WorldWideScience

Sample records for applications requiring high

  1. Communication Requirements and Interconnect Optimization for High-End Scientific Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil, Shoaib; Oliker, Leonid; Pinar, Ali; Shalf, John

    2008-01-01

    The path towards realizing peta-scale computing is increasingly dependent on building supercomputers with unprecedented numbers of processors. To prevent the interconnect from dominating the overall cost of these ultra-scale systems, there is a critical need for high-performance network solutions whose costs scale linearly with system size. This work makes several unique contributions towards attaining that goal. First, we conduct one of the broadest studies to date of high-end applicati...

  2. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  3. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  4. Considerations in the development of safety requirements for innovative reactors: Application to modular high temperature gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Member States of the IAEA have frequently requested this organization to assess, at the conceptual stage, the safety of the design of nuclear reactors that rely on a variety of technologies and are of a high degree of innovation. However, to date, for advanced and innovative reactors and for reactors with characteristics that are different from those of existing light water reactors, widely accepted design standards and rules do not exist. This TECDOC is an outcome of the efforts deployed by the IAEA to develop a general approach for assessing the safety of the design of advanced and innovative reactors, and of all reactors in general including research reactors, with characteristics that differ from those of light water reactors. This publication puts forward a method for safety assessment that is based on the well established and accepted principle of defence in depth. The need to develop a general approach for assessing the safety of the design of reactors that applies to all kinds of advanced reactors was emphasized by the request to the IAEA by South Africa to review the safety of the South African pebble bed modular reactor. This reactor, as other modular high temperature gas cooled reactors (MHTGRs), adopts very specific design features such as the use of coated particle fuel. The characteristics of the fuel deeply affect the design and the safety of the plant, thereby posing several challenges to traditional safety assessment methods and to the application of existing safety requirements that have been developed primarily for water reactors. In this TECDOC, the MHTGR has been selected as a case study to demonstrate the viability of the method proposed. The approach presented is based on an extended interpretation of the concept of defence in depth and its link with the general safety objectives and fundamental safety functions as set out in 'Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design', IAEA Safety Standards No. NS-R.1, issued by the IAEA in 2000. The objective

  5. Required High School Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kate; Morrow, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Through a literature review, and in the words of internees, this article describes the value of required internship for career growth. It notes that an internship experience ensures that students have a mentor who can be a professional reference, having actually witnessed what Mojkowski and Washor call the students' "non-academic"…

  6. Applications of high power microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors address a number of applications for HPM technology. There is a strong symbiotic relationship between a developing technology and its emerging applications. New technologies can generate new applications. Conversely, applications can demand development of new technological capability. High-power microwave generating systems come with size and weight penalties and problems associated with the x-radiation and collection of the electron beam. Acceptance of these difficulties requires the identification of a set of applications for which high-power operation is either demanded or results in significant improvements in peRFormance. The authors identify the following applications, and discuss their requirements and operational issues: (1) High-energy RF acceleration; (2) Atmospheric modification (both to produce artificial ionospheric mirrors for radio waves and to save the ozone layer); (3) Radar; (4) Electronic warfare; and (5) Laser pumping. In addition, they discuss several applications requiring high average power than border on HPM, power beaming and plasma heating

  7. 13 CFR 307.5 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application requirements. 307.5 Section 307.5 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... EDA) a CEDS, except that a CEDS is not required when applying for a Strategy Grant; and (2)...

  8. 7 CFR 1423.5 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WAREHOUSES § 1423.5 Application requirements. To apply for approval under this part, a warehouse operator... storage agreement; (b) Evidence of compliance with § 1423.4; (c) Current financial information sufficient to meet the requirements of § 1423.6; (d) For State licensed or non-licensed warehouse operators,...

  9. High energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: From the point of view of high energy applications I would like to make the following recommendations: Neutron cross sections from the keV range up to 50 MeV are measured by dedicated mono- energetic fast neutron sources. For the design optimization of fast neutron sources, data files and models of proton and deuteron cross sections and their DDXs on Li and Be isotopes need to be improved utilizing recent experiments and new physics models for Ep dn,p < 2 GeV based on up-to-date physics models and available evaluated files, - identify target accuracies through sensitivity and uncertainty analyses using the recommended library; Inaccurate nuclear data can give rise to engineering margins of a factor 2 to 3 in high energy accelerator shielding design. Improving nuclear data of neutron inelastic scattering as well as activation cross sections for component, structural and shielding materials, such as Na, Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn for energies up to a few hundreds of MeV, is essential for the reduction of too conservative design margins, which in return would give a huge cost benefit; Radiation effects on micro-electronics (soft errors, damage) by cosmic-ray neutrons need to be predicted in a reliable way. Therefore, more reliable nuclear reaction models which can predict neutron-induced light-ion production from silicon in the incident energy range from MeV to GeV are strongly required. (author)

  10. Software requirements specification for critical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The software requirements specification document is a central document for any engineered software product but is of crucial importance for critical applications for the following reasons: it is used as a basis of review of the required functionality of the system being specified; it is the basis of the software design; it is used as a basis for review of the design; and it is used as a basis of the testing of the final product. Adequate assurance that a software product has met its requirements cannot be attained without a complete, precise, unambiguous, and correct specification of the required behavior of the software based system. This paper presents a technique for requirements specification, based on a finite state machine model and tabular representation of mathematical functions, which is being developed at Ontario Hydro for use during development of software for use in real-time, critical applications

  11. 30 CFR 7.403 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... containing electric conductors. (v) For electric cables, current-carrying capacity of each conductor, with... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application requirements. 7.403 Section 7.403 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION,...

  12. 24 CFR 1003.300 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... met in accordance with 24 CFR 58.22 and with the understanding that HUD has no obligation whatsoever... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application requirements. 1003.300... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS FOR INDIAN TRIBES AND ALASKA NATIVE VILLAGES Single...

  13. HSCT4.0 Application: Software Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, A. O.; Walsh, J. L.; Mason, B. H.; Weston, R. P.; Townsend, J. C.; Samareh, J. A.; Green, L. L.

    2001-01-01

    The software requirements for the High Performance Computing and Communication Program High Speed Civil Transport application project, referred to as HSCT4.0, are described. The objective of the HSCT4.0 application project is to demonstrate the application of high-performance computing techniques to the problem of multidisciplinary design optimization of a supersonic transport configuration, using high-fidelity analysis simulations. Descriptions of the various functions (and the relationships among them) that make up the multidisciplinary application as well as the constraints on the software design arc provided. This document serves to establish an agreement between the suppliers and the customer as to what the HSCT4.0 application should do and provides to the software developers the information necessary to design and implement the system.

  14. 30 CFR 7.83 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Performance specifications of turbocharger, if applicable. (c) The application shall include dimensional...) Injector nozzle; (9) Injection fuel pump; (10) Governor; (11) Turbocharger, if applicable; (12)...

  15. A software framework for developing measurement applications under variable requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Buzio, Marco; Fiscarelli, Lucio; Inglese, Vitaliano

    2012-11-01

    A framework for easily developing software for measurement and test applications under highly and fast-varying requirements is proposed. The framework allows the software quality, in terms of flexibility, usability, and maintainability, to be maximized. Furthermore, the development effort is reduced and finalized, by relieving the test engineer of development details. The framework can be configured for satisfying a large set of measurement applications in a generic field for an industrial test division, a test laboratory, or a research center. As an experimental case study, the design, the implementation, and the assessment inside the application to a measurement scenario of magnet testing at the European Organization for Nuclear Research is reported.

  16. High tech application

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Equipment for vacuum deposition of conductor tracks on three sets of quartz plates. This technique requires exceptionally clean working conditions. This technique requires exceptionally clean working conditions.

  17. 10 CFR 800.101 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant will finance performance of work under a successful bid or proposal. (13) Such other information... applicant or on behalf of the applicant by an authorized representative. Verification may be by affidavit of... application. (iii) If the applicant is a business trust, a verified copy of the trust instrument and...

  18. Vacuum requirements in high power microwave tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammertz, Guenter [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Physik

    1995-08-01

    During recent years microwave tubes for low and medium power have been replaced by solid state devices. However, the generation of microwaves at high power is still only possible by the use of high-vacuum electron tubes. For reliable operation and sufficiently long life times severe requirements on vacuum conditions have to be fulfilled. To avoid poisoning of the electron emitter material, high voltage and rf breakdowns, multipactoring and beam instabilities caused by ion oscillations, the pressure in the tubes should not exceed 10{sup -5} Pa. In many cases the tubes are used without any additional pumps or with very small pumps. To preserve the good vacuum conditions over long periods, only very low degassing rates and very low leaking rates (10{sup -12} Pa M{sup 3} s{sup -1}) are required. (author).

  19. 47 CFR 1.2002 - Applicants required to submit information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicants required to submit information. 1... Implementation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 § 1.2002 Applicants required to submit information. (a) In... certification has been incorporated into the FCC application form being filed, the applicant need not submit...

  20. Geosensors to Support Crop Production: Current Applications and User Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammert Kooistra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor technology, which benefits from high temporal measuring resolution, real-time data transfer and high spatial resolution of sensor data that shows in-field variations, has the potential to provide added value for crop production. The present paper explores how sensors and sensor networks have been utilised in the crop production process and what their added-value and the main bottlenecks are from the perspective of users. The focus is on sensor based applications and on requirements that users pose for them. Literature and two use cases were reviewed and applications were classified according to the crop production process: sensing of growth conditions, fertilising, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and fleet control. The potential of sensor technology was widely acknowledged along the crop production chain. Users of the sensors require easy-to-use and reliable applications that are actionable in crop production at reasonable costs. The challenges are to develop sensor technology, data interoperability and management tools as well as data and measurement services in a way that requirements can be met, and potential benefits and added value can be realized in the farms in terms of higher yields, improved quality of yields, decreased input costs and production risks, and less work time and load.

  1. 7 CFR 2201.11 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... government (7 CFR parts 3016 and 3019). No Guarantee will be made if either the Applicant or Lender has an... maintenance plan, as well as a marketing strategy; (3) Economic and Financial Analysis. A review of economic... breakdown of the Applicant's proposed pricing coupled with an evaluation of any competitor's...

  2. 37 CFR 1.433 - Physical requirements of international application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions The International Application § 1.433 Physical requirements of international application. (a) The... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical requirements of international application. 1.433 Section 1.433 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT...

  3. Application requirements of artificial muscles for swimming robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrebrock, Peter A.; Anderson, Jamie M.; Parry, Joel R.

    2001-07-01

    In the near future, we will find biomimetic undersea robots in the forefront of unmanned underwater applications due to their ability to operate in new, challenging, and highly dynamic environments such as rivers, surf, and turbulent pipe flow. In particular, fish-like vehicles (FLVs) have emerged as a viable technology for highly maneuverable, efficient and stealthy platforms. Attempts to produce fish-like motion using conventional mechanical means have proven difficult, however, resulting in complex and unreliable machines, especially when compared to the simplicity of a rotating propeller and conventional control surfaces. To take full advantage of fish-like propulsion, a new actuation strategy is needed, to which artificial muscles may be uniquely suited. Some artificial muscles are made of materials with relatively low specific gravity (compared to conventional mechanical systems), and so will be nearly neutrally buoyant in underwater applications. This is critical in FLV actuation, as correct longitudinal mass distribution is required to avoid stability problems. Additionally, some artificial muscle formulations require water, sometimes including an electrolyte, which is easily provided in underwater applications. Finally, for stealthy applications, artificial muscles may provide acoustically quiet actuation due to their suppleness and reduced number of interconnecting mechanical components. In this paper, we suggest artificial muscle-based actuation strategies for FLVs, based on experience with the Vorticity Control Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (VCUUV), an eight-foot long autonomous robotic tuna. Recently developed artificial muscles are surveyed and evaluated as to their suitability for fish-like propulsion. Requirements for force, power, and strain as well as implementation issues are discussed.

  4. Application Requirements for Middleware for Mobile and Pervasive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Raatikainen, Kimmo; Nakajim, Tatsuo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the requirements for future middleware to support mobile and pervasive applications and identify key research areas. We illustrate the research areas with requirements identified in two specific research projects concerning pervasive healthcare and home entertainment....

  5. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  6. 7 CFR 1780.33 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....2; (b) A copy of the State intergovernmental comments or one copy of the filed application for State intergovernmental review; and (c) Two copies of the preliminary engineering report (PER) for the project. (1) The... financial statements, audits, organizational documents, or existing debt instruments. The processing...

  7. IX : An OS for datacenter applications with aggressive networking requirements

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that aggressive networking requirements, such as high packet rates for small messages and microsecond-scale tail latency, are best addressed outside the kernel, in a user-level networking stack. We present IX, a dataplane operating system designed to support low-latency, high-throughput and high-connection count applications.  Like classic operating systems such as Linux, IX provides strong protection guarantees to the networking stack.  However, and unlike classic operating systems, IX is designed for the ground up to support applications with aggressive networking requirements on dense multi-core platforms with 10GbE and 40GbE Ethernet NICs.  IX outperforms Linux by an order of magnitude on micro benchmarks, and by up to 3.6x when running an unmodified memcached, a popular key-value store. The presentation is based on the joint work with Adam Belay, George Prekas, Ana Klimovic, Sam Grossman and Christos Kozyrakis, published at OSDI 2014; Best P...

  8. 10 CFR 455.103 - Requirements for applications for credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for applications for credit. 455.103 Section 455.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Cost Sharing § 455.103 Requirements for applications for credit. (a) If...

  9. 7 CFR 1980.330 - Applicant equity requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Applicant equity requirements. 1980.330 Section 1980... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.330 Applicant equity requirements. A loan to purchase a new or existing dwelling may be made up to the appraised market value of...

  10. Strength-toughness requirements for thick walled high pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength and toughness requirements of materials for use in high pressure vessels has been the subject of some discussion in the meetings of the Materials Task Group of the Special Working Group High Pressure Vessels. A fracture mechanics analysis has been performed to theoretically establish the required toughness for a high pressure vessel. This paper reports that the analysis performed is based on the validity requirement for plane strain fracture of fracture toughness test specimens. This is that at the fracture event, the crack length, uncracked ligament, and vessel length must each be greater than fifty times the crack tip plastic zone size for brittle fracture to occur. For high pressure piping applications, the limiting physical dimension is the uncracked ligament, as it can be assumed that the other dimensions are always greater than fifty times the crack tip plastic zone. To perform the fracture mechanics analysis several parameters must be known: these include vessel dimensions, material strength, degree of autofrettage, and design pressure. Results of the analysis show, remarkably, that the effects of radius ratio, pressure and degree of autofrettage can be ignored when establishing strength and toughness requirements for code purposes. The only parameters that enter into the calculation are yield strength, toughness and vessel thickness. The final results can easily be represented as a graph of yield strength against toughness on which several curves, one for each vessel thickness, are plotted

  11. Requirements and capabilities of PSA for safety management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has prepared a draft document providing guidance to the Member States on the various application areas for PSAs for the intended applications. Requirements for applying a PSA in each of the specific application areas have been defined. This includes definition of the objectives of the application, PSA modeling and data requirements, calculational capabilities, and the requirements for presentation of results. This document provides an example for one of the 17 areas, namely ''Evaluation of Surveillance and Maintenance Activities.''

  12. Technology requirements for commercial applications of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research is directed primarily at physics experiments intended to provide confidence in the scientific feasibility of the basic concept. In conjunction with these experiments, a variety of laser and particle beam drivers having potential for eventual use in fusion power plants is being developed. Expectations are that the scientific feasibility of ICF will be demonstrated in the latter part of the 1980s. At that time, the emphasis of the program will shift to engineering, economic, environmental, and licensing issues with the necessary technology development effort continuing into the early part of the next century. This paper discusses the technology requirements for the successive phases of engineering development leading to commercial application of ICF. The engineering areas requiring significant effort for ICF application include high average power driver development; pulsed high-energy power supply development; reactor cavity and heat transport system design; tritium extraction and control; commercial pellet development; pellet injection, tracking, and targeting systems design; materials radiation, fatigue, and corrosion behavior; and reactor plant systems integration and demonstration

  13. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic prescription application requirements. 1311.120 Section 1311.120 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... application must clear the plain text password from the application memory to prevent the unauthorized...

  14. 37 CFR 1.431 - International application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.431 International application requirements. (a) An international application shall... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International...

  15. Research reactors: design, safety requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two types of reactors: research reactors or power reactors. The difference between the research reactor and energy reactor is that the research reactor has working temperature and fuel less than the power reactor. The research reactors cooling uses light or heavy water and also research reactors need reflector of graphite or beryllium to reduce the loss of neutrons from the reactor core. Research reactors are used for research training as well as testing of materials and the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and for industrial application. The difference is also that the research reactor smaller in terms of capacity than that of power plant. Research reactors produce radioactive isotopes are not used for energy production, the power plant generates electrical energy. In the world there are more than 284 reactor research in 56 countries, operates as source of neutron for scientific research. Among the incidents related to nuclear reactors leak radiation partial reactor which took place in three mile island nuclear near pennsylvania in 1979, due to result of the loss of control of the fission reaction, which led to the explosion emitting hug amounts of radiation. However, there was control of radiation inside the building, and so no occurred then, another accident that lead to radiation leakage similar in nuclear power plant Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, has led to deaths of 4000 people and exposing hundreds of thousands to radiation, and can continue to be effect of harmful radiation to affect future generations. (author)

  16. Design requirements on HTR main components for process heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of high temperature reactors for direct process heat, KWU-INTERATOM developed the concept of the heat exchanger (HTR) module. It consists of a number of independent small pebble bed reactor units with a thermal output of 170 MW each. In direct process heat application each of the modules operates in combination either with a steam reformer for hydro gasification of coal and methane reforming, or with an intermediate He/He heat exchanger for steam gasification of coal. Reactor and heat exchanging components are connected by a coaxial duct, helium flow is maintained by an integrated circulator. The primary pressure inclusion is achieved by steel pressure vessels, the technique which is well approved in LWR type reactors. The design requirements presented in this paper are based on the KWU-INTERATOM concept of the heat exchanger (HTR) module, but to a large extent generally typical for high temperature components

  17. Battery requirements and technologies for micro hybrid applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Serve; Spijker, Engbert [Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH (Germany); Kok, Daniel [Ford Dunton Engineering Center, Basildon, Essex (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Micro hybrids are part of all European carmakers' CO{sub 2} roadmaps and will get high market share, becoming a standard fit for mainstream powertrains. Starting from vehicle level, the paper outlines system requirements and typical technical solutions. A case study demonstrates potential and limitations of regenerative braking in micro hybrid systems. The lead/acid battery dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) is a major limitation for efficient energy recuperation, and hence fuel and CO{sub 2} saving in micro hybrids. Strengths and weaknesses of the lead/acid battery are discussed with respect to both classical automotive as well as the new micro hybrid applications. The latter impose characteristic high demands on the starting - lighting - ignition (SLI) battery or the storage system that is going to replace it, namely extensive shallow cycling at partial state of charge (PSOC) and significantly improved DCA. Delivering these additional functions robustly and reliably at minimum on-cost for high-volume applications is the key challenge that the automotive lead/acid battery industry is currently confronted with. (orig.)

  18. Industrial Applications of High Power Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patist, Alex; Bates, Darren

    Since the change of the millennium, high-power ultrasound has become an alternative food processing technology applicable to large-scale commercial applications such as emulsification, homogenization, extraction, crystallization, dewatering, low-temperature pasteurization, degassing, defoaming, activation and inactivation of enzymes, particle size reduction, extrusion, and viscosity alteration. This new focus can be attributed to significant improvements in equipment design and efficiency during the late 1990 s. Like most innovative food processing technologies, high-power ultrasonics is not an off-the-shelf technology, and thus requires careful development and scale-up for each and every application. The objective of this chapter is to present examples of ultrasonic applications that have been successful at the commercialization stage, advantages, and limitations, as well as key learnings from scaling up an innovative food technology in general.

  19. 47 CFR 22.939 - Site availability requirements for applications competing with cellular renewal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... competing with cellular renewal applications. 22.939 Section 22.939 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.939 Site availability requirements for applications competing with cellular renewal applications....

  20. Applications of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On some applications of high temperature superconductivity, recent outlines were described. Bi-series wire materials and fusion bulk materials are commercialized, and various developmental projects on appliances for electric powers and industries are promoted in the world. Such movement is thought to be based on a scope and an expectation that the high temperature superconductive technology will play a large part to overcome future problems on energy and environment. In order to use the high temperature superconductors for a wide range of industrial field in future, the present material is still insufficient at various features. From such meaning, it seems to be necessary to effort furthermore to material development. Here was introduced on some recent states of application development on the high temperature superconductors. (G.K.)

  1. 30 CFR 19.3 - Application procedures and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC CAP LAMPS § 19.3 Application procedures and requirements... accrediting organization; (2) Complete technical explanation of how the product complies with each...

  2. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the antenna; and, (6) The effective radiated power. (b) The proposed station will not interfere... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations... for offshore stations. Applications for new Offshore Radiotelephone Service stations must contain...

  3. User Requirements & Demand for Services and Applications in PNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Bo

    This paper focuses on the methodology for analyses of user requirements and demand for specific services and applications in relation to personal networks (PNs). The paper has a strong user-centric approach to service and application development based on the widely accepted fact that future servi...

  4. 40 CFR 158.1020 - Applicator exposure data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., nonprofessional, pesticide applications. (c) Key. R=Required; CR=Conditionally required; TEP=Typical end-use... Test substance Test Note No. 875.1100 Dermal outdoor exposure R R TEP 1, 2, 3 875.1200 Dermal indoor exposure R R TEP 1, 2, 4 875.1300 Inhalation outdoor exposure R R TEP 1, 2, 3 875.1400 Inhalation...

  5. High-power optics lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the basics, realization and materials for high power laser systems and high power radiation interaction with  matter. The physical and technical fundamentals of high intensity laser optics and adaptive optics and the related physical processes in high intensity laser systems are explained. A main question discussed is: What is power optics? In what way is it different from ordinary optics widely used in cameras, motion-picture projectors, i.e., for everyday use? An undesirable consequence of the thermal deformation of optical elements and surfaces was discovered during studies of the interaction with powerful incident laser radiation. The requirements to the fabrication, performance and quality of optical elements employed within systems for most practical applications are also covered. The high-power laser performance is generally governed by the following: (i) the absorption of incident optical radiation (governed primarily by various absorption mechanisms), (ii) followed by a temperature ...

  6. High Damping Alloys and Their Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxing Yin

    2000-01-01

    Damping alloys show prospective applications in the elimination of unwanted vibrations and acoustic noise. The basic definitions and characterization methods of damping capacity are reviewed in this paper. Several physical mechanisms controlled by the alloy microstructure are responsible for the damping behavior in the damping alloys. Composite, dislocation, ferromagnetic and planar defect types are commonly classified for the alloys, which show the different damping behavior against temperature, frequency of vibration,amplitude of vibration and damping modes. Development of practically applicable damping alloys requires the higher mechanical properties and adequate workability, besides the high damping capacity. A new Mn-Cu damping alloy, named as M2052 alloy, is recently developed with possible industrial applications.

  7. Application Reuse Library for Software, Requirements, and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Thronesbery, Carroll

    1994-01-01

    Better designs are needed for expert systems and other operations automation software, for more reliable, usable and effective human support. A prototype computer-aided Application Reuse Library shows feasibility of supporting concurrent development and improvement of advanced software by users, analysts, software developers, and human-computer interaction experts. Such a library expedites development of quality software, by providing working, documented examples, which support understanding, modification and reuse of requirements as well as code. It explicitly documents and implicitly embodies design guidelines, standards and conventions. The Application Reuse Library provides application modules with Demo-and-Tester elements. Developers and users can evaluate applicability of a library module and test modifications, by running it interactively. Sub-modules provide application code and displays and controls. The library supports software modification and reuse, by providing alternative versions of application and display functionality. Information about human support and display requirements is provided, so that modifications will conform to guidelines. The library supports entry of new application modules from developers throughout an organization. Example library modules include a timer, some buttons and special fonts, and a real-time data interface program. The library prototype is implemented in the object-oriented G2 environment for developing real-time expert systems.

  8. 31 CFR 223.6 - Requirements applicable to surety companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... companies. 223.6 Section 223.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.6 Requirements applicable to surety companies. Every company now...

  9. 10 CFR 451.8 - Application content requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of a qualified renewable energy facility which generates electric energy using a fossil fuel, nuclear... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application content requirements. 451.8 Section 451.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES §...

  10. 13 CFR 303.3 - Application requirements and evaluation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involvement of the Region's business leadership at each stage of the preparation of the CEDS, short-term... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application requirements and evaluation criteria. 303.3 Section 303.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...

  11. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  12. Applicability of high temperature characteristics to components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To the description of deformation, crack initiation and fracture behavior of metal materials under high temperatures, there are a series of characteristic values, which often need to be extrapolated in time in spite of their determination in long-term experiments. In addition, one requires special, component-level experiments in order to validate the application of these characteristic values to components. The post-computation of these experiments leads to the development of transferable deformation descriptions and to the determination of transferable limiting values for damage accumilation studies; in this way, the crack initiation can be estimated under static or dynamic stress. (orig.)

  13. PREPARING FOR EXASCALE: ORNL Leadership Computing Application Requirements and Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Kothe, Douglas B [ORNL; Nam, Hai Ah [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    In 2009 the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), elicited petascale computational science requirements from leading computational scientists in the international science community. This effort targeted science teams whose projects received large computer allocation awards on OLCF systems. A clear finding of this process was that in order to reach their science goals over the next several years, multiple projects will require computational resources in excess of an order of magnitude more powerful than those currently available. Additionally, for the longer term, next-generation science will require computing platforms of exascale capability in order to reach DOE science objectives over the next decade. It is generally recognized that achieving exascale in the proposed time frame will require disruptive changes in computer hardware and software. Processor hardware will become necessarily heterogeneous and will include accelerator technologies. Software must undergo the concomitant changes needed to extract the available performance from this heterogeneous hardware. This disruption portends to be substantial, not unlike the change to the message passing paradigm in the computational science community over 20 years ago. Since technological disruptions take time to assimilate, we must aggressively embark on this course of change now, to insure that science applications and their underlying programming models are mature and ready when exascale computing arrives. This includes initiation of application readiness efforts to adapt existing codes to heterogeneous architectures, support of relevant software tools, and procurement of next-generation hardware testbeds for porting and testing codes. The 2009 OLCF requirements process identified numerous actions necessary to meet this challenge: (1) Hardware capabilities must be

  14. PREPARING FOR EXASCALE: ORNL Leadership Computing Application Requirements and Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), elicited petascale computational science requirements from leading computational scientists in the international science community. This effort targeted science teams whose projects received large computer allocation awards on OLCF systems. A clear finding of this process was that in order to reach their science goals over the next several years, multiple projects will require computational resources in excess of an order of magnitude more powerful than those currently available. Additionally, for the longer term, next-generation science will require computing platforms of exascale capability in order to reach DOE science objectives over the next decade. It is generally recognized that achieving exascale in the proposed time frame will require disruptive changes in computer hardware and software. Processor hardware will become necessarily heterogeneous and will include accelerator technologies. Software must undergo the concomitant changes needed to extract the available performance from this heterogeneous hardware. This disruption portends to be substantial, not unlike the change to the message passing paradigm in the computational science community over 20 years ago. Since technological disruptions take time to assimilate, we must aggressively embark on this course of change now, to insure that science applications and their underlying programming models are mature and ready when exascale computing arrives. This includes initiation of application readiness efforts to adapt existing codes to heterogeneous architectures, support of relevant software tools, and procurement of next-generation hardware testbeds for porting and testing codes. The 2009 OLCF requirements process identified numerous actions necessary to meet this challenge: (1) Hardware capabilities must be

  15. New fluid for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M.; Flohr, F. [Solvay Fluor GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Froeba, A.P. [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Univ. Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    As a result of the worldwide increased consumption of energy, energy saving measures come more and more in the focus of commercial acting. Besides the efficiency enhancement of energy consuming systems the utilization of waste heat is an additional possibility of saving energy. Areas where this might be feasible are geothermal power plants, local combined heat and power plants, solar-thermal-systems and high temperature heat pumps (HTHP). All these applications need a transfer fluid which secures the transport of the energy from it's source to the place where it is needed at high temperatures. The paper will start with a description or overview of promising energy sources and their utilization. The thermophysical properties of an azeotropic binary mixture of HFC-365mfc and a per-fluoro-poly-ether (PFPE) which fulfils the requirements on a high temperature working fluid are introduced in the second part of the paper. First results and practical experiences in an ORC process are shown in this context followed by an estimation regarding the saved energy or the improved efficiency respectively for other applications The paper will end with a brief outlook on possible new applications e.g. autarkic systems or immersion cooling of electrical parts. (orig.)

  16. High temperature reactors for cogeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; Allelein, Hans-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik (LRST)

    2016-05-15

    There is a large potential for nuclear energy also in the non-electric heat market. Many industrial sectors have a high demand for process heat and steam at various levels of temperature and pressure to be provided for desalination of seawater, district heating, or chemical processes. The future generation of nuclear plants will be capable to enter the wide field of cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), to reduce waste heat and to increase efficiency. This requires an adjustment to multiple needs of the customers in terms of size and application. All Generation-IV concepts proposed are designed for coolant outlet temperatures above 500 C, which allow applications in the low and medium temperature range. A VHTR would even be able to cover the whole temperature range up to approx. 1 000 C.

  17. Regulatory requirements on PSA level 2: Review, aspects and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general requirements concerning utility obligations, probabilistic safety criteria (CDF should not exceed 1.0E-4/reactor year and LERF should not exceed 1.0E-5/reactor year), documentation and results, living PSA requirements and major steps in level 2 PSA are presented. PSA developments in Slovakia, collection and assembly of information, plant damage states, containment performance and failure modes, severe accident progression analyses, containment failure modes and source terms as a part of performed level 2 PSA are discussed. The PSA applications in design and operation evaluation, support to plant upgrade and modifications are also described. At the end, the following conclusion is made: more extensive PSA application needs to foster the exchange of experience and communication between PSA specialists, non-PSA engineers, designers, and the regulatory body staff responsible for safety assessment, inspection and enforcement

  18. Understanding Ultra-Scale Application CommunicationRequirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaib, Kamil; Shalf, John; Oliker, Leonid; Skinner, David

    2005-01-01

    As thermal constraints reduce the pace of CPU performance improvements, the cost and scalability of future HPC architectures will be increasingly dominated by the interconnect. In this work we perform an in-depth study of the communication requirements across a broad spectrum of important scientific applications, whose computational methods include: finite-difference, lattice-boltzmann, particle in cell, sparse linear algebra, particle mesh ewald, and FFT-based solvers. We use the IPM (integrated Performance Monitoring) profiling framework to collect detailed statistics on communication topology and message volume with minimal impact to code performance. By characterizing the parallelism and communication requirements of such a diverse set of applications, we hope to guide architectural choices for the design and implementation of interconnects for future HPC systems.

  19. 3D neutron computed tomography. Requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Other than X-rays, neutrons can penetrate most metals easily while delivering a high contrast for many light-weight elements. Especially their high sensitivity for hydrogen makes them a valuable tool for the detection of organic materials like lubricants, plastics or sealants within metal housings. Neutron radiography and tomography complement the application of X-ray for the inspection of complex and critical components like in automotive and aerospace applications. An overview about the technical and mathematical differences between neutron and X-ray tomography is given and the imperfections and limitations of a neutron setup are shown. Several examples of technical neutron computed tomography are given. (author)

  20. Aerospace Applications Of High Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.

    1988-05-01

    The existence of superconductors with TcOOK (which implies device operating temper-atures the order of Top ≍45K) opens up a variety of potential applications within the aerospace/defense industry. This is partly due to the existence of well developed cooler technologies to reach this temperature regime and partly due to the present operation of some specialized components at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, LWIR focal planes may operate at 10K with some of the signal processing electronics at an intermediate temperature of 40K. Addition of high Tc superconducting components in the latter system may be "free" in the sense of additional system complexity required. The established techniques for cooling in the 20K to 50K temperature regime are either open cycle, expendable material (stored gas with Joule-Thomson expansion, liquid cryogen or solid cryogen) or mechanical refrigerators (Stirling cycle, Brayton cycle or closed cycle Joule-Thomson). The high Tc materials may also contribute to the development of coolers through magnetically levitated bearings or providing the field for a stage of magnetic refrigeration. The discovery of materials with Tc, 90K has generated a veritable shopping list of applications. The superconductor properties which are of interest for applications are (1) zero resistance, (2) Meissner effect, (3) phase coherence and (4) existence of an energy gap. The zero resistance property is significant in the development of high field magnets requiring neglible power to maintain the field. In addition to the publicized applications to rail guns and electromagnetic launcher, we can think of space born magnets for charged particle shielding or whistler mode propagation through a plasma sheath. Conductor losses dominate attenuation and dispersion in microstrip transmission lines. While the surface impedance of a superconductor is non vanishing, significant improvements in signal transmission may be obtained. The Meissner effect may be utilized

  1. Applications analysis of high energy lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, R. D.; Mackay, J. S.; Nishioka, K.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and comparison of laser technology with competing technologies were made to determine possible laser applications. The analysis was undertaken as follows: (1) possible applications were listed and categorized; (2) required components were enumerated and the characteristics of these components were extrapolated; (3) complete system characteristics were calculated parametrically for selected applications using the postulated component characteristics; and (4) where possible and appropriate, comparisons were made with competing systems. It was found that any large scale replacement of existing systems and methods by lasers requires many technological advances in laser and associated systems. However, several applications appear feasible, such as low orbit drag make-up, orbit changing, communications, and illumination applications.

  2. Leadership in organizations with high security and reliability requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing leadership skills in organizations is the key to ensure the sustainability of excellent results in industries with high requirements safety and reliability. In order to have a model of leadership development specific to this type of organizations, Tecnatom in 2011, we initiated a project internal, to find and adapt a competency model to these requirements.

  3. Toward better application of minimum area requirements in conservation planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pe’er, G.; Tsianou, M.A.; Franz, K.W.; Matsinos, Y.G.; Mazaris, A.D.; Storch, D.; Kopsova, L.; Verboom, J.; Baguette, M.; Stevens, V.M.; Henle, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of species is a concept that explicitly addresses area and therefore can be highly relevant for conservation planning and policy. This study compiled a comprehensive database of MAR estimates from the literature, covering 216 terrestrial animal species from 80 stu

  4. Repetitive high energy pulsed power technology development for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology base for Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) was originally developed to support defense program applications. As RHEPP technology matures, its potential for use in commercial applications can be explored based on inherent strengths of high average power, high dose rate, cost efficient scaling with power, and potential for long life performance. The 300 kW, 2 MeV RHEPP II accelerator is now in operation as a designated DOE User Facility, exploring applications where high dose-rate (> 108 Gy/s) may be advantageous, or very high average power is needed to meet throughput requirements. Material surface and bulk property modification, food safety, and large-scale timber disinfestation are applications presently under development. Work is also in progress to generate the reliability database required for the design of 2nd generation systems

  5. Happily Homeschooling Teens: High School Requirements & College Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cafi

    This booklet is the fifth in a series designed to assist parents who are home-schooling their adolescent children and deals with high school requirements and college admissions. The articles in this booklet are: (1) "'How Do We Know When We're Done?'," concerning criteria for high school graduation, college recommendations, and evaluating…

  6. User needs and requirements analysis for big data healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillner, Sonja; Lasierra, Nelia; Faix, Werner; Neururer, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The realization of big data applications that allow improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare care delivery is challenging. In order to take advantage of the promising opportunities of big data technologies, a clear understanding of user needs and requirements of the various stakeholders of healthcare, such as patients, clinicians and physicians, healthcare provider, payors, pharmaceutical industry, medical product suppliers and government, is needed. Our study is based on internet, literature and market study research as well as on semi-structured interviews with major stakeholder groups of healthcare delivery settings. The analysis shows that big data technologies could be used to align the opposing user needs of improved quality with improved efficiency of care. However, this requires the integrated view of various heterogeneous data sources, legal frameworks for data sharing and incentives that foster collaboration. PMID:25160268

  7. Conformal radiation therapy: technical requirements and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformal radiation therapy represents a considerable and attractive challenge in oncology. Its aim is mainly to improve local control by increasing the dose with an acceptable rate of complications. This work overviews the world literature on this subject. The technical and theoretical requirements are highlighted. These requirements include a precise definition of the target volume by digital imaging (essentially CT scan), but also clear view of the target volume and the organs at risk, a specific collimation of the beam, 3-D dose calculations, optimization procedures, and a rigid immobilization of the patient with verification of his position. Moreover, the clinical applications of conformal radiation therapy are reviewed and discussed. (authors). 80 refs., 1 tab

  8. Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg...

  9. Conductor requirements for high-temperature superconducting utility power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors in utility power transformers must satisfy a set of operating requirements that are driven by two major considerations-HTS transformers must be economically competitive with conventional units, and the conductor must be robust enough to be used in a commercial manufacturing environment. The transformer design and manufacturing process will be described in order to highlight the various requirements that it imposes on the HTS conductor. Spreadsheet estimates of HTS transformer costs allow estimates of the conductor cost required for an HTS transformer to be competitive with a similarly performing conventional unit.

  10. High power infrared QCLs: advances and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2012-01-01

    QCLs are becoming the most important sources of laser radiation in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and longwave infrared (LWIR) regions because of their size, weight, power and reliability advantages over other laser sources in the same spectral regions. The availability of multiwatt RT operation QCLs from 3.5 μm to >16 μm with wall plug efficiency of 10% or higher is hastening the replacement of traditional sources such as OPOs and OPSELs in many applications. QCLs can replace CO2 lasers in many low power applications. Of the two leading groups in improvements in QCL performance, Pranalytica is the commercial organization that has been supplying the highest performance QCLs to various customers for over four year. Using a new QCL design concept, the non-resonant extraction [1], we have achieved CW/RT power of >4.7 W and WPE of >17% in the 4.4 μm - 5.0 μm region. In the LWIR region, we have recently demonstrated QCLs with CW/RT power exceeding 1 W with WPE of nearly 10 % in the 7.0 μm-10.0 μm region. In general, the high power CW/RT operation requires use of TECs to maintain QCLs at appropriate operating temperatures. However, TECs consume additional electrical power, which is not desirable for handheld, battery-operated applications, where system power conversion efficiency is more important than just the QCL chip level power conversion efficiency. In high duty cycle pulsed (quasi-CW) mode, the QCLs can be operated without TECs and have produced nearly the same average power as that available in CW mode with TECs. Multiwatt average powers are obtained even in ambient T>70°C, with true efficiency of electrical power-to-optical power conversion being above 10%. Because of the availability of QCLs with multiwatt power outputs and wavelength range covering a spectral region from ~3.5 μm to >16 μm, the QCLs have found instantaneous acceptance for insertion into multitude of defense and homeland security applications, including laser sources for infrared

  11. Application requirements for Robotic Nursing Assistants in hospital environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sven; Doelling, Kris; Lundberg, Cody L.; McNair, Mike; Shin, Jeongsik; Popa, Dan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we report on analysis toward identifying design requirements for an Adaptive Robotic Nursing Assistant (ARNA). Specifically, the paper focuses on application requirements for ARNA, envisioned as a mobile assistive robot that can navigate hospital environments to perform chores in roles such as patient sitter and patient walker. The role of a sitter is primarily related to patient observation from a distance, and fetching objects at the patient's request, while a walker provides physical assistance for ambulation and rehabilitation. The robot will be expected to not only understand nurse and patient intent but also close the decision loop by automating several routine tasks. As a result, the robot will be equipped with sensors such as distributed pressure sensitive skins, 3D range sensors, and so on. Modular sensor and actuator hardware configured in the form of several multi-degree-of-freedom manipulators, and a mobile base are expected to be deployed in reconfigurable platforms for physical assistance tasks. Furthermore, adaptive human-machine interfaces are expected to play a key role, as they directly impact the ability of robots to assist nurses in a dynamic and unstructured environment. This paper discusses required tasks for the ARNA robot, as well as sensors and software infrastructure to carry out those tasks in the aspects of technical resource availability, gaps, and needed experimental studies.

  12. Self-commutating converters for high power applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arrillaga, Jos; Watson, Neville R; Murray, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    For very high voltage or very high current applications, the power industry still relies on thyristor-based Line Commutated Conversion (LCC), which limits the power controllability to two quadrant operation. However, the ratings of self-commutating switches such as the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT), are reaching levels that make the technology possible for very high power applications. This unique book reviews the present state and future prospects of self-commutating static power converters for applications requiring either ultr

  13. Instrumental analytical techniques in geochemistry: Requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemists must analyse an extremely wide range of terrestrial and planetary materials. The instrumental techniques necessary to cope with this difficult task are considered. The most important analytical techniques in use by the geochemist today are AAS, ICP-OES, INAA, MSID and XRFS, and the electron microscope for in situ mineral analysis. Some applications of these techniques to solving major problems in geochemistry are discussed. The importance of certified reference materials and of high quality geochemical data are emphasized. It is concluded that the general quality of trace element data has improved over the past 25 years, as a direct result of the application of modern instrumental techniques. Surprisingly, the quality of data reported for certain major elements has deteriorated over that time, when compared with data obtainable by classical chemical methods. Predictions are made concerning the instrumentation needs of the next generation of geochemists. (orig.)

  14. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  15. Foil Bearing Starting Considerations and Requirements for Rotorcraft Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin C.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Foil gas bearings under development for rotorcraft-sized, hot core engine applications have been susceptible to damage from the slow acceleration and rates typically encountered during the pre-ignition stage in conventional engines. Recent laboratory failures have been assumed to be directly linked to operating foil bearings below their lift-off speed while following conventional startup procedures for the engines. In each instance, the continuous sliding contact between the foils and shaft was believed to thermally overload the bearing and cause the engines to fail. These failures highlight the need to characterize required acceleration rates and minimum operating speeds for these applications. In this report, startup experiments were conducted with a large, rotorcraft engine sized foil bearing under moderate load and acceleration rates to identify the proper start procedures needed to avoid bearing failure. The results showed that a bearing under a 39.4 kPa static load can withstand a modest acceleration rate of 500 rpm/s and excessive loitering below the bearing lift-off speed provided an adequate solid lubricant is present.

  16. High performance sealing - meeting nuclear and aerospace requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although high performance sealing is required in many places, two industries lead all others in terms of their demand-nuclear and aerospace. The factors that govern the high reliability and integrity of seals, particularly elastomer seals, for both industries are discussed. Aerospace requirements include low structural weight and a broad range of conditions, from the cold vacuum of space to the hot, high pressures of rocket motors. It is shown, by example, how a seal can be made an integral part of a structure in order to improve performance, rather than using a conventional handbook design. Typical processes are then described for selection, specification and procurement of suitable elastomers, functional and accelerated performance testing, database development and service-life prediction. Methods for quality assurance of elastomer seals are summarized. Potentially catastrophic internal dejects are a particular problem for conventional non-destructive inspection techniques. A new method of elastodynamic testing for these is described. (author)

  17. Motor for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  18. Small turbines in distributed utility application: Natural gas pressure supply requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, H.L.

    1996-05-01

    Implementing distributed utility can strengthen the local distribution system and help avoid or delay the expense of upgrading transformers and feeders. The gas turbine-generator set is an attractive option based on its low front-end capital cost, reliable performance at unmanned stations, and environmental performance characteristics. This report assesses gas turbine utilization issues from a perspective of fuel supply pressure requirements and discusses both cost and operational factors. A primary operational consideration for siting gas turbines on the electric distribution system is whether the local gas distribution company can supply gas at the required pressure. Currently available gas turbine engines require gas supply pressures of at least 150 pounds per square inch gauge, more typically, 250 to 350 psig. Few LDCs maintain line pressure in excess of 125 psig. One option for meeting the gas pressure requirements is to upgrade or extend an existing pipeline and connect that pipeline to a high-pressure supply source, such as an interstate transmission line. However, constructing new pipeline is expensive, and the small volume of gas required by the turbine for the application offers little incentive for the LDC to provide this service. Another way to meet gas pressure requirements is to boost the compression of the fuel gas at the gas turbine site. Fuel gas booster compressors are readily available as stand-alone units and can satisfactorily increase the supply pressure to meet the turbine engine requirement. However, the life-cycle costs of this equipment are not inconsequential, and maintenance and reliability issues for boosters in this application are questionable and require further study. These factors may make the gas turbine option a less attractive solution in DU applications than first indicated by just the $/kW capital cost. On the other hand, for some applications other DU technologies, such as photovoltaics, may be the more attractive option.

  19. High Performance Computing Programming and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Levesque, John

    2010-01-01

    High Performance Computing: Programming and Applications presents techniques that address new performance issues in the programming of high performance computing (HPC) applications. Omitting tedious details, the book discusses hardware architecture concepts and programming techniques that are the most pertinent to application developers for achieving high performance. Even though the text concentrates on C and Fortran, the techniques described can be applied to other languages, such as C++ and Java. Drawing on their experience with chips from AMD and systems, interconnects, and software from C

  20. Application of High Temperature Superconductors to Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2000-01-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity, a large effort has been made by the scientific community to investigate this field towards a possible application of the new oxide superconductors to different devices like SMES, magnetic bearings, flywheels energy storage, magnetic shielding, transmission cables, fault current limiters, etc. However, all present day large scale applications using superconductivity in accelerator technology are based on conventional materials operating at liquid helium temperatures. Poor mechanical properties, low critical current density and sensitivity to the magnetic field at high temperature are the key parameters whose improvement is essential for a large scale application of high temperature superconductors to such devices. Current leads, used for transferring currents from the power converters, working at room temperature, into the liquid helium environment, where the magnets are operating, represent an immediate application of the emerging technology of high t...

  1. Aerospace applications of high temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, V. O.; Connolly, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Space application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials may occur before most terrestrial applications because of the passive cooling possibilities in space and because of the economic feasibility of introducing an expensive new technology which has a significant system benefit in space. NASA Lewis Research Center has an ongoing program to develop space technology capitalizing on the potential benefit of HTS materials. The applications being pursued include space communications, power and propulsion systems, and magnetic bearings. In addition, NASA Lewis is pursuing materials research to improve the performance of HTS materials for space applications.

  2. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  3. Aerospace applications of high temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, D. J.; Heinen, V. O.; Aron, P. R.; Lazar, J.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of all the applications that are part of the NASA program to develop space technology capitalizing on the potential benefit of high temperature superconducting materials. The applications in three major areas are being pursued: sensors and cryogenic systems, space communications, and propulsion and power systems. This review places emphasis on space communications applications and the propulsion and power applications. It is concluded that the power and propulsion applications will eventually be limited by structural considerations rather than by the availability of suitable superconductors. A cursory examination of structural limitations implied by the virial theorem suggested that there is an upper limit to the size of high field magnetic systems that are feasible in space.

  4. A readout unit for high rate applications

    CERN Document Server

    Toledo, J; Domínguez, D; Guirao-Elias, A; Müller, H

    2002-01-01

    The LHCb readout unit (RU) is a custom entry stage to the readout network of a data-acquisition or trigger system. It performs subevent building from multiple link inputs toward a readout network via a PCI network interface or alternatively toward a high-speed link, via an S-link interface. Incoming event fragments are derandomized, buffered and assembled into single subevents. This process is based on a low- overhead framing convention and matching of equal event numbers. Programmable logic is used both in the input and output stages of the RU module, which may be configured either as a data-link multiplexer or as entry stage to a readout or trigger network. All FPGAs are interconnected via the PCI bus, which is hosted by a networked microprocessor card. Its main tasks are remote FPGA configuration and initialization of the PCI cards. The RU hardware architecture has been optimized for a throughput of up to 200 MB/s at a 1 MHz trigger rate, as required by the most demanding application, the LHCb level-1 trig...

  5. Multichannel pyrometry applications in high temperature thermophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text: Temperature measurements play a key role in the measurements of thermophysical properties performed with the aid of laser heating. This technique is very often applied when the measurements are made in the vicinity of the melting point where effective spectral emissivity of the surface cannot be evaluated with the required reliability. Optical measurements are also sometimes perturbed by evaporation at very high temperatures followed by aerosol agglomeration. Moreover, rapid temperature excursions - one of the main features of the laser heating experiments - call for sufficiently fast temperature measurements. Multichannel pyrometry can be considered as an almost unique solution since it essentially increases the information about thermal radiation in respect to the conventional single or double channel pyrometry. However, this extension makes sense only if the photometric properties of each channel (dynamic range, linearity, long term stability) are similar to those of precision monochromatic pyrometers. Yet, very recently the basic opto-electronical components for this application - high-speed Si-array detectors working in conjunction with high-speed 16 bit analog-to-digital converters - became available. First results of the characterization and application of a multichannel pyrometer based on a 200-channel Si-array spectrometer with the full spectrum acquisition time of ≥0.8 ms are presented. The pyrometer consists of a complex objective, which focuses the light from the defined area of 0.3 mm in dia. at a distance of 500 mm from objective onto optical fiber. Then the light is transmitted to the spectrometer mounted on a PC computer board. An absolute calibration of the pyrometer has been performed at the wavelength 650 nm against a standard tungsten ribbon lamp. The extension of the calibration to all the spectrometer channels, covering the range of 500 - 900 nm, has been made against graphite Black-Body (BB) radiator in the temperature range of

  6. Requirements and Issues for Handling Chines in Internationalized Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉方

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics peculiar to Chinese,espcially Hanzi,processing with computers are described,and issues relevant to the portable application environment are eviewed.Though much of the description concerns the localized issues,th way of consideration is applicable to those of portable,internationalized applications.

  7. 18 CFR 157.6 - Applications; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment § 157.6 Applications; general...) Applications filed under this part 157 and all attached exhibits; (ii) Applications covering acquisitions and... copies and in the electronic filing are true to the best knowledge and belief of the signer; and...

  8. Cognitive Process of Comprehension in Requirement Analysis in IT Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kotnala, Abhishek; Selvarani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Requirement Analysis is an important phase in software development which deals with understanding the customers requirements. It includes the collection of information from the customer, which is regarding the customers requirements and what he expects from the software which is to be developed. By doing so, you can have a better understanding of what the customer actually needs and hence can deliver the output as per the customers requirements. Studies are being carried out to bring about im...

  9. Adaptation of iron requirement to hypoxic conditions at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Max; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2015-12-15

    Adequate acclimatization time to enable adjustment to hypoxic conditions is one of the most important aspects for mountaineers ascending to high altitude. Accordingly, most reviews emphasize mechanisms that cope with reduced oxygen supply. However, during sojourns to high altitude adjustment to elevated iron demand is equally critical. Thus in this review we focus on the interaction between oxygen and iron homeostasis. We review the role of iron 1) in the oxygen sensing process and erythropoietin (Epo) synthesis, 2) in gene expression control mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor-2 (HIF-2), and 3) as an oxygen carrier in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes. The blood hormone Epo that is abundantly expressed by the kidney under hypoxic conditions stimulates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow, a process requiring high iron levels. To ensure that sufficient iron is provided, Epo-controlled erythroferrone that is expressed in erythroid precursor cells acts in the liver to reduce expression of the iron hormone hepcidin. Consequently, suppression of hepcidin allows for elevated iron release from storage organs and enhanced absorption of dietary iron by enterocytes. As recently observed in sojourners at high altitude, however, iron uptake may be hampered by reduced appetite and gastrointestinal bleeding. Reduced iron availability, as observed in a hypoxic mountaineer, enhances hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and may contribute to other hypoxia-related diseases. Overall, adequate systemic iron availability is an important prerequisite to adjust to high-altitude hypoxia and may have additional implications for disease-related hypoxic conditions. PMID:26183475

  10. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as "Einstein Rings" in high resolution images. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope $\\gamma'$ of the...

  11. Applications of abundance data and requirements for cosmochemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busemann, H.; Binns, W. R.; Chiappini, C.; Gloeckler, G.; Hoppe, P.; Kirilova, Donka; Leske, R. A.; Manuel, O. K.; Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of the universe from Big Bang to its present state requires an understanding of the evolution of the abundances of the elements and isotopes in galaxies, stars, the interstellar medium, the Sun and the heliosphere, planets and meteorites. Processes that change the state of the universe include Big Bang nucleosynthesis, star formation and stellar nucleosynthesis, galactic chemical evolution, propagation of cosmic rays, spallation, ionization and particle transport of interstellar material, formation of the solar system, solar wind emission and its fractionation (FIP/FIT effect), mixing processes in stellar interiors, condensation of material and subsequent geochemical fractionation. Here, we attempt to compile some major issues in cosmochemistry that can be addressed with a better knowledge of the respective element or isotope abundances. Present and future missions such as Genesis, Stardust, Interstellar Pathfinder, and Interstellar Probe, improvements of remote sensing instrumentation and experiments on extraterrestrial material such as meteorites, presolar grains, and lunar or returned planetary or cometary samples will result in an improved database of elemental and isotopic abundances. This includes the primordial abundances of D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li, abundances of the heavier elements in stars and galaxies, the composition of the interstellar medium, solar wind and comets as well as the (highly) volatile elements in the solar system such as helium, nitrogen, oxygen or xenon.

  12. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  13. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  14. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  15. Large motion high cycle high speed optical fibers for space based applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, Peter G.; Tandon, Rajan; Gibson, Cory S; Reedlunn, Benjamin; Rasberry, Roger David; Rohr, Garth David

    2014-10-01

    Future remote sensing applications will require higher resolution and therefore higher data rates (up to perhaps 100 gigabits per second) while achieving lower mass and cost. A current limitation to the design space is high speed high bandwidth data does not cross movable gimbals because of cabling issues. This requires the detectors to be off gimbal. The ability to get data across the gimbal would open up efficiencies in designs where the detectors and the electronics can be placed anywhere on the system. Fiber optic cables provide light weight high speed high bandwidth connections. Current options are limited to 20,000 cycles as opposed to the 1,000,000 cycles needed for future space based applications. To extend this to the million+ regime, requires a thorough understanding of the failure mechanisms and the materials, proper selection of materials (e.g., glass and jacket material) allowable geometry changes to the cable, radiation hardness, etc.

  16. 24 CFR 599.203 - Basic application submission requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Procedures for Nomination of... notice of, and an opportunity to participate in, the application development process. Notice...

  17. Application of Strength Requirements to Complex Loading Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    NASA's endeavors in human spaceflight rely on extensive volumes of human-systems integration requirements to ensure mission success. These requirements protect for space hardware accommodation for the full range of potential crewmembers, but cannot cover every possible action and contingency in detail. This study was undertaken in response to questions from various strength requirement users who were unclear how to apply idealized strength requirements that did not map well to the complex loading scenarios that crewmembers would encounter. Three of the most commonly occurring questions from stakeholders were selected to be investigated with human testing and human modeling. Preliminary findings indicate deviation from nominal postures can affect strength requirement compliance positively or negatively, depending on the nature of the deviation. Human modeling offers some avenues for quickly addressing requirement verification questions, but is limited by the fidelity of the model and environment.

  18. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1969-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications focuses on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as chemical shifts, lattices, and couplings. The book first offers information on the theory of NMR, including nuclear spin and magnetic moment, spin lattice relaxation, line widths, saturation, quantum mechanical description of NMR, and ringing. The text then ponders on instrumentation and techniques and chemical shifts. Discussions focus on the origin of chemical shifts, reference compounds, empirical correlations of chemical shifts, modulation and phase detection,

  19. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  20. Verifying cell loss requirements in high-speed communication networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry W. Fendick

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-speed communication networks it is common to have requirements of very small cell loss probabilities due to buffer overflow. Losses are measured to verify that the cell loss requirements are being met, but it is not clear how to interpret such measurements. We propose methods for determining whether or not cell loss requirements are being met. A key idea is to look at the stream of losses as successive clusters of losses. Often clusters of losses, rather than individual losses, should be regarded as the important “loss events”. Thus we propose modeling the cell loss process by a batch Poisson stochastic process. Successive clusters of losses are assumed to arrive according to a Poisson process. Within each cluster, cell losses do not occur at a single time, but the distance between losses within a cluster should be negligible compared to the distance between clusters. Thus, for the purpose of estimating the cell loss probability, we ignore the spaces between successive cell losses in a cluster of losses. Asymptotic theory suggests that the counting process of losses initiating clusters often should be approximately a Poisson process even though the cell arrival process is not nearly Poisson. The batch Poisson model is relatively easy to test statistically and fit; e.g., the batch-size distribution and the batch arrival rate can readily be estimated from cell loss data. Since batch (cluster sizes may be highly variable, it may be useful to focus on the number of batches instead of the number of cells in a measurement interval. We also propose a method for approximately determining the parameters of a special batch Poisson cell loss with geometric batch-size distribution from a queueing model of the buffer content. For this step, we use a reflected Brownian motion (RBM approximation of a G/D/1/C queueing model. We also use the RBM model to estimate the input burstiness given the cell loss rate. In addition, we use the RBM model to

  1. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao -Lei [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Agnello, Adriano [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Liao, Kai [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive

  2. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtotpropto r-γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will only be of

  3. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for a combustion source shall contain the following elements in a format prescribed by the Administrator: (1... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  4. 47 CFR 1.2112 - Ownership disclosure requirements for applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rights to hire and fire employees and to appoint members to boards of directors or management committees... CFR 1.2105)), or for a license, authorization, assignment, or transfer of control shall fully disclose... application to participate in competitive bidding (i.e., short-form application (see 47 CFR 1.2105)): (i)...

  5. RF power requirements for a high intensity proton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the new generation of circular accelerators or colliders where the average beam currents are pushed up to their ultimate limits, the power exchanged between the RF power source and the beam becomes much larger than the losses in the RF system itself (cavity, amplifier, circulator load). This situation of high beam loading has been analyzed previously with respect to the stability of the radiofrequency system. Without any electronic loops, one obtains the well known high current Robinson stability limit, which is somewhat modified by the presence of the phase, amplitude and tuning loops. To go beyond these limits the usual recipe is to employ RF feedback around the power amplifier-cavity combination. The beam current thresholds are simply increased by the RF feedback loop gain, without changing the static RF power balance. However when transient effects are considered, the peak RF power demanded by RF feedback may dominate the static power requirements, in particular for hadron storage rings where φB (synchronous phase angle) equals zero. During acceleration or storage periodic transient beam loading is due to the non-uniform structure of the beam. With high RF feedback gains and therefore large equivalent cavity bandwidths this effect becomes more and more important, especially for large machines with a low revolution frequency. In addition, non-periodic transient beam loading effects occur during the filling phase of the machine, when newly injected particles are added to the already circulating beam

  6. 40 CFR 72.31 - Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements for Acid Rain... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Permit Applications § 72.31 Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. A complete Acid Rain permit application shall include...

  7. 18 CFR 5.1 - Applicability, definitions, and requirement to consult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) 18 CFR part 4, Subparts D-H and, as applicable, part 16 (i.e., traditional process), pursuant to..., definitions, and requirement to consult. 5.1 Section 5.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.1 Applicability, definitions, and requirement to consult. (a) This...

  8. 12 CFR 925.16 - Financial condition requirement for insurance company applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial condition requirement for insurance company applicants. 925.16 Section 925.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME... Financial condition requirement for insurance company applicants. An insurance company applicant shall...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4122 - Information requirements for Hg budget permit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements for Hg budget... requirements for Hg budget permit applications. A complete Hg Budget permit application shall include the following elements concerning the Hg Budget source for which the application is submitted, in a...

  10. 47 CFR 22.929 - Application requirements for the Cellular Radiotelephone Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for the Cellular...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.929 Application requirements for the Cellular Radiotelephone Service. In addition to information required by subparts B and...

  11. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  12. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  13. Guidance for preparing user requirements documents for small and medium reactors and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade, several countries with highly developed nuclear power programs established user required documents (URDs) to guide the development and implementation of advanced light water reactors. These efforts built upon the extensive experience with operating reactors and included new insights from ongoing research and development to enhance the economic performance and safety of future nuclear power plants. Subsequently, a number of developing countries with plans for introducing nuclear energy into their national programs expressed strong interest in establishing analogous requirements. The IAEA has therefore taken the initiative to assist in the elaboration of such requirements. Building upon relevant documents this report recommends a URD structure and content outline to support developing countries in preparing their URDs for various applications of small and medium reactors (e.g. electricity generation and/or desalination). This report was prepared by representatives from both developing and developed Member States

  14. Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

  15. 9 CFR 2.1 - Requirements and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... otherwise required to obtain a license. This exemption does not extend to any person residing in a household... not extend to any person residing in a household that collectively sells 25 or more dogs and/or...

  16. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  17. Terrestrial locomotion imposes high metabolic requirements on bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Borrisov, Ivailo M; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L

    2012-12-15

    The evolution of powered flight involved major morphological changes in Chiroptera. Nevertheless, all bats are also capable of crawling on the ground and some are even skilled sprinters. We asked if a highly derived morphology adapted for flapping flight imposes high metabolic requirements on bats when moving on the ground. We measured the metabolic rate during terrestrial locomotion in mastiff bats, Molossus currentium, a species that is both a fast-flying aerial-hawking bat and an agile crawler on the ground. Metabolic rates of bats averaged 8.0±4.0 ml CO(2) min(-1) during a 1-min period of sprinting at 1.3±0.6 km h(-1). With rising average speed, mean metabolic rates increased, reaching peak values that were similar to those of flying conspecifics. Metabolic rates of M. currentium were higher than those of similar-sized rodents that sprinted at similar velocities under steady-state conditions. When M. currentium sprinted at peak velocities, its aerobic metabolic rate was 3-5 times higher than those of rodent species running continuously in steady-state conditions. Costs of transport (J kg(-1) m(-1)) were more than 10 times higher for running than for flying bats. We conclude that at the same speed bats experience higher metabolic rates during short sprints than quadruped mammals during steady-state terrestrial locomotion, yet running bats achieve higher maximal mass-specific aerobic metabolic rates than non-volant mammals such as rodents. PMID:22972883

  18. High temperature applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting was organized to review industry/user needs designs, status of technology and the associated economics for high temperature applications. It was attended by approximately 100 participants from nine countries. The participants presented 17 papers. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. CRISP. Requirements Specifications of Intelligent ICT Simulation Tools for Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, deliverable D2.1 in the CRISP project, serves as a preparation report for the development of simulation tools and prototype software which will be developed in forthcoming stages of the CRISP project. Application areas for these simulations are: fault detection and diagnosis, supply and demand matching and intelligent load shedding. The context in which these applications function is the power network with a high degree of distributed generation, including renewables. In order to control a so called distributed grid we can benefit from a high level of distributed control and intelligence. This requires, on top of the power system network, an information and communication network.. We argue that such a network should be seen as an enabler of distributed control and intelligence. The applications, through which control and intelligence is implemented, then form a third network layer, the service oriented network. Building upon this three-layered network model we derive in this report the requirements for a simulation tool and experiments which study new techniques for fault detection and diagnostics and for simulation tools and experiments implementing intelligent load shedding and supply and demand matching scenarios. We also look at future implementation of these services within the three-layered network model and the requirements that follow for the core information and communication network and for the service oriented network. These requirements, supported by the studies performed in the CRISP Workpackage 1, serve as a basis for development of the simulation tools in the tasks 2.2 to 2.4

  20. Containment design requirements and their application to 500 MWe plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Containment is the final barrier to the release of fission products from the reactor system to the environment. In the defence in depth philosophy to reactor safety, the containment is one of the four special safety systems. Therefore, comprehensive requirements are specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in its design code of practice. The code stipulates that in case of double containment, the secondary containment should completely envelope the primary. Further, the annulus space between the primary and secondary containment envelope shall be provided with a purging arrangement to maintain a negative pressure in the space thus ensuring zero ground level release consistent with ALARA principles. In this presentation the various AERB requirements and how these requirements have been met in 500 MWe containment design are discussed. Also containment response to some major accident types have been briefly described. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  1. High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.; Jongwook, Joo; Hardin, Larry W.; McCormick, Duane C.; Cousins, William T.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Holley, Brian M.; Van Slooten, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The report "High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications" documents the work conducted at UTRC under the NRA Contract NNC08CB03C, with cost share 2/3 NASA, and 1/3 UTRC, that has been extended to 4.5 years. The purpose of this effort was to identify key technical barriers to advancing the state-of-the-art of small centrifugal compressor stages; to delineate the measurements required to provide insight into the flow physics of the technical barriers; to design, fabricate, install, and test a state-of-the-art research compressor that is representative of the rear stage of an axial-centrifugal aero-engine; and to acquire detailed aerodynamic performance and research quality data to clarify flow physics and to establish detailed data sets for future application. The design activity centered on meeting the goal set outlined in the NASA solicitation-the design target was to increase efficiency at higher work factor, while also reducing the maximum diameter of the stage. To fit within the existing Small Engine Components Test Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and to facilitate component re-use, certain key design parameters were fixed by UTRC, including impeller tip diameter, impeller rotational speed, and impeller inlet hub and shroud radii. This report describes the design effort of the High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage (HECC) and delineation of measurements, fabrication of the compressor, and the initial tests that were performed. A new High-Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage with a very challenging reduction in radius ratio was successfully designed, fabricated and installed at GRC. The testing was successful, with no mechanical problems and the running clearances were achieved without impeller rubs. Overall, measured pressure ratio of 4.68, work factor of 0.81, and at design exit corrected flow rate of 3 lbm/s met the target requirements. Polytropic efficiency of 85.5 percent and stall margin of 7.5 percent were

  2. Performance and applications of a high rate imaging pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pavel, N A; Menk, R; Sarvestani, A; Sauer, N; Stiehler, R; Walenta, Albert H

    2002-01-01

    In the past years a large variety of gas filled micro pattern detectors have been developed for applications in high energy physics as well as for X-ray imaging in synchrotron light experiments. Here, we present the most recent developments on the MicroCAT detector with resistive position encodeing readout, which has been demonstrated to meet even the strong requirements in high resolution protein crystallography and time resolved small angle scattering at synchrotron light sources of the third generation. Recent test measurements with the prototype under the working conditions of a synchrotron light source as well as high time resolved measurements in the laboratory are presented.

  3. New Generation Nuclear Plant -- High Level Functions and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Ryskamp; E. J. Gorski; E. A. Harvego; S. T. Khericha; G. A. Beitel

    2003-09-01

    This functions and requirements (F&R) document was prepared for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The highest-level functions and requirements for the NGNP preconceptual design are identified in this document, which establishes performance definitions for what the NGNP will achieve. NGNP designs will be developed based on these requirements by commercial vendor(s).

  4. 34 CFR 364.10 - What are the application requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE INDEPENDENT LIVING SERVICES PROGRAM AND CENTERS FOR INDEPENDENT LIVING PROGRAM: GENERAL PROVISIONS What Are the Application... funds under parts B and C of chapter 1 of title VII of the Act and 34 CFR parts 365 and 366, a...

  5. 30 CFR 35.6 - Application procedures and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., 175 °F. (Saybolt or Furol); viscosity index; specific gravity. (3) A statement of the water or other.... If water is the vehicle, the statement shall include the applicant's method for determining water... toxic or irritating to the skin and what precautions are necessary in handling it. (d) The...

  6. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pharmacist's verification. (7) The pharmacy application must read and retain the full DEA number including the specific internal code number assigned to individual practitioners authorized to prescribe... information is present or must display the information for the pharmacist's verification. (10) The...

  7. 45 CFR 89.1 - Applicability and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recipients agree that they are opposed to the practices of prostitution and sex trafficking because of the... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF... requirement by the Leadership Act or other statute. (b) The Department of Health and Human Services...

  8. 7 CFR 766.102 - Borrower application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental regulations contained in subpart G of 7 CFR part 1940; (6) Verification of all non-farm income; (7..., and any additional information required under subpart B of 7 CFR part 1956. (d) If a borrower who... for primary loan servicing, conservation contract, current market value buyout, homestead...

  9. Applications of modern high performance networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zubairi, Junaid Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    This Ebook presents state-of-the-art solutions in applications of modern high performance networks. The topics covered in this Ebook include mobile ad-hoc networks, clusters for distance computing, clustering technologies and deployment, emerging wireless sensor network technologies, ultra wideband wireless sensor networks, and smart agriculture with sensor networks. This Ebook stands out from others in the field by bringing together the most diverse applications of networks under one title. It is aimed at academicians, students and working professionals in hospitals, agriculture, government,

  10. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-08-01

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO{sub 2} or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures.

  11. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO2 or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures

  12. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO{sub 2} or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures.

  13. High-flux solar photon processes: Opportunities for applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, J I; Coy, S L; Herzog, H; Shorter, J A; Schlamp, M; Tester, J W; Peters, W A [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The overall goal of this study was to identify new high-flux solar photon (HFSP) processes that show promise of being feasible and in the national interest. Electric power generation and hazardous waste destruction were excluded from this study at sponsor request. Our overall conclusion is that there is promise for new applications of concentrated solar photons, especially in certain aspects of materials processing and premium materials synthesis. Evaluation of the full potential of these and other possible applications, including opportunities for commercialization, requires further research and testing. 100 refs.

  14. EVALUATION OF STATE-OF-THE-ART MANIPULATORS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR DOE ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACK, DEREK; GRUPINSKI, STEPHEN

    1998-10-08

    This report provides an overview of applications within the DOE complex which could benefit from the use of modular robotics technology during remediation operations. Each application area contains one or more specific tasks which are presently conducted by humans under hazardous conditions or which are deemed highly impractical, or are altogether impossible without automation. Five major areas were investigated for specific needs with respect to automation. Information was collected on Mixed Waste Operations, Contaminant Automated Analysis, Tanks, Decontamination and Dismantlement and Automated Plutonium Processing. During this investigation, information was gathered from available literature, telephone interviews with informed personnel and on-site visits. This data serves to provide design requirements and guidelines for the design of a family of modular actuators, which will be used to construct manipulators suited to each task. In addition, a survey of existing modular manipulator designs is presented. This survey addresses modular manipulators developed inside government labs and in universities for such applications as space exploration or controls research. It also addresses efforts at commercially viable industrial manipulators which have been built. This survey of robotic systems provides the reader with a glimpse into what technology currently exists in the way of modular manipulator automation and, to a degree, where this technology may be applicable or, more often, where these systems are unsuited to EM applications. From the information gathered during this study, it is possible to sufficiently define the requirements of one manipulator system which can be used to conduct automated transfer operations within Plutonium gloveboxes. This manipulator will be constructed from ARM Automation actuator modules and will provide this application with a viable option for automation within these gloveboxes. The design issues surrounding this manipulator and its

  15. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  16. High-power lasers for directed-energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman; Ting, Antonio; Fischer, Richard

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we review and discuss the research programs at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications in the atmosphere. Physical processes affecting propagation include absorption/scattering, turbulence, and thermal blooming. The power levels needed for DE applications require combining a number of lasers. In atmospheric turbulence, there is a maximum intensity that can be placed on a target that is independent of the initial beam spot size and laser beam quality. By combining a number of kW-class fiber lasers, scientists at the NRL have successfully demonstrated high-power laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere and wireless recharging. In the NRL experiments, four incoherently combined fiber lasers having a total power of 5 kW were propagated to a target 3.2 km away. These successful high-power experiments in a realistic atmosphere formed the basis of the Navy's Laser Weapon System. We compare the propagation characteristics of coherently and incoherently combined beams without adaptive optics. There is little difference in the energy on target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams for multi-km propagation ranges and moderate to high levels of turbulence. Unlike incoherent combining, coherent combining places severe constraints on the individual lasers. These include the requirement of narrow power spectral linewidths in order to have long coherence times as well as polarization alignment of all the lasers. These requirements are extremely difficult for high-power lasers. PMID:26560609

  17. Preliminary requirements for thermal storage subsystems in solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1980-04-01

    Methodologies for the analysis of value and comparing thermal storage concepts are presented. Value is a measure of worth and is determined by the cost of conventional fuel systems. Value data for thermal storage in large solar thermal electric power applications are presented. Thermal storage concepts must be compared when all are performing the same mission. A method for doing that analysis, called the ranking index, is derived. Necessary data to use the methodology are included.

  18. Agile Security Requirements : A master study into their application

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Anders Nordli

    2014-01-01

    Agile is the contemporary development practice of choice but security has been claimed as a challenge for it. This thesis investigates whether agile methods can be used for security-critical software and if the reason why the majority of Norwegian companies deviate from the agile methodology in their development is linked to security, by looking at the security requirements. A questionnaire and interviews of Norwegian companies were undertaken, and while the questionnaire did not yield any re...

  19. Requirements for a geometry programming language for CFD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Arvel E.

    1992-01-01

    A number of typical problems faced by the aerodynamicist in using computational fluid dynamics are presented to illustrate the need for a geometry programming language. The overall requirements for such a language are illustrated by examples from the Boeing Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS). Some of the problems in building such a system are also reviewed along with suggestions as to what to look for when evaluating new software problems.

  20. Enabling Requirements-Based Programming for Highly-Dependable Complex Parallel and Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The manual application of formal methods in system specification has produced successes, but in the end, despite any claims and assertions by practitioners, there is no provable relationship between a manually derived system specification or formal model and the customer's original requirements. Complex parallel and distributed system present the worst case implications for today s dearth of viable approaches for achieving system dependability. No avenue other than formal methods constitutes a serious contender for resolving the problem, and so recognition of requirements-based programming has come at a critical juncture. We describe a new, NASA-developed automated requirement-based programming method that can be applied to certain classes of systems, including complex parallel and distributed systems, to achieve a high degree of dependability.

  1. Innovations in high power fiber laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Eckhard; Mahrle, Achim; Lütke, Matthias; Standfuss, Jens; Brückner, Frank

    2012-02-01

    Diffraction-limited high power lasers represent a new generation of lasers for materials processing, characteristic traits of which are: smaller, cost-effective and processing "on the fly". Of utmost importance is the high beam quality of fiber lasers which enables us to reduce the size of the focusing head incl. scanning mirrors. The excellent beam quality of the fiber laser offers a lot of new applications. In the field of remote cutting and welding the beam quality is the key parameter. By reducing the size of the focusing head including the scanning mirrors we can reach scanning frequencies up to 1.5 kHz and in special configurations up to 4 kHz. By using these frequencies very thin and deep welding seams can be generated experienced so far with electron beam welding only. The excellent beam quality of the fiber laser offers a high potential for developing new applications from deep penetration welding to high speed cutting. Highly dynamic cutting systems with maximum speeds up to 300 m/min and accelerations up to 4 g reduce the cutting time for cutting complex 2D parts. However, due to the inertia of such systems the effective cutting speed is reduced in real applications. This is especially true if complex shapes or contours are cut. With the introduction of scanner-based remote cutting systems in the kilowatt range, the effective cutting speed on the contour can be dramatically increased. The presentation explains remote cutting of metal foils and sheets using high brightness single mode fiber lasers. The presentation will also show the effect of optical feedback during cutting and welding with the fiber laser, how those feedbacks could be reduced and how they have to be used to optimize the cutting or welding process.

  2. Bipolar electrochemistry for high throughput screening applications

    OpenAIRE

    Munktell, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar electrochemistry is an interesting concept for high throughput screening techniques due to the ability to induce gradients in a range of materials and their properties, such as composition, particle size, or dopant levels, among many others. One of the key advantages of the method is the ability to test, create or modify materials without the need for a direct electrical connection. In this thesis, the viability of this method has been explored for a range of possible applications, su...

  3. Additional requirements for leak-before-break application to primary coolant piping in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, G. [AIB Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    Leak-Before-Break (LBB) technology has not been applied in the first design of the seven Pressurized Water Reactors the Belgian utility is currently operating. The design basis of these plants required to consider the dynamic effects associated with the ruptures to be postulated in the high energy piping. The application of the LBB technology to the existing plants has been recently approved by the Belgian Safety Authorities but with a limitation to the primary coolant loop. LBB analysis has been initiated for the Doel 3 and Tihange 2 plants to allow the withdrawal of some of the reactor coolant pump snubbers at both plants and not reinstall some of the restraints after steam generator replacement at Doel 3. LBB analysis was also found beneficial to demonstrate the acceptability of the primary components and piping to the new conditions resulting from power uprating and stretch-out operation. LBB analysis has been subsequently performed on the primary coolant loop of the Tihange I plant and is currently being performed for the Doel 4 plant. Application of the LBB to the primary coolant loop is based in Belgium on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. However the Belgian Safety Authorities required some additional analyses and put some restrictions on the benefits of the LBB analysis to maintain the global safety of the plant at a sufficient level. This paper develops the main steps of the safety evaluation performed by the Belgian Safety Authorities for accepting the application of the LBB technology to existing plants and summarizes the requirements asked for in addition to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules.

  4. Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, F.

    1997-04-01

    This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

  5. Application of stability theory to laminar flow control - Progress and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Malik, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    Paper briefly summarizes the current status of linear stability theory as applied to laminar flow control for aerodynamics. Results indicate that the conventional 'N factor' method of correlating stability theory and transition has a broad application range, including low- and high-speeds, two- and three-dimensional mean flow and TS, Gortler and crossflow disturbance modes. Linear theory is particularly applicable to the laminar flow control problem as, for system efficiency, control must be exercised and disturbances maintained in the linear regime. Current areas of concern for LFC, which require further stability theory research, include TS-crossflow interaction, combined disturbance fields (roughness, waviness, noise) and suction-induced disturbances. Some results on wave-interactions are presented.

  6. Do smartphone applications in healthcare require a governance and legal framework? It depends on the application!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charani, Esmita; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The fast pace of technological improvement and the rapid development and adoption of healthcare applications present crucial challenges for clinicians, users and policy makers. Some of the most pressing dilemmas include the need to ensure the safety of applications and establish their cost-effectiveness while engaging patients and users to optimize their integration into health decision-making. Healthcare organizations need to consider the risk of fragmenting clinical practice within the organization as a result of too many apps being developed or used, as well as mechanisms for app integration into the wider electronic health records through development of governance framework for their use. The impact of app use on the interactions between clinicians and patients needs to be explored, together with the skills required for both groups to benefit from the use of apps. Although healthcare and academic institutions should support the improvements offered by technological advances, they must strive to do so within robust governance frameworks, after sound evaluation of clinical outcomes and examination of potential unintended consequences. PMID:24524344

  7. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  8. 24 CFR 570.466 - Additional application submission requirements for Pockets of Poverty-employment opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for Pockets of Poverty-employment opportunities. 570.466 Section 570.466 Housing and Urban... application submission requirements for Pockets of Poverty—employment opportunities. Applicants for Action Grants under the Pockets of Poverty provision must describe the number and, to the extent possible,...

  9. Telemedicine in radiotherapy treatment planning: requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telemedicine facilitates decentralized radiotherapy services by allowing remote treatment planning and quality assurance of treatment delivery. A prerequisite is digital storage of relevant data and an efficient and reliable telecommunication system between satellite units and the main radiotherapy clinic. The requirements of a telemedicine system in radiotherapy is influenced by the level of support needed. In this paper we differentiate between three categories of telemedicine support in radiotherapy. Level 1 features video conferencing and display of radiotherapy images and dose plans. Level 2 involves replication of selected data from the radiotherapy database - facilitating remote treatment planning and evaluation. Level 3 includes real-time, remote operations, e.g. target volume delineation and treatment planning performed by the team at the satellite unit under supervision and guidance from more experienced colleagues at the main clinic. (author)

  10. Thin film diamond. Electronic devices for high temperature, high power and high radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ideal form diamond displays extreme physical, optical and electronic properties, making this material interesting for many device applications. However, natural or high pressure, high temperature synthesised forms of diamond are not useful since they are only available as small irregular crystallites and are expensive. The emergence of commercially accessible techniques for the formation of thin films of diamond over relatively large areas has changed this situation, enabling the prospects for the use of diamond as an electronic material to be truly evaluated. Thin film diamond is a defective polycrystalline material. It is difficult to dope n- and p-type and resists conventional chemical etching. Thus, despite the superlative properties of ideal diamond, the realisation of useful devices from this material is far from simple. This thesis considers how the problems may be overcome such that high performance diamond devices can be realised for use in high temperature, high power and high radiation environments. Following a review of the current state-of-the-art in diamond device technology the experimental techniques used throughout this study are summarised. Field effect transistors (FETs) have been designed for operation at high (>300 deg. C) temperatures. Boron-doped (p-type) diamond was used to form the active channel, with insulating diamond acting as the gate to the FET structure. Polycrystalline diamond devices with the highest yet reported transconductance values, which display full turn-off characteristics have been produced. To enable room temperature operation, where boron is an ineffective dopant, a novel doping approach has been established using hydrogen; devices with transconductance, power handling and full pinch-off characteristic have been realised for the first time with this approach. More complex devices require patterning of the diamond substrate material; reactive ion etching using oxygen and chlorinated fluorocarbons have been studied

  11. Quality assurance requirements and methods for high level waste package acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document should serve as guidance for assigning the necessary items to control the conditioning process in such a way that waste packages are produced in compliance with the waste acceptance requirements. It is also provided to promote the exchange of information on quality assurance requirements and on the application of quality assurance methods associated with the production of high level waste packages, to ensure that these waste packages comply with the requirements for transportation, interim storage and waste disposal in deep geological formations. The document is intended to assist both the operators of conditioning facilities and repositories as well as national authorities and regulatory bodies, involved in the licensing of the conditioning of high level radioactive wastes or in the development of deep underground disposal systems. The document recommends the quality assurance requirements and methods which are necessary to generate data for these parameters identified in IAEA-TECDOC-560 on qualitative acceptance criteria, and indicates where and when the control methods can be applied, e.g. in the operation or commissioning of a process or in the development of a waste package design. Emphasis is on the control of the process and little reliance is placed on non-destructive or destructive testing. Qualitative criteria, relevant to disposal of high level waste, are repository dependent and are not addressed here. 37 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  12. High-Speed Data Recorder for Space, Geodesy, and Other High-Speed Recording Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveniku, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed data recorder and replay equipment has been developed for reliable high-data-rate recording to disk media. It solves problems with slow or faulty disks, multiple disk insertions, high-altitude operation, reliable performance using COTS hardware, and long-term maintenance and upgrade path challenges. The current generation data recor - ders used within the VLBI community are aging, special-purpose machines that are both slow (do not meet today's requirements) and are very expensive to maintain and operate. Furthermore, they are not easily upgraded to take advantage of commercial technology development, and are not scalable to multiple 10s of Gbit/s data rates required by new applications. The innovation provides a softwaredefined, high-speed data recorder that is scalable with technology advances in the commercial space. It maximally utilizes current technologies without being locked to a particular hardware platform. The innovation also provides a cost-effective way of streaming large amounts of data from sensors to disk, enabling many applications to store raw sensor data and perform post and signal processing offline. This recording system will be applicable to many applications needing realworld, high-speed data collection, including electronic warfare, softwaredefined radar, signal history storage of multispectral sensors, development of autonomous vehicles, and more.

  13. 37 CFR 2.22 - Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... describing where the color(s) appears on the mark, and a claim that the color(s) is a feature of the mark... with § 2.42. (b) If an application does not meet the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section at... paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Applications for certification marks (see § 2.45); (2) Applications...

  14. 12 CFR 702.103 - Applicability of risk-based net worth requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.103 Applicability of risk... risk-based net worth requirement is applicable only if the credit union meets both of the following... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of risk-based net...

  15. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R5(SixGe1-x)4: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF

  16. High dimensional neurocomputing growth, appraisal and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Bipin Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The book presents a coherent understanding of computational intelligence from the perspective of what is known as "intelligent computing" with high-dimensional parameters. It critically discusses the central issue of high-dimensional neurocomputing, such as quantitative representation of signals, extending the dimensionality of neuron, supervised and unsupervised learning and design of higher order neurons. The strong point of the book is its clarity and ability of the underlying theory to unify our understanding of high-dimensional computing where conventional methods fail. The plenty of application oriented problems are presented for evaluating, monitoring and maintaining the stability of adaptive learning machine. Author has taken care to cover the breadth and depth of the subject, both in the qualitative as well as quantitative way. The book is intended to enlighten the scientific community, ranging from advanced undergraduates to engineers, scientists and seasoned researchers in computational intelligenc...

  17. 40 CFR 158.1070 - Post-application exposure data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., nonprofessional, pesticide applications. (c) Key. R=Required; CR=Conditionally required; NR=Not required; TEP... residue and turf transferable residues R R TEP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 875.2200 Soil residue dissipation R CR TEP 1, 2, 6, 7 875.2300 Indoor surface residue dissipation R R TEP 1, 2, 8, 9 875.2400 Dermal exposure R...

  18. Defining user requirements for tele-nuclear medicine applications: from technical feasibility to clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Defining the user requirements for tele-nuclear medicine systems, in particular in developing countries, is an important prerequisite to establishing a service. However, the availability of low cost PC based servers and, now, access to local ISPs, has made the technical provision of such networks relatively simple and low cost, although transfer of data to and form legacy systems still present many difficulties. Method and Materials: The key driving force in developing countries is the imbalance between skills in the relatively few centres of excellence and the increasing number of installations overall. Requirements include both very rapid remote reporting and/or overnight tele-consultation. Original raw NM data must be available not just 'images'. Using current network standards (VPN) data transfer rate requirements are low. Provision of image fusion between NM, CT and MRI is also highly desirable. Results: Experience has been obtained e.g. in Thailand and Morocco, where a network of servers and remote users, with cardiac application of particular importance, has demonstrated benefit, and increasing volumes of usage. Conclusions: However, the requirements need to be clearly defined, and a staff training program is essential, as is a full evaluation. The transfer of skills is important in raising the overall quality of health care

  19. The application of high dose food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1950's to end 1970's the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive 'dried cooked' taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 25 to 45 kGy (depending on the product) at a temperature of between -20 and -40 Centigrade to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions. The product can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. (Author)

  20. The application of high dose food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyn, I. De [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa LTD, Building 2000, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001, (South Africa)

    1997-12-31

    During the 1950`s to end 1970`s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive `dried cooked` taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 25 to 45 kGy (depending on the product) at a temperature of between -20 and -40 Centigrade to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions. The product can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. (Author)

  1. High temperature superconductors applications in telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, M.F. [Prairie View A& M Univ., Texas (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to discuss high temperature superconductors with specific reference to their employment in telecommunications applications; and to discuss a few of the limitations of the normally employed two-fluid model. While the debate on the actual usage of high temperature superconductors in the design of electronic and telecommunications devices-obvious advantages versus practical difficulties-needs to be settled in the near future, it is of great interest to investigate the parameters and the assumptions that will be employed in such designs. This paper deals with the issue of providing the microwave design engineer with performance data for such superconducting waveguides. The values of conductivity and surface resistance, which are the primary determining factors of a waveguide performance, are computed based on the two-fluid model. A comparison between two models-a theoretical one in terms of microscopic parameters (termed Model A) and an experimental fit in terms of macroscopic parameters (termed Model B)-shows the limitations and the resulting ambiguities of the two-fluid model at high frequencies and at temperatures close to the transition temperature. The validity of the two-fluid model is then discussed. Our preliminary results show that the electrical transport description in the normal and superconducting phases as they are formulated in the two-fluid model needs to be modified to incorporate the new and special features of high temperature superconductors. Parameters describing the waveguide performance-conductivity, surface resistance and attenuation constant-will be computed. Potential applications in communications networks and large scale integrated circuits will be discussed. Some of the ongoing work will be reported. In particular, a brief proposal is made to investigate of the effects of electromagnetic interference and the concomitant notion of electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) of high T{sub c} superconductors.

  2. Collaboration through ICT between Healthcare Professionals: The Social Requirements of Health 2.0 Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysburgh, Pieter; Jacobs, An

    Social requirements are defined as the users' needs related to the use of an application in interaction with others. This paper aims to formulate social requirements of health 2.0 applications for professional healthcare workers. Collaboration is seen as the central characteristic of these applications. To detect the social requirements, we first identified four features that determine how healthcare professionals collaborate: (1) the professional status of healthcare professionals; (2) patient centeredness; (3) ambiguity in medicine and (4) complex organisation of healthcare. Based on these characteristics and findings of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) research in healthcare, we were able to formulate three social requirements for health 2.0 applications: (1) supported autonomy; (2) rationale in context; and (3) fluid collaboration. These requirements will serve as input for health 2.0 scenarios.

  3. Multimethod communication for high-performance metacomputing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Geisler, J.; Tuecke, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kesselman, C. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Metacomputing systems use high-speed networks to connect supercomputers, mass storage systems, scientific instruments, and display devices with the objective of enabling parallel applications to access geographically distributed computing resources. However, experience shows that high performance often can be achieved only if applications can integrate diverse communication substrates, transport mechanisms, and protocols, chosen according to where communication is directed, what is communicated, or when communication is performed. In this article, we describe a software architecture that addresses this requirement. This architecture allows multiple communication methods to be supported transparently in a single application, with either automatic or user-specified selection criteria guiding the methods used for each communication. We describe an implementation of this architecture, based on the Nexus communication library, and use this implementation to evaluate performance issues. The implementation supported a wide variety of applications in the I-WAY metacomputing experiment at Supercomputing 95; we use one of these applications to provide a quantitative demonstration of the advantages of multimethod communication in a heterogeneous networked environment.

  4. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power HEMT testing, and battery design. In summary, we have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up to 420 W). And finally, we are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.

  5. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamal Deen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4~5 μm due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps.

  6. Specification of requirements for the virtual environment for reactor applications simulation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2010, the United States Dept. of Energy initiated a research and development effort to develop modern modeling and simulation methods that could utilize high performance computing capabilities to address issues important to nuclear power plant operation, safety and sustainability. To respond to this need, a consortium of national laboratories, academic institutions and industry partners (the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors - CASL) was formed to develop an integrated Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) modeling and simulation capability. A critical element for the success of the CASL research and development effort was the development of an integrated set of overarching requirements that provides guidance in the planning, development, and management of the VERA modeling and simulation software. These requirements also provide a mechanism from which the needs of a broad array of external CASL stakeholders (e.g. reactor / fuel vendors, plant owner / operators, regulatory personnel, etc.) can be identified and integrated into the VERA development plans. This paper presents an overview of the initial set of requirements contained within the VERA Requirements Document (VRD) that currently is being used to govern development of the VERA software within the CASL program. The complex interdisciplinary nature of these requirements together with a multi-physics coupling approach to realize a core simulator capability pose a challenge to how the VRD should be derived and subsequently revised to accommodate the needs of different stakeholders. Thus, the VRD is viewed as an evolving document that will be updated periodically to reflect the changing needs of identified CASL stakeholders and lessons learned during the progress of the CASL modeling and simulation program. (authors)

  7. Security Measurement Based On GQM To Improve Application Security During Requirements Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Ala A. Abdulrazeg; Norita Md Norwawi; Nurlida Basir

    2015-01-01

    Developing secure web applications that can withstand malicious attacks requires a careful injection of security considerations into early stages of development lifecycle. Assessing security at the requirement analysis stage of the application development life cycle may help in mitigating security defects before they spread their wings into the latter stages of the development life cycle and into the final version of product. In this paper, we present a security metrics model based on the Goa...

  8. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  9. High-Performance Energy Applications and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Barton

    2014-05-19

    The Paradyn project has a history of developing algorithms, techniques, and software that push the cutting edge of tool technology for high-end computing systems. Under this funding, we are working on a three-year agenda to make substantial new advances in support of new and emerging Petascale systems. The overall goal for this work is to address the steady increase in complexity of these petascale systems. Our work covers two key areas: (1) The analysis, instrumentation and control of binary programs. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the Dyninst API tool kits. (2) Infrastructure for building tools and applications at extreme scale. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the MRNet scalability framework. Note that work done under this funding is closely related to work done under a contemporaneous grant, “Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing”, SC0003922/FG02-10ER25940, UW PRJ27NU.

  10. Hardware demonstration of high-speed networks for satellite applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, Jonathon W.; Lee, David S.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the implementation results of a hardware demonstration utilizing the Serial RapidIO{trademark} and SpaceWire protocols that was funded by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL's) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) office. This demonstration was one of the activities in the Modeling and Design of High-Speed Networks for Satellite Applications LDRD. This effort has demonstrated the transport of application layer packets across both RapidIO and SpaceWire networks to a common downlink destination using small topologies comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom devices. The RapidFET and NEX-SRIO debug and verification tools were instrumental in the successful implementation of the RapidIO hardware demonstration. The SpaceWire hardware demonstration successfully demonstrated the transfer and routing of application data packets between multiple nodes and also was able reprogram remote nodes using configuration bitfiles transmitted over the network, a key feature proposed in node-based architectures (NBAs). Although a much larger network (at least 18 to 27 nodes) would be required to fully verify the design for use in a real-world application, this demonstration has shown that both RapidIO and SpaceWire are capable of routing application packets across a network to a common downlink node, illustrating their potential use in real-world NBAs.

  11. Diffraction Gratings for High-Intensity Laser Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britten, J

    2008-01-23

    The scattering of light into wavelength-dependent discrete directions (orders) by a device exhibiting a periodic modulation of a physical attribute on a spatial scale similar to the wavelength of light has been the subject of study for over 200 years. Such a device is called a diffraction grating. Practical applications of diffraction gratings, mainly for spectroscopy, have been around for over 100 years. The importance of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy for the measurement of myriad properties of matter can hardly be overestimated. Since the advent of coherent light sources (lasers) in the 1960's, applications of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy have further exploded. Lasers have opened a vast application space for gratings, and apace, gratings have enabled entirely new classes of laser systems. Excellent reviews of the history, fundamental properties, applications and manufacturing techniques of diffraction gratings up to the time of their publication can be found in the books by Hutley (1) and more recently Loewen and Popov (2). The limited scope of this chapter can hardly do justice to such a comprehensive subject, so the focus here will be narrowly limited to characteristics required for gratings suitable for high-power laser applications, and methods to fabricate them. A particular area of emphasis will be on maximally-efficient large-aperture gratings for short-pulse laser generation.

  12. High-dispersive mirrors for high power applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervak, V; Pronin, O; Razskazovskaya, O; Brons, J; Angelov, I B; Trubetskov, M K; Tikhonravov, A V; Krausz, F

    2012-02-13

    We report on the development and manufacturing of two different types of high-dispersive mirrors (HDM). One of them provides a record value for the group delay dispersion (GDD) of -4000 fs2 and covers the wavelength range of 1027-1033 nm, whereas the other one provides -3000 fs2 over the wavelength range of 1020-1040 nm. Both of the fabricated mirrors exhibit a reflectance of >99.9% and are well suited for intracavity applications. Mirrors of the second type have been successfully employed in a Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator for the generation of 200-fs pulses with multi-10-W average power. PMID:22418209

  13. Materials requirements for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.

    1985-01-01

    To achieve higher Si solar cell efficiencies (greater than 20%), better single-crystal Si must be produced. It is believed possible to bring Cz (Czochralski) Si up to the same low recombination level as FZ (Float Zone) Si. It is also desirable that solar cell Si meet the following requirements: long minority carrier lifetime (0.2 ohm-cm p-type with tau less than 500 microsec); repeatedly uniform lifetime (not spread from 50 to 1000 microsec); a lifetime that does not decrease during normal device processing; a silicon wafer sheet that is flat and stays throughout normal device processing; uniform and reasonable mechanical strength; and, manufacture at low cost (less than $50/sq m).

  14. High resolution imaging detectors and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Swapan K

    2015-01-01

    Interferometric observations need snapshots of very high time resolution of the order of (i) frame integration of about 100 Hz or (ii) photon-recording rates of several megahertz (MHz). Detectors play a key role in astronomical observations, and since the explanation of the photoelectric effect by Albert Einstein, the technology has evolved rather fast. The present-day technology has made it possible to develop large-format complementary metal oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled device (CCD) array mosaics, orthogonal transfer CCDs, electron-multiplication CCDs, electron-avalanche photodiode arrays, and quantum-well infrared (IR) photon detectors. The requirements to develop artifact-free photon shot noise-limited images are higher sensitivity and quantum efficiency, reduced noise that includes dark current, read-out and amplifier noise, smaller point-spread functions, and higher spectral bandwidth. This book aims to address such systems, technologies and design, evaluation and calibration, control...

  15. Requirements analysis of the VoD application using the tools in TRADE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, R.J.; Huyts, Sander

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a specification of requirements for a video-on-demand (VoD) application developed at Belgacom, used as a trial application in the 2RARE project. The specification contains three parts: an informal specification in natural language; a semiformal specification consisting of a numb

  16. 49 CFR 1312.9 - Statement of tariff application and other title page requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.9 Statement of tariff application and other title page requirements. Every new or reissued tariff or supplement filed with the Board... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of tariff application and other...

  17. 12 CFR 925.11 - Financial condition requirement for applicants other than insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial condition requirement for applicants other than insurance companies. 925.11 Section 925.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... the date the Bank receives the application; (2) Financial statement. In order of preference: the...

  18. A High Energy 2-microns Laser for Multiple Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2000-01-01

    Solid-state 2-microns laser has been receiving considerable interest because of its eye-safe property and efficient diode pump operation, It has potential for multiple lidar applications to detect water vapor. carbon dioxide and winds. In this paper, we describe a 2-microns double pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser and end-pumped amplifier system. A comprehensive theoretical model has been developed to aid the design and optimization of the laser performance. In a single Q-switched pulse operation the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will be wasted. However, in a double pulses operation mode, the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will repopulate the Ho atoms that were depleted by the extraction of the first Q-switched pulse. Thus. the Tin sensitized Ho:YLF laser provides a unique advantage in applications that require double pulse operation, such as Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). A total output energy of 146 mJ per pulse pair under Q-switch operation is achieved with as high as 4.8% optical to optical efficiency. Compared to a single pulse laser, 70% higher laser efficiency is realized. To obtain high energy while maintaining the high beam quality, a master-oscillator-power-amplifier 2-microns system is designed. We developed an end-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF disk amplifier. This amplifier uses two diode arrays as pump source. A non-imaging lens duct is used to couple the radiation from the laser diode arrays to the laser disk. Preliminary result shows that the efficiency of this laser can be as high as 3%, a factor of three increases over side-pump configuration. This high energy, highly efficient and high beam quality laser is a promising candidate for use in an efficient, multiple lidar applications.

  19. Superconductor Requirements and Characterization for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, E.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) strategic plan for U.S. High Energy Physics (HEP) endorses a continued world leadership role in superconducting magnet technology for future Energy Frontier Programs. This includes 10 to 15 T Nb3Sn accelerator magnets for LHC upgrades and a future 100 TeV scale pp collider, and as ultimate goal that of developing magnet technologies above 20 T based on both High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) and Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) for accelerator magnets. To achieve these objectives, a sound conductor development and characterization program is needed and is herein described. This program is intended to be conducted in close collaboration with U.S. and International labs, Universities and Industry.

  20. Every high prolactin level does not require treatment!

    OpenAIRE

    Eskicioglu, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a condition of elevated prolactin levels in blood. Pathological hyperprolactinemi presents as oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, galactorrhea, decreased libido, infertility, and decreased bone mass. The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia ranges from 0.4% in general adult population to as high as 9-17% in women with reproductive diseases [1]. Hyperprolactinemia is usually defined as fasting levels of above 25 ng/ml in women at least 2 hours after waking up [2]. Unless the prolacti...

  1. High efficiency of collisional Penrose process requires heavy particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Kota; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2015-01-01

    The center-of-mass energy of two particles can become arbitrarily large if they collide near the event horizon of an extremal Kerr black hole, which is called the Ba$\\rm \\tilde n$ados-Silk-West (BSW) effect. We consider such a high-energy collision of two particles which started from infinity and follow geodesics in the equatorial plane and investigate the energy extraction from such a high-energy particle collision and the production of particles in the equatorial plane. We analytically show that, on the one hand, if the produced particles are as massive as the colliding particles, the energy-extraction efficiency is bounded by $2.19$ approximately. On the other hand, if a very massive particle is to be produced as a result of the high-energy collision, which has negative energy and necessarily falls into the black hole, the upper limit of the energy-extraction efficiency is increased to $(2+\\sqrt{3})^2 \\simeq 13.9$. Thus, higher efficiency of the energy extraction, which is typically as large as 10, provide...

  2. DAC for High Speed and Low Power Applications Using Abacus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarayya G. Kambalimath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Chinese Abacus Digital-to-Ana log Converter (DAC for high speed and low power applications like audio and video applica tions. This circuit of DAC uses resister strings to get a good analog output. The designed D AC uses the algorithm of abacus. Instead of using binary code, here we use abacus code to contr ol the switches. So the complexity and the area will be reduced automatically. The 8-bit D AC is comprised of 12 resistors and 24 NMOS switches. The 8-bit Abacus resistor DAC requires 12 resistors and 24 switches. The 8-bit resistor-string DAC requires 255 resistors and 256 switches. The most important advantages are that the numbers of both resistors and switches are all reduced effectively. The simulation environment uses 1 μ m process technology

  3. High power accelerator for environmental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant environmental pollution, given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the efficient technologies including economical treatment methods. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the stack gases, wastewater and sludge containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co. Electron beam treatment of such hazardous wastes is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from radiolysis. However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW~1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with catalytic system, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment. (author)

  4. High energy resolution requirements for a spectrometer at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors which must be considered in the design of a high energy resolution magnetic spectrometer for the GANIL cyclotron are examined. It is shown that by optimising target conditions an energy resolution of approximately 2 x 10-4 is possible. To achieve such a resolution broadening effects due to the energy spread of the incident beam, the kinematic effects in the angular aperture of the spectrometer and the kinematic effects induced by the beam angular divergence must be avoided. General features of a possible energy loss spectrometer at GANIL are given. (UK)

  5. Development of a GEM-TPC for high rate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has to be further developed to be suitable for high rate experiments. The application of a TPC at high interaction rates with overlapping events in a single drift frame requires a continuous readout. Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) combine the requirements of an excellent spatial resolution and particle identification by measurements of specific energy loss with an intrinsic suppression of ions. These key features of a GEM allow a TPC to maintain its excellence performance even in an ungated continuous mode. A large GEM TPC prototype with an outer diameter of 30.8 cm, an inner diameter of 10.4 cm and a drift length of 72.8 cm and 10.000 readout channels has been built and tested within the low rate FOPI experiment at the GSI. The TPC detector, preliminary performance studies of the GEM TPC prototype within FOPI as well as an outlook for a potential application of this concept are presented.

  6. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system. PMID:26284521

  7. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Watanabe

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz to high (0.15-0.40 Hz frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  8. Mixed material integration for high-speed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Nicole Andrea

    A great demand for portable and highly integrated high speed electronic components and systems has recently surfaced as a result of the vast expansion of personal communications and other wireless applications. As more and more applications in personal communications require frequencies between 1 and 100 GHz, a reduction in the cost of III-V technology is necessary for a wide distribution of wireless products in the consumer market. III-V technology provides improved and unique functionality compared with silicon CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technology, yet current III-V technologies cannot meet all the demands of low cost, high levels of integration, low power, and performance because of high material costs and low yield compared with the current silicon technology. In this thesis, thin film mixed material integration is investigated as a method to increase functionality at lower cost. InP active devices are removed from the growth substrate and integrated onto other host substrates such as silicon via substrate removal. Characterization of these devices is performed. Also, thin film passive components via deposition on free standing polyimide are evaluated for lower cost and increased design freedom. By optimizing the passives and III-V active components separately and then integrating the two opens a new realm in mixed material integration.

  9. High-temperature superconducting materials for power system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of High-Temperature Superconductivity (HTS), essential for power system applications, in 1986 there has been a rapid progress in developing superconducting materials, wires and applications. Especially for large-scale power applications like rotating machines, transformers, cables, fault current limiters and superconducting magnetic energy storage devices a number of recent successful prototypes underlined the feasibility and superior technical performance of superconductor technology. A key to a successful application is the HTS material and its main parameters like e.g. E-J-curve, AC loss, homogeneity and cost performance ratio. This extended abstract describes the state-of-the-art of HTS material development and the main requirements and future R and D topics. The so-called second generation HTS wire is the most promising material mainly due to its low cost perspectives. This material is commercially available since 2006 and present manufacturing lengths exceed 1000 meters. The critical currents in long lengths have reached levels of more than 300 Amps per cm width and the performance of short samples with more than 1000 amps per cm width underline the future potential to further increase the current density. For the first time since the discovery of HTS material 2G HTS material has a chance to beat the cost performance ratio of copper. (orig.)

  10. Large scale environmental applications of high power ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, A F; Gwan, P B; Sosa-Pintos, A P

    2010-08-01

    In the present work, the use of high power ultrasound as a process tool for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil and the treatment of bauxite red mud waste from the Bayer process is discussed. Laboratory scale experiments have confirmed that the application of high power ultrasound to slurries of contaminated soil and of bauxite ore can treat two major environmental problems cost-effectively. Destruction rates of POPs in soil of 90% and higher have been achieved whereas 85% iron oxide has been extracted from red mud waste leaving a low-iron fraction of approximately 50% by weight which is more environmentally friendly. A 4x4 kW pilot plant capable of treating 2.5 tonnes of slurry per day has been commissioned to provide more accurate estimates of power and energy requirements to allow scale-up to industrial use. PMID:20153236

  11. High spatial resolution probes for neurobiology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Position-sensitive biological neural networks, such as the brain and the retina, require position-sensitive detection methods to identify, map and study their behavior. Traditionally, planar microelectrodes have been employed to record the cell's electrical activity with device limitations arising from the electrode's 2-D nature. Described here is the development and characterization of an array of electrically conductive micro-needles aimed at addressing the limitations of planar electrodes. The capability of this array to penetrate neural tissue improves the electrode-cell electrical interface and allows more complicated 3-D networks of neurons, such as those found in brain slices, to be studied. State-of-the-art semiconductor fabrication techniques were used to etch and passivate conformally the metal coat and fill high aspect ratio holes in silicon. These are subsequently transformed into needles with conductive tips. This process has enabled the fabrication of arrays of unprecedented dimensions: 61 hexagonally close-packed electrodes, ∼200 μm tall with 60 μm spacing. Electroplating the tungsten tips with platinum ensure suitable impedance values (∼600 kΩ at 1 kHz) for the recording of neuronal signals. Without compromising spatial resolution of the neuronal recordings, this array adds a new and exciting dimension to the study of biological neural networks.

  12. Stable level and phase control circuits for high power VHF transmitters for RIB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For most applications it is required that the output power level and insertion phase of a high power transmitter remain unchanged against ambient temperature variation and power supply fluctuations. Design schemes for a stable level controller and a phase controller for use in a VHF transmitter that has been indigenously developed for RIB application at VECC is presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications

  14. High temperature braided rope seals for static sealing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael L.; Olsen, Andrew; Darolia, Ram; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1996-01-01

    Achieving efficiency and performance goals of advanced aircraft and industrial systems are leading designers to implement high temperature materials such as ceramics and intermetallics. Generally these advanced materials are applied selectively in the highest temperature sections of the engine system including the combustor and high pressure turbine, amongst others. Thermal strains that result in attaching the low expansion-rate components to high expansion rate superalloy structures can cause significant life reduction in the components. Seals are being designed to both seal and to serve as compliant mounts allowing for relative thermal growths between high temperature but brittle primary structures and the surrounding support structures. Designers require high temperature, low-leakage, compliant seals to mitigate thermal stresses and control parasitic and cooling airflow between structures. NASA is developing high temperature braided rope seals in a variety of configurations to help solve these problems. This paper will describe the types of seals being developed, describe unique test techniques used to assess seal performance, and present leakage flow data under representative pressure, temperature and scrubbing conditions. Feasibility of the braided rope seals for both an industrial tube seal and a turbine vane seal application is also demonstrated.

  15. A Test Stand System for High-Energy Physics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Guilherme; Andresen, Jeff; Chramowicz, John; Deuerling, Greg; Menasce, Dario; Prosser, Alan; Rivera, Ryan; Uplegger, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    The Front-End R&D group at Fermilab has been developing pixel hybridized modules and silicon strip detectors for the past decade for high-energy physics experiments. To accomplish this goal, one of the activities the group has been working on includes the development of a flexible high-speed and high-bandwidth data acquisition and test system to characterize front-end electronics. In this paper, we present a general purpose PCI-based test stand system developed to meet the stringent requirements of testing silicon strip and pixel detectors. The test stand is based on a platform that is flexible enough to be adapted to different types of front-end electronics. This system has been used to test the performance of the electronics for different experiments such as BTeV, CDF, CMS, and Phenix. The paper presents the capabilities of the system and how it can be adapted to meet the testing requirements of different applications.

  16. Application of enhanced modern structured analysis techniques to Space Station Freedom electric power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, John; Juhasz, John; Sadler, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    A team of Space Station Freedom (SSF) system engineers are in the process of extensive analysis of the SSF requirements, particularly those pertaining to the electrical power system (EPS). The objective of this analysis is the development of a comprehensive, computer-based requirements model, using an enhanced modern structured analysis methodology (EMSA). Such a model provides a detailed and consistent representation of the system's requirements. The process outlined in the EMSA methodology is unique in that it allows the graphical modeling of real-time system state transitions, as well as functional requirements and data relationships, to be implemented using modern computer-based tools. These tools permit flexible updating and continuous maintenance of the models. Initial findings resulting from the application of EMSA to the EPS have benefited the space station program by linking requirements to design, providing traceability of requirements, identifying discrepancies, and fostering an understanding of the EPS.

  17. High resolution weather data for urban hydrological modelling and impact assessment, ICT requirements and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; van Riemsdijk, Birna

    2013-04-01

    Hydrological analysis of urban catchments requires high resolution rainfall and catchment information because of the small size of these catchments, high spatial variability of the urban fabric, fast runoff processes and related short response times. Rainfall information available from traditional radar and rain gauge networks does no not meet the relevant scales of urban hydrology. A new type of weather radars, based on X-band frequency and equipped with Doppler and dual polarimetry capabilities, promises to provide more accurate rainfall estimates at the spatial and temporal scales that are required for urban hydrological analysis. Recently, the RAINGAIN project was started to analyse the applicability of this new type of radars in the context of urban hydrological modelling. In this project, meteorologists and hydrologists work closely together in several stages of urban hydrological analysis: from the acquisition procedure of novel and high-end radar products to data acquisition and processing, rainfall data retrieval, hydrological event analysis and forecasting. The project comprises of four pilot locations with various characteristics of weather radar equipment, ground stations, urban hydrological systems, modelling approaches and requirements. Access to data processing and modelling software is handled in different ways in the pilots, depending on ownership and user context. Sharing of data and software among pilots and with the outside world is an ongoing topic of discussion. The availability of high resolution weather data augments requirements with respect to the resolution of hydrological models and input data. This has led to the development of fully distributed hydrological models, the implementation of which remains limited by the unavailability of hydrological input data. On the other hand, if models are to be used in flood forecasting, hydrological models need to be computationally efficient to enable fast responses to extreme event conditions. This

  18. Conditions required for high quality high magnification images in secondary electron-I scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K R

    1982-01-01

    High quality of secondary electron (SE) images, taken at useful magnifications of 100,000 to 200,000, require new signal generation and collection methods and new metal coating procedures. High quality is defined as the condition under which image contrast describes accurately the topographic features of the specimen in a size range that approximates the beam diameter. Such high resolution contrasts are produced by the SE (SE-I) generated by a small electron probe on the specimen surface. Tobacco mosiac virus and ferritin molecules deposited on bulk substrates were introduced as test specimens to check the image quality obtained. The SE-I signal contrast could be imaged when SE (SE-III), produced by backscattered electrons (BSE) at the pole piece of the final lens, were eliminated with an electron absorption device attached to the pole piece. This signal collection procedure will be referred to as "Secondary Electron-I Image" (SE-I image) mode. In addition to the SE-III, BSE generate SE-II in the specimen itself. On specimens deposited on bulk gold or platinum, and coated with the same metals SE-II produced a microroughness contrast that limited particle resolution in the SE-I image mode to approximately 10 nm. Reduction of SE-II and enrichment of the signal in SE-I was achieved by using continuous fine crystalline coatings of tantalum, niobium and chromium. By applying these metals in films of approximately 2.0 nm thickness, the SE-I contrast generation was found to be indepedent of the atomic number of the metal. Edge sharpness was improved when the specimens were coated with low atomic number metals. Under these conditions, the quality of images obtained in SE-I image mode equals that of images obtained in TEM from identically coated specimens and was limited only by the size of the topographic details, beam diameter and beam current. PMID:7184136

  19. Security Measurement Based On GQM To Improve Application Security During Requirements Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala A. Abdulrazeg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing secure web applications that can withstand malicious attacks requires a careful injection of security considerations into early stages of development lifecycle. Assessing security at the requirement analysis stage of the application development life cycle may help in mitigating security defects before they spread their wings into the latter stages of the development life cycle and into the final version of product. In this paper, we present a security metrics model based on the Goal Question Metric (GQM approach, focusing on the design of the misuse case model. Misuse case is a technique to identify threats and integrate security requirements during the requirement analysis stage. The security metrics model helps in discovering and evaluating the misuse case models by ensuring a defect-free model. Here, the security metrics are based on the OWASP top 10-2010, in addition to misuse case modeling antipattern.

  20. Planning required in the development of radiation protection guidance for underground engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential variety of engineering applications from the peaceful uses of underground nuclear explosives indicates an increased need for applicable radiation protection guidance to protect the public health of potentially exposed populations. To insure the orderly development of such uses, additional operational data as well as bioeffects data will be required to develop appropriate criteria and guidance to inform health officials and the public of the significance of possible exposures. The required planning includes an evaluation of the potential benefits and risks as well as the size and age of population, multiplicity of sources, likely and unlikely future uses, and the total environmental impact. (author)

  1. Temporal interpolation of radar rainfall fields: meeting the stringent requirements of urban hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Pen; Ochoa-Rodriguez, Susana; Onof, Christian; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Radar rainfall estimates are playing an increasingly important role in urban hydrological applications due to their better description of the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall. However, the operational radar rainfall products provided by national weather services (typically at 1 km / 5 min resolution) still fail to meet the stringent resolution requirements of urban hydrological applications. While the spatial and temporal resolution of rainfall inputs are strongly related, recent studies suggest that the latter generally constitutes a more critical factor and that temporal resolutions of ~1-2 min (i.e. below those currently available) are required for urban hydrological applications, while spatial resolutions of ~1 km (i.e. close to those currently available) appear to be sufficient. Traditional strategies for obtaining higher temporal resolution radar rainfall estimates include changes in radar scanning strategies and stochastic downscaling. However, the former is not always possible, due to hardware limitations, and the latter results in large ensembles members which hinder practical use. In this work a temporal interpolation method, based upon the multi-scale variational optical flow technique, is proposed to generate high temporal-resolution (i.e. 1-2 min) radar rainfall estimates. The proposed method has been successfully applied to obtain radar rainfall estimates at 1 and 2 min temporal resolutions from UK Met Office C-band radar products originally at 5 and 10 min temporal resolution and varying spatial resolutions of 1 km, 500 m and 100 m. The performance of the higher temporal-resolution radar rainfall estimates was assessed through comparison against local rain gauge records collected at a pilot urban catchment (size ~ 865 ha) in North-East London. A further evaluation was conducted by applying the different rainfall products as input to the hydraulic model of the pilot catchment and comparing the hydraulic outputs against available flow

  2. Engineering Graphene Conductivity for Flexible and High-Frequency Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Alexander J; Carey, J David

    2015-10-14

    Advances in lightweight, flexible, and conformal electronic devices depend on materials that exhibit high electrical conductivity coupled with high mechanical strength. Defect-free graphene is one such material that satisfies both these requirements and which offers a range of attractive and tunable electrical, optoelectronic, and plasmonic characteristics for devices that operate at microwave, terahertz, infrared, or optical frequencies. Essential to the future success of such devices is therefore the ability to control the frequency-dependent conductivity of graphene. Looking to accelerate the development of high-frequency applications of graphene, here we demonstrate how readily accessible and processable organic and organometallic molecules can efficiently dope graphene to carrier densities in excess of 10(13) cm(-2) with conductivities at gigahertz frequencies in excess of 60 mS. In using the molecule 3,6-difluoro-2,5,7,7,8,8-hexacyanoquinodimethane (F2-HCNQ), a high charge transfer (CT) of 0.5 electrons per adsorbed molecule is calculated, resulting in p-type doping of graphene. n-Type doping is achieved using cobaltocene and the sulfur-containing molecule tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) with a CT of 0.41 and 0.24 electrons donated per adsorbed molecule, respectively. Efficient CT is associated with the interaction between the π electrons present in the molecule and in graphene. Calculation of the high-frequency conductivity shows dispersion-less behavior of the real component of the conductivity over a wide range of gigahertz frequencies. Potential high-frequency applications in graphene antennas and communications that can exploit these properties and the broader impacts of using molecular doping to modify functional materials that possess a low-energy Dirac cone are also discussed. PMID:26387636

  3. Application and project portfolio valuation using enterprise architecture and business requirements modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartel, Dick; Steen, Maarten W. A.; Lankhorst, Marc M.

    2012-05-01

    This article describes an architecture-based approach to IT valuation. This approach offers organisations an instrument to valuate their application and project portfolios and to make well-balanced decisions about IT investments. The value of a software application is assessed in terms of its contribution to a selection of business goals. Based on such assessments, the value of different applications can be compared, and requirements for innovation, development, maintenance and phasing out can be identified. IT projects are proposed to realise the requirements. The value of each project is assessed in terms of the value it adds to one or more applications. This value can be obtained by relating the 'as-is' application portfolio to the 'to-be' portfolio that is being proposed by the project portfolio. In this way, projects can be ranked according to their added value, given a certain selection of business goals. The approach uses ArchiMate to model the relationship between software applications, business processes, services and products. In addition, two language extensions are used to model the relationship of these elements to business goals and requirements and to projects and project portfolios. The approach is illustrated using the portfolio method of Bedell and has been implemented in BiZZdesign Architect.

  4. Producing Ceramic High Tc Superconductors for Strong Current Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin; Yuan-Chang Guo; Xue-Kei Fu; Shi-Xue Dou

    2000-01-01

    @@ Strong current and large-scale application is the most important prospect of high Tc superconductors (HTS).Practical HTS samples, both in forms of wire and bulk, have been produced with high critical currents operated at economic cryogenic temperatures, and studied for engineering applications with various prototype devices. The applicable HTS materials produced are introduced in this paper with regard to processing, characterization and application.

  5. High speed serdes devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, David R; Sorna, Michael A; Dramstad, Kent; Ogilvie, Clarence Rosser; Amanullah, Mohammad; Rockrohr, James Donald

    2008-01-01

    Offers an understanding of the features and functions typically found on HSS devices. This book explains how these HSS devices are used in protocol applications and the analysis which must be performed to use such HSS devices.

  6. Development of a turbine cryocooler for high temperature superconductor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For high temperature superconductor (HTS) applications such as a power cable, a motor, and a transformer, a refrigerator enough to cool them below liquid nitrogen temperature is required to attain the HTS system stable operation. Since no refrigerator matched for the HTS application both in temperature and in cooling power is available up to now, a neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator of 2 kW at 70 K was developed. Neon gas was used as the working fluid in the refrigerator. Although hydrogen and helium could be selected as a working fluid for the refrigerator, neon is better energy carrier since it has higher heat capacity and larger molecular weight than hydrogen and helium at a temperature around 70 K in order to make a refrigerator smaller in size. Neon has an advantage in using a small turbo-expander with an impeller of 25 mm in diameter. The turbine rotated at a maximum speed of 100,000 rpm. The information for developing a suitable refrigerator for HTS applications was collected and a new type of neon refrigerator was proposed.

  7. Design, development and analysis of high voltage, high frequency transformer for dc accelerator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the design, development and analysis of High Voltage, High Frequency Transformer for DC Accelerator application. Distributed capacitance, leakage inductance, skin effect and HV Insulation are major design challenges for this type of Transformer. A prototype of 30 kV - 0 - 30 kV, 10 kHz, 500 W output power, Ferrite Core Transformer have been designed, fabricated and tested. Spice simulations have been done for estimating transformer parameters. Effect of high frequency and requirement of HV Insulation have been studied and analyzed. The effects of Magnetic Core behaviour and its losses have been studied. Based on study and test result, distributed capacitance, leakage inductance, and Transformer scheme has been optimized for 30 kV - 0 - 30 kV, 10 kHz, 10 kW output power. (author)

  8. Experimental demonstration of OpenFlow-enabled media ecosystem architecture for high-end applications over metro and core networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntofon, Okung-Dike; Channegowda, Mayur P; Efstathiou, Nikolaos; Rashidi Fard, Mehdi; Nejabati, Reza; Hunter, David K; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2013-02-25

    In this paper, a novel Software-Defined Networking (SDN) architecture is proposed for high-end Ultra High Definition (UHD) media applications. UHD media applications require huge amounts of bandwidth that can only be met with high-capacity optical networks. In addition, there are requirements for control frameworks capable of delivering effective application performance with efficient network utilization. A novel SDN-based Controller that tightly integrates application-awareness with network control and management is proposed for such applications. An OpenFlow-enabled test-bed demonstrator is reported with performance evaluations of advanced online and offline media- and network-aware schedulers. PMID:23482015

  9. Solgel coatings for high-power laser application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses optical coatings prepared by the solgel process have been shown in many cases to have high-laser-damage thresholds in addition to excellent optical properties. Using a basic catalyst was possible to prepare a colloidal suspension of silica particles in ethanol. When this suspension was applied to substrate, a porous silica coating consisting of layers of silica particles was obtained after evaporation of the ethanol. No further treatment was required, and the porosity was such that almost 100% transmission was obtained at the relevant wavelength. The laser damage threshold of this coating on fused silica was close to that of the bare surface threshold, and on KDP the substrate damaged before the coating. The preparation of high-index oxide coatings by the solgel method was also investigated. Two methods were used: The first involved the preparation of a colloidal suspension and subsequent application to a substrate in like manner to the silica process. The second involved the application of a solution of a suitable precursor material to the substrate followed by conversion of the precursor to the relevant oxide

  10. 30 CFR 937.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  11. 30 CFR 912.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  12. 30 CFR 939.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  13. 30 CFR 903.783 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-Minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.783 Underground mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (a) Part 783 of this chapter, Underground...

  14. 30 CFR 933.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter,...

  15. 30 CFR 922.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  16. 30 CFR 905.783 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-Minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.783 Underground mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (a) Part 783 of this chapter, Underground...

  17. 30 CFR 921.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter,...

  18. 30 CFR 910.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  19. 47 CFR 1.9040 - Contractual requirements applicable to spectrum leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... leasing arrangements. 1.9040 Section 1.9040 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9040 Contractual requirements applicable to spectrum leasing arrangements. (a) Agreements between licensees and spectrum lessees...

  20. 42 CFR 51b.405 - What information is required in the application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information is required in the application? 51b.405 Section 51b.405 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... description of the following: (1) The nature and extent of the venereal disease problem in the area. (2)...

  1. 24 CFR 982.202 - How applicants are selected: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... but not limited to 24 CFR part 5, subpart L, protection for victims of domestic violence, dating... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How applicants are selected: General requirements. 982.202 Section 982.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating...

  2. 49 CFR 1572.17 - Applicant information required for TWIC security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... guilty by reason of insanity, of a disqualifying crime listed in 49 CFR 1572.103(b), in a civilian or... disqualifying crime listed in 49 CFR 1572.103(b), during the five years before the date of the application, or... involuntarily, or is applying for a waiver; (6) Meets the immigration status requirements described in 49...

  3. 49 CFR 1572.9 - Applicant information required for HME security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reason of insanity, of a disqualifying crime listed in 49 CFR 1572.103(b), in a civilian or military... disqualifying crime listed in 49 CFR 1572.103(b), during the five years before the date of the application, or... involuntarily or is applying for a waiver; (6) Meets the immigration status requirements described in 49...

  4. A 700 V BCD technology platform for high voltage applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Ming; Jiang Lingli; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji

    2012-01-01

    A 700 V BCD technology platform is presented for high voltage applications.An important feature is that all the devices have been realized by using a fully implanted technology in a p-type single crystal without an epitaxial or a buried layer.An economical manufacturing process,requiring only 10 masking steps,yields a broad range of MOS and bipolar components integrated on a common substrate,including 700 V nLDMOS,200 V nLDMOS,80 V nLDMOS,60 V nLDMOS,40 V nLDMOS,700 V rJFET,and low voltage devices.A robust double RESURF nLDMOS with a breakdown voltage of 800 V and specific on-resistance of 206.2 mΩ2·cm2 is successfully optimized and realized.The results of this technology are low fabrication cost,simple process and small chip area for PIC products.

  5. High-Performance Cloud Computing: A View of Scientific Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchiola, Christian; Buyya, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Scientific computing often requires the availability of a massive number of computers for performing large scale experiments. Traditionally, these needs have been addressed by using high-performance computing solutions and installed facilities such as clusters and super computers, which are difficult to setup, maintain, and operate. Cloud computing provides scientists with a completely new model of utilizing the computing infrastructure. Compute resources, storage resources, as well as applications, can be dynamically provisioned (and integrated within the existing infrastructure) on a pay per use basis. These resources can be released when they are no more needed. Such services are often offered within the context of a Service Level Agreement (SLA), which ensure the desired Quality of Service (QoS). Aneka, an enterprise Cloud computing solution, harnesses the power of compute resources by relying on private and public Clouds and delivers to users the desired QoS. Its flexible and service based infrastructure...

  6. A Study of Laser System Requirements for Application in Beam Diagnostics And Polarimetry at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, S.; Delerue, N.; Foster, B.; Howell, D.F.; Peach, K.; Quelch, G.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; /Oxford U.; Hirst, G.; Ross, I.; /Rutherford; Urakawa, J.; /KEK,; Soskov, V.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; /Orsay, LAL; Blair, G.A.; Boogert, S.T.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Brachmann,; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    Advanced laser systems will be essential for a range of diagnostics devices and polarimetry at the ILC. High average power, high beam quality, excellent stability and reliability will be crucial in order to deliver the information required to attain the necessary ILC luminosity as well as for efficient polarimetry. The key parameters are listed together with the R & D required to achieve the necessary laser system performance.

  7. Polymer optical interconnects: meeting the requirements for datacom and telecom applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacklette, Lawrence W.; Norwood, Robert A.; Eldada, Louay A.; Glass, Cathy; Nguyen, Duc; Poga, Constantina; Xu, Baopei; Yin, Shing; Yardley, James T.

    1997-10-01

    An advanced versatile low-cost polymeric waveguide technology has been developed for optoelectronic applications. This technology is based upon new polymeric materials for ultra-low-loss optical interconnection, particularly for the key wavelengths of 0.83, 1 .3, and 1 .55 microns. Development of these materials has required a thorough understanding of fundamental principles of optical absorption due to both vibrational and electronic resonant absorptions. We have thus created materials with measured losses at 830 nm which are in the range ofO.02 dB/cm. At longer wavelengths, the losses can be higher due to the vibrational absorption within the polymer. However through careful selection of chemical structure, polymeric materials with intrinsic loss below 0.08 dB/cm have been demonstrated at 1 .55 micron wavelength. These high-performance organic polymers can be readily made into both multimode and single-mode optical waveguide structures with controlled numerical aperture (NA) and geometry. We will discuss the use of these materials in a variety of passive photonic devices.

  8. A synchronous Gigabit Ethernet protocol stack for high-throughput UDP/IP applications

    OpenAIRE

    Födisch, P.; Lange, B.; Sandmann, J; Büchner, A; Enghardt, W.; Kaever, P.

    2015-01-01

    State of the art detector readout electronics require high-throughput data acquisition (DAQ) systems. In many applications, e. g. for medical imaging, the front-end electronics are set up as separate modules in a distributed DAQ. A standardized interface between the modules and a central data unit is essential. The requirements on such an interface are varied, but demand almost always a high throughput of data. Beyond this challenge, a Gigabit Ethernet interface is predestined for the broad r...

  9. Application of High-Gradient Magnetic Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, J

    1986-01-01

    Some problems of practical applications of magnetic separation, primarily in mineral industry, are outlined. The work shows that current theoretical models are inadequate in accounting for the magnetic separation of valuable mineral components. The negative impact of a lack of cost-effective separators in the mining industry is discussed.

  10. Architectures and applications of high-speed vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Oku, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2014-11-01

    With the progress made in high-speed imaging technology, image processing systems that can process images at high frame rates, as well as their applications, are expected. In this article, we examine architectures for high-speed vision systems, and also dynamic image control, which can realize high-speed active optical systems. In addition, we also give an overview of some applications in which high-speed vision is used, including man-machine interfaces, image sensing, interactive displays, high-speed three-dimensional sensing, high-speed digital archiving, microvisual feedback, and high-speed intelligent robots.

  11. High Energy Density and High Temperature Multilayer Capacitor Films for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treufeld, Imre; Song, Michelle; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric; Snyder, Joe; Langhe, Deepak

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer films (MLFs) with high energy density and high temperature capability (>120 °C) have been developed at Case Western Reserve University. Such films offer a potential solution for electric car DC-link capacitors, where high ripple currents and high temperature tolerance are required. The current state-of-the-art capacitors used in electric cars for converting DC to AC use biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), which can only operate at temperatures up to 85 °C requiring an external cooling system. The polycarbonate (PC)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) MLFs have a higher permittivity compared to that of BOPP (2.3), leading to higher energy density. They have good mechanical stability and reasonably low dielectric losses at 120 °C. Nonetheless, our preliminary dielectric measurements show that the MLFs exhibit appreciable dielectric losses (20%) at 120 °C, which would, despite all the other advantages, make them not suitable for practical applications. Our preliminary data showed that dielectric losses of the MLFs at 120 °C up to 400 MV/m and 1000 Hz originate mostly from impurity ionic conduction. This work is supported by the NSF PFI/BIC Program (IIP-1237708).

  12. High energy accelerating structures for high gradient proton linac applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-energy part of a proton linac, following a drift tube section, accelerates protons and H- ions of energies above 150 MeV. High efficiency and high gradients in the accelerating structure considered for this part of a proton linac are studied. Several known and improved structures working at 1350 MHz were optimized for maximum shunt impedance. The study was performed with the extensive use of a computer code--SUPERFISH. The theoretical results of this study are presented

  13. High resolution x-ray microtomography of biological samples: Requirements and strategies for satisfying them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W. Jr. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rothman, S.S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    High resolution x-ray microscopy has been made possible in recent years primarily by two new technologies: microfabricated diffractive lenses for soft x-rays with about 30-50 nm resolution, and high brightness synchrotron x-ray sources. X-ray microscopy occupies a special niche in the array of biological microscopic imaging methods. It extends the capabilities of existing techniques mainly in two areas: a previously unachievable combination of sub-visible resolution and multi-micrometer sample size, and new contrast mechanisms. Because of the soft x-ray wavelengths used in biological imaging (about 1-4 nm), XM is intermediate in resolution between visible light and electron microscopies. Similarly, the penetration depth of soft x-rays in biological materials is such that the ideal sample thickness for XM falls in the range of 0.25 - 10 {mu}m, between that of VLM and EM. XM is therefore valuable for imaging of intermediate level ultrastructure, requiring sub-visible resolutions, in intact cells and subcellular organelles, without artifacts produced by thin sectioning. Many of the contrast producing and sample preparation techniques developed for VLM and EM also work well with XM. These include, for example, molecule specific staining by antibodies with heavy metal or fluorescent labels attached, and sectioning of both frozen and plastic embedded tissue. However, there is also a contrast mechanism unique to XM that exists naturally because a number of elemental absorption edges lie in the wavelength range used. In particular, between the oxygen and carbon absorption edges (2.3 and 4.4 nm wavelength), organic molecules absorb photons much more strongly than does water, permitting element-specific imaging of cellular structure in aqueous media, with no artifically introduced contrast agents. For three-dimensional imaging applications requiring the capabilities of XM, an obvious extension of the technique would therefore be computerized x-ray microtomography (XMT).

  14. Highly anisotropic elements for acoustic pentamode applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Christopher N; Naify, Christina J; Martin, Theodore P; Calvo, David C; Orris, Gregory J

    2013-07-12

    Pentamode metamaterials are a class of acoustic metafluids that are characterized by a divergence free modified stress tensor. Such materials have an unconventional anisotropic stiffness and isotropic mass density, which allow themselves to mimic other fluid domains. Here we present a pentamode design formed by an oblique honeycomb lattice and producing customizable anisotropic properties. It is shown that anisotropy in the stiffness can exceed 3 orders of magnitude, and that it can be realistically tailored for transformation acoustic applications. PMID:23889408

  15. Defining brain-machine interface applications by matching interface performance with device requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonet, Oliver; Marinelli, Martina; Citi, Luca; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Rossini, Luca; Megali, Giuseppe; Dario, Paolo

    2008-01-15

    Interaction with machines is mediated by human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a particular class of HMIs and have so far been studied as a communication means for people who have little or no voluntary control of muscle activity. In this context, low-performing interfaces can be considered as prosthetic applications. On the other hand, for able-bodied users, a BMI would only be practical if conceived as an augmenting interface. In this paper, a method is introduced for pointing out effective combinations of interfaces and devices for creating real-world applications. First, devices for domotics, rehabilitation and assistive robotics, and their requirements, in terms of throughput and latency, are described. Second, HMIs are classified and their performance described, still in terms of throughput and latency. Then device requirements are matched with performance of available interfaces. Simple rehabilitation and domotics devices can be easily controlled by means of BMI technology. Prosthetic hands and wheelchairs are suitable applications but do not attain optimal interactivity. Regarding humanoid robotics, the head and the trunk can be controlled by means of BMIs, while other parts require too much throughput. Robotic arms, which have been controlled by means of cortical invasive interfaces in animal studies, could be the next frontier for non-invasive BMIs. Combining smart controllers with BMIs could improve interactivity and boost BMI applications. PMID:17499364

  16. Requirements, needs, and concepts for a new broad-application test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a variety of reasons, including (a) the increasing demands of the 1990s regulatory environment, (b) limited existing test capactiy and capability to satisfy projected future testing missions, and (c) an expected increasing need for nuclear information to support development of advanced reactors, there is a need for requirements and preliminary concepts for a new broad-application test reactor (BATR). These requirements must include consideration not only for a broad range of projected testing missions but also for current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements. The requirements will form the basis for development and assessment of preconceptual reactor designs and lead to the identification of key technologies to support the government's long-term strategic and programmatic planning. This paper outlines the need for a new BATR and suggests a few preliminary reactor concepts that can meet that need

  17. Evaluation of safety, an unavoidable requirement in the applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessments should be conducted as a means to evaluate compliance with safety requirements (and thus the application of fundamental safety principles) for all facilities and activities in order to determine the measures to be taken to ensure safety. It is an essential tool in decision making. For long time we have linked the safety assessment to nuclear facilities and not to all practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in daily life. However, the main purpose of the safety assessment is to determine if it has reached an appropriate level of safety for an installation or activity and if it has fulfilled the objectives of safety and basic safety criteria set by the designer, operating organization and the regulatory body under the protection and safety requirements set out in the International Basic safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. This paper presents some criteria and personal experiences with the new international recommendations on this subject and its practical application in the region and demonstrates the importance of this requirement. Reflects the need to train personnel of the operator and the regulatory body in the proportional application of this requirement in practice with ionizing radiation

  18. Mechanical Properties of Composites Used in High-Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Moser

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Materials used in high voltage applications have to meet a lot of regulations for their safety and functional usage during their lifetime. For high voltage applications the electrical properties are the most relevant designing criteria. However, the mechanical properties of such materials have rarely been considered for application dimensioning over the last decades. This article gives an overview of composite materials used in high voltage applications and some basic mechanical and thermo-mechanical characterization methods of such materials, including a discussion of influences on practically used epoxy based thermosets.

  19. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    , and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  20. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  1. Analysis of Turbulence Datasets using a Database Cluster: Requirements, Design, and Sample Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneveau, Charles

    2007-11-01

    The massive datasets now generated by Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent flows create serious new challenges. During a simulation, DNS provides only a few time steps at any instant, owing to storage limitations within the computational cluster. Therefore, traditional numerical experiments done during the simulation examine each time slice only a few times before discarding it. Conversely, if a few large datasets from high-resolution simulations are stored, they are practically inaccessible to most in the turbulence research community, who lack the cyber resources to handle the massive amounts of data. Even those who can compute at that scale must run simulations again forward in time in order to answer new questions about the dynamics, duplicating computational effort. The result is that most turbulence datasets are vastly underutilized and not available as they should be for creative experimentation. In this presentation, we discuss the desired features and requirements of a turbulence database that will enable its widest access to the research community. The guiding principle of large databases is ``move the program to the data'' (Szalay et al. ``Designing and mining multi-terabyte Astronomy archives: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,'' in ACM SIGMOD, 2000). However, in the case of turbulence research, the questions and analysis techniques are highly specific to the client and vary widely from one client to another. This poses particularly hard challenges in the design of database analysis tools. We propose a minimal set of such tools that are of general utility across various applications. And, we describe a new approach based on a Web services interface that allows a client to access the data in a user-friendly fashion while allowing maximum flexibility to execute desired analysis tasks. Sample applications will be discussed. This work is performed by the interdisciplinary ITR group, consisting of the author and Yi Li(1), Eric Perlman(2), Minping Wan(1

  2. High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment

  3. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2.A.) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 775 °F (412 °C), the carbide phase of plain...

  4. Privacy Protection in Participatory Sensing Applications Requiring Fine-Grained Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Kai; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping; Lu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    applications requiring fine-grained location information. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a novel method to preserve location privacy by anonymizing coarse-grained locations and retaining fine-grained locations using Attribute Based Encryption (ABE). In addition, we do not assume the service......The emerging participatory sensing applications have brought a privacy risk where users expose their location information. Most of the existing solutions preserve location privacy by generalizing a precise user location to a coarse-grained location, and hence they cannot be applied in those...

  5. Interior Architectural Requirements for Electronic Circuits and its Applications Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the pivotal role of the Interior Architecture As one of the scientific disciplines minute to complete the Architectural Sciences, which relied upon the achievement and development of facilities containing scientific research laboratories, in terms of planning and design, particularly those containing biological laboratories using radioactive materials, adding to that, the application of the materials or raw materials commensurate with each discipline of laboratory and its work nature, and by the discussion the processing of design techniques and requirements of interior architecture dealing with Research Laboratory for electronic circuits and their applications with the making of its prototypes

  6. Titanium cholla : lightweight, high-strength structures for aerospace applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, Clinton J.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Taggart, David G. (University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI); Gill, David Dennis; Robbins, Joshua H.; Dewhurst, Peter (University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI)

    2007-10-01

    Aerospace designers seek lightweight, high-strength structures to lower launch weight while creating structures that are capable of withstanding launch loadings. Most 'light-weighting' is done through an expensive, time-consuming, iterative method requiring experience and a repeated design/test/redesign sequence until an adequate solution is obtained. Little successful work has been done in the application of generalized 3D optimization due to the difficulty of analytical solutions, the large computational requirements of computerized solutions, and the inability to manufacture many optimized structures with conventional machining processes. The Titanium Cholla LDRD team set out to create generalized 3D optimization routines, a set of analytically optimized 3D structures for testing the solutions, and a method of manufacturing these complex optimized structures. The team developed two new computer optimization solutions: Advanced Topological Optimization (ATO) and FlexFEM, an optimization package utilizing the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) software for stress analysis. The team also developed several new analytically defined classes of optimized structures. Finally, the team developed a 3D capability for the Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) additive manufacturing process including process planning for 3D optimized structures. This report gives individual examples as well as one generalized example showing the optimized solutions and an optimized metal part.

  7. Super High Strength Steel for automotive applications

    OpenAIRE

    CONFENTE, Mario; SCHNEIDER, Emmanuel; BOMONT, Olivier; LESCALIER, Christophe; BOMONT-ARZUR, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Intensive weight savings and out-sizing programs are developed in automotive industry and lead to increase the mechanical properties of the material of the automotive parts. ArcelorMittal has developed specific steel grades known as Super High Strength Steels which are designed for both high ductility and toughness and fatigue resistance. This paper investigates machinability for a drilling operation using an experimental methodology. One of the materials is a new low bainitic steel grade. Ex...

  8. Ceramic high temperature superconductors for high current applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite Reaction Texturing (CRT) is a technique which uses a fine distribution of pre-aligned seeds as nucleating sites for texturing oxide superconductors. It has successfully been applied to the texturing of Bi-2212 compounds. A furhter application of CRT is reported in which Y-123 is biaxially textured using seeds of other Rare Earth-123 compounds with higher melting points as nucleating sites. The resultant textured microstructure exhibits mainly low angle grain boundaries (up to 5 deg. misorientation). Results will be presented on the seed alignment techniques, the development of microstructure during reaction of the composite preform and preliminary measurements of electromagnetic properties. (au)

  9. Applications of high dielectric materials in high field magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Kristina Noel

    At high magnetic fields, radiation losses, wavelength effects, self-resonance, and the high resistance of components all contribute to losses in conventional RF MRI coil designs. The hypothesis tested here is that these problems can be combated by the use of high permittivity ceramic materials at high fields. High permittivity ceramic dielectric resonators create strong uniform magnetic fields in compact structures at high frequencies and can potentially solve some of the challenges of high field coil design. In this study NMR probes were constructed for operation at 600 MHz (14.1 Tesla) and 900 MHz (21.1 Tesla) using inductively fed CaTiO3 (relative permittivity of 156-166) cylindrical hollow bore dielectric resonators. The designs showed the electric field is largely confined to the dielectric itself, with near zero values in the hollow bore, which accommodates the sample. The 600 MHz probe has an unmatched Q value greater than 2000. Experimental and simulation mapping of the RF field show good agreement, with the ceramic resonator giving a pulse width approximately 25% less than a loop gap resonator of similar inner dimensions. High resolution images, with voxel dimensions less than 50 microm3, have been acquired from fixed zebrafish samples, showing excellent delineation of several fine structures. The 900 MHz probe has an unmatched Q value of 940 and shows Q performance five times better than Alderman-Grant and loop-gap resonators of similar dimensions. High resolution images were acquired of an excised mouse spinal cord (25 microm 3) and an excised rat soleus muscle (20 microm3). The spatial distribution of electromagnetic fields within the human body can be tailored using external dielectric materials. Here, a new material is introduced with high dielectric constant and low background MRI signal. The material is based upon metal titanates, which can be made into geometrically formable suspensions in de-ionized water. The suspension's material properties are

  10. High School Profiles: Application of HTML for Recruitment Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Iryna Y.

    2008-01-01

    Because high school graduates are many colleges' primary target population, information on high school students' performance and sociodemographic characteristics becomes important for the recruitment process. This article introduces an HTML application (referred to here as the High School Profile) that arranges high school information and makes…

  11. Video performance for high security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of physical protection systems has increased to address modern threats to national security and emerging commercial technologies. A key element of modern physical protection systems is the data presented to the human operator used for rapid determination of the cause of an alarm, whether false (e.g., caused by an animal, debris, etc.) or real (e.g., a human adversary). Alarm assessment, the human validation of a sensor alarm, primarily relies on imaging technologies and video systems. Developing measures of effectiveness (MOE) that drive the design or evaluation of a video system or technology becomes a challenge, given the subjectivity of the application (e.g., alarm assessment). Sandia National Laboratories has conducted empirical analysis using field test data and mathematical models such as binomial distribution and Johnson target transfer functions to develop MOEs for video system technologies. Depending on the technology, the task of the security operator and the distance to the target, the Probability of Assessment (PAs) can be determined as a function of a variety of conditions or assumptions. PAs used as an MOE allows the systems engineer to conduct trade studies, make informed design decisions, or evaluate new higher-risk technologies. This paper outlines general video system design trade-offs, discusses ways video can be used to increase system performance and lists MOEs for video systems used in subjective applications such as alarm assessment.

  12. Using Bluetooth to Implement a Pervasive Indoor Positioning System with Minimal Requirements at the Application Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Muñoz-Organero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different systems have been proposed to estimate the position of a mobile device using Bluetooth based on metrics such as the Radio Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI, the received Bit Error Rate (BER or the Cellular Signal Quality (CSQ. These systems try to improve the estimation accuracy of the basic and straightforward triangulation method among discovered BT reference base stations at the cost of requiring that the positioning application has access to low level hardware related data (provided by the Host Controller Interface and obtaining information which is in many cases hardware, and therefore device, dependent. In this paper we design, simulate, implement and validate a Bluetooth positioning system that only requires the ability to handle SDP service records at the application level, achieving mean errors around 1 to 3 meters, improving the basic triangulation method among discovered BT reference base stations.

  13. High Efficiency, High Linearity, Switch Mode Power Amplifiers for Varying envelop Signal Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Tian; Sira, Daniel; Nielsen, Michael; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Larsen, Torben

    Transmission of big h-order modulated signals at sufficient linearity while maintaining high power efficiency is always a challenge in modern communication application. Using conventional transmitter topologies, high linearity and high efficiency are two conflicting parameters somehow. However...

  14. Material requirements for the Very High Temperature Reactor results and progress within the RAPHAEL-IP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows.The modular VHTR is one of six advanced fission systems of interest for meeting the Generation IV goals of attaining highly economic, safe, reliable, sustainable, proliferation-resistant systems. The VHTR offers significant advantages for long-term development of sustainable energy and in particular for heat applications and hydrogen generation. This system can operate with either a direct or indirect cycle and makes use of the high efficiency Brayton cycle. Work on materials investigations for the HTR within Europe recommenced with the EU 5. Framework Programme (5FP) projects HTR-M and M1 [1] and together with other SFP projects (fuel, reactor physics, components, safety,..) and the establishment of the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network HTR-TN, served as the main European platform for the co-ordination and development of VHTR issues. The HTR-M and M1 projects addressed material requirements for the key components of the direct cycle HTR. The work especially focused on the materials development for the pressure vessel, high temperature components (including turbine), and the graphite core. Alongside this, developments were undertaken on key component issues (HTR-E) associated with the gas turbine, the recuperator and other system developments (e.g. tribology, corrosion, bearings, seals, etc.) concerned the operation and performance of the power circuit components. Within this paper the main highlights from the results of the 5FP programmes affecting material issues are reviewed and examined. For the 6. Framework Programme activities the main European research focus on VHTR is through the RAPHAEL Integrated Project (IP). The project started in 2005 and addresses a range of issues (materials, components, fuel, code qualification, etc.), which are structured in a similar way to the corresponding GIF VHTR projects. The materials issues are addressed within one of the RAPHAEL, sub-projects with a focus on outstanding

  15. Scientific applications for high-energy lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.W. [comp.

    1994-03-01

    The convergence of numerous factors makes the time ripe for the development of a community of researchers to use the high-energy laser for scientific investigations. This document attempts to outline the steps necessary to access high-energy laser systems and create a realistic plan to implement usage. Since an academic/scientific user community does not exist in the USA to any viable extent, we include information on present capabilities at the Nova laser. This will briefly cover laser performance and diagnostics and a sampling of some current experimental projects. Further, to make the future possibilities clearer, we will describe the proposed next- generation high-energy laser, named for its inertial fusion confinement (ICF) goal, the multi-megaJoule, 500-teraWatt National Facility, or NIF.

  16. Assessment of Today’s Mobile Banking Applications from the View of Customer Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Schurig, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Mobile banking is a subset of electronic banking which underlies not only the determinants of the banking business but also the special conditions of mobile commerce. This paper analyzes customer needs and expectations from the mobile applications’ view and from the banking view in order to derive a defined set of requirements. Based on these results, existing mobile banking applications are assessed. Their major shortcomings are explained, opportunities for their improvement are shown and th...

  17. High emissivity coatings for high temperature application: Progress and prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xiaodong, E-mail: hexd@hit.edu.c [Center for Composite Materials, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3010, Harbin 150080 (China); Li Yibin [Center for Composite Materials, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3010, Harbin 150080 (China); Wang Lidong [Center for Composite Materials, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3010, Harbin 150080 (China); School Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 405, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun Yue [Center for Composite Materials, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3010, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang, Sam [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-07-01

    High emissivity coatings are widely used in many cases where heat transfers through electromagnetic radiation that arises due to the temperature of a body. Extensive theoretical and experimental efforts have been made to synthesize and investigate high emissivity coatings. The emissivity can be improved through various or combined mechanisms. The characterization of the emissivity is still a fully open problem. In this paper, we review the various mechanisms associated with the emissivity enhancement and emissivity characterization techniques. Based on these literature reviews, the prospect will be presented in the concluding remarks.

  18. Catalog of CERCLA applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) - fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    Section 121(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), requires attainment of federal and state applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). Subpart E, Section 300.400(g) {open_quotes}Identification of applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements{close_quotes} of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)(55 FR 8666, March 8, 1990) describes the process for attaining ARARs. The purpose of this catalog is to provide DOE Program Offices and Field Organizations with all of the {open_quotes}Quick Reference Fact Sheets{close_quotes} on attaining ARARS. These fact sheets provide overviews of ARARs for CERCLA cleanup actions pertinent to DOE environmental restoration activities. All of the fact sheets in this catalog were prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Fact sheets 1-7 discuss land disposal restrictions (LDRs) and their applicability. LDRs may pertain to a number of CERCLA response actions at DOE facilities. Fact Sheets 8-13 are based on the CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual: Parts I and II and provide an overview of many other CERCLA ARARs. Overview of ARARs-Focus on ARAR Waivers (fact sheet 11), provides a good introduction to ARARS. The last two fact sheets, 14 and 15, are periodic reports that describe additional fact sheets and clarify issues.

  19. GaN Electronics For High Power, High Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; ZHANG,A.P.; DANG,G.; CAO,X.A.; LEE,K.P.; CHO,H.; GILA,B.P.; JOHNSON,J.W.; MONIER,C.; ABERNATHY,C.R.; HAN,JUNG; BACA,ALBERT G.; CHYI,J.-I.; LEE,C.-M.; NEE,T.-E.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHU,S.N.G.

    2000-06-12

    A brief review is given of recent progress in fabrication of high voltage GaN and AlGaN rectifiers. GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. Improvements in epitaxial layer quality and in fabrication techniques have led to significant advances in device performance.

  20. 48 CFR 1352.237-70 - Security processing requirements-high or moderate risk contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prescribed in 48 CFR 1337.110-70 (b), insert the following clause: Security Processing Requirements—High or...—Moderate Background Investigation (MBI). (2) Investigative requirements for IT Service Contracts are:...

  1. The properties required of neodymium-iron-boron magnets for their major applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the principal applications for magnets today, the different categories of permanent magnet material generally do not compete with one another. For cost efficiency, ceramic ferrites are used; for volumetric efficiency, the choice is neodymium-iron-boron; and for temperature range or thermal stability, it's usually samarium-cobalt. The magnetic properties of neodymium-iron-boron have been maturing in recent years, and yet it is still used in only a select few major applications. This paper reviews the requirements of the major applications which have been successfully met by present grades of neodymium-iron-boron, but focusses on what improvements still need to be achieved in their properties for this material's continued growth into significant new markets. (orig.)

  2. Survey of potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors present a survey of the potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin films. During the past four years there has been substantial speculation on this topic. The authors will cover only a small fraction of the potential electronic applications that have been identified. Their treatment is influenced by the developments over the past few years in materials and device development and in market analysis. They present their view of the most promising potential applications. Superconductors have two important properties that make them attractive for electronic applications. These are (a) low surface resistance at high frequencies, and (b) the Josephson effect

  3. Generalized Information Architecture for Managing Requirements in IBM?s Rational DOORS(r) Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Kathryn M.; Eaton, Shelley M.; McCornack, Marjorie Turner; Shannon, Sharon A.

    2014-12-01

    When a requirements engineering effort fails to meet expectations, often times the requirements management tool is blamed. Working with numerous project teams at Sandia National Laboratories over the last fifteen years has shown us that the tool is rarely the culprit; usually it is the lack of a viable information architecture with well- designed processes to support requirements engineering. This document illustrates design concepts with rationale, as well as a proven information architecture to structure and manage information in support of requirements engineering activities for any size or type of project. This generalized information architecture is specific to IBM's Rational DOORS (Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System) software application, which is the requirements management tool in Sandia's CEE (Common Engineering Environment). This generalized information architecture can be used as presented or as a foundation for designing a tailored information architecture for project-specific needs. It may also be tailored for another software tool. Version 1.0 4 November 201

  4. High performance cloud auditing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Baek-Young; Song, Sejun

    2014-01-01

    This book mainly focuses on cloud security and high performance computing for cloud auditing. The book discusses emerging challenges and techniques developed for high performance semantic cloud auditing, and presents the state of the art in cloud auditing, computing and security techniques with focus on technical aspects and feasibility of auditing issues in federated cloud computing environments.   In summer 2011, the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) CyberBAT Cloud Security and Auditing Team initiated the exploration of the cloud security challenges and future cloud auditing research directions that are covered in this book. This work was supported by the United States government funds from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the AFOSR Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Visiting Faculty Research Program (VFRP), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Health (NIH). All chapters were partially suppor...

  5. Database applications in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Energy physicists were using computers to process and store their data early in the history of computing. They addressed problems of memory management, job control, job generation, data standards, file conventions, multiple simultaneous usage, tape file handling and data management earlier than, or at the same time as, the manufacturers of computing equipment. The HEP community have their own suites of programs for these functions, and are now turning their attention to the possibility of replacing some of the functional components of their 'homebrew' systems with more widely used software and/or hardware. High on the 'shopping list' for replacement is data management. ECFA Working Group 11 has been working on this problem. This paper reviews the characteristics of existing HEP systems and existing database systems and discusses the way forward. (orig.)

  6. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  7. Environmental applications of high power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High power DC accelerators in the power range 50-600 kW have been employed in recent years in some countries on experimental basis for Flue Gas and Wastewater treatment. A 3 MeV, 30 kW DC accelerator, built indigenously by Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, BARC at Electron Beam Centre, Kharghar, will undergo commissioning trials shortly. Experiments on Flue Gas treatment by EB will be conducted in active collaboration with BHEL, Ranipet at beam parameters of 1 MeV, 5 kW. Flue gas will be simulated by first producing carbon dioxide from the combustion of LPG and then diluting it with air. External cylinders of SO2, NO, NH3 will be used to introduce these gases into the main flow in a controlled manner by using mass flow controllers realizing concentrations of SO2, NH3 in the range 500-2500 ppm and NO 100-500 ppm. Humidity and temperature will be controlled to optimize removal process. The flue gas will pass through a water-cooled reaction vessel of dimension 100 cm (length) x 35 cm (width) x 100 cm (depth) fitted with a 50 μm thick Titanium foil window at the top to allow beam electrons to pass through and interact with the Flue Gas. The production of high density of oxidizing OH free radicals, which react with the pollutants to produce sulphuric acid and nitric acids, results in high throughput. The acids are neutralized by ammonia in the moist environment to produce the useful fertilizers ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate. Prior to experiments, simulation work has been carried out with the software package CKS for our experimental parameters and it indicates highly efficient simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO2 at a dose of 15kGy

  8. Deformable mirror for high power laser applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrňa, Libor; Šarbort, Martin; Holá, Miroslava

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2014, 94420W: 1-5. ISBN 9781628415575. ISSN 0277-786X. [ Optics and Measurement Conference 2014 (OaM 2014). Liberec (CZ), 07.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA TA ČR TA04020456 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : deformable mirror * high power laser * adaptive optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Laser s

  9. Structural application of high strength, high temperature ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    The operation of rocket engine turbine pumps is limited by the temperature restrictions of metallic components used in the systems. Mechanical strength and stability of these metallic components decrease drastically at elevated temperatures. Ceramic materials that retain high strength at high temperatures appear to be a feasible alternate material for use in the hot end of the turbopumps. This project identified and defined the processing parameters that affected the properties of Si3N4, one of candidate ceramic materials. Apparatus was assembled and put into operation to hot press Si3N4 powders into bulk material for in house evaluation. A work statement was completed to seek outside contract services to design, manufacture, and evaluate Si3N4 components in the service environments that exists in SSME turbopumps.

  10. High chi polymer development for DSA applications using RAFT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael T.; Farnham, William B.; Tran, Hoang V.; Londono, J. David; Brun, Yefim

    2013-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is proving to be an interesting and innovative method to make three-dimensional periodic, uniform patterns useful in a variety of microelectronics applications. Attributes critical to acceptable DSA performance of block copolymers include molecular weight uniformity, final purity, and reproducibility in all the steps involved in producing the polymers. Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization technology enables the production of such materials provided that careful process monitoring and compositional homogeneity measurement systems are employed. It is uniquely suited to construction of multiblocks with components of widely divergent surface energies and functionality. We describe a high chi diblock system comprising partially fluorinated methacrylates and substituted styrenics. While special new polymer separation strategies involving controlled polymer particle assembly in liquid media are required for some monomer systems and molecular weight regimes, we have been able to demonstrate high yield and compositionally homogeneous diblocks of lamellar and cylindrical morphology with polydispersities < 1.1. During purification processes, these diblock materials undergo assembly processes in liquid media, and with appropriate controls, this allows for removal of soluble homopolymer contaminants. SAXS analyses of solid polymer samples provide estimates of lamellar d-spacing, and a good correlation with molecular weight is shown. This system will be described.

  11. High performance graphics processors for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a family of high- performance graphics processors with special hardware for interactive visualization of 3D human anatomy. The basic architecture expands to multiple parallel processors, each processor using pipelined arithmetic and logical units for high-speed rendering of Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data. User-selectable display alternatives include multiple 2D axial slices, reformatted images in sagittal or coronal planes and shaded 3D views. Special facilities support applications requiring color-coded display of multiple datasets (such as radiation therapy planning), or dynamic replay of time- varying volumetric data (such as cine-CT or gated MR studies of the beating heart). The current implementation is a single processor system which generates reformatted images in true real time (30 frames per second), and shaded 3D views in a few seconds per frame. It accepts full scale medical datasets in their native formats, so that minimal preprocessing delay exists between data acquisition and display

  12. High Dynamic Range Real-time Vision System for Robotic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Heyrman, Barthélémy; Rosse, Matthieu; Ginhac, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    International audience Robotics applications often requires vision systems capable of capturing a large amount of information related to a scene. With many camera sensors, the perception of information is limited in areas with strong contrasts. The High Dynamic Range (HDR) vision system can deal with these limitations. This paper describes the HDR-ARtiSt hardware platform (High Dynamic Range Advanced Real-time imaging System), a FPGA-based architecture that can produce a real- time high dy...

  13. SUPERSTRUCTURES FOR HIGH CURRENT FEL APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next generations of FELs at TJNAF will produce coherent light at power levels of 10 kW and 100 kW, respectively [1]. To achieve these power levels, 200 MeV electron beams of 10 mA and 100 mA have to be accelerated in the linear accelerators of the devices. The accelerators will be based on superconducting technology. Stable operation of these machines is only possible if the cavity Higher Order Modes (HOM) excited by the beams can sufficiently be damped. One of the possible accelerating structures which can fulfill this requirement, is a superstructure (SST) made of two weakly coupled subunits and equipped with appropriate HOM couplers. Based on the positive experience at DESY with 1.3 GHz superstructures, we are investigating for possible use similar structures in the linacs for the FEL upgrades. We have built a copper model of the proposed superstructure, based on two copper models of the 5-cell CEBAF cavities. This contribution presents measured results on this model. We are now in the process of fabrication a Nb prototype and hope to perform its cold test by the end of this year

  14. A Highly Miniaturized Inertial Grade Gyroscope for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, D. V.; Challoner, A. D.; Shcheglov, K.; Hayworth, K.; Bae, S.; Yee, K.; Blaes, B.; DAgostino, S.; Stock, T.

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of inertial grade gyroscopes for space applications represents well over 50 years of technology development and an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars. The workhorse product which represents the current state-of-the art for commercially available high performance devices is the Litton-Hemishperical Resonator Gyro (HRG) Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). This product has a performance figure of merit of 0.003 deg/hr bias drift, a volume of 567 cubic inches, weighs 19 pounds, draws about 30 watts and costs over 1 million each. Clearly devices of this magnitude are not conducive to the minimized mass, volume, power, and cost constraints of outer planet missions. An approach to breaking these potential barriers is the use of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based inertial devices. Although substantially reduced in size, mass power and cost, this approach has produced devices in the tactical performance range of greater than 1 deg/hour bias drift. This level of performance satisfies the preponderance of high market volume requirements such as automotive and tactical munitions but does not meet the limited market quantity requirements for the high precision space based market. Because of the very limited size of the space based market, there is little economic incentive for commercial fabricators of tactical grade devices to address the necessary performance improvements. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in conjunction with Boeing Space Systems (BSS) is addressing this void to satisfy our mutual requirements in this area. The project objective to is to achieve 0.01 deg/hr performance in an IMU which is less than 10 cubic inches in volume, weighs less than 0.5 pounds, draws less than 1 watt and is available in volume production for less than 2500. Reductions of this magnitude will be mission enabling capabilities for a variety of anticipated outer planet mission attributes such as autonomous control and docking, formation flying and robotic

  15. Applications of High Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waage, Johannes Eichler

    The recent advent of high throughput sequencing of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) has vastly expanded research into the functional and structural biology of the genome of all living organisms (and even a few dead ones). With this enormous and exponential growth in biological data generation come......, focusing on oft encountered problems in data processing, such as quality assurance, mapping, normalization, visualization, and interpretation. Presented in the second part are scientific endeavors representing solutions to problems of two sub-genres of next generation sequencing. For the first flavor, RNA...

  16. High sensitive radiochromic dye and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of various functional dyes and related compounds for a chemical radiochromic dosimeter are outlined. Chemical radiochromic dosimeters using new functional leuco dyes and high sensitive acid generators dissolved in chloroform and ethanol can be used over the absorbed dose range in 0.1-30 Gy. Plastic films with dissolved those dyes and functional materials, and with microcapsules included leuco dyes and organic solvent are applied to the routine dosimeter for the measurements of absorbed doses of γ-irradiation (60 Gy-1.2KGy), which is potentially useful for food and blood irradiation fields. (author)

  17. High-performance computing for airborne applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manuzzato, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fairbanks, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dallmann, Nicholas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Desgeorges, Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-06-28

    Recently, there has been attempts to move common satellite tasks to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are significantly cheaper to buy than satellites and easier to deploy on an as-needed basis. The more benign radiation environment also allows for an aggressive adoption of state-of-the-art commercial computational devices, which increases the amount of data that can be collected. There are a number of commercial computing devices currently available that are well-suited to high-performance computing. These devices range from specialized computational devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), to traditional computing platforms, such as microprocessors. Even though the radiation environment is relatively benign, these devices could be susceptible to single-event effects. In this paper, we will present radiation data for high-performance computing devices in a accelerated neutron environment. These devices include a multi-core digital signal processor, two field-programmable gate arrays, and a microprocessor. From these results, we found that all of these devices are suitable for many airplane environments without reliability problems.

  18. High temperature superconductors in electromagnetic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Richens, P E

    2000-01-01

    powder-in-tube and dip-coated, have been made using a novel single loop tensometer that enables the insertion of a reasonably long length of conductor into the bore of a high-field magnet. The design, construction, and characterization of a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnet is described. The design stage has involved the development of computer software for the calculation of the critical current of a solenoid wound from anisotropic HTS conductor. This calculation can be performed for a variety of problems including those involving magnetic materials such as iron by the incorporation of finite element electromagnetic analysis software. This has enabled the optimization of the magnet's performance. The HTS magnet is wound from 190 m of silver-matrix Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 1 sub 0 powder-in-tube tape conductor supplied by Intermagnetics General Corporation. The dimensions are 70 mm bore and 70 mm length, and it consists of 728 turns. Iron end-plates were utilized in order to reduc...

  19. High-performance computing for airborne applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been attempts to move common satellite tasks to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are significantly cheaper to buy than satellites and easier to deploy on an as-needed basis. The more benign radiation environment also allows for an aggressive adoption of state-of-the-art commercial computational devices, which increases the amount of data that can be collected. There are a number of commercial computing devices currently available that are well-suited to high-performance computing. These devices range from specialized computational devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), to traditional computing platforms, such as microprocessors. Even though the radiation environment is relatively benign, these devices could be susceptible to single-event effects. In this paper, we will present radiation data for high-performance computing devices in a accelerated neutron environment. These devices include a multi-core digital signal processor, two field-programmable gate arrays, and a microprocessor. From these results, we found that all of these devices are suitable for many airplane environments without reliability problems.

  20. Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip Platforms: Requirements, Characteristics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, D.; Haeberle, S.; Roth, G.; von Stetten, F.; Zengerle, R.

    This review summarizes recent developments in microfluidic platform approaches. In contrast to isolated application-specific solutions, a microfluidic platform provides a set of fluidic unit operations, which are designed for easy combination within a well-defined fabrication technology. This allows the implementation of different application-specific (bio-) chemical processes, automated by microfluidic process integration [1]. A brief introduction into technical advances, major market segments and promising applications is followed by a detailed characterization of different microfluidic platforms, comprising a short definition, the functional principle, microfluidic unit operations, application examples as well as strengths and limitations. The microfluidic platforms in focus are lateral flow tests, linear actuated devices, pressure driven laminar flow, microfluidic large scale integration, segmented flow microfluidics, centrifugal microfluidics, electro-kinetics, electrowetting, surface acoustic waves, and systems for massively parallel analysis. The review concludes with the attempt to provide a selection scheme for microfluidic platforms which is based on their characteristics according to key requirements of different applications and market segments. Applied selection criteria comprise portability, costs of instrument and disposable, sample throughput, number of parameters per sample, reagent consumption, precision, diversity of microfluidic unit operations and the flexibility in programming different liquid handling protocols.

  1. A Modular High Sensitive Radiation Detector for Homel and Security and Post Event Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modular, high sensitive radiation monitoring system designed for the homeland security radiological requirements and radiological post event applications is presented. The prevention of undocumented and potentially threatening shipment of radioactive and nuclear materials is a problem at seaports, border crossings, rail yards, airports and similar locations that requires the use of sensitive radiation detectors. Furthermore; radiological events such as the Fukushima nuclear incident emphasize the need for sensitive detector for monitoring food and commercial products

  2. High performance computing applications in neurobiological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Cheng, Rei; Doshay, David G.; Linton, Samuel W.; Montgomery, Kevin; Parnas, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The human nervous system is a massively parallel processor of information. The vast numbers of neurons, synapses and circuits is daunting to those seeking to understand the neural basis of consciousness and intellect. Pervading obstacles are lack of knowledge of the detailed, three-dimensional (3-D) organization of even a simple neural system and the paucity of large scale, biologically relevant computer simulations. We use high performance graphics workstations and supercomputers to study the 3-D organization of gravity sensors as a prototype architecture foreshadowing more complex systems. Scaled-down simulations run on a Silicon Graphics workstation and scale-up, three-dimensional versions run on the Cray Y-MP and CM5 supercomputers.

  3. Heat pipe technology development for high temperature space radiator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology requirements for heat pipe radiators, potentially among the lightest weight systems for space power applications, include flexible elements, and improved specific radiator performance (kg/kW). For these applications a flexible heat pipe capable of continuous operation through an angle of 1800 has been demonstrated. The effect of bend angle on the heat pipe temperature distribution is reviewed. An analysis of light weight membrane heat pipe radiators that use surface tension forces for fluid containment has been conducted. The design analysis of these lightweight heat pipes is described and a potential application in heat rejection systems for space nuclear power plants outlined

  4. 12 CFR 516.240 - What may OTS require me to do after my application is deemed complete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) OTS may determine that a major issue of law or a change in circumstances arose after you filed your... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What may OTS require me to do after my... OTS require me to do after my application is deemed complete? After your application is...

  5. 26 CFR 1.852-9 - Special procedural requirements applicable to designation under section 852(b)(3)(D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedural requirements applicable to... Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-9 Special procedural requirements applicable to designation under... upper right hand corner of copy B of the notice on Form 2439 received by him from the...

  6. High Temperature Materials for Chemical Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Sandra; Hickman, Robert; O'Dell, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Radiation or passively cooled thrust chambers are used for a variety of chemical propulsion functions including apogee insertion, reaction control for launch vehicles, and primary propulsion for planetary spacecraft. The performance of these thrust chambers is limited by the operating temperature of available materials. Improved oxidation resistance and increased operating temperatures can be achieved with the use of thermal barrier coatings such as zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hafnium oxide (HfO2). However, previous attempts to include these materials showed cracking and spalling of the oxide layer due to poor bonding. Current research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has generated unique, high temperature material options for in-space thruster designs that are capable of up to 2500 C operating temperatures. The research is focused on fabrication technologies to form low cost Iridium,qF_.henium (Ir/Re) components with a ceramic hot wall created as an integral, functionally graded material (FGM). The goal of this effort is to further de?celop proven technologies for embedding a protective ceramic coating within the Ir/Re liner to form a robust functional gradient material. Current work includes the fabrication and testing of subscale samples to evaluate tensile, creep, thermal cyclic/oxidation, and thermophysical material properties. Larger test articles have also being fabricated and hot-fire tested to demonstrate the materials in prototype thrusters at 1O0 lbf thrust levels.

  7. High-power microwaves for defense and accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manheimer, W. (Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20337 (United States))

    1992-03-11

    This paper discusses high-power microwaves for application to the Defense Department and to the powering of large accelerators. The microwave sources discussed are the SLAC klystron, the relativistic klystron, the magnetron and the vircator.

  8. Applications of inner-shell ionization driven by high intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An application of inner-shell ionization processes driven by high intensity laser is considered. For an inner-shell ionization x-ray laser detailed requirements such as intensity of laser, density of target, for an experiment is shown. Furthermore, a multi-inner-shell ionization x-ray laser with various wavelengths are suggested. (author)

  9. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  10. Scalable, High-performance 3D Imaging Software Platform: System Architecture and Application to Virtual Colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli; Brett, Bevin

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. In this work, we have developed a software platform that is designed to support high-performance 3D medical image processing for a wide range of applications using increasingl...

  11. Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications

    OpenAIRE

    Veenstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate applications are analysed, and solutions that circumvent these bottlenecks are presented. The methodologies presented indicate whether certain target bit-rates and operating frequencies can be realised in t...

  12. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL developed a modeling and experimental strategy to characterize thermal performance of materials. The technique provides critical data on thermal properties with relevance for electronics packaging applications. Thermal contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity were characterized for new high-performance materials such as thermoplastics, boron-nitride nanosheets, copper nanowires, and atomically bonded layers. The technique is an important tool for developing designs and materials that enable power electronics packaging with small footprint, high power density, and low cost for numerous applications.

  13. High-power converters for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. N.; Cooper, Randy

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 was a concept definition effort to extend space-type dc/dc converter technology to the megawatt level with a weight of less than 0.1 kg/kW (220 lb./MW). Two system designs were evaluated in Phase 1. Each design operates from a 5 kV stacked fuel cell source and provides a voltage step-up to 100 kV at 10 A for charging capacitors (100 pps at a duty cycle of 17 min on, 17 min off). Both designs use an MCT-based, full-bridge inverter, gaseous hydrogen cooling, and crowbar fault protection. The GE-CRD system uses an advanced high-voltage transformer/rectifier filter is series with a resonant tank circuit, driven by an inverter operating at 20 to 50 kHz. Output voltage is controlled through frequency and phase shift control. Fast transient response and stability is ensured via optimal control. Super-resonant operation employing MCTs provides the advantages of lossless snubbing, no turn-on switching loss, use of medium-speed diodes, and intrinsic current limiting under load-fault conditions. Estimated weight of the GE-CRD system is 88 kg (1.5 cu ft.). Efficiency of 94.4 percent and total system loss is 55.711 kW operating at 1 MW load power. The Maxwell system is based on a resonance transformer approach using a cascade of five LC resonant sections at 100 kHz. The 5 kV bus is converted to a square wave, stepped-up to a 100 kV sine wave by the LC sections, rectified, and filtered. Output voltage is controlled with a special series regulator circuit. Estimated weight of the Maxwell system is 83.8 kg (4.0 cu ft.). Efficiency is 87.2 percent and total system loss is 146.411 kW operating at 1 MW load power.

  14. Advanced Capacitors for High-Power Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the consumer and industrial requirements for compact, high-power-density, electrical power systems grow substantially over the next decade; there will be a...

  15. The industrial applications of high energy electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industrial Processing accelerator competes with other processing techniques and although it may have a 'Space Age' image it will only be used by industry if it is economically viable. The area of application that is changing with the evolution of high energy medium power accelerator is the use for medical sterilisation as an alternative to gamma but the future application that is evolving slowly and that will use many kilo watts of electron power is food. The processing accelerator is here to stay and it will extend its application into even more diverse applications in the future than it has in the past. (author)

  16. Animal Metabolism and Nutritional Requirements Under Physiological Stress Effect of High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Srivastava

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available Various biochemical and physiological aspects of high altitude exposure and an integrated picture of metabolism of the organism during stress has been reviewed in this paper. This has been further utilised to point out specific nutrient requirement, if any, for survival of the organism during stress and to develop increased resistance towards high altitude exposure. Carbohydrates appear to be the best calorific food material under conditions prevailing at high altitude.

  17. The comparison and selection of programming languages for high energy physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the issues surrounding the comparison and selection of a programming language to be used in high energy physics software applications. The evaluation method used was specifically devised to address the issues of particular importance to high energy physics (HEP) applications, not just the technical features of the languages considered. The method assumes a knowledge of the requirements of current HEP applications, the data-processing environments expected to support these applications and relevant non-technical issues. The languages evaluated were Ada, C, FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 99 (formerly 8X), Pascal and PL/1. Particular emphasis is placed upon the past, present and anticipated future role of FORTRAN in HEP software applications. Upon examination of the technical and practical issues, conclusions are reached and some recommendations are made regarding the role of FORTRAN and other programming languages in the current and future development of HEP software. 54 refs

  18. The comparison and selection of programming languages for high energy physics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the issues surrounding the comparison and selection of a programming language to be used in high energy physics software applications. The evaluation method used was specifically devised to address the issues of particular importance to high energy physics (HEP) applications, not just the technical features of the languages considered. The method assumes a knowledge of the requirements of current HEP applications, the data-processing environments expected to support these applications and relevant non-technical issues. The languages evaluated were Ada, C, FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 99 (formerly 8X), Pascal and PL/1. Particular emphasis is placed upon the past, present and anticipated future role of FORTRAN in HEP software applications. Upon examination of the technical and practical issues, conclusions are reached and some recommendations are made regarding the role of FORTRAN and other programming languages in the current and future development of HEP software. 54 refs.

  19. Industrial applications of high-average power high-peak power nanosecond pulse duration Nd:YAG lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Paul M.; Ellwi, Samir

    2009-02-01

    Within the vast range of laser materials processing applications, every type of successful commercial laser has been driven by a major industrial process. For high average power, high peak power, nanosecond pulse duration Nd:YAG DPSS lasers, the enabling process is high speed surface engineering. This includes applications such as thin film patterning and selective coating removal in markets such as the flat panel displays (FPD), solar and automotive industries. Applications such as these tend to require working spots that have uniform intensity distribution using specific shapes and dimensions, so a range of innovative beam delivery systems have been developed that convert the gaussian beam shape produced by the laser into a range of rectangular and/or shaped spots, as required by demands of each project. In this paper the authors will discuss the key parameters of this type of laser and examine why they are important for high speed surface engineering projects, and how they affect the underlying laser-material interaction and the removal mechanism. Several case studies will be considered in the FPD and solar markets, exploring the close link between the application, the key laser characteristics and the beam delivery system that link these together.

  20. Comparison of Requirements for Composite Structures for Aircraft and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Elliot, Kenny B.; Hampton, Roy W.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Aggarwal, Pravin; Engelstad, Stephen P.; Chang, James B.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the aircraft and space vehicle requirements for composite structures are compared. It is a valuable exercise to study composite structural design approaches used in the airframe industry and to adopt methodology that is applicable for space vehicles. The missions, environments, analysis methods, analysis validation approaches, testing programs, build quantities, inspection, and maintenance procedures used by the airframe industry, in general, are not transferable to spaceflight hardware. Therefore, while the application of composite design approaches from aircraft and other industries is appealing, many aspects cannot be directly utilized. Nevertheless, experiences and research for composite aircraft structures may be of use in unexpected arenas as space exploration technology develops, and so continued technology exchanges are encouraged.

  1. The requirements and feasibility of business planning in the office of space and terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. S.; Miller, B. P.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of applying strategic business planning techniques which are developed and used in the private sector to the planning of certain projects within the NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications was assessed. The methods of strategic business planning that are currently in use in the private sector are examined. The typical contents of a private sector strategic business plan and the techniques commonly used to develop the contents of the plan are described, along with modifications needed to apply these concepts to public sector projects. The current long-range planning process in the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications is reviewed and program initiatives that might be candidates for the use of strategic business planning techniques are identified. In order to more fully illustrate the information requirements of a strategic business plan for a NASA program, a sample business plan is prepared for a hypothetical Operational Earth Resources Satellite program.

  2. Survey of proposed high intensity accelerators and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many interesting applications are being considered for high intensity accelerators. Implications of the technology developments that are enhancing these opportunities, or making them possible, will be covered in context of the applications. Applications include those for research (in areas such as material science, biological sciences, nuclear and high energy physics), accelerator-driven transmutation technologies, defense, and medicine. Specific examples will be used to demonstrate the impact that technology development can have and how transfer of this technology to industry can have an impact in the consumer and commercial arenas. Technology Development in rf power, controls, beam optics, rf structures, magnets, injectors, and beam halos will be considered

  3. Applications of nonimaging optics for very high solar concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1997-12-31

    Using the principles and techniques of nonimaging optics, solar concentrations that approach the theoretical maximum can be achieved. This has applications in solar energy collection wherever concentration is desired. In this paper, we survey recent progress in attaining and using high and ultrahigh solar fluxes. We review a number of potential applications for highly concentrated solar energy and the current status of the associated technology. By making possible new and unique applications for intense solar flux, these techniques have opened a whole new frontier for research and development of potentially economic uses of solar energy.

  4. Preclinical Study for Application of Fabricated High Activity Ir-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of high activity Ir-192 sources manufactured by KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for application to present equipment such as various applicators inserted to patients and PLATO(Nucletron, Netherland) of treatment planning system and to evaluate safety and accuracy of Ir-192 as practical clinic use through in vitro dosimetry of Ir-192. We confirmed the physical and radiobiological safety of KAERI sources to use practical. KAERI sources are applicable to commercial high dose rate brachytherapy machine safely. Then those can be substituted for the imported sources such as sources made by Nucletron, Gammamed and exported to the foreign country

  5. Conditions and requirements for a potential application of solar power satellites /SPS/ for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, W. (Berlin, Technische Universitaet, Berlin, West Germany); Ruth, J. (ESA, European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, Netherlands)

    1980-12-01

    The potential problems of a future introduction of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) as baseload power plants for Western European countries are considered, emphasizing the differences of SPS utilization in Europe compared with that in the USA as a result of geographical, orbital organizational, and industrial conditions. If estimated SPS safety zone areas are required, then the SPS system incorporating the 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission appears crucial for utilization in Western Europe in order to eliminate the large rectenna area requirements of an SPS 5 GW power system. A frequency variation of up to 5 or 10 GHz, and the application of either laser power transmission or solid state devices which could alleviate rectenna siting problems and restrictions on the use of the geosynchronous orbit are discussed.

  6. High-pressure pulsed avalanche discharges: Formulas for required preionization density and rate for homogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenning, N.; Axnaes, I.; Nilsson, J.O.; Eninger, J.E. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    The requirements on preionization for the formation of spatially homogeneous pulsed avalanche discharges are examined. The authors derive two formulas which apply in the case of a slowly rising electric field, one which gives the required preionization density at breakdown, and one which gives the required preionization rate. These quantities are expressed as functions of the electrochemical properties of the gas, the neutral density, and the electric field rise time. They also treat the statistical effect that the electrons tend to form groups, in contrast to being randomly distributed in space, during the prebreakdown phase. This process is found to increase the required preionization rate significantly, typically by a factor of five for a discharge at atmospheric pressure. Homogeneous high-pressure discharges have been used for laser excitation, and have also been proposed for chemical plasma processing (ozone production) because of their good scaling properties and high efficiency.

  7. High Temperature Wireless Communication And Electronics For Harsh Environment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Beheim, G. M.; Ponchak, G. E.; Chen, L.-Y

    2007-01-01

    In order for future aerospace propulsion systems to meet the increasing requirements for decreased maintenance, improved capability, and increased safety, the inclusion of intelligence into the propulsion system design and operation becomes necessary. These propulsion systems will have to incorporate technology that will monitor propulsion component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This implies the development of sensors, actuators, and electronics, with associated packaging, that will be able to operate under the harsh environments present in an engine. However, given the harsh environments inherent in propulsion systems, the development of engine-compatible electronics and sensors is not straightforward. The ability of a sensor system to operate in a given environment often depends as much on the technologies supporting the sensor element as the element itself. If the supporting technology cannot handle the application, then no matter how good the sensor is itself, the sensor system will fail. An example is high temperature environments where supporting technologies are often not capable of operation in engine conditions. Further, for every sensor going into an engine environment, i.e., for every new piece of hardware that improves the in-situ intelligence of the components, communication wires almost always must follow. The communication wires may be within or between parts, or from the engine to the controller. As more hardware is added, more wires, weight, complexity, and potential for unreliability is also introduced. Thus, wireless communication combined with in-situ processing of data would significantly improve the ability to include sensors into high temperature systems and thus lead toward more intelligent engine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presently leading the development of electronics, communication systems, and sensors capable of prolonged stable

  8. Bathymetry from space: Rationale and requirements for a new, high-resolution altimetric mission

    OpenAIRE

    Sandwell, David T.; Smith, Walter H.f.; Gille, Sarah; Kappel, Ellen; Jayne, Steven; Soofi, Khalid; Coakley, Bernard; Geli, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Bathymetry is foundational data, providing basic infrastructure for scientific, economic, educational, managerial, and political work. Applications as diverse as tsunami hazard assessment, communications cable and pipeline route planning, resource exploration, habitat management, and territorial claims under the Law of the Sea all require reliable bathymetric maps to be available on demand. Fundamental Earth science questions, such as what controls seafloor shape and how seafloor shape influe...

  9. High Power Fiber Lasers and Applications to Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Martin; McComb, Timothy; Sudesh, Vikas

    2008-09-01

    We summarize recent developments in high power fiber laser technologies and discuss future trends, particularly in their current and future use in manufacturing technologies. We will also describe our current research programs in fiber laser development, ultra-fast and new lasers, and will mention the expectations in these areas for the new Townes Laser Institute. It will focus on new core laser technologies and their applications in medical technologies, advanced manufacturing technologies and defense applications. We will describe a program on large mode area fiber development that includes results with the new gain-guiding approach, as well as high power infra-red fiber lasers. We will review the opportunities for high power fiber lasers in various manufacturing technologies and illustrate this with applications we are pursuing in the areas of femtosecond laser applications, advanced lithographies, and mid-IR technologies.

  10. High pressure pulsed avalanche discharges: Scaling of required preionization rate for homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneous high-pressure discharges can be formed by pulsed avalanche breakdown, provided that the individual avalanche heads have diffused to a large enough radius to overlap before streamer breakdown occurs. The overlap condition can be met by using an external mechanism to preionize the neutral gas, e.g., x-rays or uv radiation. There are several scenarios, (1) to preionize the gas, and then trigger the discharge by the sudden application of an electric field, (2) to apply an overvoltage over the discharge and trigger the discharge by external ionization, or (3) to have a continuous rate of external ionization and let the E field rise, with a comparatively long time constant τ, across the breakdown value (E/n)0. The authors here study the last of these scenarios, which gives a very efficient use of the preionization source because the avalanche startpoint can accumulate during the pre-avalanche phase. The authors have found that the required avalanche startpoint density Nst.p, defined as the density of individual single, or clusters of, electrons at the time when the electric field crosses the breakdown value, scales with pressure and rise time as Nst.p ∝ p21/4τ-3/4. This pressure scaling disagrees with the p3/2 scaling found by Levatter and Lin (J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 210), while the rise time scaling agrees satisfactorily with their results. For an E field which rises slowly across the breakdown value, the pre-avalanche accumulation of electrons must be taken into account, as well as the fact that the density ne of free electrons becomes larger than the density Nst.p of independent avalanche heads: when electron impact ionization closely balances attachment, individual electrons are replaced by clusters of electrons which are too close to form individual avalanche heads

  11. Requirements for non-food applications of pea proteins. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, L A; Harmsen, P F; Vereijken, J M; Mönikes, M

    2001-10-01

    So far, limited research is performed on technical applications of pea proteins and no applications have yet been reported. At ATO, three technical applications were investigated: surfactants, films, and microspheres as encapsulation matrices. Pea protein hydrolysates are surfactants with good emulsifying and foaming properties. By variation of enzyme type and degree of hydrolysis, the surfactant properties can be tailored toward specific applications. Pea protein films could be prepared by casting from dispersions at pH 7 and 10, and by compression moulding at 140 degrees C. Opposite to many other proteins, pea protein films combine strength (5-7.5 MPa) with high elongation at break (150%). A protein isolate derived from peas was applied as matrix material for the microencapsulation of beta-carotene, intended for cosmetic applications. Supercritical CO2 technology appeared to be a promising encapsulation technique for beta-carotene in porous pea protein microspheres. Advantages of this method are that no organic solvents are used, and that encapsulation is achieved under mild conditions, thereby preventing the sensitive beta-carotene from degradation. PMID:11712244

  12. Application steering for large clusters of workstations in high energy physics environments

    CERN Document Server

    Gutleber, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for managing applications in a computing cluster. The problem is that several requirements such as flexibility, scalability and inclusion of diverse software have to be met at once. We tackle this by avoiding any hard-coded policy in the framework. Controlled applications are encapsulated by a narrow interface. Maintenance services are ordinary tasks, too. Core system functionality is implemented in exchangeable method objects. Although the system has been prototyped for high energy physics data processing, the solution seems also well applicable to other distributed systems. (22 refs).

  13. Microgravity Spray Cooling Research for High Powered Laser Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivich, Chad P.

    2004-01-01

    An extremely powerful laser is being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for use on a satellite. This laser has several potential applications. One application is to use it for upper atmosphere weather research. In this case, the laser would reflect off aerosols in the upper atmosphere and bounce back to the satellite, where the aerosol velocities could be calculated and thus the upper atmosphere weather patterns could be monitored. A second application would be for the US. Air Force, which wants to use the laser strategically as a weapon for satellite defense. The Air Force fears that in the coming years as more and more nations gain limited space capabilities that American satellites may become targets, and the laser could protect the satellites. Regardless of the ultimate application, however, a critical step along the way to putting the laser in space is finding a way to efficiently cool it. While operating the laser becomes very hot and must be cooled to prevent overheating. On earth, this is accomplished by simply running cool tap water over the laser to keep it cool. But on a satellite, this is too inefficient. This would require too much water mass to be practical. Instead, we are investigating spray cooling as a means to cool the laser in microgravity. Spray cooling requires much less volume of fluid, and thus could be suitable for use on a satellite. We have inherited a 2.2 second Drop Tower rig to conduct our research with. In our experiments, water is pressurized with a compressed air tank and sprayed through a nozzle onto our test plate. We can vary the pressure applied to the water and the temperature of the plate before an experiment trial. The whole process takes place in simulated microgravity in the 2.2 second Drop Tower, and a high speed video camera records the spray as it hits the plate. We have made much progress in the past few weeks on these experiments. The rig originally did not have the capability to heat the test plate, but I did

  14. High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

    2011-10-31

    Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC

  15. Stainless steel fabrication for high quality requirements in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the author explains the welding procedures and practices adopted within the nuclear industry to achieve the high quality and standard of welds required. The changeover to mechanised welding, orbital TIG welding and synergic MIG welding, has resulted in consistent achievement of high quality standards as well as optimising the productivity. However, the use of mechanised welding machines does require the welder operating them to be fully trained and qualified. The formally organised training courses are described and the cost savings and production rates achieved by utilising the mechanized method are discussed. (author)

  16. Stainless steel fabrication for high quality requirements in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the author explains the welding procedures and practices adopted within the nuclear industry to achieve the high quality and standards of welds required. The changeover to mechanised welding, orbital TIG welding and synergic MIG welding, has resulted in consistent achievement of high quality standards as well as optimising the productivity. However, the use of mechanised welding machines does require the welder operating them to be fully trained and qualified. The formally organised training courses are described and the cost savings and production rates achieved by utilising the mechanised method are discussed. (author)

  17. Analysis of Valve Requirements for High-Efficiency Digital Displacement Fluid Power Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    Digital displacement fluid power motors have been shown to enable high-efficiency operation in a wide operation range, including the part load range where conventional fluid power motors suffers from poor efficiencies. The use of these digital displacement motors set new requirements for the valve...... technology, as very fast switching and low pressure loss is needed to obtain high-efficient motor operation. Two central parameters describing the valve operation are the valve switching time and the flow-pressure coefficient. These requirements are important inputs for the mechatronic valve design process...

  18. Applications of high-temperature superconductors in electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports on a study in which the characteristics, applications and effects of equipment with high-temperature superconductors in power transmission and distribution networks were investigated. At the present state of the art, it is impossible to say when and in what form high-temperature superconductor materials will be available for low-cost, large-area power supply. (orig.)

  19. Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate applicati

  20. Developments in advanced high temperature disc and blade materials for aero-engine gas turbine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, S

    2012-01-01

    The research carried out as part of this EngD is aimed at understanding the high temperature materials used in modern gas turbine applications and providing QinetiQ with the information required to assess component performance in new propulsion systems. Performance gains are achieved through increased turbine gas temperatures which lead to hotter turbine disc rims and blades. The work has focussed on two key areas: (1) Disc Alloy Assessment of High Temperature Properties; and (2) Thermal Barr...

  1. Marine applications of power supply and conditioning interfaces for high power pulse devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rutan, Ronald J.

    2002-01-01

    Numerous high power pulse devices are being considered for marine applications, particularly military vessels to include Electro Magnetic Aircraft Launching System, Electro Thermal Gun (ETG), Particle Beam Weapons, High Powered Lasers, and Rail Guns which are directly considered in this thesis. Currently marine vessels do not have the power generation capability to deliver the massive power over the short duration required. The weight, volume, and environment constraints inherent in marine ve...

  2. High performance superconducting radio frequency ingot niobium technology for continuous wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future continuous wave (CW) accelerators require the superconducting radio frequency cavities with high quality factor and medium accelerating gradients (≤20 MV/m). Ingot niobium cavities with medium purity fulfill the specifications of both accelerating gradient and high quality factor with simple processing techniques and potential reduction in cost. This contribution reviews the current superconducting radiofrequency research and development and outlines the potential benefits of using ingot niobium technology for CW applications

  3. High performance superconducting radio frequency ingot niobium technology for continuous wave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Pashupati, E-mail: dhakal@jlab.org; Ciovati, Gianluigi, E-mail: gciovati@jlab.org; Myneni, Ganapati R., E-mail: rao@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Future continuous wave (CW) accelerators require the superconducting radio frequency cavities with high quality factor and medium accelerating gradients (≤20 MV/m). Ingot niobium cavities with medium purity fulfill the specifications of both accelerating gradient and high quality factor with simple processing techniques and potential reduction in cost. This contribution reviews the current superconducting radiofrequency research and development and outlines the potential benefits of using ingot niobium technology for CW applications.

  4. High and very high temperature reactor research for multipurpose energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years ago, the European High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Technology Network (HTR-TN) launched a programme for developing HTR Technology, which expanded so far through 4 successive Euratom Framework Programmes. Many projects have been performed - in particular the RAPHAEL project in the 6th Euratom Framework Programme and presently ARCHER in the 7th - in line with the Network strategy that identified cogeneration of process heat and power as the main specific mission of HTR. HTR can indeed address the growing energy needs of industry presently fully relying on fossil fuel combustion with a CO2-lean generation technology, thanks to its high operating temperature and to its unique flexibility obtained from its large thermal inertia and its low power. Relying on the legacy of the former European leadership in HTR technology, this programme has addressed specific developments required for industrial process heat applications and for increasing HTR performances (higher temperatures and fuel burn-up). Decisive achievements have been obtained concerning fuel manufacturing and irradiation behaviour, key components and their materials, safety, computer code validation and specific HTR waste (fuel and graphite) management. Key experiments have been performed or are still ongoing: irradiation of graphite, fuel and vessel materials and the corresponding post-irradiation examinations, safety tests and isotopic analyses; thermal-hydraulic tests of an Intermediate Heat Exchanger mock-up in helium; air ingress experiments for a block type core, etc. Through Euratom participation in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), these achievements contribute to international cooperation. HTR-TN strategy has been recently integrated by the 'Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform' (SNE-TP) as one of the 3 'pillars' of its global nuclear strategy. It is also in line with the orientations and the timing of the 'Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan)' for the development of

  5. To Design High CMRR, High Slew rate Instrumentation Amplifier using OTA and CDTA for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Jain

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world operational amplifier is used in lot of application. The techniques for achieving high slew rate and high CMRR is by cascading the transistors. This paper focus is on understanding of Operational Trans conductance Amplifier (OTA and Current Differencing Trans conductance Amplifier (CDTA with its application as Instrumentation Amplifier (IA for Biomedical application. We have designed Instrumentation Amplifier using CDTA to obtain high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR, high slew rate in comparison with OTA using PSPICE software.

  6. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste vitrification system development and testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the fiscal year (FY) 1995 recommended high-level waste melter system development and testing (D and T) requirements. The first phase of melter system testing (FY 1995) will focus on the feasibility of high-temperature operation of recommended high-level waste melter systems. These test requirements will be used to establish the basis for defining detailed testing work scope, cost, and schedules. This document includes a brief summary of the recommended technologies and technical issues associated with each technology. In addition, this document presents the key D and T activities and engineering evaluations to be performed for a particular technology or general melter system support feature. The strategy for testing in Phase 1 (FY 1995) is to pursue testing of the recommended high-temperature technologies, namely the high-temperature, ceramic-lined, joule-heated melter, referred to as the HTCM, and the high-frequency, cold-wall, induction-heated melter, referred to as the cold-crucible melter (CCM). This document provides a detailed description of the FY 1995 D and T needs and requirements relative to each of the high-temperature technologies

  7. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  8. Case studies of industrial applications of high-power diode laser in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovikorpi, Jari; Jansson, Anssi; Salminen, Antti

    2003-06-01

    The high power diode laser is a new industrial tool. It has several advantages and disadvantages compared to the conventional industrially used CO2 and Nd:YAG laser. The most promising areas of application of diode laser have been considered to be thin sheet welding and hardening. Quite a few feasibility studies of the use of diode laser have been carried out in Finland. So far there has been some application in which diode laser is the most suitable laser. Typically, the HPDL is integrated to an industrial robot. The welding of stainless steel housing, car door lock and catalytic converters are typical examples of applications in which diode laser has technological as well as economical advantages over the conventional laser and welding techniques. The welding of these products requires good control over the heat input, short through put time and low investment. The weld cross-section of a diode laser weld is, because of conduction limited welding process, more suitable for these applications than the keyhole welding. Hardening of a large gear wheel presents also a good example of an application in which the diode laser makes it possible to economically produce structures that have not earlier been possible. Hardening requires a special form of heat delivery in order to ensure evenly hardened zone and acceptable quality. The application was performed with two high power diode lasers. The case studies of these four applications are presented and discussed in details in this paper.

  9. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  10. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms

  11. REQUIREMENT OF FLUIDITY OF HIGH WATER CONTENT MATERIALS FORTHE GETWAY-SIDE BACKFILLING TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiTaiyue; MaNianjie

    1996-01-01

    Through analyzing the effects of water consumption, diameter of solid particle, and flow velocity on the fluidity of high water content material slurry, the relationship among the fluidity, the isotropy of the slurry, and the pumping facilities applied in getway-side backfilling has been found. And the requirment of fluidity of high water content material for the design of getway-side backfilling technique is put forward in the paper.

  12. Application of Genetic Programming to High Energy Physics Event Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Castromonte, C; Göbel, C; Machado, A A; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Stenson, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Pacetti, S; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernández, H; López, A M; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Luiggi, E; Moore, J E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2005-01-01

    We review genetic programming principles, their application to FOCUS data samples, and use the method to study the doubly Cabibbo suppressed decay D+ -> K+ pi+ pi- relative to its Cabibbo favored counterpart, D+ -> K- pi+ pi+. We find that this technique is able to improve upon more traditional analysis methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the genetic programming technique to High Energy Physics data.

  13. The GREHDA Project: Galileo Software Receiver for High Dynamic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cintio, Andrea; Montenbruck, Oliver; Lo Presti, Leticia; Guyader, Eric; Reidevall, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The GREHDA project (GALILEO Software Receiver for High Dynamic Applications) is funded by the Galileo Joint Undertaking under the 6th Framework Program, and addresses the design of Galileo receivers for space applications with limited financial and engineering budgets. The project objectives are: to design, develop and validate highdynamics tracking and acquisition algorithms by means of dedicated simulation tools; to propose a conceptual design of the receiver basic hardware and software pla...

  14. Piezoelectric bismuth titanate ceramics for high temperature applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shulman, Holly Sue; Setter, Nava

    2005-01-01

    Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) shows promise in piezoelectric applications in a temperature range (300-600 °C) which is not well served by standard piezoelectric ceramics. The proposal to use bismuth titanate ceramics for these applications has a major flaw, namely that the high electrical conductivity precludes the efficient polarization of these materials in an electric field. The degree of polarization is critical since it is directly related to the piezoelectric response. In addition, once ...

  15. Investigations of Thickness Requirement in DNV Rules for High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1997-01-01

    Simple formulas for determining impact strength of high-speed craft collisions with floating objects are given in this note. Thereby the minimum mass of a floating object that just ruptures the shell plating is predicted. The minimum thickness requirements of DNV rules for aluminiumcrafts and GRP...

  16. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING and EVALUATION MEHTODS and REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document has two purposes: (smbullet) Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. (smbullet) Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals

  17. Mol- mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring high levels of molybdate for nitrogenase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Imperial, J; Ugalde, R A; Shah, V K; Brill, W J

    1985-01-01

    Mol- mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring high levels of molybdate for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase activity were characterized. The effects of mol mutations on nitrogenase activity were very similar to those caused by nifQ mutations. Mol- mutants of K. pneumoniae appear to be equivalent to ChlD- mutants of Escherichia coli.

  18. Handling and storage of high-level radioactive liquid wastes requiring cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of high-level liquid wastes storage and experience in this field gained over the past 25 years are reviewed in this report. It considers the design requirements for storage facilities, describes the systems currently in use, together with essential accessories such as the transfer and off-gas cleaning systems, and examines the safety and environmental factors

  19. Requirements for high performance computing for lattice QCD. Report of the ECFA working panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared at the request of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA), contains an assessment of the High Performance Computing resources which will be required in coming years by European physicists working in Lattice Field Theory and a review of the scientific opportunities which these resources would open. (orig.)

  20. Development of lead-free solders for high-temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek

    This work also reviews the alternative technologies for replacing the high-temperature soldering since it was determined that even the expensive candidate alloys involving Au too could not cover the spectrum of properties required for being accepted as a standard soft solder for high-temperature ......This work also reviews the alternative technologies for replacing the high-temperature soldering since it was determined that even the expensive candidate alloys involving Au too could not cover the spectrum of properties required for being accepted as a standard soft solder for high......-temperature applications. Unfortunately, even the substitute technologies that are currently being developed cannot address several critical issues of high-temperature soldering. Therefore, further research and development of high-temperature lead-free soldering is obviously needed. It is hoped that this thesis can serve...

  1. Application of Plasma Waveguides to High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milchberg, Howard M

    2013-03-30

    The eventual success of laser-plasma based acceleration schemes for high-energy particle physics will require the focusing and stable guiding of short intense laser pulses in reproducible plasma channels. For this goal to be realized, many scientific issues need to be addressed. These issues include an understanding of the basic physics of, and an exploration of various schemes for, plasma channel formation. In addition, the coupling of intense laser pulses to these channels and the stable propagation of pulses in the channels require study. Finally, new theoretical and computational tools need to be developed to aid in the design and analysis of experiments and future accelerators. Here we propose a 3-year renewal of our combined theoretical and experimental program on the applications of plasma waveguides to high-energy accelerators. During the past grant period we have made a number of significant advances in the science of laser-plasma based acceleration. We pioneered the development of clustered gases as a new highly efficient medium for plasma channel formation. Our contributions here include theoretical and experimental studies of the physics of cluster ionization, heating, explosion, and channel formation. We have demonstrated for the first time the generation of and guiding in a corrugated plasma waveguide. The fine structure demonstrated in these guides is only possible with cluster jet heating by lasers. The corrugated guide is a slow wave structure operable at arbitrarily high laser intensities, allowing direct laser acceleration, a process we have explored in detail with simulations. The development of these guides opens the possibility of direct laser acceleration, a true miniature analogue of the SLAC RF-based accelerator. Our theoretical studies during this period have also contributed to the further development of the simulation codes, Wake and QuickPIC, which can be used for both laser driven and beam driven plasma based acceleration schemes. We

  2. Skin Friction Sensor Design Methodology and Validation for High-Speed, High-Enthalpy Flow Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Meritt, Ryan James

    2014-01-01

    This investigation concerns the design, build, and testing of a new class of skin friction sensor capable of performing favorably in high-speed, high-enthalpy flow conditions, such as that found in atmospheric re-entry vehicles, scramjets, jet engines, material testing, and industrial processes. Fully understanding and optimizing these complex flows requires an understanding of aerodynamic properties at high enthalpies, which, in turn, requires numerical and analytical modeling as well as re...

  3. Environmental restoration disposal facility applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements study report. Revision 00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) will be a landfill authorized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and will comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) substantive requirements. The facility will also comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), including portions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), and to-be-considered (TBC) elements such as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. In considering the requirements of CERCLA, a detailed analysis of various alternatives for ERDF was completed using the nine CERCLA criteria, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), and public comments. The ERDF record of decision (ROD) selected an alternative that includes a RCRA-compliant double-lined trench for the disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes resulting from the remediation of operable units (OU) within the National Priorities List (NPL) sites in the 100, 200, and 300 Areas. Only wastes resulting from the remediation of Hanford NPL sites will be allowed in the ERDF. Of the various siting and design alternatives proposed for ERDF, the selected alternative provides the best combination of features by balancing the nine CERCLA criteria, ARAR compliance, environmentally protective site, and various stakeholder and public recommendations. The ERDF trench design, compliant with RCRA Subtitle C minimum technical requirements (MTR), will be double lined and equipped with a leachate collection system. This design provides a more reliable system to protect groundwater than other proposed alternatives. The ERDF is located on the Hanford Site Central Plateau, southeast of the 200 West Area

  4. Recent advances in phosphate laser glasses for high power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.H.

    1996-05-14

    Recent advances in Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses for high-peak-power and high-average-power applications are reviewed. Compositional studies have progressed to the point that glasses can be tailored to have specific properties for specific applications. Non-radiative relaxation effects can be accurately modeled and empirical expressions have been developed to evaluate both intrinsic (structural) and extrinsic (contamination induced) relaxation effects. Losses due to surface scattering and bulk glass absorption have been carefully measured and can be accurately predicted. Improvements in processing have lead to high damage threshold (e.g. Pt inclusion free) and high thermal shock resistant glasses with improved edge claddings. High optical quality pieces up to 79 x 45 x 4cm{sup 3} have been made and methods for continuous melting laser glass are under development.

  5. Capacitor performance limitations in high power converter applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khatib, Walid Ziad; Holbøll, Joachim; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2013-01-01

    High voltage low inductance capacitors are used in converters as HVDC-links, snubber circuits and sub model (MMC) capacitances. They facilitate the possibility of large peak currents under high frequent or transient voltage applications. On the other hand, using capacitors with larger equivalent...... ratings and capacitances where investigated and compared a) on a component scale, characterizing the capacitors transient performance and b) as part of different converter applications, where the series inductance plays a role. In that way, better insight is achieved on how the capacitor construction can...... affect the total performance of the converter....

  6. Superconducting spoke cavities for high-velocity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Christopher S. [Old Dominion U.; Delayen, Jean R. [Old Dominion U., JLAB

    2013-10-01

    To date, superconducting spoke cavities have been designed, developed, and tested for particle velocities up to {beta}{sub 0}~0.6, but there is a growing interest in possible applications of multispoke cavities for high-velocity applications. We have explored the design parameter space for low-frequency, high-velocity, double-spoke superconducting cavities in order to determine how each design parameter affects the electromagnetic properties, in particular the surface electromagnetic fields and the shunt impedance. We present detailed design for cavities operating at 325 and 352 MHz and optimized for {beta}{sub 0}~=0.82 and 1.

  7. High-power CO laser and its potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R and D program for the development of a high-power CO laser and its application technologies is described. Based on a self-sustained discharge excitation scheme, the available laser output has been successfully scaled to over 20 kW. The CO laser cutting experiments for thick metals have been performed in association with the decommissioning technologies development. Other potential applications, which include those based on photo chemical process, are reviewed. Recently demonstrated high-power tunable operation and room-temperature operation are also reported. (author)

  8. Photovoltaic solar array technology required for three wide scale generating systems for terrestrial applications: rooftop, solar farm, and satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Three major options for wide-scale generation of photovoltaic energy for terrestrial use are considered: (1) rooftop array, (2) solar farm, and (3) satellite station. The rooftop array would use solar cell arrays on the roofs of residential or commercial buildings; the solar farm would consist of large ground-based arrays, probably in arid areas with high insolation; and the satellite station would consist of an orbiting solar array, many square kilometers in area. The technology advancement requirements necessary for each option are discussed, including cost reduction of solar cells and arrays, weight reduction, resistance to environmental factors, reliability, and fabrication capability, including the availability of raw materials. The majority of the technology advancement requirements are applicable to all three options, making possible a flexible basic approach regardless of the options that may eventually be chosen. No conclusions are drawn as to which option is most advantageous, since the feasibility of each option depends on the success achieved in the technology advancement requirements specified.

  9. Topic 14+16: High-performance and scientific applications and extreme-scale computing (Introduction)

    KAUST Repository

    Downes, Turlough P.

    2013-01-01

    As our understanding of the world around us increases it becomes more challenging to make use of what we already know, and to increase our understanding still further. Computational modeling and simulation have become critical tools in addressing this challenge. The requirements of high-resolution, accurate modeling have outstripped the ability of desktop computers and even small clusters to provide the necessary compute power. Many applications in the scientific and engineering domains now need very large amounts of compute time, while other applications, particularly in the life sciences, frequently have large data I/O requirements. There is thus a growing need for a range of high performance applications which can utilize parallel compute systems effectively, which have efficient data handling strategies and which have the capacity to utilise current and future systems. The High Performance and Scientific Applications topic aims to highlight recent progress in the use of advanced computing and algorithms to address the varied, complex and increasing challenges of modern research throughout both the "hard" and "soft" sciences. This necessitates being able to use large numbers of compute nodes, many of which are equipped with accelerators, and to deal with difficult I/O requirements. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Studies of accurate multi-component lattice Boltzmann models on benchmark cases required for engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Otomo, Hiroshi; Li, Yong; Dressler, Marco; Staroselsky, Ilya; Zhang, Raoyang; Chen, Hudong

    2016-01-01

    We present recent developments in lattice Boltzmann modeling for multi-component flows, implemented on the platform of a general purpose, arbitrary geometry solver PowerFLOW. Presented benchmark cases demonstrate the method's accuracy and robustness necessary for handling real world engineering applications at practical resolution and computational cost. The key requirements for such approach are that the relevant physical properties and flow characteristics do not strongly depend on numerics. In particular, the strength of surface tension obtained using our new approach is independent of viscosity and resolution, while the spurious currents are significantly suppressed. Using a much improved surface wetting model, undesirable numerical artifacts including thin film and artificial droplet movement on inclined wall are significantly reduced.

  11. Proposal for basic safety requirements regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working group commissioned to prepare proposals for basic safety requirements for the storage and transport of radioactive waste prepared its report to the Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. The proposals include: radiation protection requirements, requirements concerning the properties of high-level waste units, the geological conditions of the waste disposal location, the supervision of waste disposal areas. The proposed primary requirements for safety evaluation of the disposal of high-level waste in deep geological formations are of a general nature, not being tied to specific assumptions regarding the waste itself, the geological and other conditions at the place of disposal, and the technical methods of disposal. It was impossible to test the proposals for requirements on a working repository. As no country has, to the knowledge of the working group, actually disposed of hifg-level radioactive waste or approved of plans for such disposal. Methods for evaluating the suitability of geological formations for waste disposal, and background material concerning the preparation of these proposals for basic safety requirements relating to radiation, waste handling and geological conditions are reviewed. Appended to the report is a description of the phases of the fuel cycle that are related to the storage of spent fuel and the disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt formation. It should be noted that the proposals of the working group are not limited to the disposal of reprocessed fuel, but also include the direct disposal of spent fuel as well as disposal in geological formations other than salt. (EG)

  12. High-Temperature High-Power Packaging Techniques for HEV Traction Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, F.D.; Elshabini, A.

    2006-11-30

    A key issue associated with the wider adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV) and plug in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) is the implementation of the power electronic systems that are required in these products [1]. To date, many consumers find the adoption of these technologies problematic based on a financial analysis of the initial cost versus the savings available from reduced fuel consumption. Therefore, one of the primary industry goals is the reduction in the price of these vehicles relative to the cost of traditional gasoline powered vehicles. Part of this cost reduction must come through optimization of the power electronics required by these vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of the systems must be optimized in order to provide the greatest range possible. For some drivers, any reduction in the range associated with a potential HEV or PHEV solution in comparison to a gasoline powered vehicle represents a significant barrier to adoption and the efficiency of the power electronics plays an important role in this range. Likewise, high efficiencies are also important since lost power further complicates the thermal management of these systems. Reliability is also an important concern since most drivers have a high level of comfort with gasoline powered vehicles and are somewhat reluctant to switch to a less proven technology. Reliability problems in the power electronics or associated components could not only cause a high warranty cost to the manufacturer, but may also taint these technologies in the consumer's eyes. A larger vehicle offering in HEVs is another important consideration from a power electronics point of view. A larger vehicle will need more horsepower, or a larger rated drive. In some ways this will be more difficult to implement from a cost and size point of view. Both the packaging of these modules and the thermal management of these systems at competitive price points create significant challenges. One way in which significant

  13. Development of high temperature superconducting materials for power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented in this thesis is directed towards two potential electrical power applications of high temperature superconductors: superconducting coils for magnetic field generation and superconducting power switches. The first systematic investigation into the bending strain tolerance of Ic in short lengths of Ag/Tl-1223 PIT tape is presented as a preliminary study into the required coil winding protocol for the fabrication of superconducting coils. Comparison of the microstructure with the bending strain tolerance of Ic for Ag/Tl-1223 tapes shows that the shape and degree of porosity and the grain size can explain many features of the experimental data. Monofilamentary in situ reacted Ag/Tl-1223 PIT tape has excellent bending strain tolerance up to strains of 1.5%. Superconducting coils of total tape length up to 5 m have been fabricated via a wind-and-react route using a dip coated refractory electrical insulation and tested at 77 K in different applied magnetic fields. The promising current transport properties of short lengths of Ag/Tl-1223 PIT tape are not transferred to these coils. There is strong evidence that this degradation is due to the self field limitation of Ic. Thick films of Bi-2212 on MgO substrates have been investigated for applications as superconducting power switches. The effects of the substrate format (single crystal or polycrystalline MgO) on the Bi-2212 thick film are discussed. The absence of grain boundaries and contaminants makes single crystal MgO the preferred substrate material. Variations in the heat treatment schedule and film thickness are shown to affect the long range grain connectivity and hence the reproducibility of Jc for Bi-2212 thick films on single crystal MgO. Processing details for the achievement of reproducible values of Jc (around 3000 Acm-2 ) are presented. The power switching characteristics of Bi-2212 thick films on single crystal MgO substrates have been investigated at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The

  14. The Application of High Temperature Superconducting Materials to Power Switches

    CERN Document Server

    March, S A; Ballarino, A

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting switches may find application in superconducting magnet systems that require energy extraction. Such superconducting switches could be bypass-switches that are operated in conjunction with a parallel resistor or dump-switches where all of the energy is dissipated in the switch itself. Bypass-switches are more suited to higher energy circuits as a portion of the energy can be dissipated in the external dump resistor. Dump- switches require less material and triggering energy as a lower switch resistance is needed to achieve the required total dump resistance. Both superconducting bypass-switches and superconducting dump-switches can be ther- mally activated. Switching times that are comparable to those obtained with mechanical bypass-switch systems can be achieved using a co-wound heater that is powered by a ca- pacitor discharge. Switches that have fast thermal diffusion times through the insulation can be modelled as a lumped system whereas those with slow thermal diffusion times were modelle...

  15. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  16. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  17. Ubiquitous Green Computing Techniques for High Demand Applications in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Moya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous sensor network deployments, such as the ones found in Smart cities and Ambient intelligence applications, require constantly increasing high computational demands in order to process data and offer services to users. The nature of these applications imply the usage of data centers. Research has paid much attention to the energy consumption of the sensor nodes in WSNs infrastructures. However, supercomputing facilities are the ones presenting a higher economic and environmental impact due to their very high power consumption. The latter problem, however, has been disregarded in the field of smart environment services. This paper proposes an energy-minimization workload assignment technique, based on heterogeneity and application-awareness, that redistributes low-demand computational tasks from high-performance facilities to idle nodes with low and medium resources in the WSN infrastructure. These non-optimal allocation policies reduce the energy consumed by the whole infrastructure and the total execution time.

  18. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  19. Recent advances in the development of high average power induction accelerators for industrial and environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-pulse accelerator technology developed during time period from the early 60's through the late 80's is now being extended to high average power systems capable of being used in industrial and environmental applications. Processes requiring high dose levels and/or high volume throughput may require systems with beam power levels from several hundreds of kilowatts to megawatts. Processes may include chemical waste mitigation, flue gas cleanup, food pasteurization, and new forms of materials preparation and treatment. This paper will address the present status of high average power systems now in operation that use combinations of semiconductor and saturable core magnetic switches with inductive voltage adders to achieve MeV beams of electrons or x-rays over areas of 10,000 cm2 or more. Similar high average power technology is also being used below 1 MeV to drive repetitive ion beam sources for treatment of material surfaces

  20. SiC device development for high temperature sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, J. S.; Goldstein, David; Kurtz, A. D.; Osgood, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in the processing and characterization of 3C-SiC for high temperature sensor applications is reviewed. Piezoresistance properties of silicon carbide and the temperature coefficient of resistivity of n-type beta-SiC are presented. In addition, photoelectrical etching and dopant selective etch-stops in SiC and high temperature Ohmic contacts for n-type beta-SiC sensors are discussed.

  1. 30 CFR 933.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and other agencies as required in 30 CFR 761.12(f). (b) Each application for... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.784 Underground mining permit...

  2. A Lemon Cell Battery for High-Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, Kenneth R.; Nigh, Christopher W.; Weinstein, Randy D.

    2007-04-01

    This article discusses the development of a lemon cell battery for high-power applications. The target application is the power source of a dc electric motor for a model car constructed by first-year engineering students as part of their introductory course design project and competition. The battery is composed of a series of lemon juice cells made from UV vis cuvets that use a magnesium anode and copper cathode. Dilution of the lemon juice to reduce the rate of corrosion of the magnesium anode and the addition of table salt to reduce the internal resistance of the cell are examined. Although our specific interest is the use of this lemon cell battery to run an electric dc motor, high-power applications such as radios, portable cassette or CD players, and other battery-powered toys are equally appropriate for demonstration and laboratory purposes using this battery.

  3. High density bit transition requirements versus the effects on BCH error correcting code. [bit synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, F. M.; Schoggen, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The design to achieve the required bit transition density for the Space Shuttle high rate multiplexes (HRM) data stream of the Space Laboratory Vehicle is reviewed. It contained a recommended circuit approach, specified the pseudo random (PN) sequence to be used and detailed the properties of the sequence. Calculations showing the probability of failing to meet the required transition density were included. A computer simulation of the data stream and PN cover sequence was provided. All worst case situations were simulated and the bit transition density exceeded that required. The Preliminary Design Review and the critical Design Review are documented. The Cover Sequence Generator (CSG) Encoder/Decoder design was constructed and demonstrated. The demonstrations were successful. All HRM and HRDM units incorporate the CSG encoder or CSG decoder as appropriate.

  4. Superfund TIO videos: Set B. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). Part 2. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The videotape reviews the statutory requirements for removal and remedial action to comply with other environmental laws. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) and other To Be Considered (TBC) criteria when undertaking removal and remedial responses are defined. The different types of ARARs and how they are applied to Superfund site response is described

  5. Circular Piezoelectric Accelerometer for High Band Width Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Larsen, Jack; Lou-Møller, Rasmus;

    2009-01-01

    An uniaxial bulk-micromachined piezoelectric MEMS accelerometer intended for high bandwidth application is fabricated and characterized. A circular seismic mass (radius = 1200 ¿m) is suspended by a 20 ¿m thick annular silicon membrane (radius = 1800 ¿m). A 24 ¿m PZT screen printed thick film...

  6. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  7. New scintillating glasses for high energy physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new family of scintillating glasses has been developed which is based upon Pr3+ oxide in a silicate host. The materials have fast response (30nsec ≤ Tau ≤ several μsec) and good optical transmission. Materials of this kind might find applicability as fiber-optic detectors for high energy physics experiments operating at moderate interaction rates

  8. New scintillating glasses for high energy physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new family of scintillating glasses has been developed which is based upon Pr/sup 3+/ oxide in a silicate host. The materials have fast response (30 nsec ≤ tau ≤ several μsec) and good optical transmission. Materials of this kind might find applicability as fiber-optic detectors for high energy physics experiments operating at moderate interaction rates

  9. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  10. Optimal Phase Masks for High Contrast Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Garreth J.

    Phase-only optical elements can provide a number of important functions for high-contrast imaging. This thesis presents analytical and numerical optical design methods for accomplishing specific tasks, the most significant of which is the precise suppression of light from a distant point source. Instruments designed for this purpose are known as coronagraphs. Here, advanced coronagraph designs are presented that offer improved theoretical performance in comparison to the current state-of-the-art. Applications of these systems include the direct imaging and characterization of exoplanets and circumstellar disks with high sensitivity. Several new coronagraph designs are introduced and, in some cases, experimental support is provided. In addition, two novel high-contrast imaging applications are discussed: the measurement of sub-resolution information using coronagraphic optics and the protection of sensors from laser damage. The former is based on experimental measurements of the sensitivity of a coronagraph to source displacement. The latter discussion presents the current state of ongoing theoretical work. Beyond the mentioned applications, the main outcome of this thesis is a generalized theory for the design of optical systems with one of more phase masks that provide precise control of radiation over a large dynamic range, which is relevant in various high-contrast imaging scenarios. The optimal phase masks depend on the necessary tasks, the maximum number of optics, and application specific performance measures. The challenges and future prospects of this work are discussed in detail.

  11. Highly stressed carbon film coatings on silicon potential applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Sharda, T

    2002-01-01

    The fabrication of highly stressed and strongly adhered nanocrystalline diamond films on Si substrates is presented. A microwave plasma CVD method with controlled and continuous bias current density was used to grow the films. The stress/curvature of the films can be varied and controlled by altering the BCD. Potential applications for these films include particle physics and x-ray optics.

  12. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  13. The Application of Communicative Approach in High School English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓敏

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a brief illustration of the application of communicative approach in high school English teaching(speaking,reading and listening).The purpose of communicative approach is to help students learn English knowledge,evaluate students' communicative competence.

  14. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    Domestic heat pumps for shallow geothermal heating of family houses are popular and the range and supply of standard solutions is large. However, in applications for large capacities and temperatures, like district heating in the mega Watt range, standard solutions for high temperatures are scarce...

  15. The Application of Communicative Approach in High School English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a brief illustration of the application of communicative approach in high school English teaching(speaking,reading and listening).The purpose of communicative approach is to help students learn English knowledge,evaluate students’ communicative competence.

  16. How do medical school applicants respond to the requirement for 'work experience'? An exploration of 'going abroad'

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Stephen,; Timm, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Arranging work experience prior to medical school can for many potential applicants prove extremely difficult, with access to clinical settings often considered the ideal type. Potential applicants struggle to interpret the official guidance from medical schools1, making the application process intensely unsettling. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some UK-based candidates have been responding to these perceived requirements by paying to undertake commerc...

  17. Quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - European requirements and application in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This lecture is aimed to overview the modern concept for reduction of radiation exposure and improving the image quality through establishment of system for Quality Assurance in diagnostic radiology. The accent is put on practical realization of physical and technical aspects of Quality Assurance. The requirements of EURATOM 97/43 Directive and experience of leading countries are considered but the requirements of new regulations in the country are accented. The requirements of the Ordinance 30/2005 of the Ministry of Health and of the Standard on Medical Imaging regarding the radiological equipment and Quality Assurance are overviewed. The conclusions of performed surveys of the physical and technical parameters of the radiological equipment as well as the patient doses are discussed. The possibilities for optimization of diagnostic procedures are analyzed. The existing problems, difficulties and unresolved problems are discussed. The main purpose of this overview lecture is to provoke a broad discussion on the challenges of assurance of high quality in diagnostic radiology

  18. The Common Metadata Repository: A High Performance, High Quality Metadata Engine for Next Generation EOSDIS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilone, D.; Baynes, K.; Farley, J. D.; Murphy, K. J.; Ritz, S.; Northcutt, R.; Cherry, T. A.; Gokey, C.; Wanchoo, L.

    2013-12-01

    As data archives grow and more data becomes accessible online, cataloging, searching, and extracting relevant data from these archives becomes a critical part of Earth Science research. Current metadata systems such as ECHO, EMS, and GCMD require metadata providers to maintain multiple, disparate systems utilizing different formats and different mechanisms for submitting and updating their entries. As an end user or application developer, this inconsistency reduces the value of the metadata and complicates finding and using earth science data. Building on the results of the ESDIS Metadata Harmony Study of 2012, we completed a Metadata Harmony Study 2 in 2013 to identify specific areas where metadata quality, consistency, and availability could be improved while reducing the burden on metadata providers. In this talk we discuss the results of the Metadata Harmony 2 study and the impacts on the EOSDIS community. Specifically, we'll discuss: - The Unified Metadata Model (UMM) that unifies the ECHO, GCMD, and EMS metadata models - The Common Metadata Repository (CMR) which will provide a high performance common repository for both EOSDIS and non-EOSDIS metadata unifying the ECHO, GCMD, and EMS metadata stores - The CMR's approach to automated metadata assessment and review combined with a dedicated a science support team to significantly improve quality and consistency across Earth Science metadata - Future expandability of the CMR beyond basic science metadata to incorporate multiple metadata concepts including visualization, data attributes, services, documentation, and tool metadata - The CMR's relationship with evolving metadata standards such as work from the MENDS group and ISO19115 NASA Best Practices This talk is targeted at metadata providers, consumers, and Earth Science Data end users to introduce components that will support next generation EOSDIS applications.

  19. Systems requirements for cable modems in high-speed access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Luis A.; Su, Shing-Fong

    1996-11-01

    Cable modems play an important role in turning the hybrid fiber coax (HFC) networks from pure broadcast video service to high-speed access networks. Many CATV companies and telephone companies are experimenting with high-speed data services over HFC. With today's technology, cable modems can easily run at a data rate of 10 Mbps or above. They allow subscribers fast access to on-line services and the Internet. A variety of cable modems have been developed and marketed by cable modem vendors. Selection of right cable modems for deployment in HFC access networks has become a nontrivial matter. Different HFC systems may require different types of cable modems. In this paper, we review the development of HFC systems and discuss data networking using approaches that include connectionless data networking and connection-oriented data networking systems. The system requirements for cable modems in terms of throughput, robustness, ease of operation, protocol efficiency, reliability, network management, and cost are addressed.

  20. High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    An Analysis of Alternatives and a Technology Requirements Study were conducted for two mission areas utilizing various types of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). A hurricane science mission and a communications relay mission provided air vehicle requirements which were used to derive sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative propulsion systems. A HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred concept given near-term technology constraints. The cost effectiveness analysis showed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can be a sub-optimum system solution. In addition, the HTA solar regenerative configuration was utilized to perform both a mission requirements study and a technology development study. Given near-term technology constraints, the solar regenerative powered vehicle was limited to operations during the long days and short nights at higher latitudes during the summer months. Technology improvements are required in energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency, along with airframe drag and mass reductions to enable the solar regenerative vehicle to meet the full mission requirements.

  1. Remote systems requirements of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote systems will be required in the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy Converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources and their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  2. Transparent conducting oxide electrodes requirements for high efficiency micromorph solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Boccard, Mathieu; Cuony, Peter; SöDerströM, Karin; Bugnon, Grégory; Despeisse, Matthieu; Battaglia, Corsin; Ding, Laura; NICOLAY, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The requirements for a micromorph tandem cell front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) are multiple. This essential layer needs a high transparency, excellent conduction, strong light scattering into silicon and good surface morphology for the subsequent growth of silicon cells. These parameters are all linked and trade-offs have to be found for optimal layer. The optimum combination, taking into account current achievable materials properties, is still unclear. Concerning transparency, we st...

  3. B4G local area: high level requirements and system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben; Pajukoski, Kari; Raaf, Bernhard; Tiirola, Esa; Eva, Lähetkangas; Kovacs, Istvan; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Hu, Liang; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio

    2012-01-01

    A next generation Beyond 4G (B4G) radio access technology is expected to become available around 2020 in order to cope with the exponential increase of mobile data traffic. In this paper, research motivations and high level requirements for a B4G local area concept are discussed. Our suggestions on...... the design of the B4G system as well as on the choice of its key technology components are also presented....

  4. Pyrolyzed feather fibers for adsorbent and high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoz, Erman

    Chicken feather fibers (CFF) are problematic and costly for the poultry industry in terms of managing maintenance and disposal. Considering their great availability, low cost, and unique protein structure, CFF can be an environmentally friendly and bio-renewable candidate to replace petroleum products. CFF's low degradation and melting temperature render them useless at high temperatures. Pyrolysis methods were developed for CFF by using two temperature steps to convert them into high temperature resistant and adsorbent fibers while retaining their original physical appearance and affine dimensions. An intermolecular crosslinking mechanism in the first step of pyrolysis at 215 ºC for 24 h provided an intact fibrous structure with no subsequent melting. The evidence obtained from the thermal, bulk, and surface analysis techniques was indication of the simultaneous side chain degradation, polypeptide backbone scission, disulfide bond cleavage, and isopeptide crosslinking. The variation in the reaction kinetics of disulfide bond cleavage and isopeptide crosslinking played an important role in the melting transition. Consequently, long-lasting heat treatments below the melting point provided sufficient crosslinks in the protein matrix to keep the fibrous structure intact. Water-insoluble and crosslinked CFF reinforced the triglyceride-fatty acid based composites by providing a 15 fold increase in storage and tensile modulus at room temperature. These thermally stable fibers can be used instead of CFF in composites which may require high temperature compounding and molding processes. The second step of pyrolysis at 400--450 ºC for 1 h resulted in microporous fibers with a micropore volume of ˜0.18 cm3/g STP and with a narrower pore size distribution than commercial activated carbons through thermal degradation. Nearly all accessible pores in the microporous pyrolyzed chicken feather fibers (PCFF) had diameters less than 1 nm and therefore, showed a potential to be

  5. Exercise and a High Fat Diet Synergistically Increase the Pantothenic Acid Requirement in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kei; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that both exercise and dietary composition increase the utilization of, and thus the requirement for, certain water-soluble vitamins. However, there have been no studies evaluating the combined impacts of exercise and dietary composition on vitamin utilization. In this experiment, rats were fed a pantothenic acid (PaA)-restricted (0.004 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet containing 5% (ordinary amount of dietary fat) or 20% fat (high fat), and were forced to swim until exhaustion every other day for 22 d. PaA status was assessed by urinary excretion, which reflects body stores of water-soluble vitamins. The urinary excretion of PaA in rats fed a 5% fat diet was not affected by swimming (5% fat + non-swimming vs. 5% fat + swim; p>0.05). Excretion of PaA was decreased by the high-fat diet (5% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + non-swim; pexercise (20% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + swim; pexercise and a high-fat diet. Plasma PaA concentrations showed changes similar to those seen for urinary excretion. The experiment was then repeated using rats fed a PaA-sufficient (0.016 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet, and PaA excretion was again synergistically decreased by the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet (pexercise and a high-fat diet synergistically increases the requirement for PaA. PMID:26226957

  6. The Implementation and Effects of High School Graduation Requirements: First Steps toward Curricular Reform. CPRE Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, William H.; And Others

    The focus of this study is the implementation and effects of high school graduation requirements enacted as a result of the recent wave of state reforms of education. The study concentrates on high school graduation course requirements. Interview data on the intent and effects of the requirements were gathered in six states, 24 districts, 32 high…

  7. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a “sensor” or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit

  8. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudoran, Cristian D.; Dǎdârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a "sensor" or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.

  9. Assessment of potential solder candidates for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    package with different solders of different melting temperatures. High Pb containing alloys where the lead levels can be above 85% by weight, is one of the solders currently being used in this technology. Responding to market pressure i.e. need for green electronic products there is now an increasing...... pressure to eliminate lead containing materials despite the fact that materials for high Pb containing alloys are currently not affected by any legislations. A tentative assessment was carried out to determine the potential solder candidates for high temperature applications based on the solidification...

  10. SINGLE PHASE HIGH FREQUENCY AC CONVERTER FOR INDUCTION HEATING APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A INAYATHULLAAH,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed topology reduces the total harmonic distortion (THD of a high frequency AC/AC Converter well below the acceptable limit. This paper deals with a novel single phase AC/DC/AC soft switching utility frequency AC to high frequency AC converter. In this paper a single phase full bridge inverter with Vienna rectifier as front end is used instead of conventional diode bridge rectifier to provide continuous sinusoidal input current with nearly unity power factor at the source side with extremely low distortion.. This power converter is more suitable and acceptable for cost effective high frequency (HF consumer induction heating applications.

  11. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudoran, Cristian D., E-mail: cristian.tudoran@itim-cj.ro; Dădârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, PO 5 Box 700, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a “sensor” or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.

  12. Applicability of copper alloys for DEMO high heat flux components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, Steven J.

    2016-02-01

    The current state of knowledge of the mechanical and thermal properties of high-strength, high conductivity Cu alloys relevant for fusion energy high heat flux applications is reviewed, including effects of thermomechanical and joining processes and neutron irradiation on precipitation- or dispersion-strengthened CuCrZr, Cu-Al2O3, CuNiBe, CuNiSiCr and CuCrNb (GRCop-84). The prospects for designing improved versions of wrought copper alloys and for utilizing advanced fabrication processes such as additive manufacturing based on electron beam and laser consolidation methods are discussed. The importance of developing improved structural materials design criteria is also noted.

  13. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  14. Laser acceleration of low emittance, high energy ions and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julien; Audebert, Patrick; Borghesi, Marco; Pépin, Henri; Willi, Oswald

    2009-03-01

    Laser-accelerated ion sources have exceptional properties, i.e. high brightness and high spectral cut-off (56 MeV at present), high directionality and laminarity (at least 100-fold better than conventional accelerators beams), short burst duration (ps). Thanks to these properties, these sources open new opportunities for applications. Among these, we have already explored their use for proton radiography of fields in plasmas and for warm dense matter generation. These sources could also stimulate development of compact ion accelerators or be used for medical applications. To extend the range of applications, ion energy and conversion efficiency must however be increased. Two strategies for doing so using present-day lasers have been successfully explored in LULI experiments. In view of applications, it is also essential to control (i.e. collimate and energy select) these beams. For this purpose, we have developed an ultra-fast laser-triggered micro-lens providing tuneable control of the beam divergence as well as energy selection. To cite this article: J. Fuchs et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  15. High resolution frequency analysis techniques with application to the redshift experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decher, R.; Teuber, D.

    1975-01-01

    High resolution frequency analysis methods, with application to the gravitational probe redshift experiment, are discussed. For this experiment a resolution of .00001 Hz is required to measure a slowly varying, low frequency signal of approximately 1 Hz. Major building blocks include fast Fourier transform, discrete Fourier transform, Lagrange interpolation, golden section search, and adaptive matched filter technique. Accuracy, resolution, and computer effort of these methods are investigated, including test runs on an IBM 360/65 computer.

  16. High resolution frequency analysis techniques with application to the redshift experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decher, R.; Teuber, D.

    1975-10-01

    High resolution frequency analysis methods, with application to the gravitational probe redshift experiment, are discussed. For this experiment a resolution of .00001 Hz is required to measure a slowly varying, low frequency signal of approximately 1 Hz. Major building blocks include fast Fourier transform, discrete Fourier transform, Lagrange interpolation, golden section search, and adaptive matched filter technique. Accuracy, resolution, and computer effort of these methods are investigated, including test runs on an IBM 360/65 computer. (auth)

  17. Optimizations of sub-100 nm Si/SiGe MODFETs for high linearity RF applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L; Asenov, A; Borici, M.; J. R. Watling; Barker, J R; Roy, S; Elgaid, K.; Thayne, I.; Hackbarth, T.

    2003-01-01

    Based on careful calibration in respect of 70 nm n-type strained Si channel S/SiGe modulation doped FETs (MODFETs) fabricated by Daimler Chrysler, numerical simulations have been used to study the impact of the device geometry and various doping strategies on device performance and linearity. The device geometry is sensitive to both RF performance and device linearity. Doped channel devices are found to be promising for high linearity applications. Trade-off design strategies are required for...

  18. Application of the office of civilian radioactive waste management QA requirements to the hanford spent nuclear fuel project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document identifies, at a high-level, the Hanford SNF Project systems, structures, and components and activities that must implement to some degree the OCRWM QARD requirements to ensure compliance with RL direction. This document will also be used to support development of a QARD requirements matrix for the implementation of QARD requirements

  19. Application of the office of civilian radioactive waste management QA requirements to the hanford spent nuclear fuel project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCORMACK, R.L.

    1999-05-12

    This document identifies, at a high-level, the Hanford SNF Project systems, structures, and components and activities that must implement to some degree the OCRWM QARD requirements to ensure compliance with RL direction. This document will also be used to support development of a QARD requirements matrix for the implementation of QARD requirements.

  20. High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By way of a brief review of Si photonics technology, we show that significant improvements in device performance are necessary for practical telecommunications applications. In order to improve device performance in Si photonics, we have developed a Si-Ge-silica monolithic integration platform, on which compact Si-Ge–based modulators/detectors and silica-based high-performance wavelength filters are monolithically integrated. The platform features low-temperature silica film deposition, which cannot damage Si-Ge–based active devices. Using this platform, we have developed various integrated photonic devices for broadband telecommunications applications. (review)

  1. High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Yamada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By way of a brief review of Si photonics technology, we show that significant improvements in device performance are necessary for practical telecommunications applications. In order to improve device performance in Si photonics, we have developed a Si-Ge-silica monolithic integration platform, on which compact Si-Ge–based modulators/detectors and silica-based high-performance wavelength filters are monolithically integrated. The platform features low-temperature silica film deposition, which cannot damage Si-Ge–based active devices. Using this platform, we have developed various integrated photonic devices for broadband telecommunications applications.

  2. Applications of super - high intensity lasers in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-plasma interactions arising when a super intense ultrashort laser pulse impinges a solid target creates intense partly collimated and energy resolved photons, high energy electron and protons and neutrons. In addition the plasma plume can generate huge magnetic and electric fields. Also ultra short X-ray pulses are created. We have participated in some of such experiments at Rutherford and Max-Planck Institute and assessed the applications of such kind as laser-driven accelerators. This paper discusses applications in nuclear engineering (neutron sources, isotope separation, fast ignition and transmutation, etc). In particular the potential for extreme time resolution and to partial energy resolution are assessed

  3. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  4. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  5. Stability of Materials in High Temperature Water Vapor: SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, E. J.; Jacobson, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell material systems require long term stability in environments containing high-temperature water vapor. Many materials in fuel cell systems react with high-temperature water vapor to form volatile hydroxides which can degrade cell performance. In this paper, experimental methods to characterize these volatility reactions including the transpiration technique, thermogravimetric analysis, and high pressure mass spectrometry are reviewed. Experimentally determined data for chromia, silica, and alumina volatility are presented. In addition, data from the literature for the stability of other materials important in fuel cell systems are reviewed. Finally, methods for predicting material recession due to volatilization reactions are described.

  6. Applications of heat pipes for high thermal load beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high flux beam produced by insertion devices often requires special heat removal techniques. For the optical elements used in such high thermal load beam lines the required precision demands a highly accurate design. Heat pipe cooling of critical elements of the x-1 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. This method reduces vibrations caused by water cooling systems and simplifies the design. In some of these designs, deposited heat must be transferred through unbonded contact interfaces. A pinhole assembly and a beam position monitor designed for the x-1 beam line both transfer heat through such interfaces in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The fundamental design objective is that of removing the heat with minimal interface thermal resistance. We present our test method and results for measuring the thermal resistance across metallic interfaces as a function of contact pressure. The design of some devices which utilize both heat pipes and thermal contact interfaces will also be described. (orig.)

  7. Continuous Carbon Nanotube-Based Fibers and Films for Applications Requiring Enhanced Heat Dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Fan, Zeng; Mikhalchan, Anastasiia; Tran, Thang Q; Jewell, Daniel; Duong, Hai M; Marconnet, Amy M

    2016-07-13

    The production of continuous carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers and films has paved the way to leverage the superior properties of individual carbon nanotubes for novel macroscale applications such as electronic cables and multifunctional composites. In this manuscript, we synthesize fibers and films from CNT aerogels that are continuously grown by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) and measure thermal conductivity and natural convective heat transfer coefficient from the fiber and film. To probe the mechanisms of heat transfer, we develop a new, robust, steady-state thermal characterization technique that enables measurement of the intrinsic fiber thermal conductivity and the convective heat transfer coefficient from the fiber to the surrounding air. The thermal conductivity of the as-prepared fiber ranges from 4.7 ± 0.3 to 28.0 ± 2.4 W m(-1) K(-1) and depends on fiber volume fraction and diameter. A simple nitric acid treatment increases the thermal conductivity by as much as a factor of ∼3 for the fibers and ∼6.7 for the thin films. These acid-treated CNT materials demonstrate specific thermal conductivities significantly higher than common metals with the same absolute thermal conductivity, which means they are comparatively lightweight, thermally conductive fibers and films. Beyond thermal conductivity, the acid treatment enhances electrical conductivity by a factor of ∼2.3. Further, the measured convective heat transfer coefficients range from 25 to 200 W m(-2) K(-1) for all fibers, which is higher than expected for macroscale materials and demonstrates the impact of the nanoscale CNT features on convective heat losses from the fibers. The measured thermal and electrical performance demonstrates the promise for using these fibers and films in macroscale applications requiring effective heat dissipation. PMID:27322344

  8. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Eliminating Applications Through Community Eligibility as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This final rule establishes requirements for State agencies, local educational agencies, and schools operating the Community Eligibility Provision, a reimbursement option that allows the service of school meals to all children at no-cost in high poverty schools without collecting household applications. By eliminating the household application process and streamlining meal counting and claiming procedures through the Community Eligibility Provision, local educational agencies may substantially reduce administrative burden related to operating the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs. This rule codifies many requirements that were implemented through policy guidance following enactment of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, as well as provisions of the proposed rule. These requirements will result in consistent, national implementation of the Community Eligibility Provision. PMID:27476197

  9. A New Very-High-Efficiency R4 Converter for High-Power Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    of fullbridge switching stages and power transformers, operate in parallel on primary side and in series on secondary side. Current sharing is guaranteed by series connection of transformer secondary windings and three small cascaded current balancing transformers on primary side. The detailed design of a 10 k...... cost solution to achieve very high conversion efficiency in high input current applications....

  10. Soft Magnetic Materials in High-Frequency, High-Power Conversion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, AM; Ohodnicki, PR; McHenry, ME

    2012-07-04

    Advanced soft magnetic materials are needed to match high-power density and switching frequencies made possible by advances in wide band-gap semiconductors. Magnetics capable of operating at higher operating frequencies have the potential to greatly reduce the size of megawatt level power electronics. In this article, we examine the role of soft magnetic materials in high-frequency power applications and we discuss current material's limitations and highlight emerging trends in soft magnetic material design for high-frequency and power applications using the materials paradigm of synthesis -> structure -> property -> performance relationships.

  11. Soft Magnetic Materials in High-Frequency, High-Power Conversion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Alex M.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; McHenry, Michael E.

    2012-07-01

    Advanced soft magnetic materials are needed to match high-power density and switching frequencies made possible by advances in wide band-gap semiconductors. Magnetics capable of operating at higher operating frequencies have the potential to greatly reduce the size of megawatt level power electronics. In this article, we examine the role of soft magnetic materials in high-frequency power applications and we discuss current material's limitations and highlight emerging trends in soft magnetic material design for high-frequency and power applications using the materials paradigm of synthesis → structure → property → performance relationships.

  12. High speed automated microtomography of nuclear emulsions and recent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tioukov, V.; Aleksandrov, A.; Consiglio, L. [INFN Napoli (Italy); De Lellis, G. [Universita di Napoli (Italy); Vladymyrov, M. [LPI Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    The development of high-speed automatic scanning systems was the key-factor for massive and successful emulsions application for big neutrino experiments like OPERA. The emulsion detector simplicity, the unprecedented sub-micron spatial resolution and the unique ability to provide intrinsically 3-dimensional spatial information make it a perfect device for short-living particles study, where the event topology should be precisely reconstructed in a 10-100 um scale vertex region. Recently the exceptional technological progress in image processing and automation together with intensive R&D done by Italian and Japanese microscopy groups permit to increase the scanning speed to unbelievable few years ago m{sup 2}/day scale and so greatly extend the range of the possible applications for emulsion-based detectors to other fields like: medical imaging, directional dark matter search, nuclear physics, geological and industrial applications.

  13. High speed automated microtomography of nuclear emulsions and recent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tioukov, V.; Aleksandrov, A.; Consiglio, L.; De Lellis, G.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2015-12-01

    The development of high-speed automatic scanning systems was the key-factor for massive and successful emulsions application for big neutrino experiments like OPERA. The emulsion detector simplicity, the unprecedented sub-micron spatial resolution and the unique ability to provide intrinsically 3-dimensional spatial information make it a perfect device for short-living particles study, where the event topology should be precisely reconstructed in a 10-100 um scale vertex region. Recently the exceptional technological progress in image processing and automation together with intensive R&D done by Italian and Japanese microscopy groups permit to increase the scanning speed to unbelievable few years ago m2/day scale and so greatly extend the range of the possible applications for emulsion-based detectors to other fields like: medical imaging, directional dark matter search, nuclear physics, geological and industrial applications.

  14. High speed automated microtomography of nuclear emulsions and recent application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of high-speed automatic scanning systems was the key-factor for massive and successful emulsions application for big neutrino experiments like OPERA. The emulsion detector simplicity, the unprecedented sub-micron spatial resolution and the unique ability to provide intrinsically 3-dimensional spatial information make it a perfect device for short-living particles study, where the event topology should be precisely reconstructed in a 10-100 um scale vertex region. Recently the exceptional technological progress in image processing and automation together with intensive R&D done by Italian and Japanese microscopy groups permit to increase the scanning speed to unbelievable few years ago m2/day scale and so greatly extend the range of the possible applications for emulsion-based detectors to other fields like: medical imaging, directional dark matter search, nuclear physics, geological and industrial applications

  15. Critical evaluation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors applicable to coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review is presented of the technology and costs of very high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) applicable to nuclear coal conversion. Coal conversion processes suitable for coupling to reactors are described. Vendor concepts of the VHTR are summarized. The materials requirements as a function of process temperature in the range 1400 to 20000F are analyzed. Components, environmental and safety factors, economics and nuclear fuel cycles are reviewed. It is concluded that process heat supply in the range 1400 to 15000F could be developed with a high degree of assurance. Process heat at 16000F would require considerably more materials development. While temperatures up to 20000F appear to be attainable, considerably more research and risk were involved. A demonstration plant would be required as a step in the commercialization of the VHTR

  16. An Analysis of Testing Requirements for Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This report provides guidance on the component testing necessary during the next phase of fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) development. In particular, the report identifies and describes the reactor component performance and reliability requirements, provides an overview of what information is necessary to provide assurance that components will adequately achieve the requirements, and then provides guidance on how the required performance information can efficiently be obtained. The report includes a system description of a representative test scale FHR reactor. The reactor parameters presented in this report should only be considered as placeholder values until an FHR test scale reactor design is completed. The report focus is bounded at the interface between and the reactor primary coolant salt and the fuel and the gas supply and return to the Brayton cycle power conversion system. The analysis is limited to component level testing and does not address system level testing issues. Further, the report is oriented as a bottom-up testing requirements analysis as opposed to a having a top-down facility description focus.

  17. Proceedings, phenomenology and applications of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenomenology and Applications of High Temperature Superconductors, The Los Alamos Symposium: 1991, was sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Center for Materials Science, the Advanced Studies Program on High Temperature Superconductivity Theory (ASP) and the Exploratory Research and Development Center. This is the second symposium in the series. High Temperature Superconductivity, The Los Alamos Symposium: 1989, also published by Addison Wesley, focused on the cutting-edge theoretical and experimental issues in high temperature superconductors. This symposium, with its focus on the phenomenology and applications of high temperature superconductors, gives a complementary review of the aspects of the field closely related to the impact of high temperature superconductors on technology. The objective of ASP is to advance the field on a broad front with no specific point of view by bringing a team of leading academic theorists into a joint effort with the theoretical and experimental scientists of a major DOE national laboratory. The ASP consisted of fellows led by Robert Schrieffer (UCSB and now FSU) joined by David Pines (University of illinois), Elihu Abrahams (Rutgers), Sebastian Doniach (Stanford), and Maurice Rice (ETH, Zurich) and theoretical and experimental staff of Los Alamos National Laboratory. This synergism of academic, laboratory, theoretical and experimental research produced a level of interaction and excitement that would not be possible otherwise. This publication and the previous one in the series are just examples of how this approach to advancing science can achieve significant contributions

  18. Development of high nitrogen electrodes for fast breeder reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . After many trials, the chemistry has been optimized and the required tests such as delta ferrite content (AWS SFA-5.4), tensile properties both in the ambient (ASTM A370) and service temperatures (ASTM E21), Charpy U notch impact toughness (ASTM E23) both in the as-welded and fully sensitized conditions, IGC tests (ASTM A262 Practice E) and usability tests (AWS SFA 5.4) were conducted for qualifying the welding electrodes for future FBR applications. In this paper, the results of the qualification procedure of high nitrogen electrodes suitable for welding of 0.14 wt% nitrogen content SS has been demonstrated. (author)

  19. Application of Objective Provision Tree Methodology to Development of Specific Safety Requirement for SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Objective Provision Tree (OPT) is a methodology to ensure and document the provision of essential “lines of protection” for successful prevention, control or mitigation of phenomena that could potentially damage the nuclear system. The OPT methodology has been developed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The OPT is a top-down method with a tree structure for each defense-in-depth level, objectives and barriers, safety functions, challenges to maintain safety functions, mechanisms of safety function degradation, and provisions to each degradation or failure mechanism. The general approach in developing the OPT is to classify challenges based on phenomena, for example, degraded or disruption of heat transfer path, coolant flow blockages in the core, and etc. This approach has benefits in developing further logics for mechanisms and provisions with clear and straight logical paths. Nevertheless, the potential disadvantage lies in that the high complexity might come out during the development of detailed logics considering the plant-specific designs. Considering this, we adopt different approach in that the challenges are defined in terms of system boundaries of primary/intermediate heat transport system and steam generating system. Draft OPT for level 3 of Core Heat Removal safety function is developed for the KALIMER which is conceptually designed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The purpose of our development is basically to apply the developed OPT to confirm whether there is no missing requirements in our safety requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). (author)

  20. Dissipation and AC loss in high Tc superconductors destined for power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Superconductivity, which was discovered at the beginning of this century, has long been promoted as a solution to many power engineering problems. This was because a superconductor exhibits zero resistance to DC currents and a very low resistance to AC currents. Historically however, power utility applications, whilst technically feasible, were not economically viable. With the discovery of high temperature superconductors in the late 80's there has been a resurgence of interest in the use of superconductivity for power applications: cables, motors, generators, transformers, fault current limiters. In order for power applications of superconductors to be realized, in addition to a high current density, low AC losses and transient stability are also necessary. Whilst much work worldwide has been devoted to increasing critical current densities of high Tc materials, reliable AC loss characterisation of power applications and low loss conductor designs optimized for each application still remain to be developed. Here, calorimetric methods for the measurement of AC losses for high Tc wires will be compared to electric and magnetization methods. The relative merits of each method will be discussed. One of the key differences between high and low Tc superconductors is in the nature of E-J curves. In high Tc materials these curves are extended, i.e. E increases gradually with J. This has consequences for both AC losses and stability. In this article the nature of AC losses and stability in high temperature superconducting wires will be discussed: hysteretic losses, eddy current losses, role of flux creep, anisotropy, dimensional effects ..., and compared to those for low temperature wires such as multifilamentary NbTi and NbSn. In conclusion, the key requirements will be discussed that must be achieved in order that superconducting technologies gain acceptance in power engineering applications: current density, AC losses, transient response, mechanical

  1. Mass and Metallicity Requirement in Stellar Models for Galactic Chemical Evolution Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Côté, Benoit; Heger, Alexander; Ritter, Christian; O'Shea, Brian W; Herwig, Falk; Travaglio, Claudia; Bisterzo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We used a one-zone chemical evolution model to address the question of how many metallicities and massive stars are required in grids of stellar models for galactic chemical evolution applications. We used a set of yields that includes seven masses between 13 and 30 Msun, 15 metallicities between 0 and 0.03 in mass fraction, and different remnant mass prescriptions. We ran several simulations where we sampled subsets of stellar models to explore the impact of different grid resolutions. Stellar yields from low- and intermediate-mass stars and from Type Ia supernovae have been included in our simulations, but with a fixed grid resolution. We compared our results with the stellar abundances observed in the Milky Way for O, Na, Mg, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, and Mn. Our results suggest that the range of metallicity considered is more important than the number of metallicities within that range, which only affects our numerical predictions by about 0.1 dex. We found that our predictions at [Fe/H] < -2 are very sensitiv...

  2. Evaluation of high temperature dielectric films for high voltage power electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, J. L.; Laghari, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Three high temperature films, polyimide, Teflon perfluoroalkoxy and poly-P-xylene, were evaluated for possible use in high voltage power electronic applications, such as in high energy density capacitors, cables and microelectronic circuits. The dielectric properties, including permittivity and dielectric loss, were obtained in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz at temperatures up to 200 C. The dielectric strengths at 60 Hz were determined as a function of temperature to 250 C. Confocal laser microscopy was performed to diagnose for voids and microimperfections within the film structure. The results obtained indicate that all films evaluated are capable of maintaining their high voltage properties, with minimal degradation, at temperatures up to 200 C. However, above 200 C, they lose some of their electrical properties. These films may therefore become viable candidates for high voltage power electronic applications at high temperatures.

  3. Application Of High Speed Photography In Science And Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu Ji-Zong, Wu; Yu-Ju, Lin

    1983-03-01

    The service works in high-speed photography carried out by the Department of Precision Instruments, Tianjin University are described in this paper. A compensation type high-speed camera was used in these works. The photographic methods adopted and better results achieved in the studies of several technical fields, such as velocity field of flow of overflow surface of high dam, combustion process of internal combustion engine, metal cutting, electrical are welding, experiment of piling of steel tube piles for supporting the marine platforms and characteristics of motion of wrist watch escape mechanism and so on are illustrated in more detail. As the extension of human visual organs and for increasing the abi-lities of observing and studying the high-speed processes, high-speed photography plays a very important role. In order to promote the application and development on high-speed photography, we have carried out the consultative and service works inside and outside Tianjin Uni-versity. The Pentazet 35 compensation type high-speed camera, made in East Germany, was used to record the high-speed events in various kinds of technical investigations and necessary results have been ob-tained. 1. Measurement of flow velocity on the overflow surface of high dam. In the design of a key water control project with high head, it is extremely necessary to determinate various characteristics of flow velocity field on the overflow surface of high dam. Since the water flow on the surface of high overflow dam possesses the features of large flow velocity and shallow water depth, therefore it is difficult to use the conventional current meters such as pilot tube, miniature cur-rent meter or electrical measuring methods of non-electrical quantities for studying this problem. Adopting the high-speed photographic method to study analogously the characteristics of flow velocity field on the overflow surface of high dam is a kind of new measuring method. People

  4. High-Level software requirements specification for the TWRS controlled baseline database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is an as-built document that presents the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Controlled Baseline Database (TCBD) in its current state. It was originally known as the Performance Measurement Control System (PMCS). Conversion to the new system name has not occurred within the current production system. Therefore, for simplicity, all references to TCBD are equivalent to PMCS references. This SRS will reference the PMCS designator from this point forward to capture the as-built SRS. This SRS is written at a high-level and is intended to provide the design basis for the PMCS. The PMCS was first released as the electronic data repository for cost, schedule, and technical administrative baseline information for the TAAS Program. During its initial development, the PMCS was accepted by the customer, TARS Business Management, with no formal documentation to capture the initial requirements

  5. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; Latessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-06-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.

  6. Application of high energy protons for the vulva tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first experience in proton radiation application in a combined therapy of vulva cancer showed that despite the elderly age of patients most suffered from the disease in too neglected stages, when not always the radical combined treatment could be practiced, a comparatively high percentage of a prolonged treatment was gained with a complete absence of radiation injuries inevitable in case of other radiotherapy methods. The clinical observations (evaluation of radiation reactions, their correspondence with the field dimensions, irradiation extent etc.) in case of a fractionated irradiation of vulva cancer confirmed the accuracy of the proton beam centering and the locality of its effect in a strictly given extent. This fact gave reason for high energy protons application for single preoperational irradiation of vulva tumours

  7. Some metallic materials and fluoride salts for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a special Ni base alloy MONICR for high temperature applications in fluoride salt environments developed in the framework of the complex R and D program for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept development in the Czech Republic. Selected results of MONICR alloy tests and results of semi products fabrication from this alloy are discussed in the paper. The results of the structural materials tests are applied on semi-products and for the design of the testing devices as the autoclave in loop arrangement for high temperature fluoride salts applications. Material properties other Ni base alloys are compared to those of MONICR. Corrosion test results of the alloy A686 in the LiF - NaF - ZrF4 molten salt are provided and compared to the measured values of the polarizing resistance. (author)

  8. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; LaTessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics. PMID:27282667

  9. Evaluation of corrosion inhibitors for high temperature decontamination applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normally, chemical decontamination of coolant systems of nuclear power reactors is carried out at temperatures less than 90 °C. At these temperatures, though magnetite dissolves effectively, the rate of dissolution of chromium and nickel containing oxides formed over stainless steel and other non-carbon steel coolant system surfaces is not that appreciable. A high temperature dissolution process using 5 mM NTA at 160 °C developed earlier by us was very effective in dissolving the oxides such as ferrites and chromites. However, the corrosion of structural materials such as carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) also increased beyond the acceptable limits at elevated temperatures. Hence, the control of base metal corrosion during the high temperature decontamination process is very important. In view of this, it was felt essential to investigate and develop a suitable inhibitor to reduce the corrosion that can take place on coolant structural material surfaces during the high temperature decontamination applications with weak organic acids. Three commercial inhibitors viz., Philmplus 5K655, Prosel PC 2116 and Ferroqest were evaluated at ambient and at 160 °C temperature in NTA formulation. Preliminary evaluation of these corrosion inhibitors carried out using electrochemical techniques showed maximum corrosion inhibition efficiency for Philmplus. Hence, it was used for high temperature applications. A concentration of 500 ppm was found to be optimum at 160 °C and at this concentration it showed an inhibition efficiency of 62% for CS. High temperature dissolution of oxides such as Fe3O4 and NiFe2O4, which are relevant to nuclear reactors, was also carried out and the rate of dissolution observed was less in the presence of Philmplus. Studies were also carried out to evaluate hydrazine as a corrosion inhibitor for high temperature applications. The results revealed that for CS inhibition efficiency of hydrazine is comparable to that of Philmplus, while for SS

  10. Laser beam application with high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Eckhard; Brenner, Berndt; Morgenthal, Lothar

    2007-05-01

    With the new industrial high power fiber lasers we have already stepped into a new generation of laser applications. These lasers are smaller, better, more cost-effective, and offer a processing "on the fly." Of utmost importance is their excellent beam quality which enables us to reduce the size of the focussing head including the scanning mirrors. With the reduced mass of the mirrors we can reach scanning frequencies up to 1.5 kHz and in special configurations up to 4 kHz. Using such mirrors with this high beam quality we can shape the key hole geometry, and thus it is possible to decrease the keyhole spiking, which always occur in the case of deep penetration welding. We can generate very thin and deep welding seams, which we have only experienced with electron beam welding. The excellent beam quality of the fiber lasers offers us a lot of new applications from deep penetration welding to high speed welding. By using beam scanning we are able to easily change the beam and the seam geometry. Furthermore, it is possible to work with this kind of laser from a distance of some meters between focussing/scanning head and the work piece. This technique is called remote processing or processing "on the fly." The excellent beam quality also enables us to cut very precisely, and due to the small cutting widths with a very high speed. In this case the main problem is that the roughness of the cutting edge increases a little bit. One reason for this is that we cannot blow out the mold as easily as we can do it with higher cutting widths. There are also polarized fiber lasers on the market where we can use the Brewster effect for different applications. The presentation will cover some physical basics including different industrial applications.

  11. Properties and applications of thick film high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt processed YBa2Cu3Ox thick films display low surface resistance, moderate performance in fields a/nd can be applied to three-dimensional (3-D) substrates with ease. The processing and properties of such films are described. Possible applications are examined and prototype devices are described. These include high Q, low frequency resonators for cellular communications filters, low phase noise oscillators, magnetic resonance imaging receiver coils, low noise magnetic shields, coils, flux transformers, and antennas

  12. High performances monolithic CMOS detectors for space applications

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Vignon, Bruno; Magnan, Pierre; Farre, Jean; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    During the last 10 years, research about CMOS image sensors (also called APS -Active Pixel Sensors) has been intensively carried out, in order to offer an alternative to CCDs as image sensors. This is particularly the case for space applications as CMOS image sensors feature characteristics which are obviously of interest for flight hardware: parallel or semi-parallel architecture, on chip control and processing electronics, low power dissipation, high level ofradiation tolerance... Many imag...

  13. High quantum efficiency S-20 photocathodes for photon counting applications

    CERN Document Server

    Orlov, Dmitry A; Pinto, Serge Duarte; Glazenborg, Rene; Kernen, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Based on conventional S-20 processes, a new series of high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes has been developed that can be specifically tuned for use in the ultraviolet, blue or green regions of the spectrum. The QE values exceed 30% at maximum response, and the dark count rate is found to be as low as 30 Hz/cm2 at room temperature. This combination of properties along with a fast temporal response makes these photocathodes ideal for application in photon counting detectors.

  14. Practical applications of high-power ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental investigations on the practical applications of high-power ion beams are presented. These include the use of 200-300 keV, 50-250 A/cm2, 60 ns duration beams for modification of properties of metals and production of unique compounds in the surface layer of the target, pulse beam machining or implanted silicon hardening of cutting tools, reconditioning and cleaning machine parts

  15. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission s...

  16. High purity biodegradable magnesium coating for implant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes efforts to create high purity Mg coating by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique that is appropriate for implant applications and to improve the interaction between the implant and the biological environment. The in vitro and in vivo tests conducted with Mg coatings that consist of grains with controlled size demonstrated promising properties in terms of lower corrosion and acceptable foreign body reaction which makes them prospective as biodegradable metallic materials.

  17. Radiation damage and its influence on source requirements for high resolution x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft x-ray holography offers the possibility of obtaining high resolution, 3-D images of living cells and organelles therein. To achieve a specified resolution, a certain number of photons must be scattered by the smallest features of interest within the sample. This requires a certain irradiating fluence, the magnitude of which depends on the wavelength of the x rays and the scattering cross- sections of the features. Unfortunately, irradiation of the sample will be accompanied by the absorption of x rays. If the dose is large, the sample will be damaged, possibly compromising the quality of the image. A theoretical study of the scattering and absorption of x rays during the creation of a hologram is described. Using a new prescription for scattering by condensed biological materials (e.g., protein and/or DNA) within the aqueous environment of a cell, we estimate the irradiating fluence required for a certain resolution and the associated sample dose. The relative merits of different x-ray wavelengths are discussed. A wavelength of about 44 angstrom, just outside the ''water window'' (23.2--43.7 angstrom), appears to be optimal in that the required fluence and dose are minimized, while reasonable x-ray penetrability is maintained. Estimates are given for the minimum source energy required and the maximum duration of an exposure to capture an image before blurring due heat induce motion. The use of colloidal gold tagging can enhance image contrast and reduce the required irradiating fluence and sample damage. 6 refs., 5 figs

  18. Uncooled amorphous silicon IRFPA for high performance and high volume applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochic, D.; Durand, A.; Tissot, J. L.; Crastes, A.; Vilain, M.; Legras, O.; Tinnes, S.; Minassian, C.; Robert, P.

    2009-09-01

    For more than 10 years now, uncooled sensors have given new opportunities in the IR field of applications by being able to be produce in large volume. Compared to cooled technology, uncooled detectors offer many interesting advantages: high reliability, lower cost ... whereas the performance is high enough for a lot of applications. Thermography, building inspection, enhanced driver vision and military (thermal weapon sight, low altitude UAV sensor) are applications which can be provided with affordable IR focal plane arrays... As uncooled IR sensors are mainly dedicated to these high volume applications, any uncooled IRFPA technology has to be able to provide high performance sensors but also to be producible in large volume at a minimum cost. The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon layer enables ULIS to develop a full range of IRFPA formats from 160x120 to 1024x768 pixels with 25μm and 17μm pixel-pitch, designed for high end and high volume applications. The detector ROIC designs rely on a simple architecture (detector configuration addressed by a serial link for user defined amplifier gain, windowing capability...) which enables easier systems upgrade and therefore a reduced system development non recurrent cost. The packaging technique depends on the application environment and the production volume in order to fit with the market expectation. Starting from metallic and ceramics package, very advanced new technique is under development in order to reduce uncooled IRFPA production cost. NETD in the range of 30mK (f/1, 300K, 60Hz) as well as operability higher than 99.99%, are routinely achieved with amorphous silicon technology.

  19. Oral Alimentation in Neonatal and Adult Populations Requiring High-Flow Oxygen via Nasal Cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Siner, Jonathan M; Bizzarro, Matthew J; McGinley, Brian M; Lefton-Greif, Maureen A

    2016-04-01

    Use of high-flow oxygen via nasal cannula (HFO2-NC) is increasingly common in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Despite the critical interface between respiration and swallowing, and the high acuity of patients in ICUs, the impact of HFO2-NC on feeding and swallowing is unknown. The present prospective, single-center, cohort study investigated the impact of HFO2-NC use on oral alimentation in neonatal and adult ICU patients. Oral alimentation status was evaluated in 100 consecutive ICU inpatients (50 neonatal and 50 adult) requiring HFO2-NC. Participant characteristics, respiratory support, successful initiation of oral feeding in neonates, and successful resumption of oral feeding in adults were recorded. Seventeen of 50 (34 %) neonates requiring HFO2-NC were deemed developmentally and medically appropriate by the neonatologist and nursing to begin oral alimentation. All 17 (100 %) were successful with initiation of oral feedings. Thirty-three of 50 (66 %) continued nil per os due to prematurity or medical conditions precluding oral alimentation at time of data collection. Thirty-nine of 50 (78 %) adults requiring HFO2-NC were deemed medically appropriate by the intensivist and nursing to resume oral alimentation (n = 34) or with a functional swallow without aspiration on FEES (n = 5). All 39 (100 %) resumed oral alimentation successfully. Eleven of 50 (22 %) continued nil per os due to severe respiratory issues precluding both swallow testing and oral alimentation at time of data collection. All developmentally and medically appropriate neonatal and adult patients requiring HFO2-NC were successful with either the introduction or resumption of oral alimentation. Patients requiring HFO2-NC who are identified as having feeding or swallowing issues should be referred for swallowing evaluations using the same criteria as patients who do not require HFO2-NC, as it is not the use of HFO2-NC but rather patient-specific determinants of feeding and swallowing

  20. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E.; Pollard, Martin J.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2009-02-03

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are further improvements to aspects of the hybrid magnetic structure, including additional elements and for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use in biotechnology and high throughput processes.

  1. Applications using high-Tc superconducting terahertz emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Kurama; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Saiwai, Yoshihiko; Minami, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Klemm, Richard A.; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Using recently-developed THz emitters constructed from single crystals of the high-Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, we performed three prototype tests of the devices to demonstrate their unique characteristic properties for various practical applications. The first is a compact and simple transmission type of THz imaging system using a Stirling cryocooler. The second is a high-resolution Michelson interferometer used as a phase-sensitive reflection-type imaging system. The third is a system with precise temperature control to measure the liquid absorption coefficient. The detailed characteristics of these systems are discussed. PMID:26983905

  2. Modeling lifetime of high power IGBTs in wind power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busca, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    The wind power industry is continuously developing bringing to the market larger and larger wind turbines. Nowadays reliability is more of a concern than in the past especially for the offshore wind turbines since the access to offshore wind turbines in case of failures is both costly and difficult...... an overview of the different aspects of lifetime modeling of high power IGBTs in wind power applications. In the beginning, wind turbine reliability survey results are briefly reviewed in order to gain an insight into wind turbine subassembly failure rates and associated downtimes. After that the...... most common high power IGBT failure mechanisms and lifetime prediction models are reviewed in more detail....

  3. A Compact, High Performance Atomic Magnetometer for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Vishal K

    2013-01-01

    We present a highly sensitive room-temperature atomic magnetometer (AM), designed for use in biomedical applications. The magnetometer sensor head is only 2x2x5 cm^3 and it is constructed using readily available, low-cost optical components. The magnetic field resolution of the AM is <10 fT/sqrt(Hz), which is comparable to cryogenically cooled superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. We present side-by-side comparisons between our AM and a SQUID magnetometer, and show that equally high quality magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) recordings can be obtained using our AM.

  4. Resin Transfer Moldable Polyimides Developed for High-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature polyimides, such as PMR 15 (which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field), are becoming an increasingly important class of materials for a variety of aerospace applications, such as aircraft engine components and propulsion and airframe components for reusable launch vehicles (RLV s). Because of their high specific strength and low density, use of these materials in place of more traditional aerospace materials, such as titanium, can significantly reduce component and vehicle weight, leading to reductions in fuel consumption (and pollutants), increases in payload and passenger capacity, and improvements in vehicle performance.

  5. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project

  6. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

  7. High-Fidelity Geometric Modelling for Biomedical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeyun Yu, Michael Holst, and J.A. McCammon

    2008-04-01

    We describe a combination of algorithms for high fidelity geometric modeling and mesh generation. Although our methods and implementations are application-neutral, our primary target application is multiscale biomedical models that range in scales across the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Our software toolchain implementing these algorithms is general in the sense that it can take as input a molecule in PDB/PQR forms, a 3D scalar volume, or a user-defined triangular surface mesh that may have very low quality. The main goal of our work presented is to generate high quality and smooth surface triangulations from the aforementioned inputs, and to reduce the mesh sizes by mesh coarsening. Tetrahedral meshes are also generated for finite element analysis in biomedical applications. Experiments on a number of bio-structures are demonstrated, showing that our approach possesses several desirable properties: feature-preservation, local adaptivity, high quality, and smoothness (for surface meshes). The availability of this software toolchain will give researchers in computational biomedicine and other modeling areas access to higher-fidelity geometric models.

  8. Application of secondary ion mass spectrometry for the characterization of commercial high performance materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industry today offers an uncounted number of high performance materials, that have to meet highest standards. Commercial high performance materials, though often sold in large quantities, still require ongoing research and development to keep up to date with increasing needs and decreasing tolerances. Furthermore, a variety of materials is on the market that are not fully understood in their microstructure, in the way they react under application conditions, and in which mechanisms are responsible for their degradation. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an analytical method that is now in commercial use for over 30 years. Its main advantages are the very high detection sensitivity (down to ppb), the ability to measure all elements with isotopic sensitivity, the ability of gaining laterally resolved images, and the inherent capability of depth-profiling. These features make it an ideal tool for a wide field of applications within advanced material science. The present work gives an introduction into the principles of SIMS and shows the successful application for the characterization of commercially used high performance materials. Finally, a selected collection of my publications in reviewed journals will illustrate the state of the art in applied materials research and development with dynamic SIMS. All publications focus on the application of dynamic SIMS to analytical questions that stem from questions arising during the production and improvement of high-performance materials. (author)

  9. Fusion applications of high power millimeter wave sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heating by means of high power electron cyclotron (EC) waves in the mm wavelength range is considered to be one of the most attractive approaches for heating fusion plasmas to the temperatures required to achieve ignition. EC waves have also been used to drive plasma current by using directional launch and to stabilize MHD instabilities in tokamak plasmas through localized heating or current drive. Experiments are planned on both JET and TFTR to measure the alpha particle distribution by scattering EC waves

  10. High-temperature silicon-on-insulator electronics for space nuclear power systems: Requirements and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have performed a study to determine whether silicon very-large-scale integrated circuits (VLSICs) can survive the high temperature (up to 3000C) and total-dose radiation environments (up to 10 Mrad over a 7-10 year system life) projected for a very-high-power space nuclear reactor platform. It is shown that circuits built on bulk epitaxial silicon cannot meet the temperature requirement because of excessive junction leakage currents. However, circuits built on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material can meet both the radiation and temperature requirements. From a study of interface-trap generation and annealing, they find that one cannot depend on the elevated temperatures of a space nuclear power platform to automatically improve MOS total-dose radiation hardness. Still, at high-enough temperatures (above 1750C for these devices) and long enough times postirradiation, device response can be essentially independent of total dose. Reliability and performance issues are also discussed. They find that the temperature dependence of the threshold voltage of the SOI transistors is less than that of bulk transistors. Moreover, the ''zero-temperature coefficient'' current is much smaller for these ''floating-body'' SOI devices (-- 4 μA) than for bulk devices (-- 60 μA). Survivability of high-temperature SOI VLSICs in space, including immunity to transient and single-event upset (SEU), is also addressed. While a large number of practical issues remain to be resolved, no fundamental barrier against the successful development of VLSICs on SOI for use in very-high-power space nuclear reactor systems has been identified

  11. High Performance Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2015-01-20

    In April 2014, NERSC, ASCR, and the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a review to characterize high performance computing (HPC) and storage requirements for NP research through 2017. This review is the 12th in a series of reviews held by NERSC and Office of Science program offices that began in 2009. It is the second for NP, and the final in the second round of reviews that covered the six Office of Science program offices. This report is the result of that review

  12. The application of RCM to ASME code requirements for in-service testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the high reliability of nuclear power plant systems and components is highly important for both nuclear safety and electrical power production economics. The optimum operating performance of these plant systems and components is heavily dependent on the original or modified design for its inherent reliability and the appropriate trade-off in preventive and corrective maintenance for its developed reliability. In developing this optimum operating performance goal, the plant staff could rely solely on the experience of its personnel. However using this internal subjective approach, the average nuclear power availability has been far less than 80%. Obviously the production economics of a nuclear power plant is the province of the owner-operator, but the safety system and component performance impacts the entire industry. Hence the nuclear industry needs to have in-service testing requirements that maintain the necessary safety standards. Historically the ASME Inservice Testing Code has been a vehicle for defining some of those necessary safety standards, such as inservice testing of pumps, valves, and snubbers. The nuclear industry needs to expand the code testing to include all the systems that affect these necessary safety standards

  13. High Power Combline Filter for Deep Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. G. Subramanyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An S-band, compact, high power filter, for use in the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO, has been designed and tested for multipaction. The telemetry, tracking, and commanding (TT&C transponder of MOM is required to handle continuous RF power of 200 W in the telemetry path besides simultaneously maintaining an isolation of greater than 145 dBc to its sensitive telecommand path. This is accomplished with the help of a complex diplexer, requiring high power, high rejection transmit path filter, and a low power receive path filter. To reduce the complexity in the multipaction-free design and testing, the transmit path filter of the diplexer is split into a low rejection filter integral to the diplexer and an external high rejection filter. This paper highlights the design and space qualification phases of this high rejection filter. Multipaction test results with 6 dB margin are also presented. Major concerns of this filter design are isolation, insertion loss, and multipaction. Mission performance of the on-board filter is normal.

  14. Accuracy requirements to test the applicability of the random cascade model to supersonic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folini, Doris; Walder, Rolf

    2016-03-01

    A model, which is widely used for inertial rang statistics of supersonic turbulence in the context of molecular clouds and star formation, expresses (measurable) relative scaling exponents Zp of two-point velocity statistics as a function of two parameters, β and Δ. The model relates them to the dimension D of the most dissipative structures, D = 3 - Δ/(1 - β). While this description has proved most successful for incompressible turbulence (β = Δ = 2/3, and D = 1), its applicability in the highly compressible regime remains debated. For this regime, theoretical arguments suggest D = 2 and Δ = 2/3, or Δ = 1. Best estimates based on 3D periodic box simulations of supersonic isothermal turbulence yield Δ = 0.71 and D = 1.9, with uncertainty ranges of Δ ∈ [0.67,0.78] and D ∈ [2.04,1.60]. With these 5-10% uncertainty ranges just marginally including the theoretical values of Δ = 2/3 and D = 2, doubts remain whether the model indeed applies and, if it applies, for what values of β and Δ. We use a Monte Carlo approach to mimic actual simulation data and examine what factors are most relevant for the fit quality. We estimate that 0.1% (0.05%) accurate Zp, with p = 1,...,5, should allow for 2% (1%) accurate estimates of β and Δ in the highly compressible regime, but not in the mildly compressible regime. We argue that simulation-based Zp with such accuracy are within reach of today's computer resources. If this kind of data does not allow for the expected high quality fit of β and Δ, then this may indicate the inapplicability of the model for the simulation data. In fact, other models than the one we examine here have been suggested.

  15. Security Architectures for Model Driven Web Requirements – Financial Application Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.Krishna Prasad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available MDA with executable UML offers an approach that embodies all the key ingredients of the process for developing dependable systems, by offering: A uniform strategy for preserving investment in existing models built using unsupported tools, by automatically migrating them to profiled UML models for subsequent maintenance and development using state of the art UML tools; A clean separation of application behavior from the platform specific implementation using technologies such as Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA, allowing the full potential of IMA to be realized in a consistent and dependable way; A semantically well defined formalism that can be used a basis for modular certification of safety related systems; The ability to generate not only the components of the target system, but components of development tool chain, providing scope for model translation and offering “executable specifications” that can be tested early and mapped reliably onto the target, leading to greater levels of dependency. MDA is a new approach for most organizations, and therefore carries additional training and learning curve costs and also currently the availability of production quality code generators is currently limited. MDA requires developers to work at a more abstract level than code although experience shows that most do not have any difficulty making the adjustment, there will be some who find this change of emphasis difficult to achieve. Building upon the initial success of MDA deployment so far, work is now proceeding on the enhancement of Ada code mapping rules to cover the entire xUML formalism. Work is also underway to develop a generic “adapter/router”component to provide a standard component to provide a standard way to interface re-engineered xUML components with pre-existing components. These techniques are now being applied to another avionics system in the same organization, in response to the customers need for a faster and cheaper upgrade

  16. 18 CFR 33.2 - Contents of application-general information requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following general information with respect to the applicant and each entity whose jurisdictional facilities... alliances, tolling arrangements or other business arrangements, including transfers of operational control... description of jurisdictional facilities owned, operated, or controlled by the applicant or its...

  17. High-power ultrasonic TERFENOL-D transducers enable commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisensel, G. N.; Hansen, Toby T.; Hrbek, William D.

    1998-06-01

    Ultrasonic technology applications have been researched in a wide range of fields, from sonochemistry and industrial cleaning to medical tools and agriculture. However, the largest limitation in many of these applications is the inability of existing technology to provide a single transducer with sufficient power to make important laboratory sonochemical processes commercially successful. TERFENOL-D magnetostrictive material technology enables a next-generation high power ultrasonic transducer. Until very recently, generating high power at high frequency has been unexplored territory for giant magnetostrictive materials. But the unique attributes of these materials, such as energy density and thermal handling capabilities, are being used to develop a wide variety of transducers, devices and systems for existing as well as new ultrasonic applications. These unique material attributes combine with novel magnetic field generation, transducer, acoustic transmission and coupling concepts to meet the challenges of power, size, thermal, efficiency and reliability requirements of transducers and system for many ultrasonic applications. Polymer processing and curing, enhanced oil and gas recovery, seed sonication, surgical tools, and beer foaming are just some of the many applications where ultrasonic magnetostrictive technologies are overcoming barriers to provide improved solutions.

  18. Managing Requirement Volatility in an Ontology-Driven Clinical LIMS Using Category Theory. International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Kassab, Mohamad; Haarslev, Volker; 10.1155/2009/917826

    2009-01-01

    Requirement volatility is an issue in software engineering in general, and in Web-based clinical applications in particular, which often originates from an incomplete knowledge of the domain of interest. With advances in the health science, many features and functionalities need to be added to, or removed from, existing software applications in the biomedical domain. At the same time, the increasing complexity of biomedical systems makes them more difficult to understand, and consequently it is more difficult to define their requirements, which contributes considerably to their volatility. In this paper, we present a novel agent-based approach for analyzing and managing volatile and dynamic requirements in an ontology-driven laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for Web-based case reporting in medical mycology. The proposed framework is empowered with ontologies and formalized using category theory to provide a deep and common understanding of the functional and nonfunctional requirement hi...

  19. Synapsin is required to “boost” memory strength for highly salient events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Jörg; Chen, Yi-Chun; Michels, Birgit; Saumweber, Timo; Schleyer, Michael; Kähne, Thilo; Buchner, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Synapsin is an evolutionarily conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein. It is encoded by only one gene in the Drosophila genome and is expressed throughout the nervous system. It regulates the balance between reserve and releasable vesicles, is required to maintain transmission upon heavy demand, and is essential for proper memory function at the behavioral level. Task-relevant sensorimotor functions, however, remain intact in the absence of Synapsin. Using an odor–sugar reward associative learning paradigm in larval Drosophila, we show that memory scores in mutants lacking Synapsin (syn97) are lower than in wild-type animals only when more salient, higher concentrations of odor or of the sugar reward are used. Furthermore, we show that Synapsin is selectively required for larval short-term memory. Thus, without Synapsin Drosophila larvae can learn and remember, but Synapsin is required to form memories that match in strength to event salience—in particular to a high saliency of odors, of rewards, or the salient recency of an event. We further show that the residual memory scores upon a lack of Synapsin are not further decreased by an additional lack of the Sap47 protein. In combination with mass spectrometry data showing an up-regulated phosphorylation of Synapsin in the larval nervous system upon a lack of Sap47, this is suggestive of a functional interdependence of Synapsin and Sap47. PMID:26670182

  20. Analysis of dynamic requirements for fuel cell systems for vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischinger, Stefan; Schönfelder, Carsten; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    to conventional combustion engines, as long as there is a sufficient amount of power output from the fuel cell available for low operating temperatures. An optimized air supply system meets the requirements for transient operation in vehicles; however, specially designed machines are necessary-in particular smaller, integrated units. The electrical storage device helps to minimize fuel cell system response times for transient operation. An even more important point is that the fuel cell can be downsized. Utilizing this potential can reduce cost, space and weight. Fuel processing is preferable for auxiliary power units, since they have to operate in vehicles that use either gasoline or diesel fuel. High losses during the start-up phase can be avoided by using a battery to buffer the highly fluctuating power demands. Only advanced control methods are acceptable for controlling the operation of a fuel cell system with several components. Fuel cell systems can be developed and precisely optimized through the use of simulation tools, within an accelerated development process.

  1. Required developments towards ultra high pressure and temperature subsea tree system solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queseth, Per-Olaf

    2010-07-01

    For the subsea High Pressure High Temperature oil and gas production systems, the primary challenge is to provide good, reliable solutions for HPHT reservoir exploitation based on an overview of parameters for already discovered potential fields. The paper will present a resume of Aker Solutions' previous development in this area exemplified with experiences from testing and operator observations during production start of HPHT fields in the North Sea. Further improvements are required to comply with the extreme pressures and temperatures sought to overcome. 'The Devil is in the details' is a very relevant proverb. A program to qualify subsea production X-mas trees for Ultra HPHT use will be presented with highlight on sealing systems, feed-through solutions and materials as well as impact on interfacing systems. Preliminary and intermediate analytical and test results will be presented and remaining activities summarised. (Author)

  2. Ultra high vacuum activities and required modification at 14 UD BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 14 UD pelletron accelerator is working round the clock since 1989. The accelerator is housed inside a tank which is 6 meter in diameter and 25 meter long. The accelerator tank is pressurized with SF6 at 80 to 100 PSIG in order to achieve 14MV. In pelletron, ions are extracted from SNICS are pre-accelerated up to 300 keV before being injected into low energy accelerator tube. In the terminal which is at high potential (4MV to 14 MV), the ion beam pass through the stripper and positive ions with high charge states are produced. The high energy beams are focussed and analyzed by 90 deg magnet. The analyzed beam is then transported to the various experimental ports. In order to achieve uniform ultra high vacuum (to reduce the loss of intensity and spread in the energy of ions beams) in more than 100 metre and 100 mm diameter beam lines including magnet chambers and various beam diagnostic devices, combination of getter-ion pumps and turbo pumps are being used at Pelletron Accelerator Facility. The 14 UD pelletron is equipped with a combination of foil and gas stripper in high voltage terminal section. The foil and gas stripper in the terminal section are mainly used for stripping of light and heavy ions respectively. The gas stripper plays a great role for stripping of heavy ions and its efficiency depends on gas stripper parameters and supporting pumps. The gas stripper is originally installed with getter pumps. These pumps required periodic replacement of titanium cartridges and slowly the pumping speed used to diminish with time. A new recirculation turbo molecular pumps based system is being designed to improve good beam transmission. Details of design will be presented. Proton beam of tens of MeV energy and μA range current is in demand to carry out specific radiochemistry experiments in this facility. It is proposed to built and accommodate a proton experimental setup in the tower area of the existing facility. Details of required UHV system for

  3. Electronics drivers for high voltage dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    both magnetic and piezoelectric transformers are employed for the heating valve and incremental motor application, where only ON/OFF regulation is adopted fo r energy saving; as for DEAP based energy harvesting, the no - isolated Buck/Boost converter is used, due to the system high power capacity...... (above 100W), but the voltage balancing across the series - connected high voltage IGBTs is a critical issue and accordi ngly a novel gate driver circuitry is proposed and equipped; due to the requirements of the audio products, such as low distortion and noise, the multi - level Buck converter based...

  4. A data acquisition computer for high energy physics applications DAFNE:- hardware manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high performance stand alone computer system based on the Motorola 68000 micro processor has been built at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Although the design was strongly influenced by the requirement to provide a compact data acquisition computer for the high energy physics environment, the system is sufficiently general to find applications in a wider area. It provides colour graphics and tape and disc storage together with access to CAMAC systems. This report is the hardware manual of the data acquisition computer, DAFNE (Data Acquisition For Nuclear Experiments), and as such contains a full description of the hardware structure of the computer system. (author)

  5. Performance analysis of InSb based QWFET for ultra high speed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indium antimonide based QWFET (quantum well field effect transistor) with the gate length down to 50 nm has been designed and investigated for the first time for L-band radar applications at 230 GHz. QWFETs are designed at the high performance node of the International Technology Road Map for Semiconductors (ITRS) requirements of drive current (Semiconductor Industry Association 2010). The performance of the device is investigated using the SYNOPSYS CAD (TCAD) software. InSb based QWFET could be a promising device technology for very low power and ultra-high speed performance with 5–10 times low DC power dissipation. (semiconductor devices)

  6. Application of systems engineering techniques in NRC's high-level waste regulatory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Federally Funded Research and Development Center, the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) are working to streamline the NRC's high-level radioactive waste (HLW) regulatory program through the application of systems engineering (SE) techniques. The tailored use of SE discussed in this paper has evolved from the recognition that regulatory requirements often lack the precision of requirements usually associated with application of SE in defense and other hardware system development programs. While there are regulatory performance objectives which are quite specific, demonstrating or evaluating compliance with them may be extremely difficult, particularly when working with the levels of uncertainty which prevail in the earth sciences. The manner in which classical SE techniques and approaches have been tailored to support their use in the somewhat imprecise environment of the regulatory arena is discussed

  7. Situational Requirements Engineering for the Development of Content Management System-based Web Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souer, J.; van de Weerd, I.; Versendaal, J.M.; Brinkkemper, S.

    2005-01-01

    Web applications are evolving towards strong content-centered Web applications. The development processes and implementation of these applications are unlike the development and implementation of traditional information systems. In this paper we propose WebEngineering Method; a method for developing

  8. 78 FR 59939 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Respirator Trusted-Source Mobile Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... for Respirator Trusted-Source Mobile Application Challenge AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... Health and Human Services (HHS) is challenging teams of developers to design a mobile application (app... in action. Post videos to video-sharing sites like YouTube. (3) Mobile application must be...

  9. Self-biased circulators for high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexander S.

    Self-biased circulators exploit the properties of high anisotropy magnetic field in hexagonal ferrites, thus allowing operation without biasing magnets and a significant size and weight reduction. Although first self-biased circulators were demonstrated more than 20 years ago, all the prototypes constructed so far are unsuitable for practical applications. An attempt to design a self-biased circulator from scratch was made. Novel exceptionally low dielectric loss and high heat conductivity ceramic materials were developed and innovative substrate synthesis techniques were employed. Low temperature cofiring of green body ferrite compacts and dielectric ceramic slurries were mastered, resulting in solid composite substrates. Original device design was developed. Key features (including wide coupling angles, wide microstriplines, thick substrate, and absence of impedance transformers) enable low insertion loss, broadband operation, high power handling, and compact size. Fabrication and testing of Ka band Y-junction self-biased circulator are reported herein. Furthermore, design approach and fabrication techniques developed here can be readily applied for the construction of X-band self-biased circulators, provided that suitable ferrite materials are available. Low temperature cofiring of ferrite and dielectric materials is especially beneficial for various RF and high-frequency applications. Multiple devices can be readily fabricated on a single wafer using conventional lithographic techniques, resulting in true microwave monolithic integrated circuit.

  10. Supplementary requirements for nickel alloy seamless pipe and tube for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification covers elimination of surface imperfections, ultrasonic examination; eddy-current examination, liquid penetrant examination, and certification. Repair by welding is not permitted. The requirements of the specification are supplemental to the requirements of the basic material specification

  11. Performance Issues in High Performance Fortran Implementations of Sensor-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. O'hallaron

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications that get their inputs from sensors are an important and often overlooked application domain for High Performance Fortran (HPF. Such sensor-based applications typically perform regular operations on dense arrays, and often have latency and through put requirements that can only be achieved with parallel machines. This article describes a study of sensor-based applications, including the fast Fourier transform, synthetic aperture radar imaging, narrowband tracking radar processing, multibaseline stereo imaging, and medical magnetic resonance imaging. The applications are written in a dialect of HPF developed at Carnegie Mellon, and are compiled by the Fx compiler for the Intel Paragon. The main results of the study are that (1 it is possible to realize good performance for realistic sensor-based applications written in HPF and (2 the performance of the applications is determined by the performance of three core operations: independent loops (i.e., loops with no dependences between iterations, reductions, and index permutations. The article discusses the implications for HPF implementations and introduces some simple tests that implementers and users can use to measure the efficiency of the loops, reductions, and index permutations generated by an HPF compiler.

  12. Policy Requirements and Factors of High-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Myoung; Jeong, J. Y.; Ha, K. M. [Korea Energy Technology and Emergency Management Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Recently, the need of high-level radioactive waste policy including spent fuel management becomes serious due to the rapid increase in oil price, the nationalism of natural resources, and the environmental issues such as Tokyo protocol. Also, the policy should be established urgently to prepare the saturation of on-site storage capacity of spent fuel, the revision of 'Agreement for Cooperation-Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy' between Korea and US, the anxiety for nuclear weapon proliferation, and R and D to reduce the amount of waste to be disposed. In this study, we performed case study of US, Japan, Canada and Finland, which have special laws and plans/roadmaps for high-level waste management, to draw the policy requirements to be considered in HLW management. Also, we reviewed social conflict issues experienced in our society, and summarized the factors affecting the political and social environment. These policy requirements and factors summarized in this study should be considered seriously in the process for public consensus and the policy making regarding HLW management. Finally, the following 4 action items were drawn to manage HLW successfully : - Continuous and systematic R and D activities to obtain reliable management technology - Promoting companies having specialty in HLW management - Nurturing experts and workforce - Drive the public consensus process

  13. Design requirements, challenges, and solutions for high-temperature falling particle receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford

    2016-05-01

    Falling particle receivers (FPR) utilize small particles as a heat collecting medium within a cavity receiver structure. Previous analysis for FPR systems include computational fluid dynamics (CFD), analytical evaluations, and experiments to determine the feasibility and achievability of this CSP technology. Sandia National Laboratories has fabricated and tested a 1 MWth FPR that consists of a cavity receiver, top hopper, bottom hopper, support structure, particle elevator, flux target, and instrumentation. Design requirements and inherent challenges were addressed to enable continuous operation of flowing particles under high-flux conditions and particle temperatures over 700 °C. Challenges include being able to withstand extremely high temperatures (up to 1200°C on the walls of the cavity), maintaining particle flow and conveyance, measuring temperatures and mass flow rates, filtering out debris, protecting components from direct flux spillage, and measuring irradiance in the cavity. Each of the major components of the system is separated into design requirements, associated challenges and corresponding solutions. The intent is to provide industry and researchers with lessons learned to avoid pitfalls and technical problems encountered during the development of Sandia's prototype particle receiver system at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF).

  14. Utility/user requirements for the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the approach used by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) in developing Utility/User Requirements for the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). As representatives of the Utility/User industry, it is GCRA's goal that the MHTGR concept be established as an attractive nuclear option offering competitive economics and limited ownership risks. Commercially deployed MHTGR systems should then compete favorably in a mixed-fuel economy with options using fossil, other nuclear and other non-fossil sources. To achieve this goal, the design of the MHTGR plant must address the problems experienced by the U.S. industrial infrastructure during deployment of the first generation of nuclear plants. Indeed, it is GCRA's intent to utilize the characteristics of MHTGR technology for the development of a nuclear alternative that poses regulatory, financial and operational demands on the Owner/Operator that are, in aggregate, comparable to those encountered with non-nuclear options. The dominant risks faced by U.S. Utilities with current nuclear plants derive from their operational complexity and the degree of regulatory involvement in virtually all aspects of utility operations. The MHTGR approach of using ceramic fuel coatings to contain fission products provides the technical basis for simplification of the plant and stabilization of licensing requirements and thus the opportunity for reducing the risks of nuclear plant ownership. The paper describes the rationale for the selection of key requirements for public safety, plant size and performance, operations and maintenance, investment protection, economics and siting in the context of a risk management philosophy. It also describes the ongoing participation of the Utility/User in interpreting requirements, conducting program and design reviews and establishing priorities from the Owner/Operator perspective. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  15. Development of a HTSMA-Actuated Surge Control Rod for High-Temperature Turbomachinery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II; Noebe, Ronald; Bigelow, Glen; Culley, Dennis; Stevens, Mark; Penney, Nicholas; Gaydosh, Darrell; Quackenbush, Todd; Carpenter, Bernie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a demand for compact, lightweight, solid-state actuation systems has emerged, driven in part by the needs of the aeronautics industry. However, most actuation systems used in turbomachinery require not only elevated temperature but high-force capability. As a result, shape memory alloy (SMA) based systems have worked their way to the forefront of a short list of viable options to meet such a technological challenge. Most of the effort centered on shape memory systems to date has involved binary NiTi alloys but the working temperatures required in many aeronautics applications dictate significantly higher transformation temperatures than the binary systems can provide. Hence, a high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) based on NiTiPdPt, having a transformation temperature near 300 C, was developed. Various thermo-mechanical processing schemes were utilized to further improve the dimensional stability of the alloy and it was later extruded/drawn into wire form to be more compatible with envisioned applications. Mechanical testing on the finished wire form showed reasonable work output capability with excellent dimensional stability. Subsequently, the wire form of the alloy was incorporated into a benchtop system, which was shown to provide the necessary stroke requirements of approx.0.125 inches for the targeted surge-control application. Cycle times for the actuator were limited to 4 seconds due to control and cooling constraints but this cycle time was determined to be adequate for the surge control application targeted as the primary requirement was initial actuation of a surge control rod, which could be completed in approximately one second.

  16. High mobility ZnO nanowires for terahertz detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiqiang; Peng, Rufang; Chu, Sheng; Chu, Shijin

    2014-07-01

    An oxide nanowire material was utilized for terahertz detection purpose. High quality ZnO nanowires were synthesized and field-effect transistors were fabricated. Electrical transport measurements demonstrated the nanowire with good transfer characteristics and fairly high electron mobility. It is shown that ZnO nanowires can be used as building blocks for the realization of terahertz detectors based on a one-dimensional plasmon detection configuration. Clear terahertz wave (˜0.3 THz) induced photovoltages were obtained at room temperature with varying incidence intensities. Further analysis showed that the terahertz photoresponse is closely related to the high electron mobility of the ZnO nanowire sample, which suggests that oxide nanoelectronics may find useful terahertz applications.

  17. High mobility ZnO nanowires for terahertz detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangdong, Guangzhou 510275 (China); State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Sichuan, Mianyang 621010 (China); Peng, Rufang, E-mail: pengrufang@swust.edu.cn, E-mail: chusheng@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Chu, Shijin [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Sichuan, Mianyang 621010 (China); Chu, Sheng, E-mail: pengrufang@swust.edu.cn, E-mail: chusheng@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangdong, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2014-07-28

    An oxide nanowire material was utilized for terahertz detection purpose. High quality ZnO nanowires were synthesized and field-effect transistors were fabricated. Electrical transport measurements demonstrated the nanowire with good transfer characteristics and fairly high electron mobility. It is shown that ZnO nanowires can be used as building blocks for the realization of terahertz detectors based on a one-dimensional plasmon detection configuration. Clear terahertz wave (∼0.3 THz) induced photovoltages were obtained at room temperature with varying incidence intensities. Further analysis showed that the terahertz photoresponse is closely related to the high electron mobility of the ZnO nanowire sample, which suggests that oxide nanoelectronics may find useful terahertz applications.

  18. Laser-based strain measurements for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Christian T.

    1992-09-01

    The Instrumentation and Control Technology Division at NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a high performance optical strain measurement system for high temperature applications using wires and fibers. The system is based on Yamaguchi's two-beam speckle-shift strain measurement technique. The system automatically calculates surface strains at a rate of 5 Hz using a digital signal processor in a high speed micro-computer. The system is fully automated, and can be operated remotely. This report describes the speckle-shift technique and the latest NASA system design. It also shows low temperature strain test results obtained from small diameter tungsten, silicon carbide, and sapphire specimens. These specimens are of interest due to their roles in composite materials research at NASA Lewis.

  19. High-Temperature Cuprate Superconductors Experiment, Theory, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Plakida, Nikolay Maksimilianovich

    2010-01-01

    High-Temperature Cuprate Superconductors provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the properties of these fascinating materials. The essential properties of high-temperature cuprate superconductors are reviewed on the background of their theoretical interpretation. The experimental results for structural, magnetic, thermal, electric, optical and lattice properties of various cuprate superconductors are presented with respect to relevant theoretical models. A critical comparison of various theoretical models involving strong electron correlations, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations, phonons and excitons provides a background for understanding of the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity. Recent achievements in their applications are also reviewed. A large number of illustrations and tables gives valuable information for specialists. A text-book level presentation with formulation of a general theory of strong-coupling superconductivity will help students and researches to consolidate their...

  20. Highly birefringent, low-loss liquid crystals for terahertz applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reuter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With growing interest in switchable devices for the THz frequency range, there is a strong demand for liquid crystals (LC exhibiting both a high birefringence and a low absorption. We present the refractive index and absorption coefficient of the liquid crystal mixtures 1852 and 1825 in the frequency range between 0.2 and 2.5 THz. Both mixtures are designed specifically for high birefringence Δn of 0.32 and 0.38, respectively, in the THz region. In addition, they show low absorption coefficients for both ordinary and extraordinary polarization. This low absorbance in combination with the high birefringence makes these LCs particularly well suited for applications in switchable devices for THz optics.

  1. APPLICATIONS OF HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya TÜLEK

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, thermal processes are used in order to preserve food from microbiologic and enzymatic changes and extend the shelf life. Thermal treatments are particularly safe, assures a total inactivation of vegetative microorganism cells and spore. On the other hand it present some disadvantages related to the high temperature employed, such as denaturation of proteins, vitamins, productions of toxic compound, undesirable organoleptic features. The last decade, non-thermal inactivation techniques have been a major research issue, driven by an increased consumer demand for nutritious, fresh like food products with a high organoleptical quality and an acceptable shelf life. Present article represents studies on application aspects and effects of high hydrostatic pressure in foods.

  2. Application of Nanophotonic Devices in High Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana

    techniques and their applications. In this thesis, a number of different all-optical signal processing functionalities have been experimentally investigated taking the advantage of silicon and III-V semiconductor photonic devices. Wavelength converters may find a variety of applications in future...... highcapacity fiber-optic transmission systems including switching nodes, crossconnectors and add-drop multiplexers. One of the expected key advantages of wavelength converters based on four-wave mixing in nonlinear media exhibiting third-order nonlinearities is the possibility for modulation format and bit......-rate independent operation, enabling transparent networking. To confirm this, wavelength conversion of high speed WDM polarizationmultiplexed QPSK signals has been demonstrated using a polarization diversity circuit fully integrated on a silicon platform. Data signals in a transmission system are suffering from...

  3. Dust Accelerators And Their Applications In High-Temperature Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, Cǎtǎlin M.; Wang, Zhehui

    2011-06-01

    The perennial presence of dust in high-temperature plasma and fusion devices has been firmly established. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular in the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and potentially interfere with fusion energy production. Although much effort has been devoted to getting rid of the dust nuisance, there are instances where a controlled use of dust can be beneficial. We have recognized a number of dust-accelerators applications in magnetic fusion, including in plasma diagnostics, in studying dust-plasma interactions, and more recently in edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. With the applications in mind, we will compare various acceleration methods, including electrostatic, gas-drag, and plasma-drag acceleration. We will also describe laboratory experiments and results on dust acceleration.

  4. Accuracy requirements to test the applicability of the random cascade model to supersonic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Folini, Doris

    2016-01-01

    A model, which is widely used for inertial rang statistics of supersonic turbulence in the context of molecular clouds and star formation, expresses (measurable) relative scaling exponents Z_p of two-point velocity statistics as a function of two parameters, beta and Delta. The model relates them to the dimension D of the most dissipative structures, D=3-Delta/(1-beta). While this description has proved most successful for incompressible turbulence (beta=Delta=2/3, and D=1), its applicability in the highly compressible regime remains debated. For this regime, theoretical arguments suggest D=2 and Delta=2/3, or Delta=1. Best estimates based on 3D periodic box simulations of supersonic isothermal turbulence yield Delta=0.71 and D=1.9, with uncertainty ranges of Delta in [0.67, 0.78] and D in [2.04,1.60]. With these 5-10\\% uncertainty ranges just marginally including the theoretical values of Delta=2/3 and D=2, doubts remain whether the model indeed applies and, if it applies, for what values of beta and Delta. ...

  5. A synchronous Gigabit Ethernet protocol stack for high-throughput UDP/IP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State of the art detector readout electronics require high-throughput data acquisition (DAQ) systems. In many applications, e. g. for medical imaging, the front-end electronics are set up as separate modules in a distributed DAQ. A standardized interface between the modules and a central data unit is essential. The requirements on such an interface are varied, but demand almost always a high throughput of data. Beyond this challenge, a Gigabit Ethernet interface is predestined for the broad requirements of Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) up to large-scale DAQ systems. We have implemented an embedded protocol stack for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) capable of high-throughput data transmission and clock synchronization. A versatile stack architecture for the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) over Internet Protocol (IP) such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) as well as Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is presented. With a point-to-point connection to a host in a MicroTCA system we achieved the theoretical maximum data throughput limited by UDP both for 1000BASE-T and 1000BASE-KX links. Furthermore, we show that the random jitter of a synchronous clock over a 1000BASE-T link for a PTP application is below 60 ps

  6. A synchronous Gigabit Ethernet protocol stack for high-throughput UDP/IP applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Födisch, P.; Lange, B.; Sandmann, J.; Büchner, A.; Enghardt, W.; Kaever, P.

    2016-01-01

    State of the art detector readout electronics require high-throughput data acquisition (DAQ) systems. In many applications, e. g. for medical imaging, the front-end electronics are set up as separate modules in a distributed DAQ. A standardized interface between the modules and a central data unit is essential. The requirements on such an interface are varied, but demand almost always a high throughput of data. Beyond this challenge, a Gigabit Ethernet interface is predestined for the broad requirements of Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) up to large-scale DAQ systems. We have implemented an embedded protocol stack for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) capable of high-throughput data transmission and clock synchronization. A versatile stack architecture for the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) over Internet Protocol (IP) such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) as well as Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is presented. With a point-to-point connection to a host in a MicroTCA system we achieved the theoretical maximum data throughput limited by UDP both for 1000BASE-T and 1000BASE-KX links. Furthermore, we show that the random jitter of a synchronous clock over a 1000BASE-T link for a PTP application is below 60 ps.

  7. High Temperature Electro-Mechanical Devices For Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants require a number of electro-mechanical devices, for example, Control Rod Drive Mechanisms (CRDM's) to control the raising and lowering of control rods and Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP's) to circulate the primary coolant. There are potential benefits in locating electro-mechanical components in areas of the plant with high ambient temperatures. One such benefit is the reduced need to make penetrations in pressure vessels leading to simplified plant design and improved inherent safety. The feature that limits the ambient temperature at which most electrical machines may operate is the material used for the electrical insulation of the machine windings. Conventional electrical machines generally use polymer-based insulation that limits the ambient temperature they can operate in to below 200 degrees Celsius. This means that when a conventional electrical machine is required to operate in a hot area it must be actively cooled necessitating additional systems. This paper presents data gathered during investigations undertaken by Rolls-Royce into the design of high temperature electrical machines. The research was undertaken at Rolls-Royce's University Technology Centre in Advanced Electrical Machines and Drives at Sheffield University. Rolls- Royce has also been investigating high temperature wire and encapsulants and latterly techniques to provide high temperature insulation to terminations. Rolls-Royce used the experience gained from these tests to produce a high temperature electrical linear actuator at sizes representative of those used in reactor systems. This machine was tested successfully at temperatures equivalent to those found inside the reactor vessel of a pressurised water reactor through a full series of operations that replicated in service duty. The paper will conclude by discussing the impact of the findings and potential electro-mechanical designs that may utilise such high temperature technologies. (authors)

  8. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume II, energy requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This project analyzed the application of solar total energy systems to appropriate segments of the residential sector and determined their market penetration potential. This volume covers the work done on energy requirements definition and includes the following: (1) identification of the single-family and multi-family market segments; (2) regionalization of the United States; (3) electrical and thermal load requirements, including time-dependent profiles; (4) effect of conservation measures on energy requirements; and (5) verification of simulated load data with real data.

  9. High temperature alloys for the HTGR gas turbine: Required properties and development needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in the design of turbomachinery, recuperators and magnetic bearings provide the potential for the use of the High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) with a closed cycle gas turbine. The reactor size has been reduced in developing the passively safe module design and the size of industrial gas turbine has increased to accommodate the energy released from a HTGR module. Highly effective compact recuperators have been developed: they are a key requirement for achieving high efficiency. The availability of large magnetic bearings has also eliminated the potential problem of coolant contamination by the oil of lubricated bearings. National and international R and D programs are under way to explore areas where technical development is needed. Among these programs, the closed-cycle gas turbine concept is investigated in several industrial projects: the Pebble Bed Modular reactor (PBMR) in South Africa, with a gross electrical generation of 117 MWe; the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) developed by an international consortium, with a targeted 286 MWe generation per module; test Reactors are being commissioned in Japan (High Temperature Test Reactor HTTR) and China (HTR-10) to evaluate the safety and performance of HTGR. These reactors are designed with an indirect conversion cycle. A common European approach to the renewal of HTR technology through the direction of a European HTR Technology Network (HTR-TN) has also been established to enable and encourage work-shared structures within this nuclear R and D field. In this work, a review with a selection of most relevant materials and processes is presented, for both turbine blades and disks. The focus of this work is to discuss the choice of high temperature materials in accordance with the recent HTGR design specifications. The GT-MHR turbine design is used as a reference for high temperature materials selection. Also an evaluation of recent advances in materials for industrial gas turbine is

  10. Applications for a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor in oil shale processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of a study concerning possible applications for a high temperature gas cooled reactor as a process heat source in oil shale retorting and upgrading. Both surface and in situ technologies were evaluated with respect to the applicability and potential benefits of introducing an outside heat source. The primary focus of the study was to determine the fossil resource which might be conserved, or freed for higher uses than furnishing process heat. In addition to evaluating single technologies, a centralized upgrading plant, which would hydrotreat the product from a 400,000 bbl/day regional shale oil industry was also evaluated. The process heat required for hydrogen manufacture via steam reforming, and for whole shale oil hydrotreating would be supplied by an HTGR. Process heat would be supplied where applicable, and electrical power would be generated for the entire industry

  11. High-pressure applications in medicine and pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jerson L; Foguel, Debora; Suarez, Marisa; Gomes, Andre M O; Oliveira, Andrea C [Centro Nacional de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2004-04-14

    High pressure has emerged as an important tool to tackle several problems in medicine and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins, aggregates and amyloids have been studied, which point toward the understanding of the protein misfolding diseases. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has also been used to dissociate non-amyloid aggregates and inclusion bodies. The diverse range of diseases that result from protein misfolding has made this theme an important research focus for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The use of high pressure promises to contribute to identifying the mechanisms behind these defects and creating therapies against these diseases. High pressure has also been used to study viruses and other infectious agents for the purpose of sterilization and in the development of vaccines. Using pressure, we have detected the presence of a ribonucleoprotein intermediate, where the coat protein is partially unfolded but bound to RNA. These intermediates are potential targets for antiviral compounds. The ability of pressure to inactivate viruses, prions and bacteria has been evaluated with a view toward the applications of vaccine development and virus sterilization. Recent studies demonstrate that pressure causes virus inactivation while preserving the immunogenic properties. There is increasing evidence that a high-pressure cycle traps a virus in the 'fusion intermediate state', not infectious but highly immunogenic.

  12. Plasma Tunable LC Resonator for High-Power Electromagnetic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semnani, Abbas; Macheret, Sergey; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    High-power tunable filters are in high demand in transmitters found in radars and many communication systems such as satellite and broadcasting stations. Limited power handling renders most semiconductor technologies inherently suboptimal options for these systems. Therefore, mechanically-tunable cavity-based filters are often employed in such cases, resulting in bulky, slow, and heavy systems. In this work, we study the application of plasma as an alternative frequency tuning mechanism for high-power applications even in environmentally and/or mechanically harsh conditions. For a given gas type and pressure, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity of a plasma can be varied by changing the electron density, which, depending on the discharge regime, can be implemented by changing the discharge current, voltage, or the magnitude of an auxiliary electric field. In this work, a simple LC resonator tuned to several hundred MHz was fabricated and tested. The tunable capacitor of the resonator was implemented by a commercially available gas discharge tube (GDT), a mm-scale plasma device with gas pressure of 100s of mTorr. Measurement results reveal a continuous tuning range of more than 50% when the applied discharge current is increased from zero to 90 mA.

  13. 46 CFR 153.1108 - Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity exceeds 25 mPa sec at 20 °C: Categories A, B, and C... Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose...

  14. Applications of heat pipes for high thermal load beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high flux beam produced by insertion devices often requires special heat removal techniques. For the optical elements used in such high thermal load beam lines, the required precision demands a highly accurate design. Heat pipe cooling of critical elements of the X-1 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. This method reduces vibrations caused by water cooling systems and simplifies the design. In some of these designs, deposited heat must be transferred through unbonded contact interfaces. A pinhole assembly and a beam position monitor designed for the X-1 beam line both transfer heat through such interfaces in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The fundamental design objective is that of removing the heat with minimal interface thermal resistance. We present our test method and results for measuring the thermal resistance across metallic interfaces as a function of contact pressure. The design of some devices which utilize both heat pipes and thermal contact interfaces will also be described. 12 refs., 8 figs

  15. High average power, high repetition rate table-top soft x-ray lasers for applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Brendan; Wernsing, Keith; Baumgarten, Cory; Durivage, Leon; Berrill, Mark; Curtis, Alden; Furch, Federico; Luther, Brad; Woolston, Mark; Patel, Dinesh; Menoni, Carmen; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Rocca, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    There is great interest in table-top sources of bright coherent soft x-ray radiation for nanoscale applications. We report the demonstration of a compact, high repetition rate soft x-ray laser operating at wavelengths between 10.9nm to 18.9nm, including the generation of 0.15mW average power at λ = 18.9nm and 0.1mW average power at λ = 13.9nm. These short wavelength lasers were driven by an all diode pumped, chirped pulse amplification laser based on cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG amplifiers that produces 1 Joule, picosecond duration pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate. Irradiation of solid targets results in the production of plasmas with large transient population inversions on the 4d1S0 --> 4p1P1 transition of Ni-like ions. Optimization of this high repetition rate laser combined with the development of high shot capacity, rotating targets has allowed the uninterrupted operation of this soft x-ray laser for hundreds of thousands of consecutive shots, making it suitable for a number of applications requiring high photon flux at short wavelengths. Work was supported by the NSF ERC for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology using equipment developed under NSF Award MRI-ARRA 09-561, and by the AMOS program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy.

  16. 30 CFR 912.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.784 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  17. 30 CFR 937.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.784 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  18. 30 CFR 921.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.784 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  19. 30 CFR 910.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.784 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  20. 30 CFR 903.784 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.784 Underground mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...