new protocols. The new IAEA protocol showed remarkably good agreement with TG-21. Conflict of Interests: Paula Petti

  9. Optimizing dose prescription in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumours using Monte Carlo dose calculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Hollander, Miranda; Ubbels, Jan F.; Bolt, Rene A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To define a method of dose prescription employing Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumours aiming at a dose as low as possible outside of the PTV. Methods and materials: Six typical T1 lung tumours - three small, three large - were construc

  10. Patterns of recurrence and survival after surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage NSCLC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Liseth L.; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Widder, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Surgery is the standard treatment for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For medically inoperable patients, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has emerged as widely used standard treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze survival and patterns of tumor recurren

  11. Phase-II study on stereotactic radiotherapy of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Morten; Roed, Henrik; Sengeløv, Lisa;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of patients with pancreatic cancer have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis and are not amenable for surgery. Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) may be an alternative treatment for patients with locally advanced disease. The effect of SRT was investigated...

  12. Overcoming the Glassy-Eyed Nod: An Application of Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Techniques in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Trina; Monypenny, Richard; Trevathan, Jarrod

    2012-01-01

    Two significant problems faced by universities are to ensure sustainability and to produce quality graduates. Four aspects of these problems are to improve engagement, to foster interaction, develop required skills and to effectively gauge the level of attention and comprehension within lectures and large tutorials. Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry…

  13. Drug intercalation in layered double hydroxide clay: Application in the development of a nanocomposite film for guided tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborti, M.; Jackson, J.K.; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that localized and controlled delivery of alendronate and tetracycline to periodontal pocket fluids via guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes may be a valuable adjunctive treatment for advanced periodontitis. The objectives of this work were to develop a co-loaded, contr...

  14. The Study Guides and Strategies Website (www.studygs.net): Ten-Year Update and Current Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Over five years ago the author began his "TechTrends" column, then titled "E-Learning by Design," with a self interview. In that first column he interviewed himself on how he came to develop the Study Guides and Strategies (SGS) Website www.studygs.net. This educational public service and resource now contains 120 topics (200 English webpages) in…

  15. Application of magnetic liposomes for magnetically guided transport of muscle relaxants and anti-cancer photodynamic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.; Filippov, Victor I.; Alyautdin, Renat N.; Torshina, N.L.; Kuznetsov, O.A. E-mail: oleg@louisiana.edu

    2001-07-01

    Magnetic liposomes containing submicron-sized ferromagnetic particles were prepared encapsulating the muscle relaxant drugs, diadony or diperony, for local anesthesia. Alternatively, metal phthalocyanines (Photosense or Teraphthal), sensitizers for photodynamic or catalytic cancer therapy were loaded into the magnetic liposomes. Animal trials demonstrated successful magnetically guided transport of the drug-loaded liposomes.

  16. Application of the MAFFT sequence alignment program to large data—reexamination of the usefulness of chained guide trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazunori D.; Tomii, Kentaro; Katoh, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Large multiple sequence alignments (MSAs), consisting of thousands of sequences, are becoming more and more common, due to advances in sequencing technologies. The MAFFT MSA program has several options for building large MSAs, but their performances have not been sufficiently assessed yet, because realistic benchmarking of large MSAs has been difficult. Recently, such assessments have been made possible through the HomFam and ContTest benchmark protein datasets. Along with the development of these datasets, an interesting theory was proposed: chained guide trees increase the accuracy of MSAs of structurally conserved regions. This theory challenges the basis of progressive alignment methods and needs to be examined by being compared with other known methods including computationally intensive ones. Results: We used HomFam, ContTest and OXFam (an extended version of OXBench) to evaluate several methods enabled in MAFFT: (1) a progressive method with approximate guide trees, (2) a progressive method with chained guide trees, (3) a combination of an iterative refinement method and a progressive method and (4) a less approximate progressive method that uses a rigorous guide tree and consistency score. Other programs, Clustal Omega and UPP, available for large MSAs, were also included into the comparison. The effect of method 2 (chained guide trees) was positive in ContTest but negative in HomFam and OXFam. Methods 3 and 4 increased the benchmark scores more consistently than method 2 for the three datasets, suggesting that they are safer to use. Availability and Implementation: http://mafft.cbrc.jp/alignment/software/ Contact: katoh@ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27378296

  17. Guided and unguided Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for social anxiety disorder and/or panic disorder provided via the Internet and a smartphone application: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina; Lindner, Philip; Ly, Kien Hoa; Dahlin, Mats; Vernmark, Kristofer; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-12-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) can be effective in treating anxiety disorders, yet there has been no study on Internet-delivered ACT for social anxiety disorder (SAD) and panic disorder (PD), nor any study investigating whether therapist guidance is superior to unguided self-help when supplemented with a smartphone application. In the current trial, n=152 participants diagnosed with SAD and/or PD were randomized to therapist-guided or unguided treatment, or a waiting-list control group. Both treatment groups used an Internet-delivered ACT-based treatment program and a smartphone application. Outcome measures were self-rated general and social anxiety and panic symptoms. Treatment groups saw reduced general (d=0.39) and social anxiety (d=0.70), but not panic symptoms (d=0.05) compared to the waiting-list group, yet no differences in outcomes were observed between guided and unguided interventions. We conclude that Internet-delivered ACT is appropriate for treating SAD and potentially PD. Smartphone applications may partially compensate for lack of therapist support.

  18. Development and Application of Hydraulic System for Smoke Guiding Bogie%导烟车液压系统的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继国

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces the operation and design theory of the hydraulic system of smoke guiding bogie for 4.3m stamping coke ov-en, narrating the trait and application of the hydraulic system of the device.%该文介绍了4.3m捣固焦炉导烟车工作原理及其液压系统的设计原理、设计过程,详述了本导烟车液压系统的特点及应用等。

  19. The Effectiveness of the Stereotactic Burr Hole Technique for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Keisuke; Urasaki, Eiichirou; Umeno, Tetsuya; Sakai, Waka; Nagaishi, Akiko; Nakane, Shunya; Fukudome, Takayasu; Yamakawa, Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is performed by burr hole surgery. In microelectrode recording by multi-channel parallel probe, because all microelectrodes do not always fit in the burr hole, additional drilling to enlarge the hole is occasionally required, which is time consuming and more invasive. We report a stereotactic burr hole technique to avoid additional drilling, and the efficacy of this novel technique compared with the conventional procedure. Ten patients (20 burr holes) that received DBS were retrospectively analyzed (5 in the conventional burr hole group and 5 in the stereotactic burr hole group). In the stereotactic burr hole technique, the combination of the instrument stop slide of a Leksell frame and the Midas Rex perforator with a 14-mm perforator bit was attached to the instrument carrier slide of the arc in order to trephine under stereoguidance. The efficacy of this technique was assessed by the number of additional drillings. Factors associated with additional drilling were investigated including the angle and skull thickness around the entry points. Four of the 10 burr holes required additional drilling in the conventional burr hole group, whereas no additional drilling was required in the stereotactic burr hole group (p = 0.043). The thicknesses in the additional drilling group were 10.9 ± 0.9 mm compared to 9.1 ± 1.2 mm (p = 0.029) in the non-additional drilling group. There were no differences in the angles between the two groups. The stereotactic burr hole technique contributes to safe and exact DBS, particularly in patients with thick skulls.

  20. Early experiences of planning stereotactic radiosurgery using 3D printed models of eyes with uveal melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furdová A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alena Furdová,1 Miron Sramka,2 Andrej Thurzo,3 Adriana Furdová3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, 2Department of Stereotactic Radiosurgery, St Elisabeth Cancer Inst and St Elisabeth University College of Health and Social Work, 3Department of Simulation and Virtual Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the use of 3D printed model of an eye with intraocular tumor for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery.Methods: The software for segmentation (3D Slicer created virtual 3D model of eye globe with tumorous mass based on tissue density from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. A virtual model was then processed in the slicing software (Simplify3D® and printed on 3D printer using fused deposition modeling technology. The material that was used for printing was polylactic acid.Results: In 2015, stereotactic planning scheme was optimized with the help of 3D printed model of the patient’s eye with intraocular tumor. In the period 2001–2015, a group of 150 patients with uveal melanoma (139 choroidal melanoma and 11 ciliary body melanoma were treated. The median tumor volume was 0.5 cm3 (0.2–1.6 cm3. The radiation dose was 35.0 Gy by 99% of dose volume histogram.Conclusion: The 3D printed model of eye with tumor was helpful in planning the process to achieve the optimal scheme for irradiation which requires high accuracy of defining the targeted tumor mass and critical structures. Keywords: 3D printing, uveal melanoma, stereotactic radiosurgery, linear accelerator, intraocular tumor, stereotactic planning scheme

  1. Guided labworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lærke Bang

    For the last 40 years physics education research has shown poor learning outcomes of guided labs. Still this is found to be a very used teaching method in the upper secodary schools. This study explains the teacher's choice of guided labs throught the concept of redesign as obstacle dislodgement...

  2. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishawi, Muath [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kim, Bong [Division of Radiology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Moore, William H. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bilfinger, Thomas V., E-mail: Thomas.bilfinger@stonybrook.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and

  3. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for organ-confined prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diblasio Ferdinand

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved understanding of prostate cancer radiobiology combined with advances in delivery of radiation to the moving prostate offer the potential to reduce treatment-related morbidity and maintain quality of life (QOL following prostate cancer treatment. We present preliminary results following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT treatment for organ-confined prostate cancer. Methods SBRT was performed on 304 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: 50 received 5 fractions of 7 Gy (total dose 35 Gy and 254 received 5 fractions of 7.25 Gy (total dose 36.25 Gy. Acute and late toxicity was assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire was used to assess QOL. Prostate-specific antigen response was monitored. Results At a median 30-month (26 - 37 month, range follow-up there were no biochemical failures for the 35-Gy dose level. Acute Grade II urinary and rectal toxicities occurred in 4% of patients with no higher Grade acute toxicities. One Grade II late urinary toxicity occurred with no other Grade II or higher late toxicities. At a median 17-month (8 - 27 month, range follow-up the 36.25 Gy dose level had 2 low- and 2 high-risk patients fail biochemically (biopsy showed 2 low- and 1 high-risk patients were disease-free in the gland. Acute Grade II urinary and rectal toxicities occurred in 4.7% (12/253 and 3.6% (9/253 of patients, respectively. For those patients with a minimum of 12 months follow-up, 5.8% (12/206 had late Grade II urinary toxicity and 2.9% (6/206 had late Grade II rectal toxicities. One late Grade III urinary toxicity occurred; no Grade IV toxicities occurred. For both dose levels at 17 months, bowel and urinary QOL returned to baseline values; sexual QOL decreased by 10%. Conclusions The low toxicity and maintained QOL are highly encouraging. Additional follow-up is needed to determine long-term biochemical control and

  4. Dysuria Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsley-Marie eJanowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysuria following prostate radiation therapy is a common toxicity that adversely affects patients’ quality of life and may be difficult to manage. Methods: 204 patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT from 2007 to 2010 for localized prostate carcinoma with a minimum follow up of three years were included in this retrospective review of prospectively collected data. All patients were treated to 35-36.25Gy in 5 fractions delivered with robotic SBRT with real time fiducial tracking. Dysuria and other lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed via Question 4b (Pain or burning on urination of the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC-26 and the American Urological Association (AUA Symptom Score at baseline and at routine follow up. Results: 204 patients (82 low-, 105 intermediate-, and 17 high risk according to the D’Amico classification at a median age of 69 years (range 48-91 received SBRT for their localized prostate cancer with a median follow up of 47 months. Bother associated with dysuria significantly increased from a baseline of 12% to a maximum of 43% at one month (p<0.0001. There were two distinct peaks of moderate to severe dysuria bother at 1 month and at 6-12 months, with 9% of patients experiencing a late transient dysuria flare. While a low level of dysuria was seen through the first two years of follow-up, it returned to below baseline by two years (p=0.91. The median baseline AUA score of 7.5 significantly increased to 11 at 1 month (p<0.0001 and returned to 7 at 3 months (p= 0.54. Patients with dysuria had a statistically higher AUA score at baseline and at all follow-ups up to 30 months. Dysuria significantly correlated with dose and AUA score on multivariate analysis. Frequency and strain significantly correlated with dysuria on stepwise multivariate analysis.Conclusions: The rate and severity of dysuria following SBRT is comparable to patients treated with other radiation modalities.

  5. Determination of output factors for stereotactic radiosurgery beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.; Paskalev, K.; Wang, L.; Jin, L.; Li, J.; Eldeeb, A.; Ma, C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Accurate dosimetry of the narrow beam tends to be difficult to perform due to the absence of lateral electronic equilibrium and the steep dose gradient, as well as the finite size of detectors. Thus, although the high dose rate 6 MV beam on the VARIAN Trilogy accelerator is increasingly utilized for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment, there is no general agreement in the SRS beam output factor values among the Trilogy user community. Trilogy SRS beams are confined by cone collimators and the available collimator sizes range from 5 and 10 to 30 mm, in every 2 mm increment. A range of the relative output factors are in clinic use. This variation may impair observations of dose response and optimizations of the prescribed dose. It is necessary to investigate an accurate, easily performable, and detector independent method for the narrow beam output factor measurement. In this study, a scanning beam/scanning chamber method was proposed to overcome the limitation/difficulty of using a relatively large detector in narrow beam output factor measurement. Specifically, for the scanning beam method, multiple narrow beams are used for the dose measurement using a finite size chamber. These multiple scanning beams form an equivalent large uniform field which provides lateral electron equilibrium condition. After the measurement, the contributions from neighboring beams are deconvolved and the value is used for output factor determinations. For a Linac that cannot move a beam laterally, the scanning chamber method can be used to achieve the same result. The output factors determined in such a method were compared to chambers (a 0.015 cc PTW PinPoint ion chamber and a 0.125 cc PTW ion chamber) and film measurement, as well as with Monte Carlo simulation. Film and Monte Carlo results are found to be in excellent agreement with the measurement using the scan beam method. However, the VARIAN recommended output factors measured directly by Wellhoefer CC01 chamber and

  6. Adaptive Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Planning for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yujiao [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Zhang, Fan [Occupational and Environmental Safety Office, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cai, Jing, E-mail: jing.cai@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric effects of adaptive planning on lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Forty of 66 consecutive lung SBRT patients were selected for a retrospective adaptive planning study. CBCT images acquired at each fraction were used for treatment planning. Adaptive plans were created using the same planning parameters as the original CT-based plan, with the goal to achieve comparable comformality index (CI). For each patient, 2 cumulative plans, nonadaptive plan (P{sub NON}) and adaptive plan (P{sub ADP}), were generated and compared for the following organs-at-risks (OARs): cord, esophagus, chest wall, and the lungs. Dosimetric comparison was performed between P{sub NON} and P{sub ADP} for all 40 patients. Correlations were evaluated between changes in dosimetric metrics induced by adaptive planning and potential impacting factors, including tumor-to-OAR distances (d{sub T-OAR}), initial internal target volume (ITV{sub 1}), ITV change (ΔITV), and effective ITV diameter change (Δd{sub ITV}). Results: 34 (85%) patients showed ITV decrease and 6 (15%) patients showed ITV increase throughout the course of lung SBRT. Percentage ITV change ranged from −59.6% to 13.0%, with a mean (±SD) of −21.0% (±21.4%). On average of all patients, P{sub ADP} resulted in significantly (P=0 to .045) lower values for all dosimetric metrics. Δd{sub ITV}/d{sub T-OAR} was found to correlate with changes in dose to 5 cc (ΔD5cc) of esophagus (r=0.61) and dose to 30 cc (ΔD30cc) of chest wall (r=0.81). Stronger correlations between Δd{sub ITV}/d{sub T-OAR} and ΔD30cc of chest wall were discovered for peripheral (r=0.81) and central (r=0.84) tumors, respectively. Conclusions: Dosimetric effects of adaptive lung SBRT planning depend upon target volume changes and tumor-to-OAR distances. Adaptive lung SBRT can potentially reduce dose to adjacent OARs if patients present large tumor volume shrinkage during the treatment.

  7. Optimal planning strategy among various arc arrangements for prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy with volumetric modulated arc therapy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sang Won

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal strategy among various arc arrangements in prostate plans of stereotactic body radiotherapy with volumetric modulated arc therapy (SBRT-VMAT.

  8. Theories and Applications of Guided Bone Regeneration%引导骨再生的理论和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金啸; 王佐林

    2006-01-01

    引导骨再生(guided bone regeneration,GBR)技术的基本原理源于牙周病领域的引导组织再生技术。自引导组织再生理论(guided tissue regeneration,GTR)提出后,人们认识到在骨组织再生过程中,为了促进骨组织的再生与修复,也应采取生物隔膜阻挡无关或有干扰的组织细胞进入,保护血凝块的稳定.维持血块充填的间隙,实现缺损区的修复性再生。

  9. Manifold learning for shape guided segmentation of cardiac boundaries: application to 3D+t cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Abouzar; Yigitsoy, Mehmet; Navab, Nassir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method for shape guided segmentation of cardiac boundaries based on manifold learning of the shapes represented by the phase field approximation of the Mumford-Shah functional. A novel distance is defined to measure the similarity of shapes without requiring deformable registration. Cardiac motion is compensated and phases are mapped into one reference phase, that is the end of diastole, to avoid time warping and synchronization at all cardiac phases. Non-linear embedding of these 3D shapes extracts the manifold of the inter-subject variation of the heart shape to be used for guiding the segmentation for a new subject. For validation the method is applied to a comprehensive dataset of 3D+t cardiac Cine MRI from normal subjects and patients.

  10. MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy in neuro-oncology: a review of its current clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Recinos, Pablo F; Kamian, Kambiz; Mohammadi, Alireza M; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S; Barnett, Gene H

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive treatment modality with recent increasing use to ablate brain tumors. When originally introduced in the late 1980s, the inability to precisely monitor and control the thermal ablation limited the adoption of LITT in neuro-oncology. Popularized as a means of destroying malignant hepatic and renal metastatic lesions percutaneously, its selective thermal tumor destruction and preservation of adjacent normal tissues have since been optimized for use in neuro-oncology. The progress made in real-time thermal imaging with MRI, laser probe design, and computer algorithms predictive of tissue kill has led to the resurgence of interest in LITT as a means to ablate brain tumors. Current LITT systems offer a surgical option for some inoperable brain tumors. We discuss the origins, principles, current indications, and future directions of MRI-guided LITT in neuro-oncology.

  11. Cerebral control and survival after stereotactic radiotherapy of brain metastases; Zerebrale Kontrolle und Ueberleben nach stereotaktischer Strahlentherapie von Hirnmetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Elmar Till

    2014-06-04

    This retrospective study, including 275 patients who underwent stereotactic radiotherapy due to brain metastases between 2003 and 2008, investigates influencing factors regarding cerebral control and survival, symptomatic effects and a potential benefit for patients older than 70 years. We were able to identify risk factors for remote brain failure which leads to a therapeutic recommendation. Furthermore we confirm a positive symptomatic effect and a benefit of stereotactic readiotherapy for patients over 70 years.

  12. CT perfusion imaging as an early biomarker of differential response to stereotactic radiosurgery in C6 rat gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Pok Chi Yeung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The therapeutic efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery for glioblastoma is not well understood, and there needs to be an effective biomarker to identify patients who might benefit from this treatment. This study investigated the efficacy of computed tomography (CT perfusion imaging as an early imaging biomarker of response to stereotactic radiosurgery in a malignant rat glioma model. METHODS: Rats with orthotopic C6 glioma tumors received either mock irradiation (controls, N = 8 or stereotactic radiosurgery (N = 25, 12 Gy in one fraction delivered by Helical Tomotherapy. Twelve irradiated animals were sacrificed four days after stereotactic radiosurgery to assess acute CT perfusion and histological changes, and 13 irradiated animals were used to study survival. Irradiated animals with survival >15 days were designated as responders while those with survival ≤15 days were non-responders. Longitudinal CT perfusion imaging was performed at baseline and regularly for eight weeks post-baseline. RESULTS: Early signs of radiation-induced injury were observed on histology. There was an overall survival benefit following stereotactic radiosurgery when compared to the controls (log-rank P<0.04. Responders to stereotactic radiosurgery showed lower relative blood volume (rBV, and permeability-surface area (PS product on day 7 post-stereotactic radiosurgery when compared to controls and non-responders (P<0.05. rBV and PS on day 7 showed correlations with overall survival (P<0.05, and were predictive of survival with 92% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Response to stereotactic radiosurgery was heterogeneous, and early selection of responders and non-responders was possible using CT perfusion imaging. Validation of CT perfusion indices for response assessment is necessary before clinical implementation.

  13. SU-E-T-438: Frameless Cranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery Immobilization Effectiveness Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, T; Green, S; Sheu, R; Lo, Y [Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate immobilization effectiveness of Brainlab frameless mask in cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Two sets of setup images were collected pre-and post-treatment for 24 frameless SRS cases. The pre-treatment images were obtained after applying 2D-2D kV image-guided shifts with patients in treatment position and approved by physicians; the post-treatment images were taken immediately after treatment completion. All cases were treated on a Novalis linac with ExacTrac positioning system and Exact Couch. The two image sets were compared with the correctional shifts measured by ExacTrac 6D auto-fusion. The shift differences were considered patient motion within the frameless mask and were used to evaluate its effectiveness for immobilization. Two-tailed paired t-test was applied for significance comparison. Results: The correctional shifts (mean±STD, median) of pre-and post-treatment images were 0.33±0.27mm, 0.26mm and 0.34±0.27mm, 0.23mm (p=0.740) in lateral direction; 0.32±0.29mm, 0.22mm and 0.48±0.30mm, 0.50mm (p=0.012) in longitudinal direction; 0.31±0.22mm, 0.24mm and 0.33±0.21mm, 0.36mm (p=0.623) in vertical direction. The radial correctional shifts (mean±STD, median) of pre -and post-treatment images were 0.60±0.38mm, 0.45mm and 0.75±0.31mm, 0.66mm (p=0.033). The shift differences (mean±STD, median, maximum) were 0.35±0.28mm, 0.3mm, 1.05mm, 0.34±0.28mm, 0.3mm, 1.00mm, 0.24±0.15mm, 0.21mm, 0.60mm and 0.61±0.32mm, 0.57mm, 1.40mm in lateral, longitudinal, vertical and radial direction, respectively. Two shifts greater than 1 mm (1.06mm and 1.02mm) were acquired from post-treatment images. However, the shift differences were only 0.09 and 0.19mm for these two shifts. Two patients with shift differences greater than 1mm (1.05 and 1.04mm) were observed and didn’t coincide with those two who had post-correctional shifts greater than 1mm. Conclusion: Image-guided SRS allowed us to set up patients with sub

  14. HBR guides

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Nancy; Dillon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Master your most pressing professional challenges with this seven-volume set that collects the smartest best practices from leading experts all in one place. "HBR Guide to Better Business Writing" and "HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations" help you perfect your communication skills; "HBR Guide to Managing Up and Across" and "HBR Guide to Office Politics" show you how to build the best professional relationships; "HBR Guide to Finance Basics for Managers" is the one book you'll ever need to teach you about the numbers; "HBR Guide to Project Management" addresses tough questions such as how to manage stakeholder expectations and how to manage uncertainty in a complex project; and "HBR Guide to Getting the Right Work Done" goes beyond basic productivity tips to teach you how to prioritize and focus on your work. This specially priced set of the most popular books in the series makes a perfect gift for aspiring leaders looking for trusted advice. Arm yourself with the advice you need to succeed on the job, from ...

  15. Iterative guided image fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multi-scale image fusion scheme based on guided filtering. Guided filtering can effectively reduce noise while preserving detail boundaries. When applied in an iterative mode, guided filtering selectively eliminates small scale details while restoring larger scale edges. The proposed multi-scale image fusion scheme achieves spatial consistency by using guided filtering both at the decomposition and at the recombination stage of the multi-scale fusion process. First, size-selective iterative guided filtering is applied to decompose the source images into approximation and residual layers at multiple spatial scales. Then, frequency-tuned filtering is used to compute saliency maps at successive spatial scales. Next, at each spatial scale binary weighting maps are obtained as the pixelwise maximum of corresponding source saliency maps. Guided filtering of the binary weighting maps with their corresponding source images as guidance images serves to reduce noise and to restore spatial consistency. The final fused image is obtained as the weighted recombination of the individual residual layers and the mean of the approximation layers at the coarsest spatial scale. Application to multiband visual (intensified and thermal infrared imagery demonstrates that the proposed method obtains state-of-the-art performance for the fusion of multispectral nightvision images. The method has a simple implementation and is computationally efficient.

  16. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  17. Evaluation of volume change in rectum and bladder during application of image-guided radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J. A.; Rojas, J. I.

    2016-07-01

    All prostate cancer patients from Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI receive Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). This therapy uses image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) with the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). This study compares the planned dose in the reference CT image against the delivered dose recalculate in the CBCT image. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomic changes and related dosimetric effect based on weekly CBCT directly for patients with prostate cancer undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment. The collected data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

  18. Colostomy Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects Managing Cancer-related Side Effects Ostomies Colostomy Guide Colostomy surgery is done for many different diseases and problems. Some colostomies are done because of cancer; others are not. ...

  19. qooxdoo Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Raffi, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt beginner's guide. The unique style of the book is to set the requirements for an application, Team Twitter, in the first chapter and apply the concepts in the application as you learn in the following chapters. When you complete this book, you would have developed a complete application. Although the scope of this book is only on the Qooxdoo framework, which is a client side framework, we have explained how to set up one of the RPC servers and demonstrated the end to end application in the Team Twitter. This book is intended for the client side developers who design and develop

  20. SU-E-J-04: Integration of Interstitial High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound Applicators On a Clinical MRI-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment Planning Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellens, N [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Partanen, A [Philips Healthcare, Andover, Massachusetts (United States); Ghoshal, G; Burdette, E [Acoustic MedSystems Inc., Savoy, IL (United States); Farahani, K [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Interstitial high intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) applicators can be used to ablate tissue percutaneously, allowing for minimally-invasive treatment without ionizing radiation [1,2]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usability of combining multielement interstitial HITU applicators with a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound software platform. Methods: The Sonalleve software platform (Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland) combines anatomical MRI for target selection and multi-planar MRI thermometry to provide real-time temperature information. The MRI-compatible interstitial US applicators (Acoustic MedSystems, Savoy, IL, USA) had 1–4 cylindrical US elements, each 1 cm long with either 180° or 360° of active surface. Each applicator (4 Fr diameter, enclosed within a 13 Fr flexible catheter) was inserted into a tissue-mimicking agar-silica phantom. Degassed water was circulated around the transducers for cooling and coupling. Based on the location of the applicator, a virtual transducer overlay was added to the software to assist targeting and to allow automatic thermometry slice placement. The phantom was sonicated at 7 MHz for 5 minutes with 6–8 W of acoustic power for each element. MR thermometry data were collected during and after sonication. Results: Preliminary testing indicated that the applicator location could be identified in the planning images and the transducer locations predicted within 1 mm accuracy using the overlay. Ablation zones (thermal dose ≥ 240 CEM43) for 2 active, adjacent US elements ranged from 18 mm × 24 mm (width × length) to 25 mm × 25 mm for the 6 W and 8 W sonications, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of interstitial HITU applicators and this software platform holds promise for novel approaches in minimally-invasive MRI-guided therapy, especially when bony structures or air-filled cavities may preclude extracorporeal HIFU.[1] Diederich et al

  1. Regulatory Facility Guide for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.S.; Bock, R.E.; Francis, M.W.; Gove, R.M.; Johnson, P.E.; Kovac, F.M.; Mynatt, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rymer, A.C. [Transportation Consulting Services, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-02-28

    This guide provides detailed compilations of international, federal, and state transportation related regulations applicable to shipments originating at or destined to Tennessee facilities. Information on preferred routes is also given.

  2. Intraoperative MR-guided DBS implantation for treating PD and ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiying; Maxwell, Robert E.; Truwit, Charles L.

    2001-05-01

    Deep brain stimulator (DBS) implantation is a promising treatment alternative for suppressing the motor tremor symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) patient. The main objective is to develop a minimally invasive approach using high spatial resolution and soft-tissue contrast MR imaging techniques to guide the surgical placement of DBS. In the MR-guided procedure, the high spatial resolution MR images were obtained intra-operatively and used to target stereotactically a specific deep brain location. The neurosurgery for craniotomy was performed in the front of the magnet outside of the 10 Gauss line. Aided with positional registration assembly for the stereotactic head frame, the target location (VIM or GPi or STN) in deep brain areas was identified and measured from the MR images in reference to the markers in the calibration assembly of the head frame before the burrhole prep. In 20 patients, MR- guided DBS implantations have been performed according to the new methodology. MR-guided DBS implantation at high magnetic field strength has been shown to be feasible and desirable. In addition to the improved outcome, this offers a new surgical approach in which intra-operative visualization is possible during intervention, and any complications such as bleeding can be assessed in situ immediately prior to dural closure.

  3. The Technique, Resources and Costs of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer: A Comparison of Dose Regimens and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharieff, Waseem; Greenspoon, Jeffrey N; Dayes, Ian; Chow, Tom; Wright, James; Lukka, Himu

    2016-02-01

    Robotic system has been used for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of prostate cancer. Arc-based and fixed-gantry systems are used for hypofractionated regimens (10-20 fractions) and the standard regimen (39 fractions); they may also be used to deliver SBRT. Studies are currently underway to compare efficacy and safety of these systems and regimens. Thus, we describe the technique and required resources for the provision of robotic SBRT in relation to the standard regimen and other systems to guide investment decisions. Using administrative data of resource volumes and unit prices, we computed the cost per patient, cost per cure and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) of four regimens (5, 12, 20 and 39 fractions) and three delivery systems (robotic, arc-based and fixed-gantry) from a payer's perspective. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the effects of daily hours of operation and in-room treatment delivery times on cost per patient. In addition, we estimated the budget impact when a robotic system is preferred over an arc-based or fixed-gantry system. Costs of SBRT were $6333/patient (robotic), $4368/patient (arc-based) and $4443/patient (fixed-gantry). When daily hours of operation were varied, the cost of robotic SBRT varied from $9324/patient (2 hours daily) to $5250/patient (10 hours daily). This was comparable to the costs of 39 fraction standard regimen which were $5935/patient (arc-based) and $7992/ patient (fixed-gantry). In settings of moderate to high patient volume, robotic SBRT is cost effective compared to the standard regimen. If SBRT can be delivered with equivalent efficacy and safety, the arc-based system would be the most cost effective system.

  4. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30 Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended.

  5. The treatment planning of segmental, conformal stereotactic radiosurgery utilizing a standard multileaf collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, P G; Balter, J M; Ross, D A; Hayman, J A; Sandler, H M

    1999-01-01

    Over a period of approximately 3 years, our institution has implemented and refined a system of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) which utilizes the standard multi leaf collimator (MLC) of the Scanditronix MM50 Racetrack Microtron and treats in an arrangement of segmental "pseudo-arcs." This system employs a commercial BRW based stereotactic frame which is mounted to the treatment table. With the exception of the table-mounted frame hardware there have been no modifications to the treatment machine to accommodate these treatments. By use of standard evaluation parameters (e.g., treatment time, planning time, dose conformance and dose heterogeneity ratios) this system compares quite favorably with reported data from institutions treating SRS with either a GammaKnife or a standard linear accelerator with tertiary collimators.

  6. Single versus multiple session stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastasis: the risk-benefit ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Kristin J; Sahgal, Arjun; Foote, Matthew; Knisely, Jonathan; Gerszten, Peter C; Chao, Samuel T; Suh, John H; Sloan, Andrew E; Chang, Eric L; Machtay, Mitchell; Lo, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    Spine stereotactic body radiation therapy represents an important advancement in the management of spinal metastases that allows precise delivery of ablative doses of radiation therapy with excellent local control. Although the technique is being increasingly used in clinical practice, the optimal fractionation schedule remains uncertain. In this perspective paper, we review radiobiologic principles that support the use of multiple- versus single-fraction spine stereotactic body radiation therapy schedules and clinical data supporting the multiple-fraction approach. Specifically, we suggest that there may be a local control benefit of fractionation, while helping to limit the risk of toxicities such as vertebral body fracture, pain flare and radiation myelopathy. We conclude with future directions and the need for future study on this important topic.

  7. Efficiency of Stereotactic Conformal Radiotherapy in Lung Metastases with Active Breathing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Anikeeva, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four patients with lung metastases underwent radiosurgery treatment between October 2010 and December 2012. Stereotactic conformal high-dose radiation therapy with Active Breathing Control (ABC was conducted using the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT technique. The median overall follow-up was 18 months (range 6-24 months, overall survival was 75%, and local control rate was 92%. The median time to progression was 4 months (range 1-18 months.There have been no cases of leucopenia, radiation esophagitis, mediastinitis or severe acute radiation pneumonitis. The late radiation effects Grade 2, according to the LENT SOMA scales, was observed in one patient (4%. The results of this study indicate that the usage of the stereotactic high-dose radiation therapy with ABC is safe and effective in the treatment of lung metastases.

  8. Low Incidence of Fatigue after Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dash, Chiranjeev; Demas, Kristina; Uhm, Sunghae; Hanscom, Heather N; Kim, Joy S; Suy, Simeng; Davis, Kimberly M.; Sween, Jennifer; Collins, Sean; Lucile L Adams-Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is a common side effect of conventional prostate cancer radiation therapy. The increased delivery precision necessitated by the high dose per fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) offers the potential of reduce target volumes and hence the exposure of normal tissues to high radiation doses. Herein, we examine the level of fatigue associated with SBRT treatment. Methods: Forty patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated SBRT, and a...

  9. Low Incidence of Fatigue after Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chiranjeev eDash; Kristina eDemas; Sunghae eUhm; Hanscom, Heather N; Kim, Joy S; Simeng eSuy; Davis, Kimberly M.; Jennifer eSween; Sean eCollins; Lucile L Adams-Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is a common side-effect of conventional prostate cancer radiation therapy. The increased delivery precision necessitated by the high dose per fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) offers the potential of reduce target volumes and hence the exposure of normal tissues to high radiation doses. Herein, we examine the level of fatigue associated with SBRT treatment.Methods: Forty patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated SBRT, an...

  10. Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy: dosimetry by Fricke gel and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudou, Caroline; Biston, Marie-Claude; Corde, Stéphanie; Adam, Jean-François; Ferrero, Claudio; Estève, François; Elleaume, Hélène

    2004-11-21

    Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSR) consists in loading the tumour with a high atomic number element (Z), and exposing it to monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source (50-100 keV), in stereotactic conditions. The dose distribution results from both the stereotactic monochromatic x-ray irradiation and the presence of the high Z element. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the two-dimensional dose distribution resulting solely from the irradiation geometry, using Monte Carlo simulations and a Fricke gel dosimeter. The verification of a Monte Carlo-based dosimetry was first assessed by depth dose measurements in a water tank. We thereafter used a Fricke dosimeter to compare Monte Carlo simulations with dose measurements. The Fricke dosimeter is a solution containing ferrous ions which are oxidized to ferric ions under ionizing radiation, proportionally to the absorbed dose. A cylindrical phantom filled with Fricke gel was irradiated in stereotactic conditions over several slices with a continuous beam (beam section = 0.1 x 1 cm2). The phantom and calibration vessels were then imaged by nuclear magnetic resonance. The measured doses were fairly consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. However, the measured maximum absolute dose was 10% underestimated regarding calculation. The loss of information in the higher region of dose is explained by the diffusion of ferric ions. Monte Carlo simulation is the most accurate tool for dosimetry including complex geometries made of heterogeneous materials. Although the technique requires improvements, gel dosimetry remains an essential tool for the experimental verification of dose distribution in SSR with millimetre precision.

  11. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for the primary treatment of localized prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oliai, Caspian; Lanciano, Rachelle; Sprandio, Brian; Yang, Jun; Lamond, John; Arrigo, Steven; Good, Michael; Mooreville, Michael; Garber, Bruce; Brady, Luther W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The low alpha/beta ratio of prostate cancer suggests that hypofractionated schemes of dose-escalated radiotherapy should be advantageous. We report our experience using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the primary treatment of prostate cancer to assess efficacy and toxicity. Methods From 2007 to 2010, 70 patients (51 % low risk, 31 % intermediate risk, and 17 % high risk) with localized prostate cancer were treated with SBRT using the CyberKnife system. One-third of pa...

  12. Visual Outcome in Meningiomas Around Anterior Visual Pathways Treated With Linear Accelerator Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas, E-mail: kalishhadas@gmail.com [Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Reich, Ehud [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Ophthalmology, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Gal, Lior [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Rappaport, Zvi Harry [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Nissim, Ouzi [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Pfeffer, Raphael [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Spiegelmann, Roberto [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Meningiomas threatening the anterior visual pathways (AVPs) and not amenable for surgery are currently treated with multisession stereotactic radiotherapy. Stereotactic radiotherapy is available with a number of devices. The most ubiquitous include the gamma knife, CyberKnife, tomotherapy, and isocentric linear accelerator systems. The purpose of our study was to describe a case series of AVP meningiomas treated with linear accelerator fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) using the multiple, noncoplanar, dynamic conformal rotation paradigm and to compare the success and complication rates with those reported for other techniques. Patients and Methods: We included all patients with AVP meningiomas followed up at our neuro-ophthalmology unit for a minimum of 12 months after FSRT. We compared the details of the neuro-ophthalmologic examinations and tumor size before and after FSRT and at the end of follow-up. Results: Of 87 patients with AVP meningiomas, 17 had been referred for FSRT. Of the 17 patients, 16 completed >12 months of follow-up (mean 39). Of the 16 patients, 11 had undergone surgery before FSRT and 5 had undergone FSRT as first-line management. Tumor control was achieved in 14 of the 16 patients, with three meningiomas shrinking in size after RT. Two meningiomas progressed, one in an area that was outside the radiation field. The visual function had improved in 6 or stabilized in 8 of the 16 patients (88%) and worsened in 2 (12%). Conclusions: Linear accelerator fractionated RT using the multiple noncoplanar dynamic rotation conformal paradigm can be offered to patients with meningiomas that threaten the anterior visual pathways as an adjunct to surgery or as first-line treatment, with results comparable to those reported for other stereotactic RT techniques.

  13. Stereotactic aspiration versus craniotomy for primary intracerebral hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A wealth of evidence based on the randomized controlled trials (RCTs has indicated that surgery may be a better choice in the management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH compared to conservative treatment. However, there is considerable controversy over selecting appropriate surgical procedures for ICH. Thus, this meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of stereotactic aspiration compared to craniotomy in patients with ICH. METHODS: According to the study strategy, we searched PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Other sources such as the internet-based clinical trial registries, relevant journals and the lists of references were also searched. After literature searching, two investigators independently performed literature screening, assessment of quality of the included trials and data extraction. The outcome measures included death or dependence, total risk of complication, and the risk of rebleeding, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and systematic infection. RESULTS: Four RCTs with 2996 participants were included. The quality of the included trials was acceptable. Stereotactic aspiration significantly decreased the odds of death or dependence at the final follow-up (odds ratio (OR: 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69-0.93; P = 0.004 and the risk of intracerebral rebleeding (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26-0.74; P = 0.002 compared to craniotomy with no significant heterogeneity among the study results. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis provides evidence that the stereotactic aspiration may be associated with a reduction in the odds of being dead or dependent in primary ICH, which should be interpreted with caution. Further trials are needed to identify those patients most likely to benefit from the stereotactic aspiration.

  14. Raman spectroscopic sensing of carbonate intercalation in breast microcalcifications at stereotactic biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyavathi, R.; Anushree Saha; Soares, Jaqueline S.; Nicolas Spegazzini; Sasha McGee; Ramachandra Rao Dasari; Maryann Fitzmaurice; Ishan Barman

    2014-01-01

    Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and frequent target for stereotactic biopsy. Despite their indisputable value, microcalcifications, particularly of the type II variety that are comprised of calcium hydroxyapatite deposits, remain one of the least understood disease markers. Here we employed Raman spectroscopy to elucidate the relationship between pathogenicity of breast lesions in fresh biopsy cores and composition of type II microcalcifications. Using a ch...

  15. Stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsies on a digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viala, Juliette; Gignier, Pierre; Perret, Baudouin; Hovasse, Claudie; Hovasse, Denis; Chancelier-Galan, Marie-Dominique; Bornet, Gregoire; Hamrouni, Adel; Lasry, Jean-Louis; Convard, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe our operating process and to report results of 118 stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsies performed on a digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis system. From October 2009 to December 2010, 118 stereotactic vacuum assisted biopsies have been performed on a digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis system. Informed consent was obtained for all patients. A total of 106 patients had a lesion, six had two lesions. Sixty-one lesions were clusters of micro-calcifications, 54 were masses and three were architectural distortions. Patients were in lateral decubitus position to allow shortest skin-target approach (or sitting). Specific compression paddle, adapted on the system, performed, and graduated, allowing localization in X-Y. Tomosynthesis views define the depth of lesion. Graduated Coaxial localization kit determines the beginning of the biopsy window. Biopsies were performed with an ATEC-Suros, 9 Gauge handpiece. All biopsies, except one, have reached the lesions. Five hemorrhages were incurred in the process, but no interruption was needed. Eight breast hematomas, were all spontaneously resolved. One was an infection. About 40% of patients had a skin ecchymosis. Processing is fast, easy, and requires lower irradiation dose than with classical stereotactic biopsies. Histology analysis reported 45 benign clusters of micro-calcifications, 16 malignant clusters of micro-calcifications, 24 benign masses, and 33 malignant masses. Of 13 malignant lesions, digital 2D-mammography failed to detect eight lesions and underestimated the classification of five lesions. Digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis depicts malignant lesions not visualized on digital 2D-mammography. Development of tomosynthesis biopsy unit integrated to stereotactic system will permit histology analysis for suspicious lesions.

  16. Grammar-Guided Writing for AAC Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

    2007-01-01

    A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…

  17. 7 CFR 3430.31 - Guiding principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guiding principles. 3430.31 Section 3430.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.31 Guiding principles. The guiding principle for Federal assistance application review...

  18. Correlation of 18F-fluoroethyl tyrosine positron-emission tomography uptake values and histomorphological findings by stereotactic serial biopsy in newly diagnosed brain tumors using a refined software tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez WO

    2015-12-01

    . Subsequently to diagnoses, all patients underwent a 18F-FET PET-guided stereotactic biopsy, using an original newly developed software module, which is presented here. Conventional MRI, stereotactic computed tomography series, and 18F-FET PET images were semiautomatically fused, and hot-spot detection was performed for target planning. UR was determined using the uptake value from the biopsy sites in relation to the contralateral frontal white matter. UR values ≥1.6 were considered positive for glioma. High-grade glioma (HGG was suspected with URs ≥3.0, while low-grade glioma (LGG was suspected with URs between 1.6 and 3.0. Stereotactic serial biopsies along the trajectory at multiple sites were performed in millimeter steps, and the FET URs for each site were correlated exactly with a panel of 27 different histopathological markers. Comparisons between FET URs along the biopsy trajectories and the histological diagnoses were made with Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Analysis of variance was performed to test for significant differences in maximum UR between different tumor grades.Results: A total of 363 biopsy specimens were taken from 23 patients by stereotactic serial biopsies. Histological examination revealed eight patients (35% with an LGG: one with a World Health Organization (WHO-I lesion and seven with a WHO-II lesion. Thirteen (57% patients revealed an HGG (two with a WHO-III and three with a WHO-IV tumor, and two patients (9% showed a process that was neither HGG nor LGG (group X or no-grade group. The correlation matrix between histological findings and the UR revealed five strong correlations. Low cell density in tissue samples was found to have a significant negative correlation with the measured cortical uptake rate (r=-0.43, P=0.02, as well as moderate cell density (r=-0.48, P=0.02. Pathological patterns of proliferation (r=0.37, P=0.04, GFAP (r=0.37, P=0.04, and Olig2 (r=0.36, P=0.05 showed a significant positive correlation with cortical

  19. Klatskin tumor treated by inter-disciplinary therapies including stereotactic radiotherapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gerhild; Momm, Felix; Schwacha, Henning; Hodapp, Norbert; Usadel, Henning; Geissler, Michael; Barke, Annette; Schmitt-Gräff, Annette; Henne, Karl; Blum, Hubert-E

    2005-08-21

    In view of the poor prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCC), there is a need for new therapeutic strategies. Inter-disciplinary therapy seems to be most promising. Radiotherapy is an effective alternative to surgery for hilar CCC (Klatskin tumors) if an adequate radiation dose can be delivered to the liver hilus. Here, we describe a patient for whom we used a stereotactic radiotherapy technique in the context of an inter-disciplinary treatment concept. We report a 45-year-old patient with a locally advanced Klatskin tumor. Explorative laparotomy showed that the tumor was not resectable. A metallic stent was implanted and the patient was treated by stereotactic radiotherapy using a body frame. A total dose of 48 Gy (3X4 Gy/wk) was administered. Therapy was well tolerated. After 32 mo, local tumor recurrence and a chest wall metastasis developed and were controlled by radio-chemotherapy. After more than 56 mo with a good quality of life, the patient died of advanced neoplastic disease. Stereotactic radiotherapy led to a long-term survival of this patient with a locally advanced Klatskin tumor. In the context of inter-disciplinary treatment concepts, this radiotherapy technique is a promising choice of treatment for patients with hilar CCC.

  20. Klatskin tumor treated by inter-disciplinary therapies including stereotactic radiotherapy: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerhild Becker; Hubert E. Blum; Felix Momm; Henning Schwacha; Norbert Hodapp; Henning Usadel; Michael Geiβler; Annette Barke; Annette Schmitt-Gr(a)ff; Karl Henne

    2005-01-01

    In view of the poor prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCC), there is a need for new therapeutic strategies. Inter-disciplinary therapy seems to be most promising. Radiotherapy is an effective alternative to surgery for hilar CCC (Klatskin tumors) if an adequate radiation dose can be delivered to the liver hilus. Here,we describe a patient for whom we used a stereotactic radiotherapy technique in the context of an inter-disciplinary treatment concept. We report a 45-year-old patient with a locally advanced Klatskin tumor. Explorative laparotomy showed that the tumor was not resectable. A metallic stent was implanted and the patient was treated by stereotactic radiotherapy using a body frame. A total dose of 48 Gy (3x4 Gy/wk) was administered. Therapy was well tolerated. After 32 mo, local tumor recurrence and a chest wall metastasis developed and were controlled by radio-chemotherapy. After more than 56 mo with a good quality of life, the patient died of advanced neoplastic disease. Stereotactic radiotherapy led to a long-term survival of this patient with a locally advanced Klatskin tumor. In the context of inter-disciplinary treatment concepts, this radiotherapy technique is a promising choice of treatment for patients with hilar CCC.

  1. Improving context-aware applications for the well-being domain: Model-driven design guided by medical knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, Steven; Sinderen, van Marten

    2014-01-01

    Computing applications for among others well-being and health become increasingly advanced as a result of their sensor-based awareness of the context in which they are used. Context-aware applications have the potential of providing enriched services to their users, i.e. services that are appropriat

  2. Practical Implementation of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis for Safety and Efficiency in Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younge, Kelly Cooper, E-mail: kyounge@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Yizhen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Thompson, John; Giovinazzo, Julia; Finlay, Marisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Trillium Health Partners - Credit Valley Hospital Site, Mississauga Halton/Central West Regional Cancer Program, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Sankreacha, Raxa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and efficiency of a new stereotactic radiosurgery program with the application of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) performed by a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals. Methods and Materials: Representatives included physicists, therapists, dosimetrists, oncologists, and administrators. A detailed process tree was created from an initial high-level process tree to facilitate the identification of possible failure modes. Group members were asked to determine failure modes that they considered to be the highest risk before scoring failure modes. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) were determined by each group member individually and then averaged. Results: A total of 99 failure modes were identified. The 5 failure modes with an RPN above 150 were further analyzed to attempt to reduce these RPNs. Only 1 of the initial items that the group presumed to be high-risk (magnetic resonance imaging laterality reversed) was ranked in these top 5 items. New process controls were put in place to reduce the severity, occurrence, and detectability scores for all of the top 5 failure modes. Conclusions: FMEA is a valuable team activity that can assist in the creation or restructuring of a quality assurance program with the aim of improved safety, quality, and efficiency. Performing the FMEA helped group members to see how they fit into the bigger picture of the program, and it served to reduce biases and preconceived notions about which elements of the program were the riskiest.

  3. Investigation of optimal beam margins for stereotactic radiotherapy of lung-cancer using Monte Carlo dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, L; Wang, L; Li, J; Luo, W; Feigenberg, S J; Ma, C-M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States)

    2007-07-21

    This work investigated the selection of beam margins in lung-cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with 6 MV photon beams. Monte Carlo dose calculations were used to systematically and quantitatively study the dosimetric effects of beam margins for different lung densities (0.1, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.5 g cm{sup -3}), planning target volumes (PTVs) (14.4, 22.1 and 55.3 cm{sup 3}) and numbers of beam angles (three, six and seven) in lung-cancer SBRT in order to search for optimal beam margins for various clinical situations. First, a large number of treatment plans were generated in a commercial treatment planning system, and then recalculated using Monte Carlo simulations. All the plans were normalized to ensure that 95% of the PTV at least receives the prescription dose and compared quantitatively. Based on these plans, the relationships between the beam margin and quantities such as the lung toxicity (quantified by V{sub 20}, the percentage volume of the two lungs receiving at least 20 Gy) and the maximum target (PTV) dose were established for different PTVs and lung densities. The impact of the number of beam angles on the relationship between V{sub 20} and the beam margin was assessed. Quantitative information about optimal beam margins for lung-cancer SBRT was obtained for clinical applications.

  4. Analytical modeling of contact acoustic nonlinearity of guided waves and its application to evaluating severity of fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Su, Zhongqing

    2016-04-01

    Targeting quantitative estimate of fatigue damage, a dedicated analytical model was developed based on the modal decomposition method and the variational principle. The model well interprets the contact acoustic nonlinearity induced by a "breathing" crack in a two-dimensional scenario, and the nonlinear characteristics of guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs) (e.g., reflection, transmission, mode conversion and high-order generation) when GUWs traversing the crack. Based on the model, a second-order reflection index was defined. Using the index, a fatigue damage evaluation framework was established, showing demonstrated capacity of estimating the severity of fatigue damage in a quantitative manner. The approach, in principle, does not entail a benchmarking process against baseline signals pre-acquired from pristine counterparts. The results obtained using the analytical modeling were compared with those from finite element simulation, showing good coincidence. Limitations of the model were also discussed.

  5. Presence of interleukin-4-producing cells for human bone regeneration after application of guided tissue regeneration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashima, H; Nagata, K

    2001-07-01

    To study the process of bone regeneration we examined three samples of periapical regenerative tissue obtained from two patients under a guided tissue regeneration treatment in endodontic surgery by the immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical methods. The regenerative tissue consisted of a large number of fibroblast-like cells and a small number of mononuclear cells. Fibroblast-like cells stained positively for alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin, whereas mononuclear cells stained positively for CD4. Interleukin-4-producing cells could be detected in adjacent sections. However, interferon-y-producing cells could not be detected. These findings suggest that interleukin-4-producing cells may be one of the elements associated with success in the human bone regeneration process in vivo.

  6. Application of Intraoperative CT-Guided Navigation in Simultaneous Minimally Invasive Anterior and Posterior Surgery for Infectious Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Lee, Ching-Yu; Li, Yen-Yao; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Shi, Chung-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the safety and efficacy of using intraoperative computed tomography- (iCT-) guided navigation in simultaneous minimally invasive anterior and posterior surgery for infectious spondylitis. Nine patients with infectious spondylitis were enrolled in this study. The average operative time was 327.6 min (range, 210–490) and intraoperative blood loss was 407 cc (range, 50–1,200). The average duration of hospital stay was 48.9 days (range, 11–76). Out of a total of 54 pedicle screws employed, 53 screws (98.1%) were placed accurately. A reduced visual analog scale on back pain (from 8.2 to 2.2) and Oswestry disability index (from 67.1% to 25.6%) were found at the 2-year follow-up. All patients had achieved resolution of spinal infection with reduced average erythrocyte sedimentation rate (from 83.9 to 14.1 mm/hr) and average C-reactive protein (from 54.4 to 4.8 mg/dL). Average kyphotic angle correction was 10.5° (range, 8.4°–12.6°) postoperatively and 8.5° (range, 6.9°–10.1°) after 2 years. In conclusion, the current iCT-guided navigation approach has been demonstrated to be an alternative method during simultaneous minimally invasive anterior and posterior surgery for infectious spondylitis. It can provide a good intraoperative orientation and visualization of anatomic structures and also a high pedicle screw placement accuracy in patient's lateral decubitus position.

  7. Analysis on the Application of Situational Education on Tour Guide Operation%情境教学法在导游业务课程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海艳

    2012-01-01

    本文首先对情境教学法进行概述,并总结了该方法的特点.同时,本文指出了导游业务课程传统教学法的不足.最后在理论研究的基础上,笔者结合自身的教学实践,探讨了在导游业务课程教学中运用情境教学的途径、模式设计和案例分析.%At first, this paper explained the situational teaching and summed up its characters.At the same time, it pointed out the disadvantage of traditional teaching way. Finally, the author explored the way, model design and case studies of the application of situational teaching in tour guide operation lessons based on theoretical research.

  8. Application of guided bone regeneration technique in dental implantation%骨引导再生技术在牙种植中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲维剑; 马国武; 张晓燕

    2009-01-01

    骨引导再生技术是目前在牙种植外科中常用的一种增加牙槽骨骨量的重要手段.该技术通过在骨缺损处放置屏障膜,维持膜下稳定的空间,阻止结缔组织长入,促进骨组织优先生长.近年来,各种屏障膜和各类骨移植材料不断涌现,此项技术的临床应用范围也在不断拓展.文章对膜材料的种类和特性以及该项技术在牙种植中的应用现状进行了综述.%Guided bone regeneration technique (GBR) is regarded as one of the most important methods to increase the bone amount of alveolar ridge, which is often recommended to be applied in the dental implantation surgery. Barrier membrane is utilized in GBR technique to cover the bone defect and create a secluded space, which prevents the connective tissue from growing into the space and facilitates the growth priority of bone tissue. In recent years, along with the emerging of different kinds of barrier membranes and bone grafting materials, the scope of clinical application of this technology is continuously expanded. This article reviews the classification and property of the membranes and the application situation of guided bone regeneration technology in the field of dental implantation.

  9. Synthesis of Micelles Guided Magnetite (Fe3O4) Hollow Spheres and their application for AC Magnetic Field Responsive Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal Goswami, Madhuri

    2016-10-31

    This paper reports on synthesis of hollow spheres of magnetite, guided by micelles and their application in drug release by the stimulus responsive technique. Here oleyelamine micelles are used as the core substance for the formation of magnetite nano hollow spheres (NHS). Diameter and shell thickness of NHS have been changed by changing concentration of the micelles. Mechanism of NHS formation has been established by investigating the aliquot collected at different time during the synthesis of NHS. It has been observed that oleyelamine as micelles play an important role to generate hollow-sphere particles of different diameter and thickness just by varying its amount. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements, SEM and TEM were performed to confirm the shape and size of the NHS. FTIR measurement support the formation of magnetite phase too. Frequency dependent AC magnetic measurements and AC magnetic field stimulated drug release event by these particles provide a direction of the promising application of these NHS for better cancer treatment in near future. Being hollow &porous in structure and magnetic in nature, such materials will also be useful in other applications such as in removal of toxic materials, magnetic separation etc.

  10. Renewable energy for professional applications: a guide to implementing off-grid power supplies in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paish, O.; Oldach, R.

    2002-09-01

    These guidelines are intended to help those considering renewable energy systems to supply power to off-grid applications without access to the UK mains electricity network. The guidelines consider: examples of renewable energy systems used applications with a low power demand in the UK; renewable energy technologies relevant to off-grid applications (solar photovoltaics, wind generators, micro-hydro turbines and hybrid systems); nine steps for project implementation; defining and optimising the load application; estimating energy resources when using solar energy, wind power and hydro power; general rules of thumb when choosing a power source; system components such as batteries, inverters, support structure and civil works; basic system sizing calculations; developing a specification and contacting suppliers; checking equipment, installation and commissioning; legal and other non-technical issues; operating issues such as maintenance and safety; and selected case studies from the UK.

  11. Innovative Power-Augmentation-Guide-Vane Design of Wind-Solar Hybrid Renewable Energy Harvester for Urban High Rise Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chong Wen; Zainon, M. Z.; Chew, Poh Sin; Kui, Soo Chun; Keong, Wee Seng; Chen, Pan Kok

    2010-06-01

    To generate greater quantities of energy from wind, the most efficient solution would be by increasing the wind speed. Also, due to the decreasing number of economic wind energy sites, there are plans to place wind turbines closer to populated areas. To site wind turbines out from rural areas, the current problems of wind turbines need to be resolved, especially visual impact, poor starting behaviour in low wind speeds, noise and danger caused by blade failure. In this paper, a patented wind-solar hybrid renewable energy harvester is introduced. It is a compact system that integrates and optimizes several green elements and can be built on the top (or between upper levels) of high rise buildings or structures. This system can be used in remote and urban areas, particularly at locations where the wind speed is lower and more turbulent. It overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by guiding and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind through fixed or yaw-able power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before entering the wind turbine (straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine, VAWT in this project) at center portion. PAGV is a new and innovative design where its appearance or outer design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact. From the studies, it is shown that the wind speed increment in the PAGV can be produced according to the Bernoulli's principle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to optimize the geometry of the PAGV and the simulation results demonstrated the technical possibility of this innovative concept. The PAGV replaces the free air-stream from wind by multiple channels of speed-increased and directional-controlled air-stream. With the PAGV, this lift-type VAWT can be self-started and its size can be reduced for a given power output. The design is also safer since the VAWT is enclosed by the PAGV. By integrating the PAGV with the VAWT (the diameter and height of PAGV are 2

  12. Brain mapping in stereotactic surgery: a brief overview from the probabilistic targeting to the patient-based anatomic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Coste, Jérôme; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Caire, François; Nuti, Christophe; Derost, Philippe; Cristini, Vittorio; Gabrillargues, Jean; Hemm, Simone; Durif, Franck; Chazal, Jean

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we briefly review the concept of brain mapping in stereotactic surgery taking into account recent advances in stereotactic imaging. The gold standard continues to rely on probabilistic and indirect targeting, relative to a stereotactic reference, i.e., mostly the anterior (AC) and the posterior (PC) commissures. The theoretical position of a target defined on an atlas is transposed into the stereotactic space of a patient's brain; final positioning depends on electrophysiological analysis. The method is also used to analyze final electrode or lesion position for a patient or group of patients, by projection on an atlas. Limitations are precision of definition of the AC-PC line, probabilistic location and reliability of the electrophysiological guidance. Advances in MR imaging, as from 1.5-T machines, make stereotactic references no longer mandatory and allow an anatomic mapping based on an individual patient's brain. Direct targeting is enabled by high-quality images, an advanced anatomic knowledge and dedicated surgical software. Labeling associated with manual segmentation can help for the position analysis along non-conventional, interpolated planes. Analysis of final electrode or lesion position, for a patient or group of patients, could benefit from the concept of membership, the attribution of a weighted membership degree to a contact or a structure according to its level of involvement. In the future, more powerful MRI machines, diffusion tensor imaging, tractography and computational modeling will further the understanding of anatomy and deep brain stimulation effects.

  13. Oracle Application Express 5 for beginners a practical guide to rapidly develop data-centric web applications accessible from desktop, laptops, tablets, and smartphones

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Oracle Application Express has taken another big leap towards becoming a true next generation RAD tool. It has entered into its fifth version to build robust web applications. One of the most significant feature in this release is a new page designer that helps developers create and edit page elements within a single page design view, which enormously maximizes developer productivity. Without involving the audience too much into the boring bits, this full colored edition adopts an inspiring approach that helps beginners practically evaluate almost every feature of Oracle Application Express, including all features new to version 5. The most convincing way to explore a technology is to apply it to a real world problem. In this book, you’ll develop a sales application that demonstrates almost every feature to practically expose the anatomy of Oracle Application Express 5. The short list below presents some main topics of Oracle APEX covered in this book: Rapid web application development for desktops, la...

  14. Potential applications of image-guided radiotherapy for brain metastases and glioblastoma to improve patient quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Phong Nguyen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and brain metastasis remains a challenge because of the poor survival and the potential for brain damage following radiation. Despite concurrent chemotherapy and radiation dose escalation, local recurrence remains the predominant pattern of failure in GBM most likely secondary to repopulation of cancer stem cells. Even though radiotherapy is highly effective for local control of radio-resistant tumors such as melanoma and renal cell cancer, systemic disease progression is the cause of death in most patients with brain metastasis. Preservation of quality of life of cancer survivors is the main issue for patients with brain metastasis. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT by virtue of precise radiation dose delivery may reduce treatment time of patients with GBM without excessive toxicity and potentially improve neurocognitive function with preservation of local control in patients with brain metastasis. Future prospective trials for primary brain tumors or brain metastasis should include IGRT to assess its efficacy to improve patient quality of life.

  15. Periodontal regeneration in intrabony defects after application of enamel matrix proteins with guided tissue regeneration: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Hiroko; Shibukawa, Yoshihiro; Sugito, Hiroki; Ota, Mikio; Yamada, Satoru

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of enamel matrix proteins (EMP) at the early stage of wound healing in the periodontal tissues by a combination treatment with guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Intrabony defects were produced surgically at the distal aspects of both mandibles in six beagle dogs. At 12 weeks following the surgery, the defects were exposed using a full thickness mucoperiosteal flap procedure. Subsequently, the defects were treated by the following treatments: a control group treated with GTR alone, and an experimental group treated with a combination of GTR and EMP. After one, two, four and eight weeks of the treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and sections of the tissue were stained and evaluated microscopically. After one and two weeks, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cell ratios of the experimental group were significantly greater than that of the control group. After 2 and 4 weeks, new bone and new cementum formation in the experimental group were significantly greater than those in the control group (P periodontal ligament cells might contribute, during the early stage of periodontal healing, to stimulate a proliferation of periodontal ligament cells.

  16. Stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of brain metastases. A report of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, Martin [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Radiation Oncology, Koeln (Germany); Wittig, Andrea [Philips-University Marburg, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Marburg (Germany); Piroth, Marc Dieter [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany); Helios-Klinikum Wuppertal, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Wuppertal (Germany); Treuer, Harald; Ruge, Maximilian [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Koeln (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, Heinrich [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg, Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Hamburg (Germany); Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Guckenberger, Matthias [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    This report from the Working Group on Stereotaktische Radiotherapie of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie, DEGRO) provides recommendations for the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on patients with brain metastases. It considers existing international guidelines and details them where appropriate. The main recommendations are: Patients with solid tumors except germ cell tumors and small-cell lung cancer with a life expectancy of more than 3 months suffering from a single brain metastasis of less than 3 cm in diameter should be considered for SRS. Especially when metastases are not amenable to surgery, are located in the brain stem, and have no mass effect, SRS should be offered to the patient. For multiple (two to four) metastases - all less than 2.5 cm in diameter - in patients with a life expectancy of more than 3 months, SRS should be used rather than whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Adjuvant WBRT after SRS for both single and multiple (two to four) metastases increases local control and reduces the frequency of distant brain metastases, but does not prolong survival when compared with SRS and salvage treatment. As WBRT carries the risk of inducing neurocognitive damage, it seems reasonable to withhold WBRT for as long as possible. A single (marginal) dose of 20 Gy is a reasonable choice that balances the effect on the treated lesion (local control, partial remission) against the risk of late side effects (radionecrosis). Higher doses (22-25 Gy) may be used for smaller (< 1 cm) lesions, while a dose reduction to 18 Gy may be necessary for lesions greater than 2.5-3 cm. As the infiltration zone of the brain metastases is usually small, the GTV-CTV (gross tumor volume-clinical target volume) margin should be in the range of 0-1 mm. The CTV-PTV (planning target volume) margin depends on the treatment technique and should lie in the range of 0-2 mm. Distant brain recurrences fulfilling the aforementioned criteria

  17. 导波检测技术在“抚-鲅”线上的应用%Application of Ultrasonic Guided Wave Detection Technology in Fushun-Bayuquan Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛迎战; 张利民; 林猛

    2014-01-01

    The uitrasonic guided wave technology for pipeline defect detection has been applied in industrial field. In this paper, the development history and basic theory of the ultrasonic guided wave technology were introduced. Concrete application of the guided wave inspection technology in defect detection of Fushun-Bayuquan pipe was discussed. Testing conclusion was verified by in-situ observation, which showed that application of the guided wave inspection technology in pipeline defect detection was successful. At last, development trend of the ultrasonic guided wave inspection technology was prospected.%用导波技术对管道缺陷检测进入工业现场应用阶段。介绍了超声导波技术的发展历史及基本理论。表述了导波检测技术“抚-鲅”线缺陷检测中的具体应用过程,检测缺陷结论经现场观测验证准确。表明管道缺陷导波检测技术在“抚-鲅”线上的应用成功。幵指出随着超声导波技术的发展,其在管道缺陷检测工程中将得到广泛的应用。

  18. Carbon fibre and nitinol needles for MRI-guided interventions: First in vitro and in vivo application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.thomas@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Wojtczyk, Hanne [Section of Experimental Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Rempp, Hansjoerg; Clasen, Stephan; Horger, Marius [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Lassberg, Christoph von [Department of Sports Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Silcherstrasse 5, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Fritz, Jan [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Claussen, Claus D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Pereira, Philippe L. [Department of Radiology, Minimally Invasive Therapies and Nuclearmedicine, SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Am Gesundbrunnen 20-26, 74078 Heilbronn (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To assess the artefact properties of a MR-compatible carbon fibre needle with a nitinol mandrin in vitro and to report first clinical experiences. Materials and methods: In vitro, the carbon fibre/nitinol needle was imaged at different angles against the main magnetic field (1.5 T open bore magnet). A gradient echo MR fluoroscopy sequence (GRE: TR 9.3 ms, TE 3.12 ms, bandwidth 200 Hz/pixel, flip-angle 12{sup o}) and a fast turbo spin echo sequence (FSE: TR 412 ms, TE 9.7 ms, bandwidth 200 Hz/pixel, flip-angle 150{sup o}) were used. Artefact width, needle intensity contrast and needle tip location errors were assessed. In vivo, lumbar periradicular corticosteroid injections and one sclerotherapy were performed with carbon fibre needles (10 procedures) and with titanium alloy needles (2 procedures). The artefact sizes and contrasts were measured. Results: In vitro, artefact diameters of the carbon fibre needle ranged from 3.3 to 4.6 mm, contrasts from 0.11 to 0.52, with larger artefact contrasts and widths with the GRE sequence. Needle tip location errors of -2.1 to -2.8 mm were observed. Decreasing angles to the main field lead to smaller artefacts. In vivo, the carbon fibre/nitinol needle produced smaller artefacts (mean width FSE/GRE: 2.8 mm/4.6 mm) with lower contrast (0.30-0.42) than the titanium alloy needle (mean width FSE/GRE: 4.1 mm/7.5 mm, contrast 0.60-0.73). Conclusions: The carbon fibre/nitinol needle is useful for performing MR-guided interventions at 1.5 T, producing more subtle artefacts than a titanium alloy needle, but with an incomplete depiction and thus inaccurate localization of the needle tip.

  19. MR-guided pain therapy: principles and clinical applications; MR-gesteuerte Schmerztherapie: Prinzipien und klinische Applikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, J.; Pereira, P.L. [Diagnostische Radiologie, Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    X-ray fluoroscopy and computed tomography are frequently used to perform percutaneous interventions in pain therapy. The development of MR-compatible therapy needles now allows these interventions to be performed under MR imaging guidance. MR-guided interventions may be performed using most clinical MR scanners; however, systems with an open configuration are advantageous. Multiplanar pre- and intra-procedural MR imaging provides the interventionalist with essential information, such as evaluation of anatomy and pathology, as well as the planning of the procedure and monitoring of fluid distribution without the use of contrast agents. With the use of non-ionizing radiation, interventional MR imaging is especially suited for the treatment of children and young adults as well as for serial injection therapy. For spinal MR interventions, passive needle visualization is an easily achievable and reliable method. The resulting needle artifact is influenced by several factors such as the alloy of the needle, the strength of the static magnetic field, the sequence type, the spatial orientation of the therapy needle as well as the echo time and may further be optimized during the intervention by alteration of the last three factors. Fast acquisition techniques and image processing allow for continuous, near real-time MR imaging (so-called MR fluoroscopy) and interactive needle navigations, comparable to X-ray fluoroscopy and CT fluoroscopy. The purpose of this review is to illustrate and discuss general concepts of interventional MR imaging. A spectrum of interventional MR imaging procedures in spinal pain therapy is described and illustrated, including procedures such as lumbar facet joint injections, sacroiliac joint injections, lumbar spinal nerve root infiltrations and drug delivery to the lumbar sympathetic chain. (orig.)

  20. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  1. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Joel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  2. Politics and application guide of urgency measures and administrative sanctions of the CNSNS; Politica y guia de aplicacion de medidas de apremio y sanciones administrativas de la CNSNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa V, J.M.; Cruz R, L.A.; EsquiveI T, J.L.; Nunez C, A. [CNSNS, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jmespinosa@cnsns.gob.mx

    2007-07-01

    In use of their attributions, granted by the Regulation Law of the 27 Constitutional Article in Nuclear Matter, the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) it has taken charge to the authors the Politics' s elaboration and Guide of Application of Urgency measures and Administrative Sanctions (PGAMASA) with the double objective of discouraging the licensees, contractors and employees of incurring in nonfulfillment or violations to the regulator mark and of encouraging them to be attentive to the prompt identification and the immediate and appropriate correction of the violations and nonfulfillment. The present article presents the legal mark that confers the CNSNS the attributions to implant a PGAMASA and it exposes the more important elements that conform it. The urgency measures and administrative sanctions are defined, the approaches to determine the level of graveness of a violation or nonfulfillment and it is related the application process of urgency measures and administrative sanctions are presented. Like this among the urgency measures they stand out figures like the Notifications of Violation and the Regulatory Orders by their versatility and use potentiality. The PGAMASA has a basically dissuasive character and its last purpose it is to strengthen the actions that the CNSNS carries out in the fulfillment of its functions to maintain the safety standards in the operation of the nuclear facilities. (Author)

  3. Development of Nuclear R and D Man-power Genealogy DB and preparation of Guiding Principle in Assets Application for Nuclear R and D Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Song, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hak Jun; Chung, Chul Eun

    2007-08-15

    Information search for nuclear professional man-power, technology genealogy search, project participation history etc. is serviced, and present limits to KAERI additionally, but constructed Site-Based DB that service is embodied as well as subject responsible person's pedigree. Information of professional man-power include origin school, last degree, distinction of sex, age etc. and technology genealogy consist of NuTRM classification, national science technology classification, and technology tree system classified in KAERI. Technology possession present condition for professional man-power of only KAERI is included within DB. Hereafter, professional manpower of the other nuclear energy company should be strengthened on the basis of DB structure that is developed. Technology tree system classified in KAERI also required to be strengthened on the man-power DB that has effectiveness for long-term as that embody by technology tree system which can represent nuclear energy through the verification of the other nuclear energy company. By applying readying guiding principle in assets application for nuclear R and D fund, secure lucency of assets application.

  4. Application of ultrasonic guided waves to the characterization of texture in metal sheets of cubic and hexagonal crystallites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan.

    1990-10-08

    Ultrasonic techniques have recently been applied to the texture characterization in polycrystalline aggregates of hexagonal crystals. The basis of this application lies in the relations between the elastic constants {bar C}{sub ij} of the aggregates, which can be inferred from ultrasonic wave velocity measurements, and the orientation distribution coefficients. This communication present such relations for aggregates which possess orthotopic material symmetry and hexagonal crystal symmetry for Voigt, Reuss, and Hill averaging methods in a unified and concise representation.

  5. The Limits of Judicial Activism:Research on Application of Guiding Cases in Procuratorial Work%司法能动下的限度--论指导性案例在检察工作中的适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文; 范艳利

    2015-01-01

    基于对司法能动主义的争议和我国检察案例指导工作的特点,在适用指导性案例时应遵从一定的限制性规则:适用的前提是穷尽制定法;适用案件范围要遵循《最高人民检察院关于案例指导工作的规定》;在程序上由主办检察官提出适用,查明案例时应当区分必要事实和非必要事实,在正式的法律文书中应当标明所适用的具体指导性案例,并健全检察机关司法文书公开制度。%Because of the controversy of the judicial activism and the features of guiding cases in procuratorial work,the application of guiding cases should be restricted to comply with certain rules.The premise is having no statue law and the application scope should follow “provisions of Supreme People’s Procuratorate on guiding cases”.Procedural requirements are as follows:whether the guiding cases should be applied is determined by the procurators directing cases;the necessary facts and non essential facts should be distinguished when finding out the guiding cases;the specific applicable guiding cases should be marked in the formal legal documents.At the same time,the legal document public system of procuratorial organ should be improved.

  6. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for low grade glioma at McGill University: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, D; Souhami, L; Olivier, A; Leblanc, R; Podgorsak, E

    2006-02-01

    Small, well-defined, unresectable low-grade gliomas are attractive targets for stereotactic irradiation. Fractionated stereotactic irradiation of these targets has the theoretical benefit of increased normal tissue sparing beyond that provided by the physical characteristics of stereotactic radiosurgery. From July 1987 to November 1992, 21 patients were treated for low-grade glioma at our institution using a hypofractionated regimen of stereotactic radiotherapy. All patients had well-circumscribed, < 40 mm tumors. No patient had had prior radiotherapy. All lesions were histologically proven WHO grade I or II glial tumors. Lesions involved sensitive brain structures and were deemed unresectable. A typical dose of 42 Gy was delivered in 6 fractions over a two-week period using rigid immobilization and a linac-based dynamic stereotactic radiosurgical technique. Patients had a median age of 23 years (9-74) and were predominantly female (60%). Median tumor diameter was 20 mm. With a median follow-up for living patients of 13.3 years, the actuarial 5, 10, and 15-year overall survival rates are 76%, 71%, and 63%, respectively. Treatment was acutely well tolerated although three patients experienced late post-therapy complications. Our results and those of 241 patients treated in nine other institutional series are reviewed. Despite some examples of favorable short-term outcomes, all reported series are highly selected and thus likely biased. The data regarding the use of SRS is limited and, in our opinion, insufficient to claim a clear therapeutic advantage to SRS in the initial management of low-grade glioma. Our own results with hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy are similar to those expected with standard therapy.

  7. Tracker-on-C for cone-beam CT-guided surgery: evaluation of geometric accuracy and clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Otake, Y.; Uneri, A.; Schafer, S.; Mirota, D. J.; Nithiananthan, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Khanna, A. J.; Reh, D. D.; Gallia, G. L.; Taylor, R. H.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    -arm CBCT with realtime tracking and demonstrated utility in a spectrum of image-guided interventions (e.g., spine surgery) benefiting from improved accuracy, enhanced visualization, and reduced radiation exposure.

  8. Mastering IDEAScript the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    With approximately 44,000 users in the U.S. and Canada, as well as 42,000 in Europe, IDEA software has become a leading provider of data analysis software for use by auditors and accountants. Written to provide users with a quick access guide for optimal use of IDEAScript, Mastering IDEAScript: The Definitive Guide is IDEA's official guide to mastering IDEAScript, covering essential topics such as Introducing IDEAScript, Understanding the Basics of IDEAScript Editor, Designing Structured Applications, Understanding IDEA Databases and much more. For auditors, accountants and controllers.

  9. Predictors of Rectal Tolerance Observed in a Dose-Escalated Phase 1-2 Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.W. Nathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Cho, L. Chinsoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Straka, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Christie, Alana [Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Lotan, Yair [Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pistenmaa, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Nanda, Akash [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Health Cancer Center at Orlando Health, Orlando, Florida (United States); Kueplian, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Brindle, Jeffrey [Prairie Lakes Hospital, Watertown, South Dakota (United States); Cooley, Susan; Perkins, Alida [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Raben, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Xie, Xian-Jin [Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Timmerman, Robert D., E-mail: robert.timmerman@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To convey the occurrence of isolated cases of severe rectal toxicity at the highest dose level tested in 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer; and to rationally test potential causal mechanisms to guide future studies and experiments to aid in mitigating or altogether avoiding such severe bowel injury. Methods and Materials: Clinical and treatment planning data were analyzed from 91 patients enrolled from 2006 to 2011 on a dose-escalation (45, 47.5, and 50 Gy in 5 fractions) phase 1/2 clinical study of SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Results: At the highest dose level, 6.6% of patients treated (6 of 91) developed high-grade rectal toxicity, 5 of whom required colostomy. Grade 3+ delayed rectal toxicity was strongly correlated with volume of rectal wall receiving 50 Gy >3 cm{sup 3} (P<.0001), and treatment of >35% circumference of rectal wall to 39 Gy (P=.003). Grade 2+ acute rectal toxicity was significantly correlated with treatment of >50% circumference of rectal wall to 24 Gy (P=.010). Conclusion: Caution is advised when considering high-dose SBRT for treatment of tumors near bowel structures, including prostate cancer. Threshold dose constraints developed from physiologic principles are defined, and if respected can minimize risk of severe rectal toxicity.

  10. Indirect Tumor Cell Death After High-Dose Hypofractionated Irradiation: Implications for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiation Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chang W., E-mail: songx001@umn.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Park, Inhwan [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Koonce, Nathan A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Hui, Susanta [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Kim, Mi-Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dusenbery, Kathryn E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Sperduto, Paul W. [Minneapolis Radiation Oncology and Gamma Knife Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Cho, L. Chinsoo [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reveal the biological mechanisms underlying stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: FSaII fibrosarcomas grown subcutaneously in the hind limbs of C3H mice were irradiated with 10 to 30 Gy of X rays in a single fraction, and the clonogenic cell survival was determined with in vivo–in vitro excision assay immediately or 2 to 5 days after irradiation. The effects of radiation on the intratumor microenvironment were studied using immunohistochemical methods. Results: After cells were irradiated with 15 or 20 Gy, cell survival in FSaII tumors declined for 2 to 3 days and began to recover thereafter in some but not all tumors. After irradiation with 30 Gy, cell survival declined continuously for 5 days. Cell survival in some tumors 5 days after 20 to 30 Gy irradiation was 2 to 3 logs less than that immediately after irradiation. Irradiation with 20 Gy markedly reduced blood perfusion, upregulated HIF-1α, and increased carbonic anhydrase-9 expression, indicating that irradiation increased tumor hypoxia. In addition, expression of VEGF also increased in the tumor tissue after 20 Gy irradiation, probably due to the increase in HIF-1α activity. Conclusions: Irradiation of FSaII tumors with 15 to 30 Gy in a single dose caused dose-dependent secondary cell death, most likely by causing vascular damage accompanied by deterioration of intratumor microenvironment. Such indirect tumor cell death may play a crucial role in the control of human tumors with SBRT and SRS.

  11. SU-E-T-642: Safety Procedures for Error Elimination in Cyberknife Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A; Alkafi, A; Al-Najjar, W; Moftah, B [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Department of Biomedical Physics, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cyberknife system is used for providing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) hypofractionation scheme. The whole treatment delivery is based on live imaging of the patient. The minor error made at any stage may bring severe radiation injury to the patient or damage to the system itself. Several safety measures were taken to make the system safer. Methods: The radiation treatment provided thru a 6MV linac attached to Kuka robot (Cyberknife G4, Accuray Inc. Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Several possible errors were identified related to patient alignment, treatment planning, dose delivery and physics quality assurance. During dose delivery, manual and visual checks were introduced to confirm pre and intra-treatment imaging to reduce possible errors. One additional step was introduced to confirm that software tracking-tools had worked correctly with highest possible confidence level. Robotic head move in different orientations over and around the patient body, the rigidity of linac-head cover and other accessories was checked periodically. The vender was alerted when a tiny or bigger piece of equipment needed additional interlocked support. Results: As of our experience treating 525 patients on Cyberknife during the last four years, we saw on and off technical issues. During image acquisition, it was made essential to follow the site-specific imaging protocols. Adequate anatomy was contoured to document the respective doses. Followed by auto-segmentation, manual tweaking was performed on every structure. The calculation box was enclosing the whole image during the final calculation. Every plan was evaluated on slice-by slice basis. To review the whole process, a check list was maintained during the physics 2nd-check. Conclusion: The implementation of manual and visual additional checks introduced along with automated checks for confirmation was found promising in terms of reduction in systematic errors and making the system

  12. Automating the Analysis of Spatial Grids A Practical Guide to Data Mining Geospatial Images for Human & Environmental Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmanan, Valliappa

    2012-01-01

    The ability to create automated algorithms to process gridded spatial data is increasingly important as remotely sensed datasets increase in volume and frequency. Whether in business, social science, ecology, meteorology or urban planning, the ability to create automated applications to analyze and detect patterns in geospatial data is increasingly important. This book provides students with a foundation in topics of digital image processing and data mining as applied to geospatial datasets. The aim is for readers to be able to devise and implement automated techniques to extract information from spatial grids such as radar, satellite or high-resolution survey imagery.

  13. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases. Results from three different dose concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrig, A.; Grabenbauer, G.; Sauer, R. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery Center of the Univ. of Erlangen (Germany); Ganslandt, O. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery Center of the Univ. of Erlangen (Germany); Dept. of Neurosurgery of the Univ. of Erlangen (Germany); Lambrecht, U. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery Center of the Univ. of Erlangen (Germany); Div. of Medical Physics of the Dept. of Radiation Therapy of the Univ. of Erlangen (Germany); Kleinert, G.; Hamm, K. [Dept. for Stereotactic Neurosurgery and Radiosurgery, Helios Klinikum Erfurt (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate efficacy and toxicity of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (hfSRT) with three different dose concepts for irresectable brain metastases not amenable to radiosurgery (SRS) using non-invasive fixation of the skull. Patients and Methods: From 6/2000 to 6/2005, 150 patients with 228 brain metastases were treated at the dedicated stereotactic radiosurgery system Novalis trademark (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) in two German treatment centers. Three different dose concepts were applied: 5 x 6-7 Gy (A: 72 brain metastases), 10 x 4 Gy (B: 59 brain metastases) and 7 x 5 Gy (C: 97 brain metastases). Median planning target volume (PTV) was 6.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.02-95.97). Results: Rates of complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR), no change (NC) and progressive disease (PD) were 42%, 30%, 21% and 7%, respectively (median follow-up 28 months). Median survival was 16 months. Survival at 6 and 12 months was 83% and 66%, respectively. Side effects were dependent on the PTV and on dose concept (median PTV in case of increasing edema or necrosis: 17 cm{sup 3}, A: 22%, C: 7%). HfSRT with 10 x 4 Gy (B) was well tolerated without side effects. Conclusion: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy is an effective and safe treatment. In case of brain metastases > 15 cm{sup 3} (diameter > 3 cm) and concerning toxicity, 10 x 4 Gy seem to be more advantageous than shorter fractionation with higher doses while 5 x 6-7 Gy and 7 x 5 Gy were followed by higher response rates. Further specification of tolerance doses and tolerance according to the different brain regions has to be done. (orig.)

  14. Stereotactic Fractionated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma: The McGill University Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Wassia, Rolina; Dal Pra, Alan; Shun, Kitty; Shaban, Ahmed [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Corriveau, Christine [Department of Ophthalmology, Notre Dame Hospital, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Edelstein, Chaim; Deschenes, Jean [Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ruo, Russel; Patrocinio, Horacio [Department of Medical Physics, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L.B. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); DeBlois, Francois [Department of Medical Physics, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Shenouda, George, E-mail: george.shenouda@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To report our experience with linear accelerator-based stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy in the treatment of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 50 consecutive patients diagnosed with juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma and treated with linear accelerator-based stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy between April 2003 and December 2009. Patients with small to medium sized lesions (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study classification) located within 2 mm of the optic disc were included. The prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy in 10 fractions. The primary endpoints included local control, enucleation-free survival, and complication rates. Results: The median follow-up was 29 months (range, 1-77 months). There were 31 males and 29 females, with a median age of 69 years (range, 30-92 years). Eighty-four percent of the patients had medium sized lesions, and 16% of patients had small sized lesions. There were four cases of local progression (8%) and three enucleations (6%). Actuarial local control rates at 2 and 5 years were 93% and 86%, respectively. Actuarial enucleation-free survival rates at 2 and 5 years were 94% and 84%, respectively. Actuarial complication rates at 2 and 5 years were 33% and 88%, respectively, for radiation-induced retinopathy; 9.3% and 46.9%, respectively, for dry eye; 12% and 53%, respectively, for cataract; 30% and 90%, respectively, for visual loss [Snellen acuity (decimal equivalent), <0.1]; 11% and 54%, respectively, for optic neuropathy; and 18% and 38%, respectively, for neovascular glaucoma. Conclusions: Linear accelerator-based stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy using 60 Gy in 10 fractions is safe and has an acceptable toxicity profile. It has been shown to be an effective noninvasive treatment for juxtapapillary choroidal melanomas.

  15. Frame-based stereotactic biopsy of canine brain masses: technique and clinical results in 26 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Henry Rossmeisl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the methodology, diagnostic yield, and adverse events (AE associated with frame-based stereotactic brain biopsies (FBSB obtained from 26 dogs with solitary forebrain lesions. Medical records were reviewed from dogs that underwent FBSB using two stereotactic headframes designed for use in small animals and compatible with computed tomographic (CT and magnetic resonance (MR imaging. Stereotactic plans were generated from MR and CT images using commercial software, and FBSB performed both with (14/26 and without intraoperative image guidance. Records were reviewed for diagnostic yield, defined as the proportion of biopsies producing a specific neuropathological diagnosis, AE associated with FBSB, and risk factors for the development of AE. Postprocedural AE were evaluated in 19/26 dogs that did not proceed to a therapeutic intervention immediately following biopsy. Biopsy targets included intra-axial telencephalic masses (24/26, one intra-axial diencephalic mass, and one extra-axial parasellar mass. The median target volume was 1.99 cm3. No differences in patient, lesion, or outcome variables were observed between the two headframe systems used or between FBSB performed with or without intraoperative CT-guidance. The diagnostic yield of FBSB was 94.6%. Needle placement error was a significant risk factor associated with procurement of non-diagnostic biopsy specimens. Gliomas were diagnosed in 24/26 dogs, and meningioma and granulomatous meningoencephalitis in one dog each. AE directly related to FBSB were observed in a total of 7/26 (27% of dogs. Biopsy associated clinical morbidity, manifesting as seizures and transient neurological deterioration, occurred in 3/19 (16% of dogs. The case fatality rate was 5.2% (1/19 dogs, with death attributable to intracranial hemorrhage. FBSB using the described apparatus was relatively safe and effective at providing neuropathological diagnoses in dogs with focal forebrain lesions.

  16. Technical note: rapid prototyping of 3D grid arrays for image guided therapy quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, David; Holshouser, Barbara; Slater, James M; Guenther, Bob D; Pitsianis, Nikos P; Pearlstein, Robert D

    2008-12-01

    Three dimensional grid phantoms offer a number of advantages for measuring imaging related spatial inaccuracies for image guided surgery and radiotherapy. The authors examined the use of rapid prototyping technology for directly fabricating 3D grid phantoms from CAD drawings. We tested three different fabrication process materials, photopolymer jet with acrylic resin (PJ/AR), selective laser sintering with polyamide (SLS/P), and fused deposition modeling with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (FDM/ABS). The test objects consisted of rectangular arrays of control points formed by the intersections of posts and struts (2 mm rectangular cross section) and spaced 8 mm apart in the x, y, and z directions. The PJ/AR phantom expanded after immersion in water which resulted in permanent warping of the structure. The surface of the FDM/ABS grid exhibited a regular pattern of depressions and ridges from the extrusion process. SLS/P showed the best combination of build accuracy, surface finish, and stability. Based on these findings, a grid phantom for assessing machine-dependent and frame-induced MR spatial distortions was fabricated to be used for quality assurance in stereotactic neurosurgical and radiotherapy procedures. The spatial uniformity of the SLS/P grid control point array was determined by CT imaging (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.625 mm3 resolution) and found suitable for the application, with over 97.5% of the control points located within 0.3 mm of the position specified in CAD drawing and none of the points off by more than 0.4 mm. Rapid prototyping is a flexible and cost effective alternative for development of customized grid phantoms for medical physics quality assurance.

  17. Effect of drying history on swelling properties and cell attachment to oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogels for guided tissue regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temenoff, Johnna S; Steinbis, Emily S; Mikos, Antonios G

    2003-01-01

    In these experiments, the effects of the drying history of hydrogels made from a novel polymer, oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) with two different poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecular weights (approximately 920 (1K) and 9110 (10K) g/mol), were investigated. The hydrogels were either formed, dried and then swelled, representing what may occur in the case of a pre-formed membrane for guided tissue regeneration, or were formed and swelled immediately, as may occur with an injectable material for such applications. Subsequently, swelling properties, sol fraction and polymer network structure (as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry), as well as attachment of human dermal fibroblasts to these hydrogels at 4 and 24 h was examined. It was found that drying before swelling caused a significant reduction in final fold swelling of OPF hydrogels, regardless of OPF formulation or method of drying (air-dried or vacuum-dried) (e.g. PEG 10K swollen first: 13.94 +/- 0.35 vs. vacuum first: 6.53 +/- 0.12; PEG 1K swollen first: 8.99 +/- 0.47 vs. vacuum first: 2.26 +/- 0.08). This decreased swelling correlated to significantly higher cell attachment (% seeded) to these hydrogels at 24 h (PEG 10K vacuum first: 21.1 +/- 4.7% vs. swollen first: 7.1 +/- 5.5%; PEG 1K vacuum first: 58.2 +/- 2% vs. swollen first: 7.4 +/- 2.2%). LIVE/DEAD staining followed by microscopic analysis revealed attached cells were viable, yet rounded, and that, in the case of the PEG 1K dried-first samples, undulations in the surface visible in the hydrated state may have affected cell adhesion. Regardless of treatment, all hydrogels showed significantly less cell attachment than the tissue culture polystyrene control after 24 h (104.9 +/- 4.4%). These results suggest that, by altering the PEG molecular weight used in synthesis, OPF hydrogels may be tailored to produce desired swelling properties and reduce non-specific cell adhesion for either injectable or pre-formed applications, thus

  18. A guide through the computational analysis of isotope-labeled mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics data: an application study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haußmann Ute

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has reached a stage where it is possible to comprehensively analyze the whole proteome of a cell in one experiment. Here, the employment of stable isotopes has become a standard technique to yield relative abundance values of proteins. In recent times, more and more experiments are conducted that depict not only a static image of the up- or down-regulated proteins at a distinct time point but instead compare developmental stages of an organism or varying experimental conditions. Results Although the scientific questions behind these experiments are of course manifold, there are, nevertheless, two questions that commonly arise: 1 which proteins are differentially regulated regarding the selected experimental conditions, and 2 are there groups of proteins that show similar abundance ratios, indicating that they have a similar turnover? We give advice on how these two questions can be answered and comprehensively compare a variety of commonly applied computational methods and their outcomes. Conclusions This work provides guidance through the jungle of computational methods to analyze mass spectrometry-based isotope-labeled datasets and recommends an effective and easy-to-use evaluation strategy. We demonstrate our approach with three recently published datasets on Bacillus subtilis 12 and Corynebacterium glutamicum 3. Special focus is placed on the application and validation of cluster analysis methods. All applied methods were implemented within the rich internet application QuPE 4. Results can be found at http://qupe.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de.

  19. Intracranial Metastatic Neuroblastoma Treated with Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Report of Two Novel Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C. Rowland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial metastasis of neuroblastoma (IMN is associated with poor survival. No curative therapy for the treatment of IMN currently exists. Unfractionated radiotherapy may be beneficial in the treatment of IMN given the known radiosensitivity of neuroblastoma as well as its proclivity to metastasize as discrete lesions. We present two patients with IMN treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS. Single-fraction radiotherapy yielded temporary reduction of tumor burden and stability of disease in both patients. SRS may be a useful palliative tool in the treatment of IMN and expands the overall treatment options for this disease.

  20. Localization Accuracy and Immobilization Effectiveness of a Stereotactic Body Frame for a Variety of Treatment Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ryan, E-mail: Ryan.Foster@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Meyer, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Puneeth; Pistenmaa, David; Timmerman, Robert; Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Solberg, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the pretreatment setup errors and intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for stereotactic body radiation therapy patients immobilized and localized with a stereotactic body frame for a variety of treatment sites. Methods and Materials: Localization errors were recorded for patients receiving SBRT for 141 lung, 29 liver, 48 prostate, and 45 spine tumors representing 1005 total localization sessions. All patients were treated in a stereotactic body frame with a large custom-molded vacuum pillow. Patients were first localized to the frame using tattoos placed during simulation. Subsequently, the frame was aligned to the room lasers according to the stereotactic coordinates determined from the treatment plan. Every patient received a pretreatment and an intrafraction CBCT. Abdominal compression was used for all liver patients and for approximately 40% of the lung patients to reduce tumor motion due to respiration. Results: The mean ± standard deviation pretreatment setup errors from all localizations were −2.44 ± 3.85, 1.31 ± 5.84, and 0.11 ± 3.76 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean pretreatment localization results among all treatment sites were not significantly different (F test, P<.05). For all treatment sites, the mean ± standard deviation intrafraction shifts were 0.33 ± 1.34, 0.15 ± 1.45, and −0.02 ± 1.17 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean unidimensional intrafraction shifts were statistically different for several of the comparisons (P<.05) as assessed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Conclusions: Despite the varied tumor locations, the pretreatment mean localization errors for all sites were found to be consistent among the treatment sites and not significantly different, indicating that the body frame is a suitable immobilization and localization device for a variety of

  1. Stereotactic irradiation of angiomas: scintigraphic follow-up. Irradiation stereotaxique des angiomes: suivi scintigraphique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebtahi, R.; Meder, J.F.; Kerviler, E. de; Piketty, M.L.; Berenger, N.; Habert, M.O.; Missir, O.; Merienne, L.; Askienazy, S. (Hopital Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France))

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation increases the rate of thrombolie obliteration of the angioma. The long latency before the onset of thrombo-obliteration means that there is a considerable delay in treatment. Cerebral angiography is considered the gold standard in he follow-up of angiomas in this study, HM scintigraphy was positive in all cases when cerebral angiography showed no radiological improvement, negative when complete obliteration of the angioma occurred, but negative in 5 cases with incomplete obliteration. This preliminary study shows the place of HM scintigraphy in the follow-up of angioma irradiation, in which it revealed the incomplete effect of stereotactic radiosurgery.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of fiber optical components for application in guiding, sensing and molding of THz and mid-IR radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhorova, Anna

    lowest absorption loss occurs in dry gases, an efficient waveguide design must maximize the fraction of power guided in the gas. Different types of THz waveguides have been proposed based on this concept including a subwavelength waveguide featuring a core with a size much smaller than the wavelength of light in which a large fraction of the guided light is found outside of the lossy core region. A practical design of such a waveguide was recently proposed in our research group and presents a subwavelength fiber suspended on thin bridges in the middle of a larger protective tube. Large channels formed by the bridges and a tube make a convenient opto-microfluidic system that is easy to fill with liquid analytes or purge with dry gases. Particularly, the THz subwavelength waveguide used in our experiments features a 150 µm core fiber suspended by three 20 µm-thick bridges in the center of a 5.1 mm diameter tube of 4 cm in length. This waveguide design presents several important advantages for bio-sensing applications. First, the waveguide structure allows direct and convenient access to the fiber core and to the evanescent wave guided around it. Second, the outer cladding effectively isolates the core-guided mode from the surrounding environment, (e.g. fiber holders), thereby preventing the undesirable external perturbations of the terahertz signal. Finally, in Chapter 4, low-loss chalcogenide capillary-based waveguides that operate both in the mid-IR and THz spectral ranges are investigated. Chalcogenide glasses have attracted strong interest in a view of optical applications in the near-IR and mid-IR spectral ranges (1-14 µm) due to their relatively low losses and high nonlinearities. Furthermore, chalcogenide glass-based microstructured fibers open many interesting possibilities for a large number of applications in the mid-IR spectral range, where applications in optical sensing, supercontinuum generation and single-mode propagation of IR light, transmission of the

  3. Clinical application and evaluation of the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide%自制氟斑牙比色板临床使用效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王屹; 杨敏; 刘晔; 黄宴斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide. Methods Color matching was performed by three prosthodontists with the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide and VITA16 shade guide respectively in 30 patients with dental fluorosis. According to the results, two sets of crowns were fabricated for each patient, and the satisfactory degree of the dentists and patients was calculated and compared respec tively. Results According to the survey of satisfactory degree, the dentists and patients were more satisfactory with the dental fluorosis shade guide than the VITA16 shade guide. Conclusion In dental fluorosis patients' color matching, home-made dental fluorosis shade guide was more timesaving and efficient than VITA16 shade guide.%目的 研究自制氟斑牙比色板的临床使用效果.方法 由3名口腔修复专业医生,分别采用自制氟斑牙比色板及VITA16色比色板对30例氟斑牙患者在自然光下进行比色,按照2种比色结果分别制作修复体,根据医生及患者满意度对疗效进行评价.结果 通过对修复体的满意度调查,医生及患者对根据自制氟斑牙比色板制作的修复体满意度明显高于根据VITA16色比色板制作的修复体.结论 在对氟斑牙患者比色中,自制氟斑牙比色板较VITA16色比色板省时、高效.

  4. Uncertainty analysis guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, T.H

    2002-05-01

    This guide applies to the estimation of uncertainty in quantities calculated by scientific, analysis and design computer programs that fall within the scope of AECL's software quality assurance (SQA) manual. The guide weaves together rational approaches from the SQA manual and three other diverse sources: (a) the CSAU (Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty) evaluation methodology; (b) the ISO Guide,for the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement; and (c) the SVA (Systems Variability Analysis) method of risk analysis. This report describes the manner by which random and systematic uncertainties in calculated quantities can be estimated and expressed. Random uncertainty in model output can be attributed to uncertainties of inputs. The propagation of these uncertainties through a computer model can be represented in a variety of ways, including exact calculations, series approximations and Monte Carlo methods. Systematic uncertainties emerge from the development of the computer model itself, through simplifications and conservatisms, for example. These must be estimated and combined with random uncertainties to determine the combined uncertainty in a model output. This report also addresses the method by which uncertainties should be employed in code validation, in order to determine whether experiments and simulations agree, and whether or not a code satisfies the required tolerance for its application. (author)

  5. Clinical application of image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT (on the Varian OBI platform); Applications cliniques de la radiotherapie guidee par l'image (RTGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorcini, B.; Tilikidis, A. [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) can be used to measure and correct positional errors for target and critical structures immediately prior to or during treatment delivery. Some of the most recent available methods applied for target localization are: trans-abdominal ultrasound, implanted markers with in room MV or kV X-rays, optical surface tracking systems, implantable electromagnetic markers, in room CT such as kVCT on rail, kilo-voltage or mega-voltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) and helical megavoltage CT. The verification of the accurate treatment position in conjunction with detailed anatomical information before every fraction can be essential for the outcome of the treatment. In this paper we present the on-board imager (OBI, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) that has been in routine clinical use at the Karolinska University Hospital since June 2004. The OBI has been used for on-line set-up correction of prostate patients using internal gold markers. Displacements of these markers can be monitored radiographically during the treatment course and the registered marker shifts act as a surrogate for prostate motion. For this purpose, on-board kV-kV seems to be an ideal system in terms of image quality. The CBCT function of OBI was installed in March 2005 at our department. It focuses on localizing tumors based on internal anatomy, not just on the conventional external marks or tattoos. The CBCT system provides the capacity for soft tissue imaging in the treatment position and real-time radiographic monitoring during treatment delivery. (authors)

  6. The occlusion-adjusted prefabricated 3D mirror image templates by computer simulation: the image-guided navigation system application in difficult cases of head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Tang; Wu, Chao-I; Tseng, Ching-Shiow; Chen, Hung-Chi; Lee, Wu-Song; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Chang, Sophia Chia-Ning

    2009-11-01

    Computer applications in head and neck reconstruction are rapidly emerging and create not only a virtual environment for presurgical planning, but also help in image-guided navigational surgery. This study evaluates the use of prefabricated 3-dimensional (3D) mirror image templates made by computer-simulated adjusted occlusions to assist in microvascular prefabricated flap insertion during reconstructive surgery. Five patients underwent tumor ablation surgery in 1999 and survived for 8 years. Four of the patients with malignancy received radiation therapy. All patients in this study suffered from severe malocclusion causing trismus, headache, temporomandibular joint pain, an unsymmetrical face, and the inability of further osseointegrated teeth insertion. They underwent a 3D computer tomography examination and the nonprocessed raw data were sent for computer simulation in adjusting occlusion; thus, a mirror image template could be fabricated for microsurgical flap guidance. The computer simulated occlusion was acceptable and facial symmetry obtained. The use of the template resulted in a shorter operation time and recovery was as expected. The computer-simulated occlusion-adjusted 3D mirror image templates aid in the use of free vascularized bone flaps for restoring continuity to the mandible. The coordinated arch will help with further osseointegration teeth insertion.

  7. A Web application for the management of clinical workflow in image-guided and adaptive proton therapy for prostate cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Daniel; Boes, Peter; Ho, Meng Wei; Li, Zuofeng

    2015-05-08

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), based on radiopaque markers placed in the prostate gland, was used for proton therapy of prostate patients. Orthogonal X-rays and the IBA Digital Image Positioning System (DIPS) were used for setup correction prior to treatment and were repeated after treatment delivery. Following a rationale for margin estimates similar to that of van Herk,(1) the daily post-treatment DIPS data were analyzed to determine if an adaptive radiotherapy plan was necessary. A Web application using ASP.NET MVC5, Entity Framework, and an SQL database was designed to automate this process. The designed features included state-of-the-art Web technologies, a domain model closely matching the workflow, a database-supporting concurrency and data mining, access to the DIPS database, secured user access and roles management, and graphing and analysis tools. The Model-View-Controller (MVC) paradigm allowed clean domain logic, unit testing, and extensibility. Client-side technologies, such as jQuery, jQuery Plug-ins, and Ajax, were adopted to achieve a rich user environment and fast response. Data models included patients, staff, treatment fields and records, correction vectors, DIPS images, and association logics. Data entry, analysis, workflow logics, and notifications were implemented. The system effectively modeled the clinical workflow and IGRT process.

  8. Accuracy and feasibility of frameless stereotactic and robot-assisted CT-based puncture in interventional radiology. A comparative phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffner, R.; Widmann, G.; Bale, R. [Radiologie, Medizinische Univ. Innsbruck (Austria); Augschoell, C. [Chirurgie, LKH Salzburg (Austria); Boehler, D. [LKH Salzburg (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of frameless stereotactic and robot-assisted puncture in vitro based on computed tomography (CT) imaging with a slice thickness of 1, 3, and 5 mm. Materials and Methods: 300 punctures were carried out with help of the Atlas aiming device guided by the optical navigation system Stealth Station TREONplus and 150 punctures were guided by the robotic assistance system Innomotion. Conically shaped rods were punctured with Kirschner wires. The accuracy was evaluated on the basis of control CTs by measuring the Euclidean distance between the wire tip and target and the normal distance between the target and wire. Results: With the Stealth Station a mean Euclidean distance of 1.94{+-}0.912, 2.2{+-}1.136, and 2.74{+-}1.166 mm at a slice thickness of 1, 3 and 5 mm, respectively, was reached. The mean normal distance was 1.64{+-}0.919, 1.84{+-}1.189, and 2.48{+-}1.196 mm, respectively. The Innomotion system resulted in a mean Euclidean distance of 1.69{+-}0.772, 1.91{+-}0.673, and 2.30{+-}0.881 mm, respectively, while the mean normal distance was (1.42{+-}0.78), 1.60{+-}0.733, and 1.98{+-}1.002 mm, respectively. A statistical significance between accuracies with both systems with 1 mm and 3 mm slices could not be detected (p > 0.05). At a slice thickness of 5 mm, the robot was significantly more accurate, but not as accurate as when using thinner slices (p < 0.05). The procedure time is longer for the Innomotion system ({proportional_to}30 vs. {proportional_to}18 min), and the practicability is higher with the Stealth Station. (orig.)

  9. Urethrogram-directed Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer in Patients with Contraindications to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima ePaydar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-directed stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT has been established as a safe and effective treatment for prostate cancer. For patients with contraindications to MRI, CT-urethrogram is an alternative imaging approach to identify the location of the prostatic apex to guide treatment. This study sought to evaluate the safety of urethrogram-directed SBRT for prostate cancer.Methods: Between February 2009 and January 2014, 31 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated definitively with urethrogram-directed SBRT with or without supplemental intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT at Georgetown University Hospital. SBRT was delivered either as a primary treatment of 35-36.25 Gray (Gy in 5 fractions or as a boost of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions followed by supplemental conventionally fractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (45-50.4 Gy. Toxicities were recorded and scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE v.4.0.Results: The median patient age was 70 years with a median prostate volume of 38 cc. The median follow-up was 3.7 years. The patients were elderly (Median age = 70, and comorbidities were common (Carlson Comorbidity Index > 2 in 36%. 71% of patients utilized alpha agonists prior to treatment, and 9.7% had prior procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The 3-year actuarial incidence rates of > Grade 3 GU toxicity and > Grade 2 GI toxicity were 3.2% and 9.7%, respectively. There were no Grade 4 or 5 toxicities.Conclusions: MRI is the preferred imaging modality to guide prostate SBRT treatment. However, urethrogram-directed SBRT is a safe alternative for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer who are unable to undergo MRI.

  10. Illuminating the Undergraduate Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory: A Guide for the in vivo Application of Optogenetics in Mammalian Model Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bradley M.; Jarrin, Sarah E.; Mathur, Brian N.; Bailey, Aileen M.

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is a technology that is growing rapidly in neuroscience, establishing itself as a fundamental investigative tool. As this tool is increasingly utilized across the neuroscience community and is one of the primary research techniques being presented at neuroscience conferences and in journals, we believe that it is important that this technology is introduced into the undergraduate neuroscience research laboratory. While there has been a significant body of work concentrated to deploy optogenetics in invertebrate model organisms, little to no work has focused on brining this technology to mammalian model organisms in undergraduate neuroscience laboratories. The establishment of in vivo optogenetics could provide for high-impact independent research projects for upper-level undergraduate students. Here we review the considerations for establishing in vivo optogenetics with the use of rodents in an undergraduate laboratory setting and provide some cost-saving guidelines to assist in making optogenetic technologies financially accessible. We discuss opsin selection, cell-specific opsin expression strategies, species selection, experimental design, selection of light delivery systems, and the construction of implantable optical fibers for the application of in vivo optogenetics in rodents. PMID:27385919

  11. MR-guided focused ultrasound. Current and future applications; MR-gesteuerter fokussierter Ultraschall. Aktuelle und potenzielle Indikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumm, C.G.; Peller, M.; Clevert, D.A.; Stahl, R.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen-Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Napoli, A. [Sapienza Universitaet Rom, Abteilung fuer Radiologie (Department of Radiological Sciences), MRgFUS and Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Rom (Italy); Matzko, M. [Klinikum Dachau, Abteilung fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Dachau (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (synonyms FUS and HIFU) under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance (synonyms MRgFUS and MR-HIFU) is a completely non-invasive technology for accurate thermal ablation of a target tissue while neighboring tissues and organs are preserved. The combination of FUS with MRI for planning, (near) real-time monitoring and outcome assessment of treatment markedly enhances the safety of the procedure. The MRgFUS procedure is clinically established in particular for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, followed by palliative ablation of painful bone metastases. Furthermore, promising results have been shown for the treatment of adenomyosis, malignant tumors of the prostate, breast and liver and for various intracranial applications, such as thermal ablation of brain tumors, functional neurosurgery and transient disruption of the blood-brain barrier. (orig.) [German] MRT-gesteuerter hochintensiver fokussierter Ultraschall (MRgFUS bzw. MR-HIFU) ist ein nichtinvasives Verfahren zur praezisen Thermoablation eines Zielgewebes. Bei dieser Methode werden benachbarte Gewebe und Organe geschont. Die Kombination des fokussierten Ultraschalls (FUS) mit der MRT zwecks Planung und Monitoring (nahezu) in Echtzeit sowie zur Erfolgskontrolle von Behandlungen traegt wesentlich zur Sicherheit dieser Methode bei. MRgFUS ist klinisch v. a. zur Behandlung von symptomatischen Uterusmyomen etabliert, gefolgt von der palliativen Ablation von Knochenmetastasen. Weitere vielversprechende Anwendungsgebiete des MRgFUS sind die Adenomyose des Uterus, die Behandlung von Prostata-, Mamma- und Lebertumoren sowie der intrakranielle Einsatz. (orig.)

  12. Illuminating the Undergraduate Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory: A Guide for the in vivo Application of Optogenetics in Mammalian Model Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bradley M; Jarrin, Sarah E; Mathur, Brian N; Bailey, Aileen M

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is a technology that is growing rapidly in neuroscience, establishing itself as a fundamental investigative tool. As this tool is increasingly utilized across the neuroscience community and is one of the primary research techniques being presented at neuroscience conferences and in journals, we believe that it is important that this technology is introduced into the undergraduate neuroscience research laboratory. While there has been a significant body of work concentrated to deploy optogenetics in invertebrate model organisms, little to no work has focused on brining this technology to mammalian model organisms in undergraduate neuroscience laboratories. The establishment of in vivo optogenetics could provide for high-impact independent research projects for upper-level undergraduate students. Here we review the considerations for establishing in vivo optogenetics with the use of rodents in an undergraduate laboratory setting and provide some cost-saving guidelines to assist in making optogenetic technologies financially accessible. We discuss opsin selection, cell-specific opsin expression strategies, species selection, experimental design, selection of light delivery systems, and the construction of implantable optical fibers for the application of in vivo optogenetics in rodents.

  13. TH-A-9A-05: Initial Setup Accuracy Comparison Between Frame-Based and Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, T; Sheu, R; Todorov, B; Green, S; Blacksburg, S; Lo, Y [Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate initial setup accuracy for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) between Brainlab frame-based and frameless immobilization system, also to discern the magnitude frameless system has on setup parameters. Methods: The correction shifts from the original setup were compared for total 157 SRS cranial treatments (69 frame-based vs. 88 frameless). All treatments were performed on a Novalis linac with ExacTrac positioning system. Localization box with isocenter overlay was used for initial setup and correction shift was determined by ExacTrac 6D auto-fusion to achieve submillimeter accuracy for treatment. For frameless treatments, mean time interval between simulation and treatment was 5.7 days (range 0–13). Pearson Chi-Square was used for univariate analysis. Results: The correctional radial shifts (mean±STD, median) for the frame and frameless system measured by ExacTrac were 1.2±1.2mm, 1.1mm and 3.1±3.3mm, 2.0mm, respectively. Treatments with frameless system had a radial shift >2mm more often than those with frames (51.1% vs. 2.9%; p<.0001). To achieve submillimeter accuracy, 85.5% frame-based treatments did not require shift and only 23.9% frameless treatment could succeed with initial setup. There was no statistical significant system offset observed in any direction for either system. For frameless treatments, those treated ≥ 3 days from simulation had statistically higher rates of radial shifts between 1–2mm and >2mm compared to patients treated in a shorter amount of time from simulation (34.3% and 56.7% vs. 28.6% and 33.3%, respectively; p=0.006). Conclusion: Although image-guided positioning system can also achieve submillimeter accuracy for frameless system, users should be cautious regarding the inherent uncertainty of its capability of immobilization. A proper quality assurance procedure for frameless mask manufacturing and a protocol for intra-fraction imaging verification will be crucial for frameless system. Time interval between

  14. Toxicity After Central versus Peripheral Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: A Propensity Score Matched-Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangona, Victor S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Aneese, Andrew M. [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Marina, Ovidiu; Hymas, Richard V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Ionascu, Dan; Robertson, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Gallardo, Lori J. [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Grills, Inga Siiner, E-mail: igrills@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare toxicity after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for “central” tumors—within 2 cm of the proximal bronchial tree or with planning tumor volume (PTV) touching mediastinum—versus noncentral (“peripheral”) lung tumors. Methods and Materials: From November 2005 to January 2011, 229 tumors (110 central, 119 peripheral; T1-3N0M0 non–small-cell lung cancer and limited lung metastases) in 196 consecutive patients followed prospectively at a single institution received moderate-dose SBRT (48-60 Gy in 4-5 fractions [biologic effective dose=100-132 Gy, α/β=10]) using 4-dimensional planning, online image-guided radiation therapy, and institutional dose constraints. Clinical adverse events (AEs) were graded prospectively at clinical and radiographic follow-up using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Pulmonary function test (PFT) decline was graded as 2 (25%-49.9% decline), 3 (50.0%-74.9% decline), or 4 (≥75.0% decline). Central/peripheral location was assessed retrospectively on planning CT scans. Groups were compared after propensity score matching. Characteristics were compared with χ{sup 2} and 2-tailed t tests, adverse events with χ{sup 2} test-for-trend, and cumulative incidence using competing risks analysis (Gray's test). Results: With 79 central and 79 peripheral tumors matched, no differences in AEs were observed after 17 months median follow-up. Two-year cumulative incidences of grade ≥2 pain, musculoskeletal, pulmonary, and skin AEs were 14%, 5%, 6%, and 10% (central) versus 19%, 10%, 10%, and 3% (peripheral), respectively (P=.31, .38, .70, and .09). Grade ≥2 cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system AEs were rare (<1%). Two-year incidences of grade ≥2 clinical AEs (28% vs 25%, P=.79), grade ≥2 PFT decline (36% vs 34%, P=.94), grade ≥3 clinical AEs (3% vs 7%, P=.48), and grade ≥3 PFT decline (0 vs 10%, P=.11) were similar for central versus peripheral

  15. The role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of intramedullary spinal cord neoplasms: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Durán, Silvia; Hanft, Simon; Komotar, Ricardo J; Manzano, Glen R

    2016-04-01

    Advances in imaging technology and microsurgical techniques have made microsurgical resection the treatment of choice in cases of symptomatic intramedullary tumors. The use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for spinal tumors is a recent development, and its application to intramedullary lesions is debated. We conducted a literature search through PubMed's MeSH system, compiling information regarding intramedullary neoplasms treated by SRS. We compiled histology, tumor location and size, treatment modality, radiation dose, fractionation, radiation-induced complications, follow-up, and survival. Ten papers reporting on 52 patients with 70 tumors were identified. Metastatic lesions accounted for 33%, while 67% were primary ones. Tumor location was predominantly cervical (53%), followed by thoracic (33%). Mean volume was 0.55 cm(3) (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26-0.83). Preferred treatment modality was CyberKnife® (87%), followed by Novalis® (7%) and linear particle accelerator (LINAC) (6%). Mean radiation dose was 22.14 Gy (95% CI, 20.75-23.53), with mean fractionation of 4 (95% CI, 3-5). Three hemangioblastomas showed cyst enlargement. Symptom improvement or stabilization was seen in all but two cases. Radionecrotic spots adjacent to treated areas were seen at autopsy in four lesions, without clinical manifestations. Overall, clinical and radiological outcomes were favorable. Although surgery remains the treatment of choice for symptomatic intramedullary lesions, SRS can be a safe and effective option in selected cases. While this review suggests the overall safety and efficacy of SRS in the management of intramedullary tumors, future studies need randomized, homogeneous patient populations followed over a longer period to provide more robust evidence in its favor.

  16. Simulation of dose deposition in stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy: a fast approach combining Monte Carlo and deterministic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smekens, F; Freud, N; Letang, J M; Babot, D [CNDRI (Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations) Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Adam, J-F; Elleaume, H; Esteve, F [INSERM U-836, Equipe 6 ' Rayonnement Synchrotron et Recherche Medicale' , Institut des Neurosciences de Grenoble (France); Ferrero, C; Bravin, A [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: francois.smekens@insa-lyon.fr

    2009-08-07

    A hybrid approach, combining deterministic and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, is proposed to compute the distribution of dose deposited during stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy treatment. The proposed approach divides the computation into two parts: (i) the dose deposited by primary radiation (coming directly from the incident x-ray beam) is calculated in a deterministic way using ray casting techniques and energy-absorption coefficient tables and (ii) the dose deposited by secondary radiation (Rayleigh and Compton scattering, fluorescence) is computed using a hybrid algorithm combining MC and deterministic calculations. In the MC part, a small number of particle histories are simulated. Every time a scattering or fluorescence event takes place, a splitting mechanism is applied, so that multiple secondary photons are generated with a reduced weight. The secondary events are further processed in a deterministic way, using ray casting techniques. The whole simulation, carried out within the framework of the Monte Carlo code Geant4, is shown to converge towards the same results as the full MC simulation. The speed of convergence is found to depend notably on the splitting multiplicity, which can easily be optimized. To assess the performance of the proposed algorithm, we compare it to state-of-the-art MC simulations, accelerated by the track length estimator technique (TLE), considering a clinically realistic test case. It is found that the hybrid approach is significantly faster than the MC/TLE method. The gain in speed in a test case was about 25 for a constant precision. Therefore, this method appears to be suitable for treatment planning applications.

  17. MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry for validating plans with multiple matrices in Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopishankar, N; Watanabe, Yoichi; Subbiah, Vivekanandhan

    2011-01-31

    One of treatment planning techniques with Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) for Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) uses multiple matrices with multiple dose prescriptions. Computational complexity increases when shots are placed in multiple matrices with different grid sizes. Hence, the experimental validation of LGP calculated dose distributions is needed for those cases. For the current study, we used BANG3 polymer gel contained in a head-sized glass bottle to simulate the entire treatment process of GKSRS. A treatment plan with three 18 mm shots and one 8 mm shot in separate matrices was created with LGP. The prescribed maximum dose was 8 Gy to three shots and 16 Gy to one of the 18 mm shots. The 3D dose distribution recorded in the gel dosimeter was read using a Siemens 3T MRI scanner. The scanning parameters of a CPMG pulse sequence with 32 equidistant echoes were as follows: TR = 7 s, echo step = 13.6 ms, field-of-view = 256 mm × 256 mm, and pixel size = 1 mm × 1 mm. Interleaved acquisition mode was used to obtain 15 to 45 2-mm-thick slices. Using a calibration relationship between absorbed dose and the spin-spin relaxation rate (R2), we converted R2 images to dose images. MATLAB-based in-house programs were used for R2 estimation and dose comparison. Gamma-index analysis for the 3D data showed gamma values less than unity for 86% of the voxels. Through this study we accomplished the first application of polymer gel dosimetry for a true comparison between measured 3D dose distributions and LGP calculations for plans using multiple matrices for multiple targets.

  18. SU-E-T-786: Utility of Gold Wires to Optimize Intensity Modulation Capacity of a Novel Directional Modulated Brachytherapy Tandem Applicator for Image Guided Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Scanderbeg, D [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States); Liu, Z [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of using gold wires to differentially fill various channels on plan quality compared with conventional T&R applicator, inside a novel directional modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator for cervical cancer brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: The novel DMBT tandem applicator has a 5.4-mm diameter MR-compatible tungsten alloy enclosed in a 0.3-mm thick plastic tubing that wraps around the tandem. To modulate the radiation intensity, 6 symmetric peripheral holes of 1.3-mm diameter are grooved along the tungsten alloy rod. These grooved holes are differentially filled with gold wires to generate various degrees of directional beams. For example, three different fill patterns of 1) all void, 2) all filled except the hole containing the 192-Ir source, and 3) two adjacent holes to the 192-Ir source filled were Monte Carlo simulated. The resulting 3D dose distributions were imported into an in-house-coded inverse optimization planning system to generate HDR brachytherapy clinical plans for 19 patient cases. All plans generated were normalized to the same D90 as the clinical plans and D2cc doses of OARs were evaluated. Prescription ranged between 15 and 17.5Gy. Results: In general, the plans in case 1) resulted in the highest D2cc doses for the OARs with 11.65±2.30Gy, 7.47±3.05Gy, and 9.84±2.48Gy for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively, although the differences were small. For the case 2), D2cc doses were 11.61±2.29Gy, 7.41±3.07Gy, and 9.75±2.45Gy, respectively. And, for the case 3), D2cc doses were 11.60±2.28Gy, 7.41±3.05Gy, and 9.74±2.45Gy, respectively. Difference between 1) and 2) cases were small with the average D2cc difference of <0.64%. Difference between 1) and 3) cases were even smaller with the average D2cc difference of <0.1%. Conclusions: There is a minimal clinical benefit by differentially filling grooved holes in the novel DMBT tandem applicator for image guided cervical cancer brachytherapy.

  19. Fractionated brain stereotactic radiotherapy: assessment of repositioning precision using a thermoforming mask; Radiotherapie stereotaxique cerebrale fractionnee: evaluation de la precision du repositionnement en utilisant un masque thermoformable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barret, A.; Champeaux-Orange, E.; Bouscayrol, H.; Wachter, T. [CHR La Source, Orleans (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at assessing the patient repositioning precision obtained with a support system used during a brain fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and comprising a thermoforming mask (Elektra head mask). The repositioning is assessed by means of scano-graphies and superimposition with the stereotactic frame. A three-dimensional vector has been computed for each patient. The average displacement corresponds to that published in literature. The high quality of the support system allows a non invasive brain stereotactic radiotherapy to be performed which is also comfortable for the patient. Short communication

  20. The geometric accuracy of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery using a 6D robotic couch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, T; Mizowaki, T; Nakata, M; Yano, S; Fujimoto, T; Miyabe, Y; Nakamura, M; Hiraoka, M

    2010-01-07

    The aim of this paper is to assess the overall geometric accuracy of the Novalis system using the Robotic Tilt Module in terms of the uncertainty in frameless stereotactic radiotherapy. We analyzed the following three metrics: (1) the correction accuracy of the robotic couch, (2) the uncertainty of the isocenter position with gantry and couch rotation, and (3) the shift in position between the isocenter and central point detected with the ExacTrac x-ray system. Based on the concept of uncertainty, the overall accuracy was calculated from these values. The accuracy in positional correction with the robotic couch was 0.07 +/- 0.22 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with gantry rotation was 0.35 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with couch rotation was 0.38 mm and the difference in position between the isocenter and the ExacTrac x-ray system was 0.30 mm. The accuracy of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery with the Novalis system in our clinic was 0.31 +/- 0.77 mm. The overall geometric accuracy based on the concept of uncertainty was 0.31 +/- 0.77 mm, which is within the tolerance given in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine report no. 54.

  1. Stereotactic radiosurgery using the Leksell Gamma Knife: current trends and future directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawahar, Ajay; Jawahar, Lisa L; Nanda, Anil; Sharp, Christopher D; Warren, April; Elrod, John W; Jennings, Merilyn; Alexander, J Steven; Minagar, Alireza

    2004-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is the extremely precise administration of a radiation dosage in three-dimensional space to treat an increasingly broad spectrum of intracranial and skull-base lesions. 455 patients with various indications were treated using the 201 Source Co-60 Leksell Model "B" Gamma Knife(r) at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, Louisiana. 273 (60.2%) patients received radiosurgery as the first line of treatment for their disease. The mean Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) of the patients was 70. Cerebral metastases were the main indications for radiosurgery at our center accounting for 27% of the patients, while meningioma, AVM, trigeminal neuralgia, movement disorders, and primary CNS malignant tumors were the other indications. Our institutional experience and results indicate that low incidence of complications coupled with a high tumor control rate makes Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery a viable option for patients who must undergo neurosurgery. As the Gamma Knife continues to prove itself as a first-line treatment of many complex brain disorders, new indications for this technology will continue to emerge, further broadening the scope of patient care.

  2. Applying stereotactic injection technique to study genetic effects on animal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Colleen; Mao, Yingwei

    2015-05-10

    Stereotactic injection is a useful technique to deliver high titer lentiviruses to targeted brain areas in mice. Lentiviruses can either overexpress or knockdown gene expression in a relatively focused region without significant damage to the brain tissue. After recovery, the injected mouse can be tested on various behavioral tasks such as the Open Field Test (OFT) and the Forced Swim Test (FST). The OFT is designed to assess locomotion and the anxious phenotype in mice by measuring the amount of time that a mouse spends in the center of a novel open field. A more anxious mouse will spend significantly less time in the center of the novel field compared to controls. The FST assesses the anti-depressive phenotype by quantifying the amount of time that mice spend immobile when placed into a bucket of water. A mouse with an anti-depressive phenotype will spend significantly less time immobile compared to control animals. The goal of this protocol is to use the stereotactic injection of a lentivirus in conjunction with behavioral tests to assess how genetic factors modulate animal behaviors.

  3. Stereotactic radiosurgery of prostate cancer - dose distribution for VMAT and CyberKnife techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślosarek, Krzysztof; Osewski, Wojciech; Grządziel, Aleksandra; Stąpór-Fudzińska, Małgorzata; Szlag, Marta

    2016-06-01

    New capabilities of biomedical accelerators allow for very precise depositing of the radiation dose and imaging verification during the therapy. In addition, computer algorithms calculating dose distributions are taking into account the increasing number of physical effects. Therefore, administration of high dose fractionation, which is consistent with radiobiology used in oncology, becomes safer and safer. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), which is very precise irradiation with high dose fractionation is increasingly widespread use in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. For this purpose different biomedical accelerators are used. The aim of this study is to compare dose distributions for two techniques: VMAT and CyberKnife. Statistical analysis was performed for the two groups of patients treated by VMAT technique (25 patients), and CyberKnife technique (15 patients). The analysis shows that the dose distributions are comparable, both in the treated area (prostate) and in the critical organs (rectum, urinary bladder, femoral heads). The results show that stereotactic radiosurgery of prostate cancer can be carried out on CyberKnife accelerator as well as on the classical accelerator with the use of VMAT technique.

  4. Biological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prezado, Y.; Fois, G.; Edouard, M.; Nemoz, C.; Renier, M.; Requardt, H.; Esteve, F.; Adam, JF.; Elleaume, H.; Bravin, A., E-mail: prezado@esrf.fr [ID17 Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2009-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation is an innovative tool for the treatment of brain tumors. In the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (SSRT) technique a radiation dose enhancement specific to the tumor is obtained. The tumor is loaded with a high atomic number (Z) element and it is irradiated in stereotactic conditions from several entrance angles. The aim of this work was to assess dosimetric properties of the SSRT for preparing clinical trials at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). To estimate the possible risks, the doses received by the tumor and healthy tissues in the future clinical conditions have been calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations (PENELOPE code). The dose enhancement factors have been determined for different iodine concentrations in the tumor, several tumor positions, tumor sizes, and different beam sizes. A scheme for the dose escalation in the various phases of the clinical trials has been proposed. The biological equivalent doses and the normalized total doses received by the skull have been calculated in order to assure that the tolerance values are not reached.

  5. Optimal MRI methods for direct stereotactic targeting of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gorman, Ruth L. [King' s College Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); University Children' s Hospital (Kinderspital), MR Zentrum, Zurich (Switzerland); Shmueli, Karin [National Institutes of Health, Advanced MRI Section, Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (United States); Ashkan, Keyoumars; Selway, Richard P. [King' s College Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom); Samuel, Michael [King' s College Hospital, Department of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Lythgoe, David J.; Shahidiani, Asal [Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); Wastling, Stephen J. [Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); King' s College Hospital, Department of Medical Engineering and Physics, London (United Kingdom); Footman, Michelle [King' s College Hospital, Department of Medical Engineering and Physics, London (United Kingdom); Jarosz, Jozef [King' s College Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Reliable identification of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus interna (GPi) is critical for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of these structures. The purpose of this study was to compare the visibility of the STN and GPi with various MRI techniques and to assess the suitability of each technique for direct stereotactic targeting. MR images were acquired from nine volunteers with T2- and proton density-weighted (PD-W) fast spin echo, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), phase-sensitive inversion recovery and quantitative T1, T2 and T2{sup *} mapping sequences. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for the STN and GPi were calculated for all sequences. Targeting errors on SWI were evaluated on magnetic susceptibility maps. The sequences demonstrating the best conspicuity of DBS target structures (SWI and T2*) were then applied to ten patients with movement disorders, and the CNRs for these techniques were assessed. SWI offers the highest CNR for the STN, but standard PD-W images provide the best CNR for the pallidum. Susceptibility maps indicated that the GPi margins may be shifted slightly on SWI, although no shifts were seen for the STN. SWI may improve the visibility of the STN on pre-operative MRI, potentially improving the accuracy of direct stereotactic targeting. (orig.)

  6. The geometric accuracy of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery using a 6D robotic couch system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, T; Nakata, M; Yano, S; Fujimoto, T [Division of Clinical Radiology Service, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Mizowaki, T; Miyabe, Y; Nakamura, M; Hiraoka, M [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail: toru1@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2010-01-07

    The aim of this paper is to assess the overall geometric accuracy of the Novalis system using the Robotic Tilt Module in terms of the uncertainty in frameless stereotactic radiotherapy. We analyzed the following three metrics: (1) the correction accuracy of the robotic couch, (2) the uncertainty of the isocenter position with gantry and couch rotation, and (3) the shift in position between the isocenter and central point detected with the ExacTrac x-ray system. Based on the concept of uncertainty, the overall accuracy was calculated from these values. The accuracy in positional correction with the robotic couch was 0.07 {+-} 0.22 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with gantry rotation was 0.35 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with couch rotation was 0.38 mm and the difference in position between the isocenter and the ExacTrac x-ray system was 0.30 mm. The accuracy of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery with the Novalis system in our clinic was 0.31 {+-} 0.77 mm. The overall geometric accuracy based on the concept of uncertainty was 0.31 {+-} 0.77 mm, which is within the tolerance given in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine report no. 54.

  7. Clinical results of LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Julia; Yoshida, Masanori; Shioura, Hiroki; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Ito, Harumi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kubota, Toshihiko [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan); Maruyama, Ichiro [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    We retrospectively evaluated our clinical results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for pituitary adenoma. Between 1995 and 2000, 13 patients were treated with SRS for pituitary adenoma. In all cases, the tumors had already been surgically resected. The adenomas were functional in 5 and non-functional in 8 patients. The median follow-up period was 30 months. SRS was performed with the use of a dedicated stereotactic 10-MV linear accelerator (LINAC). The median dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy. The dose to the optic apparatus was limited to less than 8 Gy. MR images of 12 patients revealed tumor complete response (CR) in one case and partial response (PR) in 9 cases; in the remaining two patients, tumor size decreased by less than 50%. There was no recognizable regrowth of any of the tumors. In two of four GH-secreting adenomas, hormonal overproduction normalized, while the other two showed reduced hormonal production. One PRL-secreting adenoma did not respond. Reduction of visual acuity and field was seen in one patient. This patient also had a brain infarction. None of the patients developed brain radionecrosis or radiation-induced hypopituitarism. Although further studies based on greater numbers of cases and longer follow-up periods are needed, our results suggest that SRS seems to be a safe, effective treatment for pituitary adenoma. (author)

  8. Early experiences of planning stereotactic radiosurgery using 3D printed models of eyes with uveal melanomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, Alena; Sramka, Miron; Thurzo, Andrej; Furdová, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the use of 3D printed model of an eye with intraocular tumor for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods The software for segmentation (3D Slicer) created virtual 3D model of eye globe with tumorous mass based on tissue density from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. A virtual model was then processed in the slicing software (Simplify3D®) and printed on 3D printer using fused deposition modeling technology. The material that was used for printing was polylactic acid. Results In 2015, stereotactic planning scheme was optimized with the help of 3D printed model of the patient’s eye with intraocular tumor. In the period 2001–2015, a group of 150 patients with uveal melanoma (139 choroidal melanoma and 11 ciliary body melanoma) were treated. The median tumor volume was 0.5 cm3 (0.2–1.6 cm3). The radiation dose was 35.0 Gy by 99% of dose volume histogram. Conclusion The 3D printed model of eye with tumor was helpful in planning the process to achieve the optimal scheme for irradiation which requires high accuracy of defining the targeted tumor mass and critical structures. PMID:28203052

  9. Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Octogenarians With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Eriguchi, Takahisa [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, Takeshi [Respiratory Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Department of Respirology, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Morita, Satoshi [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi [Respiratory Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Division of Respiratory and Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kunieda, Etsuo, E-mail: kunieda-mi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively investigate treatment outcomes of stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) for octogenarians with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2012, 109 patients aged ≥80 years with T1-2N0M0 NSCLC were treated with SABR: 47 patients had histology-unproven lung cancer; 62 patients had pathologically proven NSCLC. The prescribed doses were either 50 Gy/5 fractions for peripheral tumors or 40 Gy/5 fractions for centrally located tumors. The treatment outcomes, toxicities, and the correlating factors for overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results: The median follow-up duration after SABR was 24.2 (range, 3.0-64.6) months. Only limited toxicities were observed, except for 1 grade 5 radiation pneumonitis. The 3-year local, regional, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 82.3%, 90.1%, and 76.8%, respectively. The OS and lung cancer-specific survival rates were 53.7% and 70.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that medically inoperable, low body mass index, high T stage, and high C-reactive protein were the predictors for short OS. The OS for the operable octogenarians was significantly better than that for inoperable (P<.01). Conclusions: Stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy for octogenarians was feasible, with excellent OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that operability was one of the predictors for OS. For medically operable octogenarians with early-stage NSCLC, SABR should be prospectively compared with resection.

  10. 超声引导下肾活检的临床应用%Applicable value of ultrasound-guided renal biopsy in diagnosis of kidney diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦卫平; 王萍; 付文静

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicable value of ultrasound guidance in percutaneous renal biopsy. Methods 168 patients with kidney diseases underwent ultrasound-guided renal biopsy. Pathological examination was conducted. Predictors of successful rate were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Successful biopsy was achieved in 157 of the 168 patients with a success rate of 93.45%. Satisfying results were obtained from 143 of the 157 samples and normal renal tissues were reported in 14 samples. No serious adverse events were observed in this study. The successful biopsy rate of female patients was 89.16%, significantly lower than that of the male patients (97.65%, P < 0.05). Age,puncture times, thickness of renal cortex, and type of clinical diagnosis were not significantly correlated with the successful rate of biopsy. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided renal biopsy is a kind of safe diagnostic method for kidney disease. The successful rate of renal biopsy in females is lower than that in males.%目的 探讨超声引导下肾穿刺活检术的临床应用.方法 回顾分析了首都医科大学宣武医院168例肾脏病患者在超声引导下行经皮肾脏活检术,对影响穿刺成功率的有关因素运用多因素Logistic回归法进行分析.结果 168例患者中,157例取得足够病理诊断的肾组织样品,其中14例病理证实为正常肾组织,11例未成功.本研究中所有病例未发现严重并发症.穿刺成功率与性别相关(P<0.05),与年龄、穿刺针数、肾实质厚度以及临床诊断类型无关.结论 超声引导下肾穿刺活检术是诊断肾脏疾病的一种安全方法 ,女性患者较男性患者成功率低.

  11. Fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery using the Novalis system for the management of pituitary adenomas close to the optic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Huang-I; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wei, Kuo-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nen; Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Chen, Hsien-Chih; Hsu, Peng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Radiosurgery has been proven to be an effective treatment for residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas after surgery. However, it causes severe complications when the optic apparatus is irradiated over the tolerance dose. In this study, we analyzed the feasibility of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to treat pituitary tumors close to the optic apparatus. Thirty-four patients from June 2006 to June 2011 with recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas close to (<3 mm) the optic apparatus were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery. Three fractions with a total dose of 2100 cGy were applied to the tumors. Imaging, examination of vision, and estimation of hormone level were regularly performed before and after radiosurgery. The mean tumor volume before fractioned stereotactic radiosurgery was 5.06±3.08 cm3 (range: 0.82-12.69 cm3). After a mean follow up of 36.8±15.7 months (range: 16-72 months), tumor size was reduced in seven (20.6%) patients and remained the same in the other 27 (79.4%) patients. Vision was improved in one patient and remained stable in the rest. Only one patient developed transient post-treatment diplopia. This study suggests that fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery is safe for treating pituitary adenomas close to the optic apparatus. Studies with more patients and longer follow-up are required to draw definite conclusions.

  12. SURVIVAL AND QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER STEREOTACTIC OR 3D-CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY FOR INOPERABLE EARLY-STAGE LUNG CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or threedimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters afte

  13. (18)F-FDG PET during stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I lung tumours cannot predict outcome : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Pruim, Jan; Ubbels, Jan F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Widder, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) has been used to assess metabolic response several months after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, whether a metabolic response can be observed already during treatment and thus ca

  14. Is stereotactic large-core needle biopsy beneficial prior to surgical treatment in BI-RADS 5 lesions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorntje, LE; Peeters, PHM; Mali, WPTM; Rinkes, IHMB

    2004-01-01

    Introduction. Due to screening mammography, more nonpalpable mammographic lesions warrant histological evaluation. Stereotactic large-core needle biopsy (SLCNB) has been shown to be as effective in diagnosing these lesions as diagnostic surgical excision, and has become the preferred diagnostic proc

  15. CyberKnife stereotactic radiotherapy as monotherapy for low- to intermediate-stage prostate cancer: Early experience, feasibility, and tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Aluwini (Shafak); P.H. van Rooij (Peter); M.S. Hoogeman (Mischa); C.H. Bangma (Chris); W.J. Kirkels (Wim); L. Incrocci (Luca); I.-K.K. Kolkman-Deurloo (Inger-Karina)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The CyberKnife (CK), a linear accelerator mounted on a robotic device, enables excellent dose conformation to the target and minimizes dose to surrounding normal tissue. It is a very suitable device for performing hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy as monotherapy fo

  16. Performance of an elliptically tapered neutron guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbauer, Sebastian; Stadlbauer, Martin; Böni, Peter; Schanzer, Christan; Stahn, Jochen; Filges, Uwe

    2006-11-01

    Supermirror coated neutron guides are used at all modern neutron sources for transporting neutrons over large distances. In order to reduce the transmission losses due to multiple internal reflection of neutrons, ballistic neutron guides with linear tapering have been proposed and realized. However, these systems suffer from an inhomogeneous illumination of the sample. Moreover, the flux decreases significantly with increasing distance from the exit of the neutron guide. We propose using elliptically tapered guides that provide a more homogeneous phase space at the sample position as well as a focusing at the sample. Moreover, the design of the guide system is simplified because ellipses are simply defined by their long and short axes. In order to prove the concept we have manufactured a doubly focusing guide and investigated its properties with neutrons. The experiments show that the predicted gains using the program package McStas are realized. We discuss several applications of elliptic guides in various fields of neutron physics.

  17. Performance of an elliptically tapered neutron guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlbauer, Sebastian [Physik-Department E21, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: sebastian.muehlbauer@frm2.tum.de; Stadlbauer, Martin [Physik-Department E21, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Boeni, Peter [Physik-Department E21, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Schanzer, Christan [Labor fuer Neutronenstreuung, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villingen PSI (Switzerland); Stahn, Jochen [Labor fuer Neutronenstreuung, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villingen PSI (Switzerland); Filges, Uwe [Labor fuer Neutronenstreuung, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villingen PSI (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    Supermirror coated neutron guides are used at all modern neutron sources for transporting neutrons over large distances. In order to reduce the transmission losses due to multiple internal reflection of neutrons, ballistic neutron guides with linear tapering have been proposed and realized. However, these systems suffer from an inhomogeneous illumination of the sample. Moreover, the flux decreases significantly with increasing distance from the exit of the neutron guide. We propose using elliptically tapered guides that provide a more homogeneous phase space at the sample position as well as a focusing at the sample. Moreover, the design of the guide system is simplified because ellipses are simply defined by their long and short axes. In order to prove the concept we have manufactured a doubly focusing guide and investigated its properties with neutrons. The experiments show that the predicted gains using the program package McStas are realized. We discuss several applications of elliptic guides in various fields of neutron physics.

  18. Dosimetric performance and array assessment of plastic scintillation detectors for stereotactic radiosurgery quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Jean-Christophe; Theriault, Dany; Guillot, Mathieu; Archambault, Louis; Beddar, Sam; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: To compare the performance of plastic scintillation detectors (PSD) for quality assurance (QA) in stereotactic radiosurgery conditions to a microion-chamber (IC), Gafchromic EBT2 films, 60 008 shielded photon diode (SD) and unshielded diodes (UD), and assess a new 2D crosshair array prototype adapted to small field dosimetry. Methods: The PSD consists of a 1 mm diameter by 1 mm long scintillating fiber (BCF-60, Saint-Gobain, Inc.) coupled to a polymethyl-methacrylate optical fiber (Eska premier, Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Output factors (S{sub c,p}) for apertures used in radiosurgery ranging from 4 to 40 mm in diameter have been measured. The PSD crosshair array (PSDCA) is a water equivalent device made up of 49 PSDs contained in a 1.63 cm radius area. Dose profiles measurements were taken for radiosurgery fields using the PSDCA and were compared to other dosimeters. Moreover, a typical stereotactic radiosurgery treatment using four noncoplanar arcs was delivered on a spherical phantom in which UD, IC, or PSD was placed. Using the Xknife planning system (Integra Radionics Burlington, MA), 15 Gy was prescribed at the isocenter, where each detector was positioned. Results: Output Factors measured by the PSD have a mean difference of 1.3% with Gafchromic EBT2 when normalized to a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field, and 1.0% when compared with UD measurements normalized to the 35 mm diameter cone. Dose profiles taken with the PSD crosshair array agreed with other single detectors dose profiles in spite of the presence of the 49 PSDs. Gamma values comparing 1D dose profiles obtained with PSD crosshair array with Gafchromic EBT2 and UD measured profiles shows 98.3% and 100.0%, respectively, of detector passing the gamma acceptance criteria of 0.3 mm and 2%. The dose measured by the PSD for a complete stereotactic radiosurgery treatment is comparable to the planned dose corrected for its SD-based S{sub c,p} within 1.4% and 0.7% for 5 and 35 mm diameter cone

  19. Performance evaluation of a CyberKnife (registered) G4 image-guided robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antypas, Christos; Pantelis, Evaggelos [Medical Physics Department, Iatropolis, Magnitiki Tomografia, Clinic and Diagnostic Center, Ethnikis Antistaseos 54-56, 15231 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: cantypas@med.uoa.gr

    2008-09-07

    The aim of the current work was to present the performance evaluation procedures implemented at our department for the commissioning of a G4 CyberKnife system. This system consists of a robotic manipulator, a target-locating system and a lightweight 6-MV linac. Individual quality assurance procedures were performed for each of the CyberKnife subsystems. The system was checked for the mechanical accuracy of its robotic manipulator. The performance of the target-locating system was evaluated in terms of mechanical accuracy of both cameras' alignment and quality assurance tests of the x-ray generators and the flat-panel detectors. The traditional linac 6-MV beam characteristics and beam output parameters were also measured. Results revealed a manipulator mechanical mean accuracy of {approx}0.1 mm, with individual maximum position uncertainties less than 0.25 mm. The target-locating system mechanical accuracy was found within the acceptance limits. For the most clinically used parameters in the CyberKnife practice, e.g. 100-120 kV and 50-200 ms, kV and exposure time accuracy error were measured as less than 2%, while the precision error of the kV was determined as less than 1%. The acquired images of the ETR grid pattern revealed no geometrical distortion while the critical frequency f{sub 50} values for cameras A and B were calculated as 1.5 lp mm{sup -1} and 1.4 lp mm{sup -1}, respectively. Dose placement measurements were performed in a head and neck phantom. Results revealed sub-millimeter beam delivery precision whereas the total clinical accuracy of the system was measured equal to 0.44 {+-} 0.12 mm, 0.29 {+-} 0.10 mm and 0.53 {+-} 0.16 mm for the skull, fiducial and Xsight spine tracking methods, respectively. The results of this work certify the G4 CyberKnife SRS system capable of delivering high dose distributions with sub-millimeter accuracy and precision to intracranial and extracranial lesions. Moreover, total clinical accuracy of the investigated G4 system was found to be improved for the skull and fiducial tracking methods and was comparable for Xsight spine tracking method compared with the earlier generation of the instrument.

  20. Performance evaluation of a CyberKnife® G4 image-guided robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antypas, Christos; Pantelis, Evaggelos

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the current work was to present the performance evaluation procedures implemented at our department for the commissioning of a G4 CyberKnife system. This system consists of a robotic manipulator, a target-locating system and a lightweight 6-MV linac. Individual quality assurance procedures were performed for each of the CyberKnife subsystems. The system was checked for the mechanical accuracy of its robotic manipulator. The performance of the target-locating system was evaluated in terms of mechanical accuracy of both cameras' alignment and quality assurance tests of the x-ray generators and the flat-panel detectors. The traditional linac 6-MV beam characteristics and beam output parameters were also measured. Results revealed a manipulator mechanical mean accuracy of ~0.1 mm, with individual maximum position uncertainties less than 0.25 mm. The target-locating system mechanical accuracy was found within the acceptance limits. For the most clinically used parameters in the CyberKnife practice, e.g. 100-120 kV and 50-200 ms, kV and exposure time accuracy error were measured as less than 2%, while the precision error of the kV was determined as less than 1%. The acquired images of the ETR grid pattern revealed no geometrical distortion while the critical frequency f50 values for cameras A and B were calculated as 1.5 lp mm-1 and 1.4 lp mm-1, respectively. Dose placement measurements were performed in a head and neck phantom. Results revealed sub-millimeter beam delivery precision whereas the total clinical accuracy of the system was measured equal to 0.44 ± 0.12 mm, 0.29 ± 0.10 mm and 0.53 ± 0.16 mm for the skull, fiducial and Xsight spine tracking methods, respectively. The results of this work certify the G4 CyberKnife SRS system capable of delivering high dose distributions with sub-millimeter accuracy and precision to intracranial and extracranial lesions. Moreover, total clinical accuracy of the investigated G4 system was found to be improved for the skull and fiducial tracking methods and was comparable for Xsight spine tracking method compared with the earlier generation of the instrument.

  1. Adaptive fractionated stereotactic Gamma Knife radiotherapy of meningioma using integrated stereotactic cone-beam-CT and adaptive re-planning (a-gkFSRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieler, F.; Wenz, F.; Abo-Madyan, Y.; Schweizer, B.; Polednik, M.; Herskind, C.; Giordano, F.A.; Mai, S. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The Gamma Knife Icon (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) allows frameless stereotactic treatment using a combination of cone beam computer tomography (CBCT), a thermoplastic mask system, and an infrared-based high-definition motion management (HDMM) camera system for patient tracking during treatment. We report on the first patient with meningioma at the left petrous bone treated with adaptive fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (a-gkFSRT). The first patient treated with Gamma Knife Icon at our institute received MR imaging for preplanning before treatment. For each treatment fraction, a daily CBCT was performed to verify the actual scull/tumor position. The system automatically adapted the planned shot positions to the daily position and recalculated the dose distribution (online adaptive planning). During treatment, the HDMM system recorded the intrafractional patient motion. Furthermore, the required times were recorded to define a clinical treatment slot. Total treatment time was around 20 min. Patient positioning needed 0.8 min, CBCT positioning plus acquisition 1.65 min, CT data processing and adaptive planning 2.66 min, and treatment 15.6 min. The differences for the five daily CBCTs compared to the reference are for rotation: -0.59 ± 0.49 /0.18 ± 0.20 /0.05 ± 0.36 and for translation: 0.94 ± 0.52 mm/-0.08 ± 0.08 mm/-1.13 ± 0.89 mm. Over all fractions, an intrafractional movement of 0.13 ± 0.04 mm was observed. The Gamma Knife Icon allows combining the accuracy of the stereotactic Gamma Knife system with the flexibility of fractionated treatment with the mask system and CBCT. Furthermore, the Icon system introduces a new online patient tracking system to the clinical routine. The interfractional accuracy of patient positioning was controlled with a thermoplastic mask and CBCT. (orig.) [German] Das Gamma Knife Icon (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Schweden) ermoeglicht die stereotaktische Behandlung von Patienten mittels Cone-beam-Computertomographie (CBCT

  2. Behavioral activation-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly Kien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for cost-effective interventions for people suffering from major depressive disorders is essential. Behavioral activation is an intervention that can largely benefit from the use of new mobile technologies (for example smartphones. Therefore, developing smartphone-based behavioral activation interventions might be a way to develop cost-effective treatments for people suffering from major depressive disorders. The aim of this study will be to test the effects of a smartphone-delivered behavioral activation treatment. Methods The study will be a randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 120 participants, with 60 patients in each group. The treatment group includes an 8-week smartphone-based behavioral activation intervention, with minimal therapist contact. The smartphone-based intervention consists of a web-based psychoeducation, and a smartphone application. There is also a back-end system where the therapist can see reports from the patients or activities being reported. In the attention control group, we will include brief online education and then recommend use of a smartphone application that is not directly aimed at depression (for example, ‘Effective meditation’. The duration of the control condition will also be 8 weeks. For ethical reasons we will give the participants in the control group access to the behavioral activation treatment following the 8-week treatment period. Discussions We believe that this trial has at least three important implications. First, we believe that smartphones can be integrated even further into society and therefore may serve an important role in health care. Second, while behavioral activation is a psychological treatment approach for which there is empirical support, the use of a smartphone application could serve as the therapist’s prolonged arm into the daily life of the patient. Third, as we have been doing trials on guided Internet treatment for more than 10

  3. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for renal cell cancer and pancreatic cancer. Literature review and practice recommendations of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panje, Cedric; Andratschke, Nikolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias [Zurich University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland); Brunner, Thomas B. [Freiburg University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Niyazi, Maximilian [University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a literature review and practice recommendations for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of primary renal cell cancer and primary pancreatic cancer. A literature search on SBRT for both renal cancer and pancreatic cancer was performed with focus on prospective trials and technical aspects for clinical implementation. Data on renal and pancreatic SBRT are limited, but show promising rates of local control for both treatment sites. For pancreatic cancer, fractionated SBRT should be preferred to single-dose treatment to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal toxicity. Motion-compensation strategies and image guidance are paramount for safe SBRT delivery in both tumor entities. SBRT for renal cancer and pancreatic cancer have been successfully evaluated in phase I and phase II trials. Pancreatic SBRT should be practiced carefully and only within prospective protocols due to the risk of severe gastrointestinal toxicity. SBRT for primary renal cell cancer appears a viable option for medically inoperable patients but future research needs to better define patient selection criteria and the detailed practice of SBRT. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe ''Stereotaktische Radiotherapie'' der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie (DEGRO) legt eine Zusammenfassung der aktuellen Literatur und daraus resultierende Empfehlungen zur Durchfuehrung der stereotaktischen Strahlentherapie (SBRT) beim Nierenzellkarzinom und beim Pankreaskarzinom vor. Es erfolgte eine Literaturrecherche zur Evidenz der SBRT beim Nierenzell- und Pankreaskarzinom, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf prospektive Studien und technische Aspekte fuer die klinische Umsetzung gelegt wurde. Fuer die SBRT beim Pankreaskarzinom und Nierenzellkarzinom sind bisher nur wenige Studien veroeffentlicht worden, die jedoch konsistent eine hohe Rate an lokaler Tumorkontrolle

  4. Android NDK Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ratabouil, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    This beginner's guide focuses on getting you through all the major learning points in a smooth, logical order. You'll also see how to avoid some common pitfalls. Are you an Android Java programmer who needs more performance? Are you a C/C++ developer who doesn't want to bother with Java stuff and its out-of-control garbage collector? Do you want to create fast intensive multimedia applications or games? Answer yes to any of the above and this book is for you. With some general knowledge of C/C++ development, you will be able to dive head first into native Android development.

  5. Closure The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Bolin, Michael

    2010-01-01

    If you're ready to use Closure to build rich web applications with JavaScript, this hands-on guide has precisely what you need to learn this suite of tools in depth. Closure makes it easy for experienced JavaScript developers to write and maintain large and complex codebases -- as Google has demonstrated by using Closure with Gmail, Google Docs, and Google Maps. Author and Closure contributor Michael Bolin has included numerous code examples and best practices, as well as valuable information not available publicly until now. You'll learn all about Closure's Library, Compiler, Templates, tes

  6. Systematic review of stereotactic radiotherapy for high-grade gliomas; Radiotherapie en conditions stereotaxiques des gliomes de haut grade: une revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavier, J.B.; Noel, G. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Voirin, J.; Kehrli, P. [Service de neurochirurgie, hopital de Hautepierre, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this literature systematic review was the use of stereotactic radiotherapy in glioma. Research was performed in Medline/PubMed and associated references found in published articles without publication date limit. The quality of series is variable and many biases can be evidenced. Only two randomized trials have been published using stereotactic radiotherapy for up-front treatment. There is a lack of evidence of survival advantages to use this treatment at the time of diagnosis or relapse. There is also insufficient evidence regarding the benefice/harms in the use of stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy for patients with glioma. No recommendations can be formulated. Stereotactic irradiation as boost in primary diagnosed glioma or relapsed tumour is not associated with survival improvement. For relapsed patients, treatment needs to be discussed according to the other treatment options. (authors)

  7. Standard guide for computed radiography

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides general tutorial information regarding the fundamental and physical principles of computed radiography (CR), definitions and terminology required to understand the basic CR process. An introduction to some of the limitations that are typically encountered during the establishment of techniques and basic image processing methods are also provided. This guide does not provide specific techniques or acceptance criteria for specific end-user inspection applications. Information presented within this guide may be useful in conjunction with those standards of 1.2. 1.2 CR techniques for general inspection applications may be found in Practice E2033. Technical qualification attributes for CR systems may be found in Practice E2445. Criteria for classification of CR system technical performance levels may be found in Practice E2446. Reference Images Standards E2422, E2660, and E2669 contain digital reference acceptance illustrations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the st...

  8. Endocrine and visual function after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of perioptic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, M.; Semrau, R.; Mueller, R.P. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Treuer, H.; Hoevels, M.; Sturm, V. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To find out whether the use of stereotactic techniques for fractionated radiotherapy reduces toxicity to the endocrine and visual system in patients with benign perioptic tumors. Patients and methods: From 1993 to 2009, 29 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The most frequent tumor types were grade I meningioma (n = 11) and pituitary adenoma (n = 10, 7 nonfunctioning, 3 growth hormone-producing). Patients were immobilized with the GTC frame (Radionics, USA) and the planning target volume (PTV; median 24.7, 4.6-58.6 ml) was irradiated with a total dose of 52.2 Gy (range, 45.0-55.8 Gy) in 1.8-Gy fractions using a linear accelerator (6 MeV photons) equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator. Maximum doses to the optic system and pituitary gland were 53.4 Gy (range, 11.5-57.6 Gy) and 53.6 Gy (range, 12.0-57.9 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 45 months (range, 10-105 months). Local control was achieved in all but 1 patient (actuarial rate 92% at 5 years and 10 years). In 9 of 29 patients (31%), partial remission was observed (actuarial response rate 40% at 5 years and 10 years). In 4 of 26 patients (15%) with at least partial pituitary function, new hormonal deficits developed (actuarial rate 21% at 5 years and 10 years). This rate was significantly higher in patients treated for a larger PTV ( 25 ml: 0% vs. 42% at 5 years and 10 years, p = 0.028). Visual function improved in 4 of 15 patients (27%) who had prior impairment. None of the patients developed treatment-related optic neuropathy, but 2 patients experienced new disease-related visual deficits. Conclusion: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for benign tumors of the perioptic and sellar region results in satisfactory response and local control rates and does not affect the visual system. The assumption that patients can be spared hypophyseal insufficiency only holds for small tumors. (orig.)

  9. Outcomes for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and an Analysis of Predictors of Local Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Tao, Randa [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rebueno, Neal C. [Department of Radiation Dosimetry, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Christensen, Eva N.; Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Xin A. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Amini, Behrang [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tannir, Nizar M. [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tatsui, Claudio E.; Rhines, Laurence D. [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Eric L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, USC Norris Cancer Hospital, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ghia, Amol J., E-mail: ajghia@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate local control, survival outcomes, and predictors of local relapse for patients treated with spine stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 332 spinal metastases consecutively treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy between 2002 and 2012. The median follow-up for all living patients was 33 months (range, 0-111 months). Endpoints were overall survival and local control (LC); recurrences were classified as either in-field or marginal. Results: The 1-year actuarial LC and overall survival rates were 88% and 64%, respectively. Patients with local relapses had poorer dosimetric coverage of the gross tumor volume (GTV) compared with patients without recurrence (minimum dose [Dmin] biologically equivalent dose [BED] 23.9 vs 35.1 Gy, P<.001; D98 BED 41.8 vs 48.1 Gy, P=.001; D95 BED 47.2 vs 50.5 Gy, P=.004). Furthermore, patients with marginal recurrences had poorer prescription coverage of the GTV (86% vs 93%, P=.01) compared with those with in-field recurrences, potentially because of more upfront spinal canal disease (78% vs 24%, P=.001). Using a Cox regression univariate analysis, patients with a GTV BED Dmin ≥33.4 Gy (median dose) (equivalent to 14 Gy in 1 fraction) had a significantly higher 1-year LC rate (94% vs 80%, P=.001) compared with patients with a lower GTV BED Dmin; this factor was the only significant variable on multivariate Cox analysis associated with LC (P=.001, hazard ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.60) and also was the only variable significant in a separate competing risk multivariate model (P=.001, hazard ratio 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.62). Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy offers durable control for spinal metastases, but there is a subset of patients that recur locally. Patients with local relapse had significantly poorer tumor coverage, which was likely attributable to treatment planning directives that prioritized the

  10. Optimizing MR imaging-guided navigation for focused ultrasound interventions in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B.; Martin, E.; Bauer, R.; O'Gorman, R.

    2017-03-01

    MR imaging during transcranial MR imaging-guided Focused Ultrasound surgery (tcMRIgFUS) is challenging due to the complex ultrasound transducer setup and the water bolus used for acoustic coupling. Achievable image quality in the tcMRIgFUS setup using the standard body coil is significantly inferior to current neuroradiologic standards. As a consequence, MR image guidance for precise navigation in functional neurosurgical interventions using tcMRIgFUS is basically limited to the acquisition of MR coordinates of salient landmarks such as the anterior and posterior commissure for aligning a stereotactic atlas. Here, we show how improved MR image quality provided by a custom built MR coil and optimized MR imaging sequences can support imaging-guided navigation for functional tcMRIgFUS neurosurgery by visualizing anatomical landmarks that can be integrated into the navigation process to accommodate for patient specific anatomy.

  11. TU-AB-201-01: A Comprehensive Planning Comparison Study Between a Novel Direction Modulated Brachytherapy Tandem Applicator and Conventional T&R Applicator for Image Guided Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D; Liu, Z [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Tanderup, K [Aarhus University (Denmark); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Scanderbeg, D [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate that utilization of a novel, intensity modulation capable, direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator can improve plan quality compared with conventional T&R applicator during an image guided cervical cancer brachytherapy. Methods: 45 cervical cancer patients treated with PDR brachytherapy were reviewed. Of them, a) 27 were treated using T&R only, b) 9 were treated using T&R with needles attached to the ring, and c) the remaining 9 were treated using T&R with needles attached to the ring (AN) as well as additional free-hand-loaded needles (FN). The DMBT tandem design has 6 peripheral holes of 1.3-mm diameter, grooved along a nonmagnetic tungsten alloy rod, enclosed in a plastic sheath with total 6.0-mm diameter. An in-house-coded inverse planning system was used for planning DMBT and T&R cases. All typical clinical constraints including OAR dose limits, dwell times, and loading patterns were respected. For the DMBT and T&R applicators, the plans were optimized with the same conventional ring in place, but repeatedly planned with and without AN/FN needles. All generated plans were normalized to the same D90 of the clinically treated plans. Results: For the plans in category a), DMBT generally outperformed T&R with average reduction in D2cc of −2.39%, −5.21%, and −2.69% for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively. For the plans in category b) and c), DMBT generally outperformed T&R if the same needles in AN/FN were utilized in both cases with average reduction in D2cc of −1.82%, −3.40%, and −6.04%, respectively. For the cases where the needles were not utilized for both applicators, an average D2cc reduction of −7.45%, −7.61%, and 17.47% were observed, respectively. Conclusions: Under the same clinical conditions, with/without needles, the DMBT applicator tends to generate more favorable plans compared with the conventional T&R applicator, and hence, is a promising technology.

  12. ICAM Robotics Application Guide (RAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    651980 Danbury, Connecticut 06S10 Mr. Don Seltzer (617) 158-1368 Charles Stark Draper Laboratories, Inc. 555 Technology Square Cambridge...NCTB • STATIONS • CELLS • CENTERS MACHINE • NCBP • MATERIAL e • Ä R ©TUBE BENDER • NC ROUTER HANDLERS • BRAKE PRESS • ROBOT • WAREHOUSE • TAPE LAYER

  13. Microinvasive tumor endoresection in combination with ocular stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyavskiy, Oleg A; Troyanovsky, Roman L; Ivanov, Pavel I; Golovin, Alexandr S; Tibilov, Andrey V; Solonina, Svetlana N; Astapenko, Anna M; Zubatkina, Irina S

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) as monotherapy in the treatment of uveal melanoma (UM) allows clinicians to achieve high local tumor control with low recurrence but does not prevent secondary enucleation due to glaucoma in cases of large tumors. The authors analyzed indications for tumor endoresection (ER), the time interval between irradiation and surgery, and the features and results of performing ER for UM after GKRS. METHODS Thirty-seven patients between 28 and 78 years of age (16 male and 11 female patients) with UM underwent GKRS with a dose of 70 to 80 Gy that was applied to the center of the tumor with complete immobilization of the eye during the procedure. Tumor resection with histological investigation was performed in 24 eyes (transscleral resection was performed in 3 eyes, and ER was performed in 21 eyes) at 3 to 97 days after GKRS, mainly during the first 2 or 3 weeks. As a rule, ER (21 eyes) was performed to treat large, centrally localized, or equatorial UMs with exudative macula-on retinal detachment that reduced vision. The average tumor height was 8.9 mm, and the average width was 13.7 mm at the base. ER for UM included phacoemulsification, microinvasive vitrectomy with transretinal tumor resection, laser photocoagulation, and application of a temporary silicone oil tamponade. Seven patients received intraocular injections of inhibitors of angiogenesis for the prevention and treatment of radiation neuroretinopathy. The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 41 months. RESULTS Preservation of the eyes without tumor recurrence was achieved in all 37 patients after GKRS (monotherapy and combined therapy). One patient died of liver metastases at 21 months after GKRS. In the ER group (21 eyes), drug-resistant glaucoma with low visual acuity appeared in 4 eyes (19%) with long-existing total exudative retinal detachment and delayed operations. Severe radiation neuroretinopathy with macular edema occurred in 4 of 21 cases (19

  14. Regulatory facility guide for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.S.; Bock, R.E.; Francis, M.W.; Gove, R.M.; Johnson, P.E.; Kovac, F.M.; Mynatt, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rymer, A.C. [Transportation Consulting Services, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-02-28

    The Regulatory Facility Guide (RFG) has been developed for the DOE and contractor facilities located in the state of Ohio. It provides detailed compilations of international, federal, and state transportation-related regulations applicable to shipments originating at destined to Ohio facilities. This RFG was developed as an additional resource tool for use both by traffic managers who must ensure that transportation operations are in full compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements and by oversight personnel who must verify compliance activities.

  15. Retreatment for prostate cancer with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT): Feasible or foolhardy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeli, Stefano; Agolli, Linda; Donato, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The most popular therapeutic option in the management of radio-recurrent prostatic carcinoma is represented by the androgen deprivation therapy, that however should be considered only palliative and hampered by potential adverse effects of testosterone suppression. Local therapies such as surgery, cryoablation or brachytherapy might be curative choices for patients in good conditions and with a long-life expectancy, but at cost of significant risk of failure and severe toxicity. The administration of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in this setting have come about because of tremendous technologic advances in image guidance and treatment delivery techniques that enable the delivery of large doses to tumor with reduced margins and high gradients outside the target, thereby reducing the volume of rectum which already received significant doses from primary radiotherapy. So far, very modest data are available to support its employment. Rationale, clinical experience, and challenges are herein reviewed and discussed.

  16. Impact on four dimensional dose accumulation using deformable image registration in liver stereotactic body radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Dong Su; Seong, Cheon Keum; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept of. Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Hyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Uijeongbu ST Mary' s Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2014-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate the dosimetric effect of four-dimensional dose accumulation (4D dose) compared to 3D dose in liver stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Currently, SBRTT has been widely used to deliver highly conformal dose to target while sparing normal tissue. So, SBRT need accurate target delineation, dose calculation and motion management techniques such as breath-hold or abdominal compressor. In spite of the benefits about these techniques, there are still deformation and movement which could lead to reduce the probability for tumor control, imprecise prediction of normal tissue complication. 4D dose accumulation which can consider dosimetric effect of respiratory motion has a possibility to predict the more accurate delivered dose to target and normal organs and improve treatment accuracy.

  17. Prospective study on stereotactic radiotherapy of limited-stage non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Morten; Roed, Henrik; Hansen, Anders Traberg

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effect of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in       the treatment of medically inoperable patients with limited-stage       non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Phase II trial. Methods and       Materials: Forty patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated with SBRT...... resulted in a high       probability of local control and a promising survival rate. The toxicity       after SBRT of lung tumors was moderate. However, deterioration in       performance status, respiratory insufficiency, and other side effects were       observed...

  18. Stereotactic Radiosurgery as Part of Multimodal Treatment in a Bulky Leptomeningeal Recurrence of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertke, Matthew H; Burton, Eric C; Shaughnessy, Joseph N

    2016-03-08

    Breast cancer metastatic to the brain and/or leptomeningeal spread of disease is a frequently encountered clinical situation, especially given the extended course of disease in these patients. Systemic therapies can often effectively prolong extracranial disease control, making effective strategies to control central nervous system-based disease even more critical. We present a case of bulky leptomeningeal relapse of breast cancer in the setting of prior whole brain radiation therapy. In order to treat the patient's bulky disease and leptomeningeal spread while avoiding the potential toxicities of repeat whole brain radiation, the patient was treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery and intrathecal chemotherapy. This is the first report of this treatment approach for leptomeningeal relapse of breast cancer. The patient had an excellent response to treatment and durable intracranial control.

  19. Stereotactic iodine-125 brachytherapy for brain tumors: temporary versus permanent implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruge Maximilian I

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stereotactic brachytherapy (SBT has been described in several publications as an effective, minimal invasive and safe highly focal treatment option in selected patients with well circumscribed brain tumors 40 cGy/h in combination with adjuvant external beam radiation and/or chemotherapy for the treatment of malignant gliomas and metastases resulted in increased rates of radiation induced adverse tissue changes requiring surgical intervention. Vice versa, such effects have been only minimally observed in numerous studies applying low dose rate (LDR regiments (3–8 cGy/h for low grade gliomas, metastases and other rare indications. Besides these observations, there are, however, no data available directly comparing the long term incidences of tissue changes after HDR and LDR and there is, furthermore, no evidence regarding a difference between temporary or permanent LDR implantation schemes. Thus, recommendations for effective and safe implantation schemes have to be investigated and compared in future studies.

  20. Three Dimensional Expansion of Margins for Single-fraction Treatments: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Brain Cases

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qinghui; Song, Yulin; Burman, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To derive a clinical margin formula between clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) for single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: In previous publications on the margin between CTV and PTV, a Gaussian function with zero mean sys-tematic error was assumed for systematic errors and the machine systematic error was ignored; in this work we pre-sumed a Dirac delta function for the machine systematic error for a given machine and nonzero mean systematic error was assumed. Mathematical formulas for calculating the CTV-PTV margin for single-fraction SRS cases was proposed. Results: Margins for single fraction treatment were derived such that the CTV receives the prescribed dose in 95% of SRS patients. The margins defined in this study were machine specific and account for nonzero mean systematic error. The differences between our formulas and a previously published formula were discussed. Conclusion: Clinical margin formulas are proposed for determining the margin betwe...

  1. Exploitation of 3D stereotactic surface projection for predictive modelling of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Murat Seckin; Benton, Ryan G; Raghavan, Vijay V; Choubey, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one major cause of dementia. Previous studies have indicated that the use of features derived from Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans lead to more accurate and earlier diagnosis of AD, compared to the traditional approaches that use a combination of clinical assessments. In this study, we compare Naive Bayes (NB) with variations of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for the automatic diagnosis of AD. 3D Stereotactic Surface Projection (3D-SSP) is utilised to extract features from PET scans. At the most detailed level, the dimensionality of the feature space is very high. Hence we evaluate the benefits of a correlation-based feature selection method to find a small number of highly relevant features; we also provide an analysis of selected features, which is generally supportive of the literature. However, we have also encountered patterns that may be new and relevant to prediction of the progression of AD.

  2. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Small Lung Tumors in the University of Tokyo Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideomi Yamashita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT for primary and metastatic lung tumors will be described. The eligibility criteria for SBRT, our previous SBRT method, the definition of target volume, heterogeneity correction, the position adjustment using four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D CBCT immediately before SBRT, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT method for SBRT, verifying of tumor position within internal target volume (ITV using in-treatment 4D-CBCT during VMAT-SBRT, shortening of treatment time using flattening-filter-free (FFF techniques, delivery of 4D dose calculation for lung-VMAT patients using in-treatment CBCT and LINAC log data with agility multileaf collimator, and SBRT method for centrally located lung tumors in our institution will be shown. In our institution, these efforts have been made with the goal of raising the local control rate and decreasing adverse effects after SBRT.

  3. Distortion in magnetic resonance images obtained for stereotactic localization. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, L; Hampshire, A; Vaughan, P; Forster, D M; Kemeny, A A; Radatz, M W

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to note a potential source of error in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Magnetic resonance images were acquired for stereotactic planning for GKS of a vestibular schwannoma in a female patient. The images were acquired using three-dimensional sequence, which has been shown to produce minimal distortion effects. The images were transferred to the planning workstation, but the coronal images were rejected. By examination of the raw data and reconstruction of sagittal images through the localizer side plate, it was clearly seen that the image of the square localizer system was grossly distorted. The patient was returned to the MR imager for further studies and a metal clasp on her brassiere was identified as the cause of the distortion.

  4. Treatment options for von Hippel-Lindau's haemangioblastomatosis: the role of gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, C; Rowe, J G; Walton, L; Malik, I; Radatz, M; Kemeny, A A

    2004-08-01

    Haemangioblastomas secondary to von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease can be difficult to manage surgically, which has lead to an interest in the use of stereotactic radiosurgery. Retrospectively reviewed here are 30 tumours treated in 14 patients with a mean +/- SD follow-up of 34 +/- 24 months. During this time, three of the 14 patients (21%) died, two of generalized progressive disease. Before radiosurgery, the median time between interventions for cranial haemangioblastomas was 3 years (mean 3.9 +/- 5.0 years). After radiosurgery, the tendency for cranial disease progression was similar, 50% of patients developing further disease by 5 years. Local tumour control was achieved in the majority of cases and estimates of this are included. Radiosurgery is a useful palliative measure controlling the majority of haemangioblastomas, although its efficacy in these patients is limited by the tendency of further disease to develop or progress intracranially.

  5. Clinical results of stereotactic hellium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 11 refs.

  6. Clinical results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. Since then, over 800 patients have received stereotactically-directed plateau-beam heavy-charged particle pituitary irradiation at this institution. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of these treatments. 11 refs.

  7. Raman spectroscopic sensing of carbonate intercalation in breast microcalcifications at stereotactic biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyavathi, R.; Saha, Anushree; Soares, Jaqueline S.; Spegazzini, Nicolas; McGee, Sasha; Rao Dasari, Ramachandra; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Barman, Ishan

    2015-04-01

    Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and frequent target for stereotactic biopsy. Despite their indisputable value, microcalcifications, particularly of the type II variety that are comprised of calcium hydroxyapatite deposits, remain one of the least understood disease markers. Here we employed Raman spectroscopy to elucidate the relationship between pathogenicity of breast lesions in fresh biopsy cores and composition of type II microcalcifications. Using a chemometric model of chemical-morphological constituents, acquired Raman spectra were translated to characterize chemical makeup of the lesions. We find that increase in carbonate intercalation in the hydroxyapatite lattice can be reliably employed to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, with algorithms based only on carbonate and cytoplasmic protein content exhibiting excellent negative predictive value (93-98%). Our findings highlight the importance of calcium carbonate, an underrated constituent of microcalcifications, as a spectroscopic marker in breast pathology evaluation and pave the way for improved biopsy guidance.

  8. Evaluation of the peripheral dose in stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Betta, Erika; Fariselli, Laura; Bergantin, Achille; Locatelli, Federica; Del Vecchio, Antonella; Broggi, Sara; Fumagalli, Maria Luisa [Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Medical Physics, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Neurologico C. Besta, 20133 Milano (Italy); Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Radiotherapy, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Neurologico C. Besta, 20133 Milano (Italy); CyberKnife Centre, Centro Diagnostico Italiano, 20147 Milano (Italy); Division of Medical Physics, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto S. Raffaele, 20132 Milano (Italy); Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Medical Physics, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Neurologico C. Besta, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The main purpose of this work was to compare peripheral doses absorbed during stereotactic treatment of a brain lesion delivered using different devices. These data were used to estimate the risk of stochastic effects. Methods: Treatment plans were created for an anthropomorphic phantom and delivered using a LINAC with stereotactic cones and a multileaf collimator, a CyberKnife system (before and after a supplemental shielding was applied), a TomoTherapy system, and a Gamma Knife unit. For each treatment, 5 Gy were prescribed to the target. Measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters inserted roughly in the position of the thyroid, sternum, upper lung, lower lung, and gonads. Results: Mean doses ranged from of 4.1 (Gamma Knife) to 62.8 mGy (LINAC with cones) in the thyroid, from 2.3 (TomoTherapy) to 30 mGy (preshielding CyberKnife) in the sternum, from 1.7 (TomoTherapy) to 20 mGy (preshielding CyberKnife) in the upper part of the lungs, from 0.98 (Gamma Knife) to 15 mGy (preshielding CyberKnife) in the lower part of the lungs, and between 0.3 (Gamma Knife) and 10 mGy (preshielding CyberKnife) in the gonads. Conclusions: The peripheral dose absorbed in the sites of interest with a 5 Gy fraction is low. Although the risk of adverse side effects calculated for 20 Gy delivered in 5 Gy fractions is negligible, in the interest of optimum patient radioprotection, further studies are needed to determine the weight of each contributor to the peripheral dose.

  9. IMRT with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Boost for High Risk Malignant Salivary Gland Malignancies : A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana D Karam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with high risk salivary gland malignancies are at increased risk of local failure. We present our institutional experience with dose escalation using hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT in a subset of this rare disease. Over the course of 9 years, 10 patients presenting with skull base invasion, gross disease with one or more adverse features, or those treated with adjuvant radiation with three or more pathologic features were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy followed by hypofractionated SBRT boost. Patients presented with variable tumor histologies, and in all but one, the tumors were classified as poorly differentiated high grade. Four patients had gross disease, 3 had gross residual disease, 3 had skull base invasion, and 2 patients had rapidly recurrent disease (≤ 6 months that had been previously treated with surgical resection. The median Stereotactic Radiosurgery boost dose was 17.5 Gy (range 10-30 Gy given in a median of 5 fractions (range 3-6 fractions for a total median cumulative dose of 81.2 Gy (range 73.2-95.6 Gy. The majority of the patients received platinum based concurrent chemotherapy with their radiation. At a median follow-up of 32 months (range 12-120 for all patients and 43 months for surviving patients (range 12-120, actuarial 3-year locoregional control, distant control, progression free survival, and overall survival were 88%, 81%, 68%, and 79%, respectively. Only one patient failed locally and two failed distantly. Serious late toxicity included graft ulceration in 1 patient and osteoradionecrosis in another patient, both of which underwent surgical reconstruction. Six patients developed fibrosis. In a subset of patients with salivary gland malignancies with skull base invasion, gross disease, or those treated adjuvantly with three or more adverse pathologic features, hypofractionated SBRT boost to Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy yields good local control rates and

  10. CyberKnife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Recurrent, Metastatic, and Residual Hemangiopericytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltys Scott G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Hemangiopericytoma is a rare and aggressive meningeal tumor. Although surgical resection is the standard treatment, hemangiopericytomas often recur with high incidences of metastasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (CK in the management of recurrent, metastatic, and residual hemangiopericytomas. Methods In a review of the Stanford radiosurgery database between 2002 and 2009, the authors found 14 patients who underwent CK therapy for recurrent, metastatic, and residual hemangiopericytomas. A total of 24 tumors were treated and the median patient age was 52 years (range 29-70 years at the time of initial CK therapy. The median follow-up period was 37 months (10-73 months and all patients had been previously treated with surgical resection. Mean tumor volume was 9.16 cm3 and the mean marginal and maximum radiosurgical doses to the tumors were 21.2 Gy and 26.8 Gy, respectively. Results Of the 24 tumors treated, 22 have clinical follow-up data at this time. Of those 22 tumors, 12 decreased in size (54.5%, 6 remained unchanged (27.3%, and 4 showed recurrence (18.2% after CK therapy. Progression-free survival rate was 95%, 71.5%, and 71.5% at 1, 3, and 5 years after multiple CK treatments. The 5-year survival rate after CK was 81%. Conclusions CK is an effective and safe management option for hemangiopericytomas. The current series demonstrates a tumor control of 81.8%. Other institutions have demonstrated similar outcomes with stereotactic radiosurgery, with tumor control ranging from 46.4% to 100%.

  11. Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Concomitant With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondiau, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: pierre-yves.bondiau@nice.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Courdi, Adel [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Bahadoran, Phillipe [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Nice, Nice (France); Chamorey, Emmanuel [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Queille-Roussel, Catherine [Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique Appliquée à la Dermatologie, Nice (France); Lallement, Michel; Birtwisle-Peyrottes, Isabelle; Chapellier, Claire; Pacquelet-Cheli, Sandrine; Ferrero, Jean-Marc [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows stereotactic irradiation of thoracic tumors. It may have a real impact on patients who may not otherwise qualify for breast-conserving surgery. We conducted a phase 1 trial that tested 5 dose levels of SBRT concomitant with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before to surgery. The purpose of the current dose escalation study was to determine the maximum tolerable dose of SBRT in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods and Materials: To define toxicity, we performed dermatologic examinations that included clinical examinations by 2 separate physicians and technical evaluations using colorimetry, dermoscopy, and skin ultrasonography. Dermatologic examinations were performed before NACT, 36 and 56 days after the beginning of NACT, and before surgery. Surgery was performed 4 to 8 weeks after the last chemotherapy session. Efficacy, the primary endpoint, was determined by the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. Results: Maximum tolerable dose was not reached. Only 1 case of dose-limiting toxicity was reported (grade 3 dermatologic toxicity), and SBRT was overall well tolerated. The pCR rate was 36%, with none being observed at the first 2 dose levels, and the highest rate being obtained at dose level 3 (25.5 Gy delivered in 3 fractions). Furthermore, the breast-conserving surgery rate was up to 92% compared with an 8% total mastectomy rate. No surgical complications were reported. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that SBRT can be safely combined with NACT. Regarding the efficacy endpoints, this trial showed promising results in terms of pCR rate (36%) and breast-conserving rate (92%). The findings provide a strong rationale for extending the study into a phase 2 trial. In view of the absence of correlation between dose and pCR, and given that the data from dose level 3 met the statistical requirements, a dose of 25.5 Gy in 3 fractions should be used for the phase 2 trial.

  12. DURIP-97 Sodium Guide Star Raman Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    now been transferred from our laser development laboratory to the astronomical adaptive optics group where it is being modified for practical applications as a guide star laser. This is a project funded by the Air Force.

  13. 图像引导放射治疗技术在宫颈癌放射治疗中的应用%Application of Image Guided Radiotherapy with Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林浩; 吴丽丽; 陈泓

    2014-01-01

    图像引导放疗( Image guided radiotherapy,IGRT)是继三维适形放疗和调强放疗之后,又一新的放疗技术,分析宫颈癌放疗中影响靶区精确性的主要因素、IGRT主要技术方式及其在宫颈癌放射治疗中的应用。%Image guided radiotherapy is a new radiotherapy technique to consider the extent and pat erns of organ motion. In this study, we analyze the factors those influence the target treatment accuracy, the IGRT technique and its application on cervix radiotherapy.

  14. Overview of the PMBOK Guide

    CERN Document Server

    O'Conchuir, Deasun

    2011-01-01

    This book is for everyone who wants a readable introduction to best practice Project Management, as described by the PMBOK(R) Guide 4th Edition of the Project Management Institute (PMI), "the world's leading association for the project management profession." It is particularly useful for applicants for the PMI's PMP(R) (Project Management Professional) and CAPM(R) (Certified Associate of Project Management) examinations, which are based mostly on the PMBOK(R) Guide. This book can also be studied alone by anyone as a general introduction to Project Management. The style and language

  15. Overview of the PMBOK Guide

    CERN Document Server

    O'Conchuir, Deasun

    2010-01-01

    This book is for everyone who wants a readable introduction to best practice Project Management, as described by the "PMBOK[registered] Guide, 4th Edition" of the Project Management Institute (PMI), 'the world's leading association for the project management profession'. It is particularly useful for applicants for the PMI's PMP[registered] (Project Management Professional) and CAPM[registered] (Certified Associate of Project Management) examinations, which are based mostly on the "PMBOK[registered] Guide". This book can also be studied alone by anyone as a general introduc

  16. 工程建设期间导光管在地下空间的应用研究%Application of the Light Guide Tubes for the Construction of Underground Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭腾; 李婷; 刘学海

    2014-01-01

    导光管应用的照明效率取决于导光管的材料性能。为保证照明效率,导光管的材料一般使用国外进口材料,其高昂的价格限制了导光管技术的扩展,甚至已经在建筑节能设计中普遍采用的导光管,在工程建设期间用于地下空间照明的还未有先例。研究了国产材料制作的导光管,在保证基本照明需求下,使系统成本降到更低,性价比更高,有利于导光管技术的推广应用,追求绿色GDP;实现能源技术和减排技术创新、产业结构和制度创新;实现能源高效利用、清洁能源开发,降低能源和资源消耗。%Lighting efficiency of light guide depends on the material properties. Generally, materials of light guide are imported overseas in order to ensure the lighting efficiency. But the high price limits the ex-tension of the technology. The widely used light guide in energy-efficient design is still not utilized in con-struction of underground space. The domestic materials for manufacturing the light guide will ensure the basic lighting needs, lower down the system cost, enhance the cost performance, improve the the promotion and application of light guide tube technology, pursuing the green GDP;the light guide of domestic materi-als will achieve the innovation of energy and emission reduction, and industrial structure innovation and in-stitutional innovation; the light guide of domestic materials will achieve efficient use of energy, clean ener-gy development, reduce energy and resource consumption.

  17. Stereotaxic radio-therapies of hepatic and pulmonary metastases with the 'stereotactic body frame'; Radiotherapies stereotaxiques des metastases hepatiques et pulmonaires avec le 'stereotactic body frame'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, T.; Bouscayrol, H. [CHR d' Orleans, 45 (France)

    2006-11-15

    This treatment is particularly well adapted to pulmonary and hepatic metastases that represent well limited targets for patients tired by previous chemotherapies. The tolerance has been excellent and the results encouraging for patients without any other therapy solution. The use of 'stereotactic body frame' appears as an alternative for the development of stereotaxic radiotherapy in comparison with investment in the dedicated machines. (N.C.)

  18. Adverse Outcome Pathways Guide and toxicity test applications%有害结局通路指南及毒性测试应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿小婷; 程树军; 秦瑶; 柯逸晖

    201